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2/9/2015

4WattFMTransmitter

Home Projects RFcircuits 4WattFMTransmitter

4WattFMTransmitter
more info / buy kit :www.smartkit.gr

Copyrightofthiscircuitbelongstosmartkitelectronics.Inthispagewewillusethiscircuittodiscussfor
improvementsandwewillintroducesomechangesbasedonoriginalschematic.

GeneralDescription

ThisisasmallbutquitepowerfulFMtransmitterhavingthreeRFstagesincorporatinganaudiopreamplifierforbettermodulation.t
hasanoutputpowerof4Wattsandworksoff1218VDCwhichmakesiteasilyportable.Itistheidealprojectforthebeginnerwho
wishestogetstartedinthefascinatingworldofFMbroadcastingandwantsagoodbasiccircuittoexperimentwith.

TechnicalSpecificationsCharacteristics
Modulationtype:........FM
Frequencyrange:....88108MHz
Workingvoltage:.....1218VDC
Maximumcurrent:.......450mA
Outputpower:............4W

APAWireless
VCOs
10MHz9GHzSuperLow
PhaseNoiseVCOs,CROsand
PLLs

http://www.electronicslab.com/projects/rf/001/

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2/9/2015

4WattFMTransmitter
HowitWorks

AsithasalreadybeenmentionedthetransmittedsignalisFrequencyModulated(FM)whichmeansthatthecarrier
samplitudestays
constant and its frequency varies according to the amplitude variations of the audio signal. When the input signal
s amplitude
increases (i.e. during the positive half cycles) the frequency of the carrier increases too, on the other hand when the input signal
decreases in amplitude (negative halfcycle or no signal) the carrier frequency decreases accordingly. In figure 1 you can see a
graphicrepresentationofFrequencyModulationasitwouldappearonanoscilloscopescreen,togetherwiththemodulatingAFsignal.
Theoutputfrequencythetransmitterisadjustablefrom88to108MHzwhichistheFMbandthatisusedforradiobroadcasting.The
circuit as we have already mentioned consists of four stages. Three RF stages and one audio preamplifier for the modulation. The
firstRFstageisanoscillatorandisbuiltaroundTR1.ThefrequencyoftheoscillatoriscontrolledbytheLCnetworkL1C15.C7is
theretoensurethatthecircuitcontinuesoscillatingandC8adjuststhecouplingbetweentheoscillatorandthenextRFstagewhich
isanamplifier.ThisisbuiltaroundTR2whichoperatesinclassCandistunedbymeansofL2andC9.ThelastRFstageisalsoan
amplifierbuiltaroundTR3whichoperatesinclassCtheinputofwhichistunedbymeansofC10andL4.Fromtheoutputofthislast
stagewhichistunedbymeansofL3C12istakentheoutputsignalwhichthroughthetunedcircuitL5C11goestotheaerial.
ThecircuitofthepreamplifierisverysimpleandisbuiltaroundTR4.Theinputsensitivityofthestageisadjustableinordertomake
it possible to use the transmitter with different input signals and depends upon the setting of VR1. As it is the transmitter can be
modulateddirectlywithapiezoelectricmicrophone,asmallcassetterecorderetc.Itisofcoursepossibletouseanaudiomixerinthe
inputformoreprofessionalresults.

Construction

Firstofallletusconsiderafewbasicsinbuildingelectroniccircuitsonaprintedcircuitboard.Theboardismadeofathininsulating
materialcladwithathinlayerofconductivecopperthatisshapedinsuchawayastoformthenecessaryconductorsbetweenthe
variouscomponentsofthecircuit.Theuseofaproperlydesignedprintedcircuitboardisverydesirableasitspeedsconstructionup
considerably and reduces the possibility of making errors. Smart Kit boards also come predrilled and with the outline of the
componentsandtheiridentificationprintedonthecomponentsidetomakeconstructioneasier.Toprotecttheboardduringstorage
from oxidation and assure it gets to you in perfect condition the copper is tinned during manufacturing and covered with a special
varnishthatprotectsitfromgettingoxidisedandalsomakessolderingeasier.Solderingthecomponentstotheboardistheonlyway
tobuildyourcircuitandfromthewayyoudoitdependsgreatlyyoursuccessorfailure.Thisworkisnotverydifficultandifyoustick
toafewrulesyoushouldhavenoproblems.Thesolderingironthatyouusemustbelightanditspowershouldnotexceedthe25
Watts.Thetipshouldbefineandmustbekeptcleanatalltimes.Forthispurposecomeveryhandyspeciallymadespongesthatare
keptwetandfromtimetotimeyoucanwipethehottiponthemtoremovealltheresiduesthattendtoaccumulateonit.DONOT
fileorsandpaperadirtyorwornouttip.Ifthetipcannotbecleaned,replaceit.Therearemanydifferenttypesofsolderinthemarket
andyoushouldchooseagoodqualityonethatcontainsthenecessaryfluxinitscore,toassureaperfectjointeverytime.DONOT
usesolderingfluxapartfromthatwhichisalreadyincludedinyoursolder.Toomuchfluxcancausemanyproblemsandisoneofthe
maincausesofcircuitmalfunction.Ifneverthelessyouhavetouseextraflux,asitisthecasewhenyouhavetotincopperwires,
cleanitverythoroughlyafteryoufinishyourwork.Inordertosolderacomponentcorrectlyyoushoulddothefollowing:
Cleanthecomponentleadswithasmallpieceofemerypaper.
Bendthematthecorrectdistancefromthecomponent
sbodyandinsertthecomponentinitsplaceontheboard.
Youmayfindsometimesacomponentwithheaviergaugeleadsthanusual,thataretoothicktoenterintheholesofthep.c.board.
Inthiscaseuseaminidrilltoenlargetheholesslightly.
Donotmaketheholestoolargeasthisisgoingtomakesolderingdifficultafterwards.
Take the hot iron and place its tip on the component lead while holding the end of the solder wire at the point where the lead
emergesfromtheboard.Theirontipmusttouchtheleadslightlyabovethep.c.board.Whenthesolderstartstomeltandflowwait
tillitcoversevenlytheareaaroundtheholeandthefluxboilsandgetsoutfromunderneaththesolder.Thewholeoperationshould
nottakemorethan5seconds.Removetheironandallowthesoldertocoolnaturallywithoutblowingonitormovingthecomponent.
Ifeverythingwasdoneproperlythesurfaceofthejointmusthaveabrightmetallicfinishanditsedgesshouldbesmoothlyendedon
thecomponentleadandtheboardtrack.Ifthesolderlooksdull,cracked,orhastheshapeofablobthenyouhavemadeadryjoint
andyoushouldremovethesolder(withapump,orasolderwick)andredoit.
Takecarenottooverheatthetracksasitisveryeasytoliftthemfromtheboardandbreakthem.
Whenyouaresolderingasensitivecomponentitisgoodpracticetoholdtheleadfromthecomponentsideoftheboardwithapair
oflongnoseplierstodivertanyheatthatcouldpossiblydamagethecomponent.

http://www.electronicslab.com/projects/rf/001/

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2/9/2015

4WattFMTransmitter
Makesurethatyoudonotusemoresolderthanitisnecessaryasyouarerunningtheriskofshortcircuitingadjacenttracksonthe
board,especiallyiftheyareveryclosetogether.
Whenyoufinishyourworkcutofftheexcessofthecomponentleadsand
cleantheboardthoroughlywithasuitablesolventtoremoveallfluxresiduesthatmaystillremainonit.
ThisisanRFprojectandthiscallsforevenmorecareduringsolderingassloppinessduringconstructioncanmeanlowornooutput
at all, low stability and other problems. Make sure that you follow the general rules about electronic circuit construction outlined
aboveanddoublecheckeverythingbeforegoingtothenextstep.Allthecomponentsareclearlymarkedonthecomponentsideof
theP.C.boardandyoushouldhavenodifficultyinlocatingandplacingthem.Solderfirstofallthepins,andcontinuewiththecoils
takingcarenottodeformthem,theRFC
s,theresistors,thecapacitorsandfinallytheelectrolyticandthetrimmers.Makesurethat
the electrolytic are correctly placed with respect to their polarity and that the trimmers are not overheated during soldering. At this
pointstopforagoodinspectionoftheworkdonesofarandifyouseethateverythingisOKgoonandsolderthetransistorsintheir
places taking grate care not to overheat them as they are the most sensitive of all the components used in the project. The audio
frequency input is at points 1 (ground) and 2 (signal), the power supply is connected at points 3 () and 4 (+) and the antenna is
connectedatpoints5(ground)and6(signal).Aswehavealreadymentionedthesignalyouuseforthemodulationofthetransmitter
could be the output of a preamplifier or mixer or in case you only want to modulate it with voice you can use the piezoelectric
microphone supplied with the Kit. (The quality of this microphone is not very good but it is quite adequate if you are interested in
speechonly.)AsanantennayoucanuseanopendipoleoraGroundPlane.Beforeyoustartusingthetransmitteroreverytimeyou
changeitsworkingfrequencyyoumustfollowtheproceduredescribedbelowwhichiscalledalignment.

RFSignal
Generators
coveringfrequenciesfrom10
KHzto25GHz

PartsList
R1=220K
R2=4,7K
R3=R4=10K
R5=82Ohm
R=150Ohm1/2Wx2*
VR1=22Ktrimmer
C1=C2=4,7uF25Velectrolytic
C3=C13=4,7nFceramic
C4=C14=1nFceramic
C5=C6=470pFceramic
C7=11pFceramic
C8=310pFtrimmer
C9=C12=735pFtrimmer
C10=C11=1060pFtrimmer
C15=420pFtrimmer

http://www.electronicslab.com/projects/rf/001/

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4WattFMTransmitter
C16=22nFceramic*
L1=4turnsofsilvercoatedwireat5,5mmdiameter
L2=6turnsofsilvercoatedwireat5,5mmdiameter
L3=3turnsofsilvercoatedwireat5,5mmdiameter
L4=printedonPCB
L5=5turnsofsilvercoatedwireat7,5mmdiameter
RFC1=RFC2=RFC3=VK200RFCtsok
TR1=TR2=2N2219NPN
TR3=2N3553NPN
TR4=BC547/BC548NPN
D1=1N4148diode*
MIC=crystalicmicrophone
Note:Partsmarkedwith*areusedforthetuneupofthetransmitterincaseyouhavenotastationarywavebridge.

Adjustments

IfyouexpectyourtransmittertobeabletodeliveritsmaximumoutputatanytimeyoumustalignalltheRFstagesinordertoensure
thatyougetthebestenergytransferbetweenthem.TherearetwowaystodothisanditdependsifyouhaveaSWRmeterornot
which method you are going to follow. If you have a SWR meter turn the transmitter on, having connected the SWR meter in its
outputinserieswiththeantenna,andturnC15inordertotunetheoscillatortothefrequencyyouhavechosenforyourbroadcasts.
ThenstartadjustingthetrimmersC8,9,10,12and11inthisordertillyougetthemaximumoutputpowerintheSWRmeter.Forthose
whodon
thaveaSWRmeterthereisanothermethodwhichgivesquitesatisfactoryresults.Youonlyhavetobuildthelittlecircuitin
Fig. 2 which is connected in the out put of the transmitter and in its output (across C16) you connect your multitester having
selectedasuitableVOLTSscale.YoutuneC15inthedesiredfrequencyandthenadjusttheothertrimmersinthesameorderasitis
describedaboveforthemaximumoutputinthemultitester.Thedisadvantageofthismethodisthatyoudonotalignthetransmitter
witharealantennaconnectedinitsoutputanditmaybenecessarytomakeslightadjustmentstoC11andC12foraperfectantenna
match.
Donotforgettoalignyourtransmittereverytimeyouchangeyouraerialoryourworkingfrequency.
WARNING:Ineverytransmittertherearepresentapartfromthemainoutputfrequencyvariousharmonicsthatusuallyhaveavery
short range. In order to make sure you haven
t tuned on one of them do the tuning as far as possible from your receiver, or use a
SpectrumAnalysertoseeyouroutputspectrumandmakesurethatyoutuneyourtransmitterontherightfrequency.

Warning

Smartkitsaresoldasstandalonetrainingkits.
Iftheyareusedaspartofalargerassemblyandanydamageiscaused,ourcompanybearsnoresponsibility.
While using electrical parts, handle power supply and equipment with great care, following safety standards as described by
internationalspecsandregulations.
CAUTION
AlltheRFkitsaresoldforexperimentalandlaboratoryuseonly.Theirpossessionandusearelimitedbylawswhichvaryfromstate
tostate.Pleasegetinformationaboutwhatyoucanorcannotdoinyourareaandstaywithinthelegallimits.Makesureyoudonot
becomeanuisancetootherswithyourexperiments.SmartKithasnoresponsibilitywhatsoeverforanymisuseofitsproducts.

Ifitdoesnotwork

Checkyourworkforpossibledryjoints,bridgesacrossadjacenttracksorsolderingfluxresiduesthatusuallycauseproblems.
Checkagainalltheexternalconnectionstoandfromthecircuittoseeifthereisamistakethere.
Seethattherearenocomponentsmissingorinsertedinthewrongplaces.
Makesurethatallthepolarisedcomponentshavebeensolderedtherightwayround.
Makesurethatthesupplyhasthecorrectvoltageandisconnectedtherightwayroundtoyourcircuit.
Checkyourprojectforfaultyordamagedcomponents.

http://www.electronicslab.com/projects/rf/001/

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4WattFMTransmitter
Ifeverythingchecksandyourprojectstillfailstowork,pleasecontactyourretailerandtheSmartKitServicewillrepairitforyou.

ElectronicDiagram

IFYOUAREGREEKREAD:PAGE1&PAGE2
Alsocheckthissiteforadditionalinformation

Improvementsonoriginaldesing

Thomas[thomasciciyan@yahoo.com]madesomeimprovementonoriginaldesign:
Abilityforcapacitormicrophone
Preamplifierforthemic
Externalaudioinputjack,forexample:totransmitsoundsfromancomputeraudiocard
Aselectorswitchtoselectmicrophoneorinputjack
PCBredesign

NewPCBdesignDownloadPCBinProtel2.7.1format

http://www.electronicslab.com/projects/rf/001/

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4WattFMTransmitter

Newcomponentslayout
Partsadded:
C17(1uf)
C18(4uf7)
C19(4uf7)
C20(100NF)
H1(13*13*10MM)
JACK1(STEREO)
LED2(RED)
MIC(CAPACITIC)
R6(1M8)
R7(1K5)
R8(560K)
R9(820R)
R10(4K7)
R11(4K7)
R12(1K)
R13(1K)
R14(2K2)
R15(680R)
TR5(BC547\BC548)
VR1(50K)

Downloads

DownloadthisprojectinPersianlanguage

http://www.electronicslab.com/projects/rf/001/

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http://www.electronicslab.com/projects/rf/001/

4WattFMTransmitter

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4WattFMTransmitter

http://www.electronicslab.com/projects/rf/001/

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