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Teknologi Virtualisasi dan Cloud

Computing
http://www.unhas.ac.id/amil/S2TE/TVCC_2014/

L#1: Fundamental Concepts


Amil A. Ilham
http://www.unhas.ac.id/amil

A Computer Specification
Consider the following specification for a
personal computer:

3.5 GHz Pentium 4 Processor


2 GB RAM
320 GB Hard Disk
48x CD-RW / DVD-ROM Combo Drive
17 Video Display with 1280 x 1024 resolution
100 Mb/s Ethernet

What does it all mean?


Review: clock, bit, byte, numbering system, logic gates

Technology Used in Computers

Transistors
Vacuum Tube

Integrated
Circuit- IC
Microprocessor VLSI*
chips
*VLSI: Very large-scale integration

Intel 4004 @ 70s


Intel 4004, first single chip CPU
4- bit processor for a calculator
2,300 transistors
16-pin DIP package
740kHz (eight clock cycles per CPU
cycle of 10.8 microseconds)
~ 100K OPs per second

Intel Itanium 9500 Series


64-bit processor
3.1 billion transistors
2.53 GHz, issue up to 12
instructions per cycle
8 Cores
54 MByte of cache!!
In ~40
~40 years, about 1,000,
000,000
times growth in transistor
count and performance!
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Exciting Change
It impacts every aspect of human life.

Eniac, 1946
Occupied 17x10 meter ^2 room,
weighted 30 tones,
contained 18000 electronic valves, consumed
150KW of electrical power;
capable to perform 5K addition per second

PlayStation Portable (PSP)


Approx. 170 mm (L) x 74 mm (W) x 23 mm (D)
Weight: Approx. 260 g (including battery)
CPU: PSP CPU (clock frequency 1~333MHz)
Main Memory: 32MB
Embedded DRAM: 4MB
Profile: Game, Audio, Video
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Simple Switch Circuit


Switch open:
No current through
circuit
Light is off
Vout is +2.9V

Switch closed:
Short circuit across
switch
Current flows
Light is on
Vout is 0V
Switch-based circuits can easily represent two states:
on/off, open/closed, voltage/no voltage.

Computer is a binary digital system.


Digital system:

finite number of symbols

Binary (base two) system:

has two states: 0 and 1

Basic unit of information is the binary digit, or bit.


Values with more than two states require multiple bits.
A collection of two bits has four possible states:
00, 01, 10, 11
A collection of three bits has eight possible states:
000, 001, 010, 011, 100, 101, 110, 111
A collection of n bits has 2n possible states.
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N-type MOS Transistor


MOS = Metal Oxide Semiconductor
two types: N-type and P-type

N-type
when Gate has positive voltage,
short circuit between #1 and #2
(switch closed)
when Gate has zero voltage,
open circuit between #1 and #2
(switch open)

Terminal #2 must be
connected to GND (0V).

P-type MOS Transistor


P-type is complementary to N-type
when Gate has positive voltage,
open circuit between #1 and #2
(switch open)
when Gate has zero voltage,
short circuit between #1 and #2
(switch closed)

Terminal #1 must be
connected to +2.9V.

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CMOS Circuit
Complementary MOS
Uses both N-type and P-type MOS transistors
P-type
Attached to + voltage

N-type
Attached to GND
For all inputs, make sure that output is either connected to GND or to +,
but not both!

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Basic Logic Gates

12

Inverter (NOT Gate)

Truth table

In

Out

0 V 2.9 V
2.9 V

0V

In

Out

0
13

NOR Gate

Note: Serial structure on top, parallel on bottom.

0
14

OR Gate

Add inverter to NOR.

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Decoder
n inputs, 2n outputs
exactly one output is 1 for each possible input pattern

2-bit
decoder
Note the use of the
bubbles (NOT) in the
input.
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Multiplexer (MUX)
n-bit selector and 2n inputs, one output
output equals one of the inputs, depending on selector

4-to-1 MUX
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Full Adder
Add two bits and carry-in,
produce one-bit sum and carry-out.

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Four-bit Adder

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R-S Latch: Simple Storage Element


R is used to reset or clear the element (set it to zero)
S is used to set the element (set it to one)
0
0

1
1

1
1

If both R and S are one, out could be either zero or one.


quiescent state -- holds its previous value
note: if a is 1, b is 0, and vice versa
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Gated D-Latch
Two inputs: D (data) and WE (write enable)
when WE = 1, latch is set to value of D
S = NOT(D), R = D

when WE = 0, latch holds previous value


S=R=1

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Register
A register stores a multi-bit value.
We use a collection of D-latches, all controlled by a common WE.
When WE=1, n-bit value D is written to register.

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Memory
Now that we know how to store bits,
we can build a memory a logical k m array of
stored bits.
Address Space:
number of locations
(usually a power of 2)

k = 2n
locations

Addressability:
number of bits per location
(e.g., byte-addressable)

m bits
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22 x 3 Memory
address

word select

word WE

input bits

write
enable

address
decoder
output bits

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Summary
Building Block of Computers
Logically, each transistor acts as a switch
Combined to implement logic functions
AND, OR, NOT

Combined to build higher-level structures


Adder, multiplexer, decoder, register,

Combined to build processor

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