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Before you start Year 12

Chemistry
Introduction

Why study chemistry?

What do Chemists do?


Chemistry is a practical subject.
It can lead to many different types of careers, or provide
the background needed for other careers.

What do
chemists do?

In most jobs a chemist would


plan experiments
use a range of equipment to analyse materials and samples
devise new tests and experiments as new products are
developed
learn from what other chemists have done, and are doing

What sort of jobs need chemistry training?


Sources: http://www.chem.ubc.ca/undergraduate/brochure/wherechem.shtml
http://www.ltu.edu/arts_sciences/chemistry/what_do_chemists_do.asp

Many industries require people with all levels of chemical training,


from technician to Ph.D. Here are some examples.
Environmental
chemist

Determines what substances are present in an environmental


sample and how they got there.

Clinical chemist

Works with medical personnel to analyse body tissues and fluids to


provide medical doctors with useful diagnostic information.

Quality control
chemist

Analyses raw materials and intermediates as products of an


industrial process. This provides information about whether a
batch meets specifications and what went wrong in the plant if that
batch failed the tests.

Chemical
technician

Develops practical processes for the large-scale manufacture of


products, as well as improving the existing manufacturing
processes.

Technical
salesperson

Needs a good background in chemistry to sell chemical products to


potential customers.

Chemistry provides background knowledge for doctors, metallurgists,


As background
for other careers patent attorneys, and technical writers.

Before you start

Page 2

Is Year 12 Chemistry the right choice for you?


Before going any further, do the pre-test.

The
chemistry
pre-test

To help you understand what is expected in Year 12 Chemistry, we would like you
to do the pre-test on pages 7 to 9.

Do the pre-test. (You can refer to chemistry notes and texts, but the
test should not take more than about an hour).

Time how long it takes.


Correct your answers and work out your score.
See what we recommend below.
Fill in the questionnaire over the page, and send it in to your teacher.

Your pre-test result What we recommend

If your score was less than

20
40

If you got less than half the pre-test right you will most
likely need a lot of time and support to make a success of
Year 12 Chemistry. Past experience has shown that
students scoring less than 20 out of 40 are not able to
continue with this subject because they find it too
difficult. We strongly recommend that you contact the
Chemistry teachers to discuss your options.

If you scored between 20 and 30 you will most


likely need revision support throughout the year to
develop the skills expected. This means making
extra time available for your studies, and perhaps
finding a tutor to help you. We suggest that you
consider realistically whether you will be able to
make the extra study time available. Contact the
Chemistry teachers to discuss your options.

If your score was between

30
40
and
40
40

If your score was between

20
30
and
40
40

If you scored between 30 and 40 you should be able


to cope with most of the skills expected. However,
you will also need to make regular study time a part
of your weekly schedule. If you have any concerns,
contact the DECV, and speak to the Chemistry
teachers.

Its only fair to warn you


If you found the pre-test difficult and/or you have enrolled late you will probably find
this subject very challenging.
To have the best chance of making this year a success, you may wish to consider other
options.
The quickest way of finding out more is to ring the DECV, and speak to the Year 12
student manager. Phone: (03) 8480 0000, or toll free (in Victoria) 1800 133 511

Before you start

SEND

Page 3

Why study Year 12 Chemistry?

Your name:____________________________________
Your student number:_________

Your pre-test
1.

How did you go in the pre-test?

My pre-test score was

2.

How long did it take?

The pre-test took me minutes

3.

Which of the following best applies to you?

40

My pre-test score was good and I feel confident about studying Year 12
Chemistry

I found the pre-test challenging but I wish to continue with Year 12 Chemistry.
I realise that I will need to spend extra study time each week to revise the
necessary skills.

I found the pre-test difficult and I would like to discuss other options.
My contact phone is
The best time to call is

The quickest way to find out more about your options is to ring the DECV,
and speak to the Year 12 student manager.
Phone: (03) 8480 0000, or toll free (in Victoria) 1800 133 511

Before you start

SEND

Page 4

Why study Year 12 Chemistry?

A bit about you


1.

I want to study Chemistry with the DECV because:

2.

Have you studied chemistry before? Tick which best applies to you.
I have studied Year 11 chemistry previously.
I know a bit of chemistry from general science.
I have never studied chemistry before.

3.

Have you had a break from study? Tick which best applies to you.
I am still at school.
I am returning to study after a number of months.
I am returning to study after a number of years.
Something different to the above

4. What it takes to succeed.


About a third of the students who enrol in Distance Ed Chemistry drop out. To help you
plan ahead its important that you realise what is expected before you start. There are
three key questions you should ask yourself about your Chemistry studies.
1st.

Time: Do you have approximately 6 hours each week,


more when there is an assessment task due?

Yes

No

2nd.

Can you schedule study periods for chemistry each


week?

Yes

No

3rd.

Lab experiments: Can you attend the DECV for lab work,
or inquire locally for lab pracs (for example, at your own
school or TAFE)?

Yes

No

If you answered no to any of the above, your chances of success in this subject may be
affected.
Please contact your chemistry teacher at the DECV to discuss possible options.
Phone: (03) 8480 0000, or toll free (in Victoria) 1800 133 511

Before you start

Page 5

CHEMISTRY
PRETEST

UNITS 3 and 4
DATA PAGE

Use the data tables below and the periodic table over the page to help you
answer the pre-test questions.
Table 1: Formulae and charge of selected ions:
Cations
Na sodium

Anions

OH hydroxide

NH4 ammonium

Cl chloride

Ag+ silver

NO3 nitrate

Mg2+ magnesium

O2 oxide

Zn2+ zinc

SO42 sulfate

Cu2+ copper

CO32 carbonate

Pb2+ lead

PO43 phosphate

Table 2: Solubility of ions in water:


Ions that are soluble in water
Compounds with the following ions
are always soluble in water

Ammonium NH4+
Sodium Na+
Potassium K+
Nitrate NO3

Compounds with the following ions


are mostly soluble in water

Chloride Cl except with silver, Ag+, or lead, Pb2+


Sulfate SO42 except with silver, Ag+, or lead, Pb2+

Ions that are not soluble in water


Compounds with the following ions
are mostly not soluble in water

Hydroxide OH
Sulfide S2
Carbonate CO32
Phosphate PO43

except with
Ammonium NH4+
Sodium Na+
Potassium K+

Table 3: Molar mass of selected elements:


Element
Molar mass
(g per mol)

Ne

Na

Cl

Pb

1.0

12.0

16.0

20.1

23.0

35.5

207.2

Table 4: Molar mass of gases


STP standard temperature and pressure
temperature 0C, pressure 101.3 kPa
One mol of any gas occupies
22.4 litres at STP

SLC standard laboratory conditions


temperature 25C, pressure 101.3 kPa
One mol of any gas occupies
24.5 litres at SLC

Before you start

Page 6

CHEMISTRY

UNITS 3 and 4

PRETEST QUESTIONS
1.

Use the Periodic Table given on the previous page to help you answer the following
questions.
(a)

What is the atomic number of the following elements


(i)

silver

(ii)

radon

(iii)

radium
+ + = 1 marks

(b)

What is the chemical symbol of the following elements


(i)

gold

(ii)

silicon

(iii)

sodium

(iv)

antimony

+ + + = 2 marks

(c)

Identify the element with 13 protons and 13 neutrons.


1 mark

2.

Butane, C4H10 is commonly used in LPG and lighter fluid. Its melting and boiling points
are shown below.
melting point/ freezing (solidification) point
boiling (evaporation) point/ condensation point

138 C
0.5 C

Circle the physical state of butane


at room temperature, 25 C

solid

liquid gas

at fridge temperature, 4 C

solid

liquid gas

at 5 C

solid

liquid gas
+ + = 1 marks

Use the table of ions (Table 1) on the data page to help you answer questions 3 and 4.
3.

Identify the ions present in the following ionic compounds and name the compound.
(a)

MgCl2

(b)

Na3PO4

(c)

Ag2S
3 marks

4.

Work out the chemical formula of the following compounds.


(a) Silver hydroxide

(b) Magnesium carbonate

(c) Zinc nitrate


3 marks

5.

Balance the following chemical equations.


(a)

Mg(s) + N2(g) Mg3N2(s)

(b)

Ca(S) + O2(g) CaO(s)

(c)

H2(g) + O2(g) H2O(l)

(d)

Al (s) + I2 (l) Al2I6(s)


4 marks

Before you start

Page 7

Pre-test questions continued


6.

Use the solubility table (Table 2) on the data page to determine which of the following
ionic compound are soluble.
(a)

lead sulfate

(b)

silver chloride

(c)

ammonium chloride

(d)

zinc carbonate
+ + + = 2 marks

7.

The compound Cu(NO3)2 dissolves in water by dissociation of ions


(a)

Identify the ions in the compound.

(b)

Write the ionic equation of the dissociation reaction. Show the state of each
compound or ion.
1 + 2 = 3 marks

Refer to the molar mass of elements (Table 3) on the data page to help you answer questions 8,
9 and 10.
8.

Find the molar mass of the following compounds


(a)

H2O

(b)

NaCl
2 marks

9.

Find the mass of 1.3 mol of CH4


1 mark

10.

Calculate the number of mol contained in the following samples, rounded to three decimal
places.
(a)

50 g of lead

(b)

62 g of NaCl
2 marks

Refer to the molar volume of gases (Table 4) on the data page to help you answer the following
question.
11. (a)
(b)

Work out the volume of 1.4 mol of chlorine (Cl2) at STP


Work out the mass of 2.8 L of neon (Ne) gas at SLC
1 + 1 = 2 marks

The table below summarises the different types of acid reactions:


Reactions of acids
1. acid + metal salt + hydrogen
This reaction does not occur with Cu, Hg, or Ag.
2. acid + metal carbonate
salt + water + carbon dioxide
3. acid + metal oxide salt + water
4. acid + metal hydroxide salt + water
2
Carbonates contain the CO3 ion

The chemical formulae of selected compounds.

HCl (aq)
Na2CO3 (aq)
NaCl (aq)
H2O (l)
CO2 (g)
CuO (s)

CuCl2 (aq)
H2O (l)
H2SO4 (aq)
NaOH (aq)
Na2SO4 (aq)

Before you start

Page 8

Pre-test questions continued


12. Use the summary of acid reactions shown above to predict the products of the following
reactions:
(a) HCl (aq) + Mg (s)
(b)

HCl (aq) + Na2CO3 (aq)

(c)

HCl (aq) + CuO (s)

(d)

H2SO4 (aq) + NaOH (aq)


1 + 1 + 1 + 1 = 4 marks

13. Are the following reactions oxidation or reduction reactions?


(a)

Cl2(g) + 2e 2Cl (aq)

(b)

Pb (s) Pb2+ (aq) + 2e


+ = 1 mark

14. The reaction Zn(s) + S(s) ZnS (aq) can be written as two half reactions:
Zn(s) Zn2+(aq) + 2e and S(s) + 2e S2 (aq)
(a)

Identify the oxidant in this redox reaction

(d)

Identify the reductant in this redox reaction


+ = 1 mark

15.

Iron reacts with hydrochloric acid according to the ionic equation


Fe(s) + 2H+(aq) Fe2+(aq) + H2(g)
(a)

What has been oxidised in this reaction?

(b)

Write a half equation for the oxidation reaction.

(d)

What has been reduced in this reaction?

(e)

Write a half equation for the reduction reaction.


+ 1 + + 1 = 3 marks

16.

Hydrogen gas and oxygen gas react to form water according to the reaction
2H2 (g) + O2 (g) 2H2O (l)
10 g of oxygen is reacted in excess hydrogen.
(a)

How many mol of oxygen was reacted?

(b)

How many mole of hydrogen is required?

(c)

Work out the mass of hydrogen reacted.


1 + 1 + 1 = 3 marks

END OF PRE-TEST