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Landmine Detection using RADAR BULLET

2014-2015

CHAPTER 1

INTRODUCTION
Radar bullet is a relatively new discovery that was invented in the US. It was
developed by International Research Centre for Telecommunications-Transmission and
RADAR (IRCTR). It is used for detecting land mines. And this discovery finds a very
important prospect as about 139 countries signed a treaty in favor of banning antipersonal mines. This treaty was signed during the second week of March 1999 in
Ottawa Canada.
Anti -personal

mines claims seventy new victims every day. This weapon is

particularly cruel on children whose bodies being smaller and closer to the blast. Are
more likely to sustain

serious injury. The severe disabilities and psychological trauma

that follow the blast mean these children will have to be looked after for many year.
A child injured at the age of ten will need about 25 artificial limbs during their
life time. The cost is at 3000, a huge sum to pay in countries where people earn as little
as $10 a month between 1979 and 19960, the red cross fitted over 70,000 amputees with
artificial limbs. And the landmines problem is still growing. Therefore considering these
factors the discovery of radar bullet is really a big boost to our world as we launches
into the 21't century.
The countries known to have severe landmine problems are Afghanistan,
Bosnia, Cambodia, Ethiopia, Vietnam, Iraq, Kuwait, Laos, Egypt, Eritrea, Chevalier,
China. Unfortunately India, Pakistan, Srilanka, Myanmar are in the list of less mine
affected countries besides other 100 countries.

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CHAPTER 2

LAND MINE
The purpose of a landmine is to disable, immobilize or kill. It is an explosive
device activated either by a person or vehicle or by command detonated by electric wire
or radio signals. Most land mines are laid on just below the surface of ground and are
activated by pressure or trip-wire. Usually most of the landmines will contain many
metallic parts, which can be made use of in their detection.
Anti-personal mines claims 70 new victims every day. This weapon is
particularly cruel on children whose bodies being smaller and closer to the blast are
more likely to sustain serious injury. The severe disabilities and psychological traumas
that follow the blast- means these children will have to be looked after for many years.

Fig 2.1: Anti-Personnel Landmine

Fig 2.2:Anti-Tank Landmine


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Landmines In this discussion we deal with buried anti-tank (AT) and antipersonnel (AP) landmines which require close approach or contact to activate. AT mines
range from about 15 to 35 cm in size. They are typically buried up to 40cm deep, but
they can also be deployed on the surface of a road to block a column of machinery. AP
mines range from about 5 to 15cm in size. AT mines which are designed to impede the
progress of destroy vehicles and AP mines which are designed to kill and maim people
A child injured at the age of 10 will need about 25 critical limbs during there life
time. This cost in 3000 Dollars a huge sum to pay in countries where people earn as
little as 10 dollar a month. . Between 1979 of 1996 the red crores fitted over 70,000
Amputees with critical limbs and the land mine problem in still growing. There for
considering these factors the discovery of radar bullet is really a big boost to our world
as we launches to 21st century.

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CHAPTER 3

PRINCIPLES USED TO DETECT LANDMINES


1. Metal detection
2. Explosive detection

3.1. Metal Detection


Essentially the two most common components of landmines are metals and
explosives. Manufactured mines have casting made from a variety of materials
including wood, metals, Plastic metal or other synthetic materials. From the detection
standpoint, metal is the easier component to detect.

Fig 3.1: Metal Detection


Metal detectors (commonly referred to as mine detectors) are now capable of
signaling the presence of minute piece of metal. However some mines are metal free on
certain virtually non-metal. These non-metals challenge the capacity of current metal
detectors.

4.2. Explosive Detection


The explosives are one common ingredient that is found in all mines. Detecting
explosives however is a complicated process. Modem airports have explosive detecters,
which can detect small traces of explosives in suitcases and other containers. Locating
traces or the order of explosives is an open field demands technology that can operate in
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an unlimited variety of environmental conditions that are subjected to wind, water and
soil changes and variations.
Explosive detection under field conditions has recently become the preview of
mine detection dogs. A dogs nose has proven to be a very sophisticated and reliable
sensor, however handling maid detection dog teams and ensuring consistent behaviour
in varied hazard scenarios is a complicated and demanding tasks.

Fig 3.2: Explosive Detection


In all the above said methods mine detection in conducted in close proximity.
That is detection is conducted after going very near to the mine. This method can prove
to be dangerous in many occations. So it is not considered to be the safest method. A
preferred method is to use detection devices that locate land mines at a safe distance
from the deminer. Using detection devices that pinpoint land mines exploded from a
distance either overhead on at ground level in the best possible way to determine the
actual location of individual land mines. Ones the threat is located, that is mines are pin
pointed, we can deactivate it safely. This is where the importance of mine detection
using radar bullet comes.

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CHAPTER 4

RADAR BULLET
The radar bullet is a special type of bullet. The main use of radar bullet is to find
landmines without setting foot on the ground. This consists of firing a special bullet in
to the ground from a helicopter, which could pin point buried land mines.
The bullet units a radar pulse as it grounds to a halt. This pulse strikes the mine
and its image gets available on the computer in the helicopter, offering a safe and
efficient way of finding land mines. Landmines In this discussion we deal with buried
anti-tank (AT) and anti-personnel (AP) landmines which require close approach or
contact to activate. AT mines range from about 15 to 35 cm in size. They are typically
buried up to 40cm deep, but they can also be deployed on the surface of a road to block
a column of machinery. AP mines range from about 5 to 15cm in size. AT mines which
are designed to impede the progress of destroy vehicles and AP mines which are
designed to kill and maim people.
Inside the bullet is a metal cylinder, surrounded by a tightly wounded coin of
wire. As the bullet leaves the gun, there is a battery generating a magnetic field in the
cylinder.
Battery

bullet casing

Metallic cylinder

Fig 4: Radar Bullet

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CHAPTER 5

RADAR PRINCIPLE
Radar is Radio detection and ranging. Radar is a sensor. Radar makes use of
radio waves to detect and locate objects. The purpose is to provide estimates of certain
characteristics of its surroundings most commonly the presence, position and motion of
aircrafts, ships and other vehicles.
Radar operates by transmitting electro magnetic energy into the surroundings
and detecting energy reflected by object. If a narrow beam of this energy is transmitted
by the directive antenna, the direction from which reflections come and hence the
bearing of object may be estimated. .The distance to the reflecting object in estimated
by measuring the period between the transmission of radar pulse and reception of echo.
In radar bullet principle the change of medium by the waves must be taken into
consideration.

Fig 5: Principle of RADAR


Radars have generally from principal parts, the transmitter antenna receiver, and
display. The transmitter will transmit an electro magnetic signal through the antenna,
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which will hit the target and reflects back. The same antenna and the time difference
between the signal transmission and reception is calculated, which will help up to
measure the distance of the target from the radar.

5.1Fundamentals

Transmitter

Duplexer

Receiver

Fig 5.1: Block diagram of an elementary pulse radar set

Basic radar system: The block diagram of an elementary pulsed radar set is
shown in Fig. For each transmitted pulse, the cycle of events is as follows. Figure 1
Block diagram of an elementary pulse radar se
In response to an internally generated trigger signal, the transmitter generates a
short, rectangular pulse. As soon as a small fraction of the pulse power is fed to the
duplexer, this device disconnects the receiver from the antenna and connects the
transmitter to it. In most radars, though by no means in all, the antenna moves in a
predetermined pattern, i.e., it scans. Either way, it is normally directional and sends
out the generated pulse in the direction in which it is pointing at the time. The
scanning speed may be mechanically high, but it is small compared with the time
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taken by pulses to return from a normal range of targets. Thus, when such echoes are
received, the antenna still points in the right direction to collect them.
As soon as the transmitted pulse terminates, the duplexer disconnects the
transmitter from the antenna. The duplexer also reconnects the receiver to the antenna,
allowing the returning echoes to be correctly processed. The received pulses are
amplified and demodulated by the receiver. The pulses from the returning echoes (and
noise, of course) are then fed to the device on which they are to be displayed, as will
be described. The cycle is complete, and the set is once again ready for the
transmission of the next pulse and the succeeding ones, while the antenna scans along
its predetermined path
The radar set is able to show the position of the target, because information
about the azimuth (horizontal direction) and the elevation (vertical direction) of the
antenna is available. In addition, the distance to the target may transmitter output
tubes, and the first stage of the receiver is often a diode mixer. The antenna generally
uses a parabolic reflector of some form, as will be mentioned in Sec.
Development of radar from its inception, radar has used a system of sending
short, powerful pulses of radio energy and then analyzing the returned echoes to
determine the position, distance and possibly velocity of the target. However, the
methods of doing so have evolved and become far more refined and sophisticated as
time has gone by. The primary incentive as in so many other things was the imminence
of war. Radar was made possible by a technology, which, at the time war broke out, was
just beginning to show promise. This technology itself took great strides forward to
meet the new challenges imposed by war.
The first radars worked at much lower frequencies than present systems (as loq
as 60MHz for the original British coastal air-warning radar because of a lack of
sufficiently powerful transmitting tubes at higher frequencies. This was changed in 1940
with the appearance of the cavity magnetron, and the stage was then set for the
development of modern radar. As can be appreciated, one of the prime requirements of a
radar system is that it should have a fair degree of accuracy in its indication of target
direction. This is possible only if the antennas used are narrow beam ones, i.e., have
dimensions of several wavelengths. That requirement cannot be fulfilled satisfactorily
unless the wavelengths themselves are fairly short, corresponding to the upper UHF or
microwave frequencies.

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5.2 CALCULATIONS

R
OBJECT
RADAR

Fig 5.2: calculations of Parameters


T

=time b/w signal transmission and reception.

2R

= Total distance traveled.

= Velocity of electromagnetic signals = 3*108 m/sec.

Velocity = distance / time


i.e.; C

= 2R / T
Or

=CT /2

So in the screen an obstacle will be shown at a distance R from the radar.

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CHAPTER 6

HARDWARE DESCRIPTION
The impulse radar bullet system developed in the International Research
Centre for Telecommunications-transmission and Radar (IRCTR). Impulse radar
bullet system comprises Impulse generator, Transmitter, Receiver, Pulse extender,
A/D converter, Processor and Visual display.

Fig 6: Block diagram

IMPULSE GENERATOR
The pulse generator delivered by SATIS Co. produces 0.8 ns monocycle
pulses. The unique feature of this generator is its small trailing oscillations, which
are below 2.4% of maximum amplitude during the first 2 ns and below 0.5%
afterwards. The advantage of a monocycle in comparison with a mono pulse is
that the frequency spectrum of the first one decreases to zero at low frequencies,
which cannot be efficiently transmitted via the antenna system, while the
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frequency spectrum of the second one has a global maximum there. As a result,
the magnitude of the field radiated by an antenna system fed by a monocycle is
considerably larger than the magnitude of the field radiated by the antenna system
fed by a monopoles with the same magnitude.

Fig 6.1: Output signal from the 0.8ns generator


The generator spectrum covers a wide frequency band from 500MHz till
2GHz on 3dB level. At frequencies below 1GHz, attenuation losses in the ground are
small and considerable penetration depth can be achieved. However, landmines
detection requires down-range resolution of the order of several centimeters, which
can be achieved using frequencies above 1GHz. It was found experimentally that the
0.8ns monocycle satisfies penetration and resolution requirements. This output signal
from 0.8ns generator is shown in figure. The spectrum of this pulse has a maximum
at frequencies where the attenuation losses in the ground start to increase. So the
spectral content of the monocycle below this maximum penetrates deep into the
ground and the spectral content above this maximum provides sufficient down-range
resolution.

ANTENNA SYSTEM
The antenna system is one of the most critical parts of radar bullet system,
because its performance depends strongly on the antenna system. The antenna system
should satisfy a number of demands. The antenna system contains transmitter and
receiver. The transmit antenna should:
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Radiate short ultra-wide band (UWB) pulse with small ringing.

Radiate electro magnetic energy within a narrow cone in order to filter out
undesirable back scattering from surrounding objects.

Produce an optimal footprint on the ground surface and below it.

The waveform of the radiated field on the surface and in the ground should be
the same.

The waveform of the radiated field in the ground should not depend on type
of the ground.

The receiver antenna should:

Allow time windowing to isolate the direct air wave from the ground
reflection.

Provide sufficient sensitivity in order to receive very weak fields.

Receive the field in a local point; effective aperture should not be larger than
1cm2.

Be elevated at least 10cm above the ground surface.


Additionally a possibility to measure simultaneously backscattered field

in two orthogonal polarizations is desirable.

PULSE EXTENDER
Pulse extender will amplify the ground reflection signal up to the
maximum level acquired by A/D converter.

A/D CONVERTER
The transmitter sends out a series of electromagnetic pulses then listens
with the receiver connected to high speed sampler which in turn feeds A/D
Converter. A dielectric anomaly in the soil may cause the signal to be reflected back
to a separate receiver antenna. This information is converted from nanoseconds to
milliseconds so that it may be digitized by a conventional A/D converter for
processing and display. The center frequency and band width of the transmitted pulse
can be varied by changing the antenna and are chosen with respect to the required
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depth of penetration, soil type and size of the object to be detected. In this
experiment, we used antennas with a center frequency 1.4GHz and 80% band width.
The precision of sampling converter is sufficiently high to do accurate measurements
of scattered transient field. This A/D converter 12 bit accuracy. This provides 66 dB
linear dynamic ranges. A/D converter converts the signal into digital signal which
passes to the processor.

PROCESSOR
A/D converter converts the signal into digital signal which passes to the
processor. Processor filters the signal. This signal shows presence or absence of
surrogate mine in the soil. Processor allows passing the presence of mine detecting
signal. Processor selects the mine detecting signal and passes to the visual display.

VISUAL DISPLAY
Visual display helps to see the range of targets. It displays the exact
position of landmine. The advent of the magnetron also made possible the next steps in
the evolution of radar, namely, airborne radar for the detection of surface vessels and
then airborne aircraft interception radar. In each of these, particularly the former, tight
beams are necessary to prevent the receiver from begin swamped by ground reflections,
which would happen if insufficient discrimination between adjacent targets existed.
Microwave radar for antiaircraft fire control was quickly developed, of which
the most successful ground - based version was the U.S. Army's SCR-58. It was capable
of measuring the position of enemy aircraft to within 0.1, and the distance, or range to
within 25m. Such radars were eventually capable of tracking targets by locking onto
them, with the aid of servomechanisms controlling the orientation of the antennas. Antisurface vessel (ASV) radars became very common and quite accurate toward the end of
the war. So aid airborne radar for navigation, bombing or bomber protection electronic
navigation systems were also developed. Radar countermeasures were instituted,
consisting mainly of jamming (transmission of confusing signals at enemy radar) or the
somewhat more effective dropping of aluminum foil, in strips of about a half wavelength, to cover approaching aircraft by producing false echoes. This
"chaff"(American) or "window"(British) proved very effective, but its use in the war
was considerably delayed. Each side thought that the other did not know about it and so
it was kept secret; however, it eventually came to be used on a very large scale.

One

of the indications of the enormous growth in the importance of radar in World War 11 is
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the increase in the staff of the U.S Armys Radiation Laboratory. It started with about 40
people in 1941, and number multiplied tenfold by 1945.
The advent of the magnetron also made possible the next steps in the evolution
of radar, namely, airborne radar for the detection of surface vessels and then airborne
aircraft interception radar. In each of these, particularly the former, tight beams are
necessary to prevent the receiver from begin swamped by ground reflections, which
would happen if insufficient discrimination between adjacent targets existed.
Microwave radar for antiaircraft fire control was quickly developed, of which the most
successful ground - based version was the U.S. Army's SCR-58. It was capable of
measuring the position of enemy aircraft to within 0.1 , and the distance, or range to
within 25m. Such radars were eventually capable of tracking targets by locking onto
them, with the aid of servomechanisms controlling the orientation of the antennas. Antisurface vessel (ASV) radars became very common and quite accurate toward the end of
the war. So aid airborne radar for navigation, bombing or bomber protection electronic
navigation systems were also developed. Radar countermeasures were instituted,
consisting mainly of jamming (transmission of confusing signals at enemy radar) or the
somewhat more effective dropping of aluminum foil, in strips of about a half wavelength, to cover approaching aircraft by producing false echoes. This
"chaff"(American) or "window"(British) proved very effective, but its use in the war
was considerably delayed. Each side thought that the other did not know about it and so
it was kept secret; however, it eventually came to be used on a very large scale.

One

of the indications of the enormous growth in the importance of radar in World War 11 is
the increase in the staff of the U.S. Army's Radiation Laboratory. It started with about
40 people in 1941, and number multiplied tenfold by 1945.
The radar receiver is an ordinary radio receiver having the lowest possible noise
figure, High sensitivity, and a bandwidth appropriate for handling the pulses involved.
The receiver video output is usually displayed on a cathode-ray tube indicator in such a
manner as to show the time difference between the outgoing pulses and the returning
echoes. To achieve this result, the sweep voltage of the cathode-ray-tube display is
synchronized with the transmitted pulses.

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CHAPTER 7

EXPERIMENTAL SETUP
First of all a special bullet in fired downward into the ground , from a gun
mounted on a helicopter flying about 100 m above the ground. The bullet in designed in
such a way that it gives out powerful blast of radio waves from under the ground. The
bullet will produce a pulse of radio waves as it pierces the ground and signal is reflected
from any landmines within about a 15 meter radius will be detected by an antenna on
the helicopter.
Once the mines are located they can be destroyed at once or there exact position
are noted so they can be destroyed at once on their exact positions are noted so that can
be diploid later. And if the bullet hits it, it would explode. The Radar pulse is generated
from the bullets kinetic energy by a process known as, Magnetic flux compression.

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Fig 7: Experimental Setup

CHAPTER 8

MAGNETIC FLUX COMPRESSION


Inside the bullet is a metal cylinder, surrounded by a tightly wounded coin of
wire. As the bullet leaves the gun, there is a battery generating a magnetic field in the
cylinder. When the bullet smashes into the ground, the sudden deceleration forces the
cylinder out from inside the coil. The sudden movement of the metal cylinder through
the magnetic field induces a large pulse of current in the coil. The coil thus acts like an
antenna converting the pulse into a short burst of high frequency radiation.

Fig 8: Magnetic Flux Compression


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CHAPTER 9

FIELD TESTS
After the laboratory tests, tests where conducted at the Arizona desert. Using the
same experiment set up, the radar bullet as able to detect 35 cm anti tank mines and Val
Mara 69 anti personal mines, which are a particular problem in northern Iraq, where the
mines have been laid by Saddam Husseins forces in their confrontation with the Kurds

9.1. ADVANTAGES

The light weight system can be fitted to any helicopter ie; gun, computer
controls etc.

Extremely small bullets can be used for detection A 30 mm bullet gives out a 4
kW radar pulse. Almost 10 times move power than a standard ground penetrating
radar from 20cm down.

Also since the bullet is beneath the surface of the ground, it transmits more radio
wave into the ground. For ordinary penetrating radar, little radiation penetrates the
soil, most is reflected by the ground because of the sudden change in density
between the air and the soil. Here the radiation has to change the medium twice.
First from air to ground, and then after reflection, from ground into air. Therefore
weak signals are obtained. But in radar bullet principle the radiation has to change
the medium only once i.e.; from the ground into the air and hence stronger signals
are obtained.

9.2. DISADVANTAGES

It cannot detect plastic land mines, but researches are working hard to overcome
this.

Since the equipment is to be mounted on a helicopter, the cost of operation is


higher. But considering its future prospects and the statics released by red Cross,
cost can never be considered as a disadvantage.

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9.3. APPLICATIONS

It can be used for detecting land mines.

It can be used for detecting buried pipelines .For example: - Recently an illegal
pipeline carrying drugs between Afghanistan and Turkmistan has been discovered.
Such type of illegal pipelines can be detected out by using radar bullet.

This can be applied in future space travels when we go to a different planet. In


that case, we can shoot this bullet in to the ground and detect mineral and other
deposits.

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FUTURE PROSPECTS
As the UN has already implemented a worldwide ban on anti-personal mines.
The invention of radar bullet helps to speed up the destruction of mines.
Ten thousands of anti - personal mines lied buried in the hilly regions of
Cambodia / north - Korea / Afghanistan etc. And according to UN it would
more than 100 years to detect and destroy these, if worked

take

out manually. Mine

clearance or demining is normally broken into three stages. Detection, Removal and
Disposal. Current detection methods range from high tech electronic [ground
penetrating radar infrared, magnetic resonance imaging] to biological detection schemes
(dog snuffers and insect or bacteria ) to simple brute forces detection methods (Rails,
Rollers and plows) and use of hand-held mechanical plodders .Most of these methods
are very slow and/or expensive and suffer from a high false alarm rate. So with
helicopter and radar bullet, the mines can be cleared easily.
Mass graveyards which result from internal civil wars as in Combodia, Kosoro
and in same African nations can be detected using radar bullets.
This can be applied is future space travels, when we go to a different planet, in
that case we can shoot this bullet in to the ground and detect mineral deposits and other
deposits.

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CONCLUSION
Mines are major cause of concern in many countries. Detection and removal of
mines is very important as it is hazardous to both man and animals alike.
The conventional methods that are being used right now for mine detection
involves working in close proximity for the mines. So overall mine detection using
radar bullets is a cutting edge technology that is safe and effective.
With all its advantages it may be hoped that mine detection using radar bullets
will be more used in detection of mine there by making the world safer place to live in.

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REFERENCES
1. S.VITEBSKIY AND L.CARIN Late time resonant frequencies buried bodies
of revolution
2. L.CARIN, R KAPOOR, C.E BAVAM. Polarimatic SAR imaging of buried land
mines
3. MERILL .1. SKOLNIK. Tata MC Grawhill

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