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CCB 2092

Unit Operation Lab 1

Experiment 14
Double Pipe Heat
Exchanger

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CCB 2092

Unit Operation Lab 1

INTRODUCTION
A heat exchanger is the primary device used industrially for the transfer of heat between two
fluids. There are three general categories of heat exchangers: regenerators, open type exchangers,
and closed type exchangers, also known as recuperators. Regenerators are heat exchangers in
which fluids flow alternately through the same space with as little physical mixing as possible.
Open type exchangers allow the two fluids to mix with each other. A hot stream and a cold
stream enter the exchanger as separate streams and leave as one stream.
The double pipe heat exchanger belongs to the recuperator category. In this type of exchanger,
the hot and cold fluids do not come into direct contact with each other. The energy exchanged
flows from one fluid to the outer surface of the pipe by forced convection, through the pipe wall
by conduction, and then from the inside surface of the pipe to the second fluid by forced
convection. In this type of heat exchanger the flow can either be co-current or counter current.
The design of double pipe heat exchangers is straightforward. It is generally conservative to
neglect natural convection and entrance effects in turbulent flow.
General Description of the equipment:
The horizontal double pipe heat exchanger is a floor type model mounted on a platform designed
to allow students to get familiarized with a double pipe heat exchanger. The unit consists of
mainly a double pipe heat exchanger with cold and hot water circulation systems with all the
necessary instrumentation for heat exchanger studies. A data acquisition system is provided to
allow online data for recording temperature, mass flowrate, pressure drop and calculation for
mass and energy balances, heat transfer coefficients, heat exchanger efficiencies and log mean
temperature difference calculations.
The heat exchanger is oriented so that the condensate form by steam will be able to flow
smoothly towards the steam trap. The hot water circuit includes a stainless steel water tank with
electric heater to serve as the hot water source. The hot water temperature is controlled by
suitable PID temperature controller. A centrifugal pump is provided to circulate the hot water. The
cold water circuit includes a stainless steel water tank as a source of cold water with a centrifugal
pump to circulate the cold water. Cooling medium is supplied via a chiller system in order to
maintain the water temperature at desired value. All necessary sensors are provided to measure
the flow rates of the hot water and the cold water as well as temperatures of the two streams at
the inlets and outlets.
The hot water line is provided with provision to be connected with the existing valve steam outlet.
All other necessary requirement for installation and operation i.e. PRV system, steam trap etc are
installed accordingly. Please refer to the process flow diagram.

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CCB 2092

Unit Operation Lab 1

Figure 14.1 : Schematic diagram of Double Pipe Heat Exchanger unit

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CCB 2092

Unit Operation Lab 1

EQUIPMENT DETAILS

Inner pipe

Copper

Thermal Conductivity/ Heat Transfer Coefficient, k,


(Copper)

401W/mK

Outer pipe

Stainless steel 316

Thermal Conductivity/ Heat Transfer Coefficient, k,


(S/steel)

16W/mK

Heat transfer surface area

More than 0.25 m

Total no. of pipe

2 (1 outer, 1 inner)

Nominal outside diameter of the outer pipe

3.625 inch

Nominal outside diameter of the inner pipe

2.125 inch

Hot Water Supply

Hot water temperature inlet operating range

80 - 95C

Hot Water tank

250-L capacity, stainless steel

Heating capacity

30kW

Hot water flowrate

20 LPM

Cold Water Supply

Cold water temperature inlet operating range

15-30C

Cold Water tank

250-L capacity, stainless steel

Heating capacity

3.5kW (5 horsepower)

Cold water flowrate

20 LPM

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CCB 2092

Unit Operation Lab 1

Table 14.1 Co-current and Countercurrent Operation and its corresponding


Valve Positions

Operation

Co-current

Equipment

Open

Close

Along Cold Water Route


Valves

V6, V9

V7, V8

Along Hot Water Route


Valves

Solenoid

V11, V5
(removed)

At Cold Water Tank

V2

V14

V12

V4

At Hot Water Tank

V1

V13

V10

V3

V7, V8

V6, V9

Along Cold Water Route


Valves
Countercurrent

Throttle

Along Hot Water Route


Valves

V11, V5
(removed)

At Cold Water Tank

V2

V14

V12

V4

At Hot Water Tank

V1

V13

V10

V3

EXPERIMENTAL PROCEDURE
General Heating & Cooling Loop Procedure:
1.

Switch on the power supply to the heater (Heating loop) and chiller (Cooling loop).

2.

At the temperature controller, enter the set point of the heater temperature as stated in the
equipment details above. For example: T = 90C.

3.

At the temperature controller, enter the set point of the chiller temperature as stated in the
equipment details above. For example: T = 15C.

EXPERIMENT 14a: Study on the heat transfer / temperature difference for a


co-current flow operation
Procedure:
1.

Switch on valves according to Table 14.1 in order to allow circulating flow for the cold
water circulating loop.

2.

Turn on cold water circulating pump P1.

3.

Switch on valves according to Table 14.1 in order to allow circulating flow for the hot water
circulating loop.

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CCB 2092

Unit Operation Lab 1

4.

Turn on hot water circulating pump P2.

5.

Regulate the cold water and hot water flow rates accordingly. Change the values of the
flow rates at various readings.

6.

Monitor and observe the temperature changes in cold and hot water loop.

7.

Record your result and analyzed them accordingly.

8.

To shot down, follow the General Shutdown Procedure stated below.

EXPERIMENT 14b: Study on the heat transfer / temperature difference for a


countercurrent flow operation
Procedure:
1.

Switch on valves according to Table 1 in order to allow circulating flow for the cold water
circulating loop.

2.

Turn on cold water circulating pump P1.

3.

Switch on valves according to Table 1 in order to allow circulating flow for the hot water
circulating loop.

4.

Turn on hot water circulating pump P2.

5.

Regulate the cold water and hot water flow rates accordingly. Change the values of the
flow rates at various readings.

6.

Monitor and observe the temperature changes in cold and hot water loop.

7.

Record your result and analyzed them accordingly.

8.

To shot down, follow the General Shutdown Procedure stated below.

General Shutdown Procedure:


1.

Turn off power supply to heater in Hot water tank.

2.

Stop hot water pump P1.

3.

Monitor the temperature of the outlet temperature of the cold water leaving the double
pipe heat exchanger. At temperature 30C, stop cold water circulating pump P2 and turn
off power supply to chiller.

4.

Record and save all experimental data.

5.

Shut down the PC accordingly.

6.

Turn off main power supply.

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