PART 1

Which is NOT an element?

water

A

B
oxygen

carbon

C

D
chlorine

hydrogen

E

Water is important to the interactions of biological molecules because

A
water molecules are attracted to the charged regions of molecules such as proteins.

it forms a cushion around the macromolecules.

B

C
it helps disperse the macromolecules for reactivity.

it prevents settling of the molecules in places where they would be unavailable.

D

E
all of these
Hydrophobic molecules are __________ water.

attracted to

A

B
absorbed by

repelled by

C

D
mixed with

polarized by

E

Glucose dissolves in water because it

A
ionizes.

is a polysaccharide.

B

is polar and forms many hydrogen bonds with the water molecules.

C

D
has a very reactive primary structure.

none of these

E

Which of the following is NOT true?

A
Acids release hydrogen ions.

In a neutral solution, the amounts of hydrogen and hydroxyl ions are almost equal.

B

C
Salts precipitate out of solution and have no function in cells.

Polar water molecules are attracted to water.

D

E
Hydrogen bonding between water molecules gives water its temperature-stabilizing and cohesive properties.
Cellular pH is kept near a value of 7 because of

salts.

A

B
buffers.

acids.

C

D
bases.

water.

E

Four of the five answers listed below are alkaline (pH above 7). Select the exception.

A
milk of magnesia

household ammonia

B

C
Tums

phosphate detergent

D

E
wine
Four of the five answers listed below are acidic (pH below 7). Select the exception.

vinegar

A

B
soft drink

soap

C

D
lemon juice

beer

E

Four of the five answers listed below are positively charged ions. Select the exception.

A
potassium ion

hydrogen ion

B

C
calcium ion

magnesium ion

D

E
chlorine ion
Four of the five answers listed below are characteristics of water. Select the exception.

stabilizes temperature

A

B
is a common solvent

has cohesion and surface tension

C

D
produces salts

changes shape of hydrophilic and hydrophobic substances

E

The three most common atoms in your body are

A
hydrogen, oxygen, and carbon.

carbon, hydrogen, and nitrogen.

B

C
carbon, nitrogen, and oxygen.

nitrogen, hydrogen, and oxygen.

D

E
carbon, oxygen, and sulfur.
An -NH2 group is a(n) __________ group.

carboxyl

A

B
hydroxyl

amino

C

D
methyl

ketone

E

Which are NOT macromolecules?

A
proteins

polysaccharides

B

C
nucleotides

lipids

D

E
nucleic acids
A condensation reaction typically produces

monomers.

A

B
salts.

polymers.

C

D
simple sugars.

amino acids.

E

The relatively unimportant by-product(s) of many condensation reactions is (are)

A
carbon dioxide.

aldehyde groups.

B

C
enzymes.

alcohols.

D

E
water.
A macromolecule is composed of smaller units called

polymers.

A

B
isomers.

monomers.

C

D
isotopes.

dimers.

E

The primary carbohydrate used in the transport of food from the leaves to the root is

A
glucose.

sucrose.

B

C
fructose.

maltose.

D

E
lactose.
The primary carbohydrate used in the transport of food from the leaves to the root is

glucose.

A

B
sucrose.

fructose.

C

D
maltose.

in their relationship to the sucrose molecules. E Glucose and fructose are different A in the number of carbons they possess. E Glycogen is a polysaccharide used for energy storage by A animals. in the number of double bonds they possess. D E both in the way that their atoms are arranged and in the number of double bonds they possess. B C in the way that their atoms are arranged. D E both animals and protistans. monerans. fats. Plants store their excess carbohydrates in the form of starch.lactose. glucose. C D cellulose. plants. Which of the following includes all the others? sucrose A B glucose . B C protistans. A B glycogen.

E Cholesterol A is synthesized in the large intestine.cellulose C D glycogen carbohydrate E Which of the following is more soluble in a nonpolar solvent (such as acetone) than in water? A lipids polysaccharides B C fats sterols D E all of these except polysaccharides Oils are liquid at room temperatures. B C is used in the construction of biomembranes. A B unsaturated fats. both liquid at room temperature and unsaturated fats. C D complex carbohydrates. levels in the bloodstream can be increased by eating plant fats. floats free in the bloodstream. Polyunsaturated fats . found only in animals. D E is much greater in the bloodstream of rats than humans.

A B corn oil. soybean oil. D E soybean oil. sex hormones. contribute to the possibility of arteriosclerosis. corn oil.have fewer hydrogens than saturated fats. are solid at room temperature. B C components of membranes. A B are more characteristic of animal fats than plant fats. oleo. C D oleo. B C butter. E Sterols are A compounds that are related to lipids. An example of a saturated fat is olive oil. E An example of a saturated fat is A olive oil. C D have no double bonds. . butter.

storage molecules. D E all of these Proteins may function as structural units. C D transport molecules. all of these E Which of the following is structurally the simplest of the amino acids? A proline serine B C tryptophan cysteine D E glycine Amino acids are linked by what kind of bonds to form the primary structure of a protein? disulfide A B hydrogen ionic C D peptide none of these E Denaturation of proteins may result in all but one of the following. A B hormones.troublesome on artery walls. Which one is it? A breakage of hydrogen bonds .

lipids. A B is one of the nucleotide coenzymes. NAD+. C D ATP. . and FAD carbohydrates. E Which of the following is NOT found in every nucleic acid? A ribose phosphate group B C single-ring base double-ring base D E All of these are characteristic of every nucleotide. A B steroids. contains protein-building instructions. DNA is one of the adenosine phosphates. C D translates protein-building instructions into actual protein structures.loss of three-dimensional structure B C removal of R groups from amino acids alteration of enzyme activity D E endangerment of cell's life Nucleotides are the building blocks for proteins.

A chitin cellulose B C collagen starch D E glycogen Four of the five answers listed below are lipids.none of these E Which molecule is incorrectly matched with its component parts? A fat: fatty acids starch: riboses B C protein: amino acids glycogen: glucoses D E nucleic acids: nucleotides Four of the five answers listed below are carbohydrates. Select the exception. Select the exception. triglyceride A B wax . glycerol A B cellulose starch C D sucrose glycogen E Four of the five answers listed below are polysaccharides. Select the exception.

A glycine adenine B C phenylalanine valine D E tyrosine Four of the five answers listed below are functional groups. D The significance of Fred Griffith's experiment in which he used two strains of Streptococcus pneumoniae is that A the semiconservative nature of DNA replication was finally demonstrated. R group A B amino group carboxyl group C D hydroxyl group aldehyde group E Friedrich Miescher is credited with A proposing DNA as the hereditary material. . Select the exception.butter C D insulin steroid E Four of the five answers listed below are amino acids. finding a cure for pneumonia. Select the exception. discovering nucleic acids. B C telling us that A=T and G=C.

B it demonstrated that harmless cells had become permanently transformed through a change in the bacterial hereditary system. E all of these Which scientist(s) identified the transforming substance involved in changing rough (R) bacteria to smooth (S)? Avery A B Griffith Chargaff C D Hershey and Chase Pauling E Bacteriophages are A large bacteria. pathogens (disease-producing bacteria). D E protistans. B C viruses. C it established that pure DNA extracted from disease-causing bacteria transformed harmless strains into killer strains. cellular components. A B it demonstrated that harmless bacterial cells had become permanently transformed through a change in the bacterial hereditary system. . D it demonstrated that radioactively labeled bacteriophages transfer their DNA but not their protein coats to their host bacteria. D it demonstrated that radioactively labeled bacteriophages transfer their DNA but not their protein coats to their host bacteria. The significance of the experiments in which 32P and 35S were used is that the semiconservative nature of DNA replication was finally demonstrated. C it established that pure DNA extracted from disease-causing bacteria transformed harmless strains into killer strains.

none of these E Nucleic acid contains A sulfur. pentose sugars. A B establishing the principle of base pairing. phosphorus. relative amounts of nucleotide bases. A B nucleotides. D E manganese. iron. B C potassium. C D phosphate groups. D E relative amounts of nucleotide bases and sequence of base pairs. Rosalind Franklin's research contribution was essential in establishing the double-stranded nature of DNA. E DNA varies from species to species in its A base-pair bonding. The building blocks of nucleic acids are amino acids. nitrogenous bases. B C sequence of base pairs. base-pair bonding and sequence of base pairs. .

establishing most of the principal structural features of DNA. determining the bonding energy of DNA molecules. E Rosalind Franklin used which technique to determine many of the physical characteristics of DNA? A transformation transmission electron microscopy B C density-gradient centrifugation x-ray diffraction D E all of these . C D sequencing DNA molecules.

E all of these In DNA. they are linked by three hydrogen bonds. C Each of the four nucleotides in a DNA molecule has the same nitrogen-containing base. C adenine and uracil. E all of these Which of the following statements is true? A The hydrogen bonding of cytosine to guanine is an example of complementary base pairing. B Adenine always pairs up with guanine in DNA.PART 2 James Watson and Francis Crick A established the double-stranded nature of DNA B confirmed the principle of base pairing. D When adenine base pairs with thymine. B adenine and guanine. D adenine and thymine. C explained how DNA's structure permitted it to be replicated. . complementary base pairing occurs between A cytosine and uracil. and cytosine always teams up with thymine. D proposed the concept of the double helix.

the amount of purines never equals the amount of pyrimidines. D . each of which is half-new and half-old DNA joined lengthwise to each other. C sexual reproduction. E amines and purines. B produces only new DNA. B semiconservative DNA replication. Replication of DNA A produces RNA molecules.E In the DNA of all species. The ultimate explanation for resemblances of traits from one generation to another is A gamete formation. D sugar and phosphate molecules. C produces two molecules. B nitrogen-containing bases. Each DNA strand has a backbone that consists of alternating A purines and pyrimidines. C hydrogen bonds. E bloodlines. D protein synthesis.

C remove bases that might have been inserted incorrectly. E all of these Four of the five answers listed below are bases used to construct nucleic acids. E is too complex to characterize. B attach free nucleotides to the growing chain.generates excessive DNA. The primary function of DNA ligase is to A cut the two strands of the DNA molecule prior to replication. D seal new short stretches of nucleotides into one continuous strand. which eventually causes the nucleus to divide. D derives energy from ATP for synthesis of DNA strands. E fragment old DNA that is no longer of use to the cell. B adds new nucleotides to a strand. C proofreads DNA strands to see that they are correct. DNA polymerase A is an enzyme. Select the exception. A cytosine B adenine C thymine .

pyrimidine The DNA molecule usually is made up of how many strands? A 1 B 2 C 3 D 6 E 12 __________ molecules carry protein-assembly instructions from the nucleus to the cytoplasm.D guanine E phenylalanine Four of the five answers listed below are correctly paired. A Template DNA B Messenger RNA C . A A-C B C-G C A-T D T-A E purine . Select the exception.

The synthesis of an RNA molecule from a DNA template strand is A replication. B cytosine. . C ribosomal RNA. D uracil. B translation. E structural RNA. D transfer RNA. The nitrogenous base found in DNA but not in RNA is A adenine.Transfer RNA D Ribosomal RNA E all of these The form of RNA that carries the code from the DNA to the site where the protein is assembled is called A messenger RNA. C guanine. B nuclear RNA. E thymine.

the mRNA codons would be A AUG-CGU. E none of these If the DNA triplets were ATG-CGT. C UAC-GCA. B . If the DNA triplets were ATG-CGT. the tRNA anticodons would be A AUG-CGU. E transcriber. D terminator. C activator. Transcription starts at a region of DNA called a(n) A sequencer.C transcription. B ATG-CGT. D UAG-CGU. E metabolism. D DNA synthesis. B promoter.

B is based upon 64 codons made of sequences of three nucleotides. C UAC-GCA. D is redundant. E all of these There are how many different kinds of RNA codons? A 3 . D UAG-CGU. each amino has more than one codon. that is. E none of these Which of the following could NOT be an RNA transcript? A AUGCGU B ATGCGT C UACGCA D UAGCGU E GCGUUU The genetic code A is universal for all organisms.ATG-CGT. C also comes equipped with punctuation marks.

where amino acids are linked into the primary structure of a polypeptide? A mRNA B tRNA C hnRNA D rRNA E all of these All mRNA transcripts begin with A ." Which of the following carries amino acids to ribosomes. three of them A are involved in mutations.B 12 C 28 D 64 E 120 Of all the different codons that exist. C cannot be copied." E do not specify a particular amino acid and provide punctuation or instructions such as "stop. B do not specify a particular amino acid. D provide punctuation or instructions such as "stop.

D all of these E heritable.methionine. B a ribosome. C AUG. E all of these Mutations can be A random. . D the P site. D can occur in any organism. C may arise spontaneously. E an anticodon. In a mutation. B may be caused by environmental agents. B beneficial C lethal. A gene mutation A is a change in the nucleotide sequence of DNA.

A cap put on one end B introns snipped out C action by DNA polymerase D poly-A tail placed on one end E exons spliced together Three of the four answers listed below are steps in translation. B the new codon may specify the same amino acid as the old codon. A initiation B replication C chain elongation D termination The cell theory was proposed by A Robert Hooke. C the new codon and resulting amino acid may destroy the function of the protein specified. D All of these may be true. Select the exception.A the new codon may specify a different amino acid. B . Four of the five answers listed below are steps in the process of transcription. but may not change the function of the new protein produced. Select the exception.

C Theodor Schwann. E are eukaryotes. D Rudolf Virchow. B complexity. E Anton van Leeuwenhoek. and use organelles for compartmentalization. . possess a nucleus. it would be unable to A extract energy from glucose. C diffusion. D possess a nucleus and use organelles for compartmentalization. B possess a nucleus. D space. All cells except bacteria A are eukaryotes.Robert Brown. If a cell did not have ribosomes. E division. C use organelles for compartmentalization. Cells are of small size because of considerations of A weight.

B . Which of the following is the primary advantage of the eukaryotic nuclear envelope? A providing residence for ribosomes B allowing isolation of DNA from cytoplasmic machinery C providing pore entry places D enabling faster cell division E enabling larger cell size Which of the following is NOT found as a part of all cells? A cell membrane B cell wall C ribosomes D DNA E RNA The cell wall A provides skeletal support for plants. D form proteins. C store food in the form of fat.B synthesize glucose.

D is found in all eukaryotes. Select the exception. Which are examples of prokaryotes? A protozoa B bacteria C algae D fungi E mosses Which of the following are made of two subunits and are composed of RNA and protein? A Golgi bodies B mitochondria C chloroplasts D ribosomes E endoplasmic reticula Four of the five answers listed below are organelles found in eukaryotic cells.controls what enters and leaves a cell. A mitochondrion B Golgi body . C replaces the plasma membrane of animal cells in plant cells.

E It cements the layers of stratified epithelium together. D It lies between the epithelium and connective tissue. B It is composed partially of epithelial cells and partially of connective tissue.C nucleoid D lysosome E vacuole Which of the following is true of the basement membrane? A It overlies the epithelium at its free surface. Which of the following is NOT defined as connective tissue? A bone B skeletal muscle C cartilage D collagen E blood Which of the these is NOT connective tissue? A cartilage B . C It is mostly lipid and embedded celluloid fibers.

B blood." Which of the following correctly matches connective tissue with its deposits? A blood: fats B adipose: polysaccharide C bone: mineral ions D cartilage: calcium Rapid communication throughout the body is accomplished by A neurons. C energy. B elasticity.blood C bone D fat E outer layer of skin Collagen fibers supply A strength. E all except "energy. . D rigidity.

C the mesoderm.C hormones. Which system is involved with heat production? A endocrine system B nervous system C muscular system D respiratory system E skeletal system Which system produces blood cells? A endocrine B . B the endoderm. D muscles. E connective tissue. E all of the germ layers. Muscle cells are produced by A the ectoderm. D the ectoderm and endoderm.

Select the exception. A adipose B bone C cartilage D blood E epithelium .skeletal C muscular D defense E integumentary Four of the five answers listed below are related by a common tissue type.

B the presence of some open potassium channels. C dendrite -> cell body -> axon.PART 3 Within a single neuron. the direction an impulse follows is A dendrite -> axon -> cell body. D both diffusion leakage and the presence of some open potassium channels. The resting potential of a neuron is approximately A 70 microvolts. D 70 electrovolts. E both the presence of some open potassium channels and the attraction of the positively charged potassium ions by the negatively charged interior of the neuron. C the attraction of the positively charged potassium ions by the negatively charged interior of the neuron. D cell body -> dendrite -> axon. C 70 volts. . The movement of potassium into the neuron when it is at rest is a result of A diffusion leakage. E cell body -> axon -> dendrite. B 70 millivolts. B axon -> dendrite -> cell body.

C the interior of the cell becomes positive. E . D completely different in neurons and muscle cells. D changing voltage increases the number of open gates. B faster in muscles than in neurons. C the protein channels for sodium movement remain open. A sodium ions pass through gated channels. B positive feedback causes more sodium ions to enter the cell. During the passage of a nerve impulse. D the sodium-potassium pump restores the electrical gradients. C essentially the same in neurons and muscle cells. Action potentials are A faster in neurons than in muscle cells. E all of these The reason that an action potential is so brief is that A a wave of repolarization immediately follows an action potential. B the opening of potassium gates allows the voltage difference across the neural membrane to be restored.E 70 megavolts.

Which of the following is a junction between two neurons? A Schwann cell B chemical synapse C node of Ranvier D sodium gate E all of these The myelin sheath A is formed by the Schwann cell. C does not surround all nerves. B speeds up the transmission of impulses. E all of these The occipital lobe of the brain is responsible for A coordination of hands and fingers.the membrane limits electrical activity. D is interrupted along the axon by nodes. C memory. B coordination of hands and fingers. . D sense of taste and smell.

C spatial relationships. D long-term memory depends on structural or chemical changes in the brain. D language skills. B long-term memory is limited to a few years' duration. B mathematics.E vision. C long-term memories are lost more frequently in amnesia. E abstract abilities. B artistic ability. The right hemisphere of the cerebrum is specialized for A verbal ability. D control over the right side of the body. E . The left hemisphere of the brain is responsible for A music. C music interpretation. Studies of memory indicate that A short-term memory is the product of chemical changes in neurons.

Receptors in the human nose are A chemoreceptors. tea. coffee. E antipsychotics. D nocireceptors. D hallucinogens or psychedelics. B stimulants.short-term memory is limited to several hundred bits of information. C analgesics. and soft drinks are examples of which of the following? A depressant B stimulant C narcotic analgesic D hallucinogen or psychedelic E antipsychotic Pain relievers such as endorphins and enkephalins are A depressants. . Active chemicals found in chocolate. B mechanoreceptors. C photoreceptors.

B hearing. B tympanic membrane. C taste. D . E both equilibrium and hearing. D sight. In hearing. The acoustical sense deals with the sense of A taste.E none of these Hair cells are important in the sense of A equilibrium. C oval window. C touch. B smell. D smell. the last place that pressure or sound waves pass through is the A bones of the middle ear. E hearing.

. B hearing. E tectorial membrane. E touch. D smell. B mechanoreceptors. C taste. Movable bones are features of the sense organs associated with A sight.round window. C photoreceptors. Which of the following has receptors for ultraviolet light? A bears B bees C birds D reptiles E amphibians Eyes are A chemoreceptors.

E cornea. The dark middle layer of the eye that prevents the scattering of light is the A fovea. E retina. C pupil. C . Accommodation involves the ability to A change the sensitivity of the rods and cones by means of neurotransmitters. B change the curvature of the cornea. D iris. D choroid. C sclera. E none of these The layer of the eye where photoreceptors are located is the A lens. B retina.D nocireceptors. B cornea.

B carbohydrate. Rhodopsin is a A protein. D iris. E all of these The outer transparent protective cover of the eyeball is the A fovea. Rods and cones are located in the A lens. C pupil. D adapt to large changes in light intensity.change the width of the lens by contracting or relaxing certain muscles. B cornea. B retina. . C sclera. D choroid. E retina. E cornea.

D steroid. A light B pressure C touch D temperature E pain Vitamin D is required for __________ metabolism. A sulfur B . Select the exception. E alkaloid. Four of the five answers listed below are related by a similar sense receptor. A touch or pressure B olfaction C balance (equilibrium) D hearing E muscle sense Four of the five answers listed below are somatic senses.C vitamin. Select the exception.

E vertebrates. B mollusks. D insects and crabs. . C sea anemones. Bones in fingers or toes are called A hyoid.phosphorus C calcium D potassium E zinc Which of the following is NOT characteristic of the epidermis? A stratified epithelium B fat for insulation and capillaries C keratinocytes D stratum corneum E melanin pigments Organisms with external skeletons are exemplified by A octopuses and earthworms.

D combination of push and pull by antagonistic muscle pairs. C lengthening of a muscle. Each muscle fiber is also called a A muscle. B occurs in the middle at first. E phalanges. B . Growth of long bones A follows the cartilage model. E all of these The ability to extend a leg originates from A contraction of ligaments and tendons.B patella. C is characterized by bone tissue replacing calcified cartilage. then at both ends. D is characterized by the persistence of cartilage at both ends of the shaft at the epiphyseal plates until growth stops. C scapula. B contraction of a muscle. D clavicle.

D the muscle fibers thicken. E all of these In their action. D sarcomere. C the filaments move toward the middle of the sarcomere during contraction and away on relaxation. C myofibril. E hammers. Which cell does NOT belong with the others? A erythrocytes . D screws. B levers. B the actin and myosin filaments slide over each other. E all of these During muscle contractions. muscles would be most like A ropes. C push rods.muscle cell. A the myofibrils shorten.

B neutrophils C lymphocytes D eosinophils E monocytes Which cell is the most abundant in the human body? A lymphocytes B basophils C erythrocytes D neutrophils E platelets Human red blood cells A have no nucleus. E are produced in lymphoid organs. B are the primary carriers of carbon dioxide in the blood. What percent of the total blood volume does plasma normally amount to? A . D release clotting factors when they are ruptured. C are phagocytes.

E types A and AB. D type O blood. but will clump with types B and O.15 to 25 B 33 to 40 C 50 to 60 D 66 to 75 E about 80 Hemoglobin contains which element? A chlorine B sodium C iron D copper E magnesium Type A blood will NOT agglutinate when mixed with A type B blood. C type AB blood. B type A blood. Which blood type is the universal donor? .

D right atrium.A A+ B B C AB+ D AB E O Blood in arteries A always travels away from the heart. . B travels away from the heart only if it is oxygen-rich. Blood from the body is first received by the heart in the A coronary vein. E left ventricle. B left atrium. E is always oxygen-rich. D travels from the lungs. C right ventricle. C always travels toward the heart.

B 80 mm Hg.The pacemaker is which of the following nodes? A sinoatrial B semilunar C atrioventricular D inferior vena cava E superior vena cava Blood pressure is highest in the A aorta. B pulmonary artery. D subclavian vein. C capillary bed. E inferior vena cava. The diastolic pressure for a normal young adult would be A 60 mm Hg. D 120 mm Hg. E . C 100 mm Hg.

Cholesterol is believed to be carried by A albumin. E both high-density and low-density lipoproteins. A epinephrine B globulin C hemoglobin D fibrinogen . D triglycerides. C low-density lipoproteins.140 mm Hg. Select the exception. B high-density lipoproteins. A neutrophil B erythrocyte C lymphocytes D monocyte E basophil Four of the five answers listed below are blood proteins. Select the exception. Four of the five answers listed below are related by a common property.

Select the exception. A A B B C AB D . Select the exception. A pulmonary artery B aorta C hepatic portal vein D inferior vena cava E jugular vein Four of the five answers listed below are characteristics of most veins.E albumin Four of the five answers listed below are related by the "type" of blood they carry. Select the exception. A blood volume reservoirs B contain valves C low resistance-transport tubes D transport oxygen E low blood pressure Four of the five answers listed below are related by a common feature.

Rh+ E O Four of the five answers listed below are related by a common function. A heart B spleen C thymus D tonsils E lymph node . Select the exception.

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