PART 1

Which is NOT an element?

water

A

B
oxygen

carbon

C

D
chlorine

hydrogen

E

Water is important to the interactions of biological molecules because

A
water molecules are attracted to the charged regions of molecules such as proteins.

it forms a cushion around the macromolecules.

B

C
it helps disperse the macromolecules for reactivity.

it prevents settling of the molecules in places where they would be unavailable.

D

E
all of these
Hydrophobic molecules are __________ water.

attracted to

A

B
absorbed by

repelled by

C

D
mixed with

polarized by

E

Glucose dissolves in water because it

A
ionizes.

is a polysaccharide.

B

is polar and forms many hydrogen bonds with the water molecules.

C

D
has a very reactive primary structure.

none of these

E

Which of the following is NOT true?

A
Acids release hydrogen ions.

In a neutral solution, the amounts of hydrogen and hydroxyl ions are almost equal.

B

C
Salts precipitate out of solution and have no function in cells.

Polar water molecules are attracted to water.

D

E
Hydrogen bonding between water molecules gives water its temperature-stabilizing and cohesive properties.
Cellular pH is kept near a value of 7 because of

salts.

A

B
buffers.

acids.

C

D
bases.

water.

E

Four of the five answers listed below are alkaline (pH above 7). Select the exception.

A
milk of magnesia

household ammonia

B

C
Tums

phosphate detergent

D

E
wine
Four of the five answers listed below are acidic (pH below 7). Select the exception.

vinegar

A

B
soft drink

soap

C

D
lemon juice

beer

E

Four of the five answers listed below are positively charged ions. Select the exception.

A
potassium ion

hydrogen ion

B

C
calcium ion

magnesium ion

D

E
chlorine ion
Four of the five answers listed below are characteristics of water. Select the exception.

stabilizes temperature

A

B
is a common solvent

has cohesion and surface tension

C

D
produces salts

changes shape of hydrophilic and hydrophobic substances

E

The three most common atoms in your body are

A
hydrogen, oxygen, and carbon.

carbon, hydrogen, and nitrogen.

B

C
carbon, nitrogen, and oxygen.

nitrogen, hydrogen, and oxygen.

D

E
carbon, oxygen, and sulfur.
An -NH2 group is a(n) __________ group.

carboxyl

A

B
hydroxyl

amino

C

D
methyl

ketone

E

Which are NOT macromolecules?

A
proteins

polysaccharides

B

C
nucleotides

lipids

D

E
nucleic acids
A condensation reaction typically produces

monomers.

A

B
salts.

polymers.

C

D
simple sugars.

amino acids.

E

The relatively unimportant by-product(s) of many condensation reactions is (are)

A
carbon dioxide.

aldehyde groups.

B

C
enzymes.

alcohols.

D

E
water.
A macromolecule is composed of smaller units called

polymers.

A

B
isomers.

monomers.

C

D
isotopes.

dimers.

E

The primary carbohydrate used in the transport of food from the leaves to the root is

A
glucose.

sucrose.

B

C
fructose.

maltose.

D

E
lactose.
The primary carbohydrate used in the transport of food from the leaves to the root is

glucose.

A

B
sucrose.

fructose.

C

D
maltose.

lactose. Plants store their excess carbohydrates in the form of starch. E Glucose and fructose are different A in the number of carbons they possess. A B glycogen. E Glycogen is a polysaccharide used for energy storage by A animals. D E both in the way that their atoms are arranged and in the number of double bonds they possess. Which of the following includes all the others? sucrose A B glucose . D E both animals and protistans. B C protistans. in their relationship to the sucrose molecules. fats. in the number of double bonds they possess. C D cellulose. monerans. plants. glucose. B C in the way that their atoms are arranged.

Polyunsaturated fats . found only in animals.cellulose C D glycogen carbohydrate E Which of the following is more soluble in a nonpolar solvent (such as acetone) than in water? A lipids polysaccharides B C fats sterols D E all of these except polysaccharides Oils are liquid at room temperatures. A B unsaturated fats. levels in the bloodstream can be increased by eating plant fats. both liquid at room temperature and unsaturated fats. C D complex carbohydrates. D E is much greater in the bloodstream of rats than humans. B C is used in the construction of biomembranes. E Cholesterol A is synthesized in the large intestine. floats free in the bloodstream.

butter. C D have no double bonds. are solid at room temperature. B C components of membranes. contribute to the possibility of arteriosclerosis. E Sterols are A compounds that are related to lipids. C D oleo. B C butter. sex hormones. D E soybean oil. A B corn oil.have fewer hydrogens than saturated fats. soybean oil. A B are more characteristic of animal fats than plant fats. . An example of a saturated fat is olive oil. oleo. E An example of a saturated fat is A olive oil. corn oil.

C D transport molecules.troublesome on artery walls. A B hormones. storage molecules. D E all of these Proteins may function as structural units. all of these E Which of the following is structurally the simplest of the amino acids? A proline serine B C tryptophan cysteine D E glycine Amino acids are linked by what kind of bonds to form the primary structure of a protein? disulfide A B hydrogen ionic C D peptide none of these E Denaturation of proteins may result in all but one of the following. Which one is it? A breakage of hydrogen bonds .

lipids. E Which of the following is NOT found in every nucleic acid? A ribose phosphate group B C single-ring base double-ring base D E All of these are characteristic of every nucleotide. DNA is one of the adenosine phosphates.loss of three-dimensional structure B C removal of R groups from amino acids alteration of enzyme activity D E endangerment of cell's life Nucleotides are the building blocks for proteins. and FAD carbohydrates. C D ATP. NAD+. . C D translates protein-building instructions into actual protein structures. contains protein-building instructions. A B steroids. A B is one of the nucleotide coenzymes.

triglyceride A B wax . Select the exception. glycerol A B cellulose starch C D sucrose glycogen E Four of the five answers listed below are polysaccharides.none of these E Which molecule is incorrectly matched with its component parts? A fat: fatty acids starch: riboses B C protein: amino acids glycogen: glucoses D E nucleic acids: nucleotides Four of the five answers listed below are carbohydrates. Select the exception. Select the exception. A chitin cellulose B C collagen starch D E glycogen Four of the five answers listed below are lipids.

Select the exception.butter C D insulin steroid E Four of the five answers listed below are amino acids. . Select the exception. discovering nucleic acids. finding a cure for pneumonia. B C telling us that A=T and G=C. D The significance of Fred Griffith's experiment in which he used two strains of Streptococcus pneumoniae is that A the semiconservative nature of DNA replication was finally demonstrated. A glycine adenine B C phenylalanine valine D E tyrosine Four of the five answers listed below are functional groups. R group A B amino group carboxyl group C D hydroxyl group aldehyde group E Friedrich Miescher is credited with A proposing DNA as the hereditary material.

B C viruses. D it demonstrated that radioactively labeled bacteriophages transfer their DNA but not their protein coats to their host bacteria. cellular components. D it demonstrated that radioactively labeled bacteriophages transfer their DNA but not their protein coats to their host bacteria. A B it demonstrated that harmless bacterial cells had become permanently transformed through a change in the bacterial hereditary system. C it established that pure DNA extracted from disease-causing bacteria transformed harmless strains into killer strains. C it established that pure DNA extracted from disease-causing bacteria transformed harmless strains into killer strains. D E protistans. The significance of the experiments in which 32P and 35S were used is that the semiconservative nature of DNA replication was finally demonstrated. pathogens (disease-producing bacteria). .B it demonstrated that harmless cells had become permanently transformed through a change in the bacterial hereditary system. E all of these Which scientist(s) identified the transforming substance involved in changing rough (R) bacteria to smooth (S)? Avery A B Griffith Chargaff C D Hershey and Chase Pauling E Bacteriophages are A large bacteria.

phosphorus. E DNA varies from species to species in its A base-pair bonding. pentose sugars. nitrogenous bases. relative amounts of nucleotide bases. Rosalind Franklin's research contribution was essential in establishing the double-stranded nature of DNA. . A B nucleotides. C D phosphate groups.none of these E Nucleic acid contains A sulfur. B C sequence of base pairs. The building blocks of nucleic acids are amino acids. B C potassium. A B establishing the principle of base pairing. base-pair bonding and sequence of base pairs. D E manganese. iron. D E relative amounts of nucleotide bases and sequence of base pairs.

determining the bonding energy of DNA molecules.establishing most of the principal structural features of DNA. C D sequencing DNA molecules. E Rosalind Franklin used which technique to determine many of the physical characteristics of DNA? A transformation transmission electron microscopy B C density-gradient centrifugation x-ray diffraction D E all of these .

D adenine and thymine. B adenine and guanine. C Each of the four nucleotides in a DNA molecule has the same nitrogen-containing base. .PART 2 James Watson and Francis Crick A established the double-stranded nature of DNA B confirmed the principle of base pairing. E all of these Which of the following statements is true? A The hydrogen bonding of cytosine to guanine is an example of complementary base pairing. D When adenine base pairs with thymine. complementary base pairing occurs between A cytosine and uracil. C explained how DNA's structure permitted it to be replicated. and cytosine always teams up with thymine. E all of these In DNA. D proposed the concept of the double helix. C adenine and uracil. they are linked by three hydrogen bonds. B Adenine always pairs up with guanine in DNA.

B produces only new DNA. Replication of DNA A produces RNA molecules. The ultimate explanation for resemblances of traits from one generation to another is A gamete formation. D protein synthesis. D . C sexual reproduction.E In the DNA of all species. E bloodlines. B nitrogen-containing bases. B semiconservative DNA replication. Each DNA strand has a backbone that consists of alternating A purines and pyrimidines. the amount of purines never equals the amount of pyrimidines. E amines and purines. C hydrogen bonds. C produces two molecules. D sugar and phosphate molecules. each of which is half-new and half-old DNA joined lengthwise to each other.

Select the exception. which eventually causes the nucleus to divide. D seal new short stretches of nucleotides into one continuous strand. B attach free nucleotides to the growing chain. A cytosine B adenine C thymine .generates excessive DNA. The primary function of DNA ligase is to A cut the two strands of the DNA molecule prior to replication. D derives energy from ATP for synthesis of DNA strands. DNA polymerase A is an enzyme. E all of these Four of the five answers listed below are bases used to construct nucleic acids. E is too complex to characterize. B adds new nucleotides to a strand. E fragment old DNA that is no longer of use to the cell. C proofreads DNA strands to see that they are correct. C remove bases that might have been inserted incorrectly.

Select the exception. A A-C B C-G C A-T D T-A E purine . A Template DNA B Messenger RNA C .pyrimidine The DNA molecule usually is made up of how many strands? A 1 B 2 C 3 D 6 E 12 __________ molecules carry protein-assembly instructions from the nucleus to the cytoplasm.D guanine E phenylalanine Four of the five answers listed below are correctly paired.

The synthesis of an RNA molecule from a DNA template strand is A replication. B cytosine. C ribosomal RNA. C guanine. . B nuclear RNA. E thymine. B translation. The nitrogenous base found in DNA but not in RNA is A adenine.Transfer RNA D Ribosomal RNA E all of these The form of RNA that carries the code from the DNA to the site where the protein is assembled is called A messenger RNA. D uracil. E structural RNA. D transfer RNA.

the mRNA codons would be A AUG-CGU. the tRNA anticodons would be A AUG-CGU. E none of these If the DNA triplets were ATG-CGT. D DNA synthesis. E metabolism. B promoter. D terminator. C activator.C transcription. If the DNA triplets were ATG-CGT. B ATG-CGT. Transcription starts at a region of DNA called a(n) A sequencer. D UAG-CGU. B . C UAC-GCA. E transcriber.

that is. C UAC-GCA. E all of these There are how many different kinds of RNA codons? A 3 . D UAG-CGU.ATG-CGT. C also comes equipped with punctuation marks. E none of these Which of the following could NOT be an RNA transcript? A AUGCGU B ATGCGT C UACGCA D UAGCGU E GCGUUU The genetic code A is universal for all organisms. D is redundant. each amino has more than one codon. B is based upon 64 codons made of sequences of three nucleotides.

" E do not specify a particular amino acid and provide punctuation or instructions such as "stop. D provide punctuation or instructions such as "stop." Which of the following carries amino acids to ribosomes. B do not specify a particular amino acid. where amino acids are linked into the primary structure of a polypeptide? A mRNA B tRNA C hnRNA D rRNA E all of these All mRNA transcripts begin with A . three of them A are involved in mutations.B 12 C 28 D 64 E 120 Of all the different codons that exist. C cannot be copied.

D can occur in any organism. A gene mutation A is a change in the nucleotide sequence of DNA. E all of these Mutations can be A random. E an anticodon. B beneficial C lethal. D the P site. D all of these E heritable. C may arise spontaneously.methionine. B a ribosome. C AUG. B may be caused by environmental agents. . In a mutation.

Four of the five answers listed below are steps in the process of transcription. B the new codon may specify the same amino acid as the old codon. Select the exception. but may not change the function of the new protein produced. D All of these may be true. A initiation B replication C chain elongation D termination The cell theory was proposed by A Robert Hooke. A cap put on one end B introns snipped out C action by DNA polymerase D poly-A tail placed on one end E exons spliced together Three of the four answers listed below are steps in translation.A the new codon may specify a different amino acid. Select the exception. C the new codon and resulting amino acid may destroy the function of the protein specified. B .

E Anton van Leeuwenhoek. C Theodor Schwann. If a cell did not have ribosomes. possess a nucleus. it would be unable to A extract energy from glucose.Robert Brown. and use organelles for compartmentalization. D space. C use organelles for compartmentalization. E are eukaryotes. B possess a nucleus. C diffusion. D Rudolf Virchow. B complexity. All cells except bacteria A are eukaryotes. D possess a nucleus and use organelles for compartmentalization. E division. . Cells are of small size because of considerations of A weight.

Which of the following is the primary advantage of the eukaryotic nuclear envelope? A providing residence for ribosomes B allowing isolation of DNA from cytoplasmic machinery C providing pore entry places D enabling faster cell division E enabling larger cell size Which of the following is NOT found as a part of all cells? A cell membrane B cell wall C ribosomes D DNA E RNA The cell wall A provides skeletal support for plants. D form proteins. B .B synthesize glucose. C store food in the form of fat.

C replaces the plasma membrane of animal cells in plant cells. Which are examples of prokaryotes? A protozoa B bacteria C algae D fungi E mosses Which of the following are made of two subunits and are composed of RNA and protein? A Golgi bodies B mitochondria C chloroplasts D ribosomes E endoplasmic reticula Four of the five answers listed below are organelles found in eukaryotic cells. A mitochondrion B Golgi body . D is found in all eukaryotes. Select the exception.controls what enters and leaves a cell.

D It lies between the epithelium and connective tissue.C nucleoid D lysosome E vacuole Which of the following is true of the basement membrane? A It overlies the epithelium at its free surface. Which of the following is NOT defined as connective tissue? A bone B skeletal muscle C cartilage D collagen E blood Which of the these is NOT connective tissue? A cartilage B . E It cements the layers of stratified epithelium together. C It is mostly lipid and embedded celluloid fibers. B It is composed partially of epithelial cells and partially of connective tissue.

" Which of the following correctly matches connective tissue with its deposits? A blood: fats B adipose: polysaccharide C bone: mineral ions D cartilage: calcium Rapid communication throughout the body is accomplished by A neurons. D rigidity. C energy. B blood. E all except "energy.blood C bone D fat E outer layer of skin Collagen fibers supply A strength. B elasticity. .

C hormones. Muscle cells are produced by A the ectoderm. E connective tissue. D the ectoderm and endoderm. E all of the germ layers. B the endoderm. D muscles. C the mesoderm. Which system is involved with heat production? A endocrine system B nervous system C muscular system D respiratory system E skeletal system Which system produces blood cells? A endocrine B .

skeletal C muscular D defense E integumentary Four of the five answers listed below are related by a common tissue type. Select the exception. A adipose B bone C cartilage D blood E epithelium .

D 70 electrovolts. C 70 volts. C the attraction of the positively charged potassium ions by the negatively charged interior of the neuron.PART 3 Within a single neuron. E cell body -> axon -> dendrite. D cell body -> dendrite -> axon. the direction an impulse follows is A dendrite -> axon -> cell body. D both diffusion leakage and the presence of some open potassium channels. E both the presence of some open potassium channels and the attraction of the positively charged potassium ions by the negatively charged interior of the neuron. B axon -> dendrite -> cell body. The movement of potassium into the neuron when it is at rest is a result of A diffusion leakage. C dendrite -> cell body -> axon. . B the presence of some open potassium channels. The resting potential of a neuron is approximately A 70 microvolts. B 70 millivolts.

C the interior of the cell becomes positive.E 70 megavolts. D completely different in neurons and muscle cells. C essentially the same in neurons and muscle cells. A sodium ions pass through gated channels. E . B the opening of potassium gates allows the voltage difference across the neural membrane to be restored. Action potentials are A faster in neurons than in muscle cells. D the sodium-potassium pump restores the electrical gradients. B positive feedback causes more sodium ions to enter the cell. D changing voltage increases the number of open gates. C the protein channels for sodium movement remain open. E all of these The reason that an action potential is so brief is that A a wave of repolarization immediately follows an action potential. B faster in muscles than in neurons. During the passage of a nerve impulse.

D is interrupted along the axon by nodes. D sense of taste and smell. C memory. . Which of the following is a junction between two neurons? A Schwann cell B chemical synapse C node of Ranvier D sodium gate E all of these The myelin sheath A is formed by the Schwann cell. B coordination of hands and fingers. C does not surround all nerves.the membrane limits electrical activity. E all of these The occipital lobe of the brain is responsible for A coordination of hands and fingers. B speeds up the transmission of impulses.

E . The right hemisphere of the cerebrum is specialized for A verbal ability. E abstract abilities. D long-term memory depends on structural or chemical changes in the brain.E vision. Studies of memory indicate that A short-term memory is the product of chemical changes in neurons. D language skills. B artistic ability. The left hemisphere of the brain is responsible for A music. C music interpretation. D control over the right side of the body. B long-term memory is limited to a few years' duration. B mathematics. C spatial relationships. C long-term memories are lost more frequently in amnesia.

C analgesics. C photoreceptors. . and soft drinks are examples of which of the following? A depressant B stimulant C narcotic analgesic D hallucinogen or psychedelic E antipsychotic Pain relievers such as endorphins and enkephalins are A depressants. D hallucinogens or psychedelics. B stimulants. Active chemicals found in chocolate. coffee.short-term memory is limited to several hundred bits of information. D nocireceptors. B mechanoreceptors. E antipsychotics. Receptors in the human nose are A chemoreceptors. tea.

In hearing. D sight.E none of these Hair cells are important in the sense of A equilibrium. the last place that pressure or sound waves pass through is the A bones of the middle ear. The acoustical sense deals with the sense of A taste. E both equilibrium and hearing. C oval window. B smell. B tympanic membrane. C taste. D . E hearing. B hearing. D smell. C touch.

B mechanoreceptors.round window. D smell. E touch. B hearing. Which of the following has receptors for ultraviolet light? A bears B bees C birds D reptiles E amphibians Eyes are A chemoreceptors. Movable bones are features of the sense organs associated with A sight. C taste. E tectorial membrane. . C photoreceptors.

B cornea. D iris. D choroid. E cornea. B retina. E retina. C sclera. B change the curvature of the cornea.D nocireceptors. The dark middle layer of the eye that prevents the scattering of light is the A fovea. C pupil. E none of these The layer of the eye where photoreceptors are located is the A lens. C . Accommodation involves the ability to A change the sensitivity of the rods and cones by means of neurotransmitters.

D iris. D adapt to large changes in light intensity. E cornea. . B carbohydrate. C pupil. Rhodopsin is a A protein. B cornea. B retina. C sclera. E retina. D choroid.change the width of the lens by contracting or relaxing certain muscles. Rods and cones are located in the A lens. E all of these The outer transparent protective cover of the eyeball is the A fovea.

Select the exception. D steroid. Four of the five answers listed below are related by a similar sense receptor. A sulfur B .C vitamin. A touch or pressure B olfaction C balance (equilibrium) D hearing E muscle sense Four of the five answers listed below are somatic senses. E alkaloid. A light B pressure C touch D temperature E pain Vitamin D is required for __________ metabolism. Select the exception.

E vertebrates. Bones in fingers or toes are called A hyoid. C sea anemones. .phosphorus C calcium D potassium E zinc Which of the following is NOT characteristic of the epidermis? A stratified epithelium B fat for insulation and capillaries C keratinocytes D stratum corneum E melanin pigments Organisms with external skeletons are exemplified by A octopuses and earthworms. B mollusks. D insects and crabs.

B contraction of a muscle. D combination of push and pull by antagonistic muscle pairs. then at both ends. E all of these The ability to extend a leg originates from A contraction of ligaments and tendons. C scapula. D clavicle. B .B patella. E phalanges. Growth of long bones A follows the cartilage model. B occurs in the middle at first. D is characterized by the persistence of cartilage at both ends of the shaft at the epiphyseal plates until growth stops. C is characterized by bone tissue replacing calcified cartilage. C lengthening of a muscle. Each muscle fiber is also called a A muscle.

C push rods. E hammers. D the muscle fibers thicken. E all of these During muscle contractions. B the actin and myosin filaments slide over each other. C the filaments move toward the middle of the sarcomere during contraction and away on relaxation. D screws. A the myofibrils shorten. C myofibril. muscles would be most like A ropes.muscle cell. E all of these In their action. B levers. D sarcomere. Which cell does NOT belong with the others? A erythrocytes .

What percent of the total blood volume does plasma normally amount to? A .B neutrophils C lymphocytes D eosinophils E monocytes Which cell is the most abundant in the human body? A lymphocytes B basophils C erythrocytes D neutrophils E platelets Human red blood cells A have no nucleus. B are the primary carriers of carbon dioxide in the blood. D release clotting factors when they are ruptured. C are phagocytes. E are produced in lymphoid organs.

E types A and AB. Which blood type is the universal donor? . B type A blood.15 to 25 B 33 to 40 C 50 to 60 D 66 to 75 E about 80 Hemoglobin contains which element? A chlorine B sodium C iron D copper E magnesium Type A blood will NOT agglutinate when mixed with A type B blood. C type AB blood. D type O blood. but will clump with types B and O.

D travels from the lungs. B left atrium. B travels away from the heart only if it is oxygen-rich.A A+ B B C AB+ D AB E O Blood in arteries A always travels away from the heart. E left ventricle. D right atrium. Blood from the body is first received by the heart in the A coronary vein. C right ventricle. C always travels toward the heart. E is always oxygen-rich. .

E inferior vena cava. C capillary bed. C 100 mm Hg. E . The diastolic pressure for a normal young adult would be A 60 mm Hg. B 80 mm Hg. B pulmonary artery. D 120 mm Hg.The pacemaker is which of the following nodes? A sinoatrial B semilunar C atrioventricular D inferior vena cava E superior vena cava Blood pressure is highest in the A aorta. D subclavian vein.

A epinephrine B globulin C hemoglobin D fibrinogen . C low-density lipoproteins.140 mm Hg. Four of the five answers listed below are related by a common property. Select the exception. E both high-density and low-density lipoproteins. Cholesterol is believed to be carried by A albumin. Select the exception. D triglycerides. B high-density lipoproteins. A neutrophil B erythrocyte C lymphocytes D monocyte E basophil Four of the five answers listed below are blood proteins.

Select the exception. Select the exception. Select the exception.E albumin Four of the five answers listed below are related by the "type" of blood they carry. A A B B C AB D . A blood volume reservoirs B contain valves C low resistance-transport tubes D transport oxygen E low blood pressure Four of the five answers listed below are related by a common feature. A pulmonary artery B aorta C hepatic portal vein D inferior vena cava E jugular vein Four of the five answers listed below are characteristics of most veins.

Rh+ E O Four of the five answers listed below are related by a common function. A heart B spleen C thymus D tonsils E lymph node . Select the exception.

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