PART 1

Which is NOT an element?

water

A

B
oxygen

carbon

C

D
chlorine

hydrogen

E

Water is important to the interactions of biological molecules because

A
water molecules are attracted to the charged regions of molecules such as proteins.

it forms a cushion around the macromolecules.

B

C
it helps disperse the macromolecules for reactivity.

it prevents settling of the molecules in places where they would be unavailable.

D

E
all of these
Hydrophobic molecules are __________ water.

attracted to

A

B
absorbed by

repelled by

C

D
mixed with

polarized by

E

Glucose dissolves in water because it

A
ionizes.

is a polysaccharide.

B

is polar and forms many hydrogen bonds with the water molecules.

C

D
has a very reactive primary structure.

none of these

E

Which of the following is NOT true?

A
Acids release hydrogen ions.

In a neutral solution, the amounts of hydrogen and hydroxyl ions are almost equal.

B

C
Salts precipitate out of solution and have no function in cells.

Polar water molecules are attracted to water.

D

E
Hydrogen bonding between water molecules gives water its temperature-stabilizing and cohesive properties.
Cellular pH is kept near a value of 7 because of

salts.

A

B
buffers.

acids.

C

D
bases.

water.

E

Four of the five answers listed below are alkaline (pH above 7). Select the exception.

A
milk of magnesia

household ammonia

B

C
Tums

phosphate detergent

D

E
wine
Four of the five answers listed below are acidic (pH below 7). Select the exception.

vinegar

A

B
soft drink

soap

C

D
lemon juice

beer

E

Four of the five answers listed below are positively charged ions. Select the exception.

A
potassium ion

hydrogen ion

B

C
calcium ion

magnesium ion

D

E
chlorine ion
Four of the five answers listed below are characteristics of water. Select the exception.

stabilizes temperature

A

B
is a common solvent

has cohesion and surface tension

C

D
produces salts

changes shape of hydrophilic and hydrophobic substances

E

The three most common atoms in your body are

A
hydrogen, oxygen, and carbon.

carbon, hydrogen, and nitrogen.

B

C
carbon, nitrogen, and oxygen.

nitrogen, hydrogen, and oxygen.

D

E
carbon, oxygen, and sulfur.
An -NH2 group is a(n) __________ group.

carboxyl

A

B
hydroxyl

amino

C

D
methyl

ketone

E

Which are NOT macromolecules?

A
proteins

polysaccharides

B

C
nucleotides

lipids

D

E
nucleic acids
A condensation reaction typically produces

monomers.

A

B
salts.

polymers.

C

D
simple sugars.

amino acids.

E

The relatively unimportant by-product(s) of many condensation reactions is (are)

A
carbon dioxide.

aldehyde groups.

B

C
enzymes.

alcohols.

D

E
water.
A macromolecule is composed of smaller units called

polymers.

A

B
isomers.

monomers.

C

D
isotopes.

dimers.

E

The primary carbohydrate used in the transport of food from the leaves to the root is

A
glucose.

sucrose.

B

C
fructose.

maltose.

D

E
lactose.
The primary carbohydrate used in the transport of food from the leaves to the root is

glucose.

A

B
sucrose.

fructose.

C

D
maltose.

lactose. in their relationship to the sucrose molecules. D E both in the way that their atoms are arranged and in the number of double bonds they possess. B C in the way that their atoms are arranged. Which of the following includes all the others? sucrose A B glucose . B C protistans. monerans. in the number of double bonds they possess. Plants store their excess carbohydrates in the form of starch. fats. C D cellulose. plants. E Glycogen is a polysaccharide used for energy storage by A animals. A B glycogen. E Glucose and fructose are different A in the number of carbons they possess. D E both animals and protistans. glucose.

E Cholesterol A is synthesized in the large intestine. C D complex carbohydrates.cellulose C D glycogen carbohydrate E Which of the following is more soluble in a nonpolar solvent (such as acetone) than in water? A lipids polysaccharides B C fats sterols D E all of these except polysaccharides Oils are liquid at room temperatures. floats free in the bloodstream. both liquid at room temperature and unsaturated fats. found only in animals. B C is used in the construction of biomembranes. D E is much greater in the bloodstream of rats than humans. Polyunsaturated fats . A B unsaturated fats. levels in the bloodstream can be increased by eating plant fats.

contribute to the possibility of arteriosclerosis. A B corn oil. sex hormones. B C components of membranes. are solid at room temperature. oleo.have fewer hydrogens than saturated fats. B C butter. C D oleo. butter. A B are more characteristic of animal fats than plant fats. D E soybean oil. corn oil. C D have no double bonds. soybean oil. E An example of a saturated fat is A olive oil. E Sterols are A compounds that are related to lipids. An example of a saturated fat is olive oil. .

C D transport molecules.troublesome on artery walls. Which one is it? A breakage of hydrogen bonds . storage molecules. A B hormones. D E all of these Proteins may function as structural units. all of these E Which of the following is structurally the simplest of the amino acids? A proline serine B C tryptophan cysteine D E glycine Amino acids are linked by what kind of bonds to form the primary structure of a protein? disulfide A B hydrogen ionic C D peptide none of these E Denaturation of proteins may result in all but one of the following.

A B is one of the nucleotide coenzymes. A B steroids. DNA is one of the adenosine phosphates. C D translates protein-building instructions into actual protein structures. and FAD carbohydrates.loss of three-dimensional structure B C removal of R groups from amino acids alteration of enzyme activity D E endangerment of cell's life Nucleotides are the building blocks for proteins. contains protein-building instructions. NAD+. C D ATP. lipids. E Which of the following is NOT found in every nucleic acid? A ribose phosphate group B C single-ring base double-ring base D E All of these are characteristic of every nucleotide. .

A chitin cellulose B C collagen starch D E glycogen Four of the five answers listed below are lipids. Select the exception.none of these E Which molecule is incorrectly matched with its component parts? A fat: fatty acids starch: riboses B C protein: amino acids glycogen: glucoses D E nucleic acids: nucleotides Four of the five answers listed below are carbohydrates. glycerol A B cellulose starch C D sucrose glycogen E Four of the five answers listed below are polysaccharides. Select the exception. Select the exception. triglyceride A B wax .

A glycine adenine B C phenylalanine valine D E tyrosine Four of the five answers listed below are functional groups. B C telling us that A=T and G=C. Select the exception. Select the exception. . R group A B amino group carboxyl group C D hydroxyl group aldehyde group E Friedrich Miescher is credited with A proposing DNA as the hereditary material. D The significance of Fred Griffith's experiment in which he used two strains of Streptococcus pneumoniae is that A the semiconservative nature of DNA replication was finally demonstrated. discovering nucleic acids.butter C D insulin steroid E Four of the five answers listed below are amino acids. finding a cure for pneumonia.

D it demonstrated that radioactively labeled bacteriophages transfer their DNA but not their protein coats to their host bacteria. E all of these Which scientist(s) identified the transforming substance involved in changing rough (R) bacteria to smooth (S)? Avery A B Griffith Chargaff C D Hershey and Chase Pauling E Bacteriophages are A large bacteria. . C it established that pure DNA extracted from disease-causing bacteria transformed harmless strains into killer strains. cellular components. The significance of the experiments in which 32P and 35S were used is that the semiconservative nature of DNA replication was finally demonstrated. A B it demonstrated that harmless bacterial cells had become permanently transformed through a change in the bacterial hereditary system. pathogens (disease-producing bacteria).B it demonstrated that harmless cells had become permanently transformed through a change in the bacterial hereditary system. C it established that pure DNA extracted from disease-causing bacteria transformed harmless strains into killer strains. D it demonstrated that radioactively labeled bacteriophages transfer their DNA but not their protein coats to their host bacteria. D E protistans. B C viruses.

nitrogenous bases. iron. phosphorus. B C potassium.none of these E Nucleic acid contains A sulfur. D E manganese. A B establishing the principle of base pairing. C D phosphate groups. A B nucleotides. Rosalind Franklin's research contribution was essential in establishing the double-stranded nature of DNA. base-pair bonding and sequence of base pairs. relative amounts of nucleotide bases. . The building blocks of nucleic acids are amino acids. D E relative amounts of nucleotide bases and sequence of base pairs. pentose sugars. E DNA varies from species to species in its A base-pair bonding. B C sequence of base pairs.

establishing most of the principal structural features of DNA. determining the bonding energy of DNA molecules. C D sequencing DNA molecules. E Rosalind Franklin used which technique to determine many of the physical characteristics of DNA? A transformation transmission electron microscopy B C density-gradient centrifugation x-ray diffraction D E all of these .

and cytosine always teams up with thymine.PART 2 James Watson and Francis Crick A established the double-stranded nature of DNA B confirmed the principle of base pairing. C explained how DNA's structure permitted it to be replicated. C Each of the four nucleotides in a DNA molecule has the same nitrogen-containing base. . C adenine and uracil. they are linked by three hydrogen bonds. E all of these Which of the following statements is true? A The hydrogen bonding of cytosine to guanine is an example of complementary base pairing. D When adenine base pairs with thymine. B adenine and guanine. D adenine and thymine. E all of these In DNA. D proposed the concept of the double helix. complementary base pairing occurs between A cytosine and uracil. B Adenine always pairs up with guanine in DNA.

C produces two molecules. C sexual reproduction. D protein synthesis. D . E bloodlines. The ultimate explanation for resemblances of traits from one generation to another is A gamete formation. Each DNA strand has a backbone that consists of alternating A purines and pyrimidines. B semiconservative DNA replication. C hydrogen bonds. the amount of purines never equals the amount of pyrimidines. B produces only new DNA. E amines and purines. D sugar and phosphate molecules. B nitrogen-containing bases.E In the DNA of all species. Replication of DNA A produces RNA molecules. each of which is half-new and half-old DNA joined lengthwise to each other.

A cytosine B adenine C thymine . C proofreads DNA strands to see that they are correct. D seal new short stretches of nucleotides into one continuous strand. B attach free nucleotides to the growing chain. E all of these Four of the five answers listed below are bases used to construct nucleic acids. B adds new nucleotides to a strand. Select the exception. D derives energy from ATP for synthesis of DNA strands. The primary function of DNA ligase is to A cut the two strands of the DNA molecule prior to replication. C remove bases that might have been inserted incorrectly. E is too complex to characterize.generates excessive DNA. DNA polymerase A is an enzyme. E fragment old DNA that is no longer of use to the cell. which eventually causes the nucleus to divide.

A A-C B C-G C A-T D T-A E purine . A Template DNA B Messenger RNA C .pyrimidine The DNA molecule usually is made up of how many strands? A 1 B 2 C 3 D 6 E 12 __________ molecules carry protein-assembly instructions from the nucleus to the cytoplasm.D guanine E phenylalanine Four of the five answers listed below are correctly paired. Select the exception.

The synthesis of an RNA molecule from a DNA template strand is A replication.Transfer RNA D Ribosomal RNA E all of these The form of RNA that carries the code from the DNA to the site where the protein is assembled is called A messenger RNA. D transfer RNA. B translation. . D uracil. B nuclear RNA. E thymine. B cytosine. C guanine. The nitrogenous base found in DNA but not in RNA is A adenine. E structural RNA. C ribosomal RNA.

E none of these If the DNA triplets were ATG-CGT. the tRNA anticodons would be A AUG-CGU. C activator. the mRNA codons would be A AUG-CGU. D UAG-CGU. E metabolism. B ATG-CGT. C UAC-GCA.C transcription. D terminator. E transcriber. B promoter. D DNA synthesis. If the DNA triplets were ATG-CGT. B . Transcription starts at a region of DNA called a(n) A sequencer.

that is.ATG-CGT. D UAG-CGU. C UAC-GCA. C also comes equipped with punctuation marks. E all of these There are how many different kinds of RNA codons? A 3 . each amino has more than one codon. D is redundant. E none of these Which of the following could NOT be an RNA transcript? A AUGCGU B ATGCGT C UACGCA D UAGCGU E GCGUUU The genetic code A is universal for all organisms. B is based upon 64 codons made of sequences of three nucleotides.

" E do not specify a particular amino acid and provide punctuation or instructions such as "stop.B 12 C 28 D 64 E 120 Of all the different codons that exist. B do not specify a particular amino acid. three of them A are involved in mutations. where amino acids are linked into the primary structure of a polypeptide? A mRNA B tRNA C hnRNA D rRNA E all of these All mRNA transcripts begin with A . D provide punctuation or instructions such as "stop." Which of the following carries amino acids to ribosomes. C cannot be copied.

In a mutation.methionine. . B may be caused by environmental agents. E an anticodon. E all of these Mutations can be A random. C AUG. B a ribosome. A gene mutation A is a change in the nucleotide sequence of DNA. D all of these E heritable. C may arise spontaneously. B beneficial C lethal. D can occur in any organism. D the P site.

Select the exception. Select the exception. A cap put on one end B introns snipped out C action by DNA polymerase D poly-A tail placed on one end E exons spliced together Three of the four answers listed below are steps in translation. B . C the new codon and resulting amino acid may destroy the function of the protein specified. D All of these may be true. Four of the five answers listed below are steps in the process of transcription. but may not change the function of the new protein produced. A initiation B replication C chain elongation D termination The cell theory was proposed by A Robert Hooke. B the new codon may specify the same amino acid as the old codon.A the new codon may specify a different amino acid.

C use organelles for compartmentalization. D Rudolf Virchow. If a cell did not have ribosomes. and use organelles for compartmentalization. Cells are of small size because of considerations of A weight. D space. it would be unable to A extract energy from glucose. B possess a nucleus. possess a nucleus. C diffusion. E division. D possess a nucleus and use organelles for compartmentalization. E Anton van Leeuwenhoek. E are eukaryotes. All cells except bacteria A are eukaryotes.Robert Brown. . B complexity. C Theodor Schwann.

Which of the following is the primary advantage of the eukaryotic nuclear envelope? A providing residence for ribosomes B allowing isolation of DNA from cytoplasmic machinery C providing pore entry places D enabling faster cell division E enabling larger cell size Which of the following is NOT found as a part of all cells? A cell membrane B cell wall C ribosomes D DNA E RNA The cell wall A provides skeletal support for plants. B .B synthesize glucose. D form proteins. C store food in the form of fat.

Which are examples of prokaryotes? A protozoa B bacteria C algae D fungi E mosses Which of the following are made of two subunits and are composed of RNA and protein? A Golgi bodies B mitochondria C chloroplasts D ribosomes E endoplasmic reticula Four of the five answers listed below are organelles found in eukaryotic cells.controls what enters and leaves a cell. Select the exception. C replaces the plasma membrane of animal cells in plant cells. D is found in all eukaryotes. A mitochondrion B Golgi body .

B It is composed partially of epithelial cells and partially of connective tissue. D It lies between the epithelium and connective tissue. E It cements the layers of stratified epithelium together. Which of the following is NOT defined as connective tissue? A bone B skeletal muscle C cartilage D collagen E blood Which of the these is NOT connective tissue? A cartilage B .C nucleoid D lysosome E vacuole Which of the following is true of the basement membrane? A It overlies the epithelium at its free surface. C It is mostly lipid and embedded celluloid fibers.

. C energy.blood C bone D fat E outer layer of skin Collagen fibers supply A strength. B elasticity. D rigidity." Which of the following correctly matches connective tissue with its deposits? A blood: fats B adipose: polysaccharide C bone: mineral ions D cartilage: calcium Rapid communication throughout the body is accomplished by A neurons. E all except "energy. B blood.

E all of the germ layers. B the endoderm. D muscles.C hormones. C the mesoderm. Which system is involved with heat production? A endocrine system B nervous system C muscular system D respiratory system E skeletal system Which system produces blood cells? A endocrine B . Muscle cells are produced by A the ectoderm. D the ectoderm and endoderm. E connective tissue.

Select the exception. A adipose B bone C cartilage D blood E epithelium .skeletal C muscular D defense E integumentary Four of the five answers listed below are related by a common tissue type.

E cell body -> axon -> dendrite. C dendrite -> cell body -> axon. . E both the presence of some open potassium channels and the attraction of the positively charged potassium ions by the negatively charged interior of the neuron. B axon -> dendrite -> cell body.PART 3 Within a single neuron. D 70 electrovolts. The movement of potassium into the neuron when it is at rest is a result of A diffusion leakage. D both diffusion leakage and the presence of some open potassium channels. the direction an impulse follows is A dendrite -> axon -> cell body. B the presence of some open potassium channels. The resting potential of a neuron is approximately A 70 microvolts. C 70 volts. C the attraction of the positively charged potassium ions by the negatively charged interior of the neuron. B 70 millivolts. D cell body -> dendrite -> axon.

Action potentials are A faster in neurons than in muscle cells. D completely different in neurons and muscle cells. D the sodium-potassium pump restores the electrical gradients. During the passage of a nerve impulse. E all of these The reason that an action potential is so brief is that A a wave of repolarization immediately follows an action potential.E 70 megavolts. B faster in muscles than in neurons. D changing voltage increases the number of open gates. B the opening of potassium gates allows the voltage difference across the neural membrane to be restored. B positive feedback causes more sodium ions to enter the cell. E . A sodium ions pass through gated channels. C the interior of the cell becomes positive. C the protein channels for sodium movement remain open. C essentially the same in neurons and muscle cells.

B speeds up the transmission of impulses. D sense of taste and smell. B coordination of hands and fingers. C memory. E all of these The occipital lobe of the brain is responsible for A coordination of hands and fingers. . Which of the following is a junction between two neurons? A Schwann cell B chemical synapse C node of Ranvier D sodium gate E all of these The myelin sheath A is formed by the Schwann cell. C does not surround all nerves. D is interrupted along the axon by nodes.the membrane limits electrical activity.

B long-term memory is limited to a few years' duration. C long-term memories are lost more frequently in amnesia. B artistic ability. The right hemisphere of the cerebrum is specialized for A verbal ability. E abstract abilities. D language skills. The left hemisphere of the brain is responsible for A music. D control over the right side of the body. C music interpretation.E vision. E . Studies of memory indicate that A short-term memory is the product of chemical changes in neurons. D long-term memory depends on structural or chemical changes in the brain. C spatial relationships. B mathematics.

short-term memory is limited to several hundred bits of information. Receptors in the human nose are A chemoreceptors. C analgesics. and soft drinks are examples of which of the following? A depressant B stimulant C narcotic analgesic D hallucinogen or psychedelic E antipsychotic Pain relievers such as endorphins and enkephalins are A depressants. B mechanoreceptors. B stimulants. D nocireceptors. E antipsychotics. C photoreceptors. . D hallucinogens or psychedelics. tea. coffee. Active chemicals found in chocolate.

B smell. C oval window.E none of these Hair cells are important in the sense of A equilibrium. D . The acoustical sense deals with the sense of A taste. C taste. C touch. E both equilibrium and hearing. B hearing. D sight. B tympanic membrane. E hearing. D smell. In hearing. the last place that pressure or sound waves pass through is the A bones of the middle ear.

B mechanoreceptors. B hearing. D smell. E touch. Which of the following has receptors for ultraviolet light? A bears B bees C birds D reptiles E amphibians Eyes are A chemoreceptors. C photoreceptors.round window. E tectorial membrane. C taste. . Movable bones are features of the sense organs associated with A sight.

Accommodation involves the ability to A change the sensitivity of the rods and cones by means of neurotransmitters. D choroid. B change the curvature of the cornea. B cornea. The dark middle layer of the eye that prevents the scattering of light is the A fovea. E none of these The layer of the eye where photoreceptors are located is the A lens.D nocireceptors. C sclera. E cornea. C pupil. E retina. C . B retina. D iris.

D choroid. B carbohydrate. Rods and cones are located in the A lens. E all of these The outer transparent protective cover of the eyeball is the A fovea. E cornea. Rhodopsin is a A protein. . B retina. D iris. C pupil.change the width of the lens by contracting or relaxing certain muscles. B cornea. D adapt to large changes in light intensity. C sclera. E retina.

Four of the five answers listed below are related by a similar sense receptor.C vitamin. D steroid. A touch or pressure B olfaction C balance (equilibrium) D hearing E muscle sense Four of the five answers listed below are somatic senses. Select the exception. A light B pressure C touch D temperature E pain Vitamin D is required for __________ metabolism. E alkaloid. A sulfur B . Select the exception.

phosphorus C calcium D potassium E zinc Which of the following is NOT characteristic of the epidermis? A stratified epithelium B fat for insulation and capillaries C keratinocytes D stratum corneum E melanin pigments Organisms with external skeletons are exemplified by A octopuses and earthworms. . C sea anemones. D insects and crabs. E vertebrates. Bones in fingers or toes are called A hyoid. B mollusks.

C scapula. then at both ends. Growth of long bones A follows the cartilage model. D clavicle. C lengthening of a muscle. B . B occurs in the middle at first. E phalanges. Each muscle fiber is also called a A muscle. E all of these The ability to extend a leg originates from A contraction of ligaments and tendons. D combination of push and pull by antagonistic muscle pairs. D is characterized by the persistence of cartilage at both ends of the shaft at the epiphyseal plates until growth stops.B patella. B contraction of a muscle. C is characterized by bone tissue replacing calcified cartilage.

A the myofibrils shorten. C myofibril. D screws. C push rods. muscles would be most like A ropes. B the actin and myosin filaments slide over each other. E hammers. D the muscle fibers thicken. D sarcomere. Which cell does NOT belong with the others? A erythrocytes .muscle cell. E all of these During muscle contractions. E all of these In their action. B levers. C the filaments move toward the middle of the sarcomere during contraction and away on relaxation.

C are phagocytes.B neutrophils C lymphocytes D eosinophils E monocytes Which cell is the most abundant in the human body? A lymphocytes B basophils C erythrocytes D neutrophils E platelets Human red blood cells A have no nucleus. What percent of the total blood volume does plasma normally amount to? A . E are produced in lymphoid organs. D release clotting factors when they are ruptured. B are the primary carriers of carbon dioxide in the blood.

15 to 25 B 33 to 40 C 50 to 60 D 66 to 75 E about 80 Hemoglobin contains which element? A chlorine B sodium C iron D copper E magnesium Type A blood will NOT agglutinate when mixed with A type B blood. but will clump with types B and O. E types A and AB. C type AB blood. D type O blood. Which blood type is the universal donor? . B type A blood.

C always travels toward the heart. D right atrium. E left ventricle.A A+ B B C AB+ D AB E O Blood in arteries A always travels away from the heart. B travels away from the heart only if it is oxygen-rich. D travels from the lungs. C right ventricle. B left atrium. E is always oxygen-rich. . Blood from the body is first received by the heart in the A coronary vein.

D 120 mm Hg. B pulmonary artery. E inferior vena cava. D subclavian vein. E . The diastolic pressure for a normal young adult would be A 60 mm Hg. C capillary bed. B 80 mm Hg. C 100 mm Hg.The pacemaker is which of the following nodes? A sinoatrial B semilunar C atrioventricular D inferior vena cava E superior vena cava Blood pressure is highest in the A aorta.

140 mm Hg. Cholesterol is believed to be carried by A albumin. C low-density lipoproteins. E both high-density and low-density lipoproteins. D triglycerides. Select the exception. Four of the five answers listed below are related by a common property. A epinephrine B globulin C hemoglobin D fibrinogen . A neutrophil B erythrocyte C lymphocytes D monocyte E basophil Four of the five answers listed below are blood proteins. B high-density lipoproteins. Select the exception.

A A B B C AB D .E albumin Four of the five answers listed below are related by the "type" of blood they carry. A blood volume reservoirs B contain valves C low resistance-transport tubes D transport oxygen E low blood pressure Four of the five answers listed below are related by a common feature. Select the exception. Select the exception. Select the exception. A pulmonary artery B aorta C hepatic portal vein D inferior vena cava E jugular vein Four of the five answers listed below are characteristics of most veins.

Rh+ E O Four of the five answers listed below are related by a common function. Select the exception. A heart B spleen C thymus D tonsils E lymph node .

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