PART 1

Which is NOT an element?

water

A

B
oxygen

carbon

C

D
chlorine

hydrogen

E

Water is important to the interactions of biological molecules because

A
water molecules are attracted to the charged regions of molecules such as proteins.

it forms a cushion around the macromolecules.

B

C
it helps disperse the macromolecules for reactivity.

it prevents settling of the molecules in places where they would be unavailable.

D

E
all of these
Hydrophobic molecules are __________ water.

attracted to

A

B
absorbed by

repelled by

C

D
mixed with

polarized by

E

Glucose dissolves in water because it

A
ionizes.

is a polysaccharide.

B

is polar and forms many hydrogen bonds with the water molecules.

C

D
has a very reactive primary structure.

none of these

E

Which of the following is NOT true?

A
Acids release hydrogen ions.

In a neutral solution, the amounts of hydrogen and hydroxyl ions are almost equal.

B

C
Salts precipitate out of solution and have no function in cells.

Polar water molecules are attracted to water.

D

E
Hydrogen bonding between water molecules gives water its temperature-stabilizing and cohesive properties.
Cellular pH is kept near a value of 7 because of

salts.

A

B
buffers.

acids.

C

D
bases.

water.

E

Four of the five answers listed below are alkaline (pH above 7). Select the exception.

A
milk of magnesia

household ammonia

B

C
Tums

phosphate detergent

D

E
wine
Four of the five answers listed below are acidic (pH below 7). Select the exception.

vinegar

A

B
soft drink

soap

C

D
lemon juice

beer

E

Four of the five answers listed below are positively charged ions. Select the exception.

A
potassium ion

hydrogen ion

B

C
calcium ion

magnesium ion

D

E
chlorine ion
Four of the five answers listed below are characteristics of water. Select the exception.

stabilizes temperature

A

B
is a common solvent

has cohesion and surface tension

C

D
produces salts

changes shape of hydrophilic and hydrophobic substances

E

The three most common atoms in your body are

A
hydrogen, oxygen, and carbon.

carbon, hydrogen, and nitrogen.

B

C
carbon, nitrogen, and oxygen.

nitrogen, hydrogen, and oxygen.

D

E
carbon, oxygen, and sulfur.
An -NH2 group is a(n) __________ group.

carboxyl

A

B
hydroxyl

amino

C

D
methyl

ketone

E

Which are NOT macromolecules?

A
proteins

polysaccharides

B

C
nucleotides

lipids

D

E
nucleic acids
A condensation reaction typically produces

monomers.

A

B
salts.

polymers.

C

D
simple sugars.

amino acids.

E

The relatively unimportant by-product(s) of many condensation reactions is (are)

A
carbon dioxide.

aldehyde groups.

B

C
enzymes.

alcohols.

D

E
water.
A macromolecule is composed of smaller units called

polymers.

A

B
isomers.

monomers.

C

D
isotopes.

dimers.

E

The primary carbohydrate used in the transport of food from the leaves to the root is

A
glucose.

sucrose.

B

C
fructose.

maltose.

D

E
lactose.
The primary carbohydrate used in the transport of food from the leaves to the root is

glucose.

A

B
sucrose.

fructose.

C

D
maltose.

Plants store their excess carbohydrates in the form of starch. fats.lactose. plants. E Glycogen is a polysaccharide used for energy storage by A animals. monerans. E Glucose and fructose are different A in the number of carbons they possess. A B glycogen. Which of the following includes all the others? sucrose A B glucose . B C protistans. C D cellulose. in the number of double bonds they possess. glucose. in their relationship to the sucrose molecules. D E both in the way that their atoms are arranged and in the number of double bonds they possess. D E both animals and protistans. B C in the way that their atoms are arranged.

C D complex carbohydrates. Polyunsaturated fats . E Cholesterol A is synthesized in the large intestine. both liquid at room temperature and unsaturated fats.cellulose C D glycogen carbohydrate E Which of the following is more soluble in a nonpolar solvent (such as acetone) than in water? A lipids polysaccharides B C fats sterols D E all of these except polysaccharides Oils are liquid at room temperatures. B C is used in the construction of biomembranes. floats free in the bloodstream. levels in the bloodstream can be increased by eating plant fats. found only in animals. D E is much greater in the bloodstream of rats than humans. A B unsaturated fats.

sex hormones. contribute to the possibility of arteriosclerosis. C D oleo. butter. B C butter. B C components of membranes. A B corn oil. corn oil. are solid at room temperature. E Sterols are A compounds that are related to lipids.have fewer hydrogens than saturated fats. oleo. soybean oil. An example of a saturated fat is olive oil. A B are more characteristic of animal fats than plant fats. D E soybean oil. E An example of a saturated fat is A olive oil. C D have no double bonds. .

C D transport molecules. all of these E Which of the following is structurally the simplest of the amino acids? A proline serine B C tryptophan cysteine D E glycine Amino acids are linked by what kind of bonds to form the primary structure of a protein? disulfide A B hydrogen ionic C D peptide none of these E Denaturation of proteins may result in all but one of the following. D E all of these Proteins may function as structural units. A B hormones. storage molecules.troublesome on artery walls. Which one is it? A breakage of hydrogen bonds .

A B is one of the nucleotide coenzymes. and FAD carbohydrates. NAD+. C D translates protein-building instructions into actual protein structures. contains protein-building instructions. C D ATP. E Which of the following is NOT found in every nucleic acid? A ribose phosphate group B C single-ring base double-ring base D E All of these are characteristic of every nucleotide.loss of three-dimensional structure B C removal of R groups from amino acids alteration of enzyme activity D E endangerment of cell's life Nucleotides are the building blocks for proteins. DNA is one of the adenosine phosphates. A B steroids. lipids. .

Select the exception. triglyceride A B wax . Select the exception.none of these E Which molecule is incorrectly matched with its component parts? A fat: fatty acids starch: riboses B C protein: amino acids glycogen: glucoses D E nucleic acids: nucleotides Four of the five answers listed below are carbohydrates. Select the exception. A chitin cellulose B C collagen starch D E glycogen Four of the five answers listed below are lipids. glycerol A B cellulose starch C D sucrose glycogen E Four of the five answers listed below are polysaccharides.

A glycine adenine B C phenylalanine valine D E tyrosine Four of the five answers listed below are functional groups. discovering nucleic acids. finding a cure for pneumonia. D The significance of Fred Griffith's experiment in which he used two strains of Streptococcus pneumoniae is that A the semiconservative nature of DNA replication was finally demonstrated. Select the exception.butter C D insulin steroid E Four of the five answers listed below are amino acids. R group A B amino group carboxyl group C D hydroxyl group aldehyde group E Friedrich Miescher is credited with A proposing DNA as the hereditary material. B C telling us that A=T and G=C. . Select the exception.

B C viruses. C it established that pure DNA extracted from disease-causing bacteria transformed harmless strains into killer strains. D it demonstrated that radioactively labeled bacteriophages transfer their DNA but not their protein coats to their host bacteria. . D E protistans. The significance of the experiments in which 32P and 35S were used is that the semiconservative nature of DNA replication was finally demonstrated.B it demonstrated that harmless cells had become permanently transformed through a change in the bacterial hereditary system. D it demonstrated that radioactively labeled bacteriophages transfer their DNA but not their protein coats to their host bacteria. C it established that pure DNA extracted from disease-causing bacteria transformed harmless strains into killer strains. A B it demonstrated that harmless bacterial cells had become permanently transformed through a change in the bacterial hereditary system. pathogens (disease-producing bacteria). cellular components. E all of these Which scientist(s) identified the transforming substance involved in changing rough (R) bacteria to smooth (S)? Avery A B Griffith Chargaff C D Hershey and Chase Pauling E Bacteriophages are A large bacteria.

phosphorus. base-pair bonding and sequence of base pairs. iron. C D phosphate groups. B C sequence of base pairs. E DNA varies from species to species in its A base-pair bonding. B C potassium. Rosalind Franklin's research contribution was essential in establishing the double-stranded nature of DNA. nitrogenous bases. D E manganese. . pentose sugars. A B nucleotides. The building blocks of nucleic acids are amino acids. A B establishing the principle of base pairing. D E relative amounts of nucleotide bases and sequence of base pairs. relative amounts of nucleotide bases.none of these E Nucleic acid contains A sulfur.

E Rosalind Franklin used which technique to determine many of the physical characteristics of DNA? A transformation transmission electron microscopy B C density-gradient centrifugation x-ray diffraction D E all of these .establishing most of the principal structural features of DNA. determining the bonding energy of DNA molecules. C D sequencing DNA molecules.

D proposed the concept of the double helix. E all of these In DNA. B Adenine always pairs up with guanine in DNA. and cytosine always teams up with thymine. . B adenine and guanine. they are linked by three hydrogen bonds.PART 2 James Watson and Francis Crick A established the double-stranded nature of DNA B confirmed the principle of base pairing. C Each of the four nucleotides in a DNA molecule has the same nitrogen-containing base. C adenine and uracil. C explained how DNA's structure permitted it to be replicated. D adenine and thymine. D When adenine base pairs with thymine. complementary base pairing occurs between A cytosine and uracil. E all of these Which of the following statements is true? A The hydrogen bonding of cytosine to guanine is an example of complementary base pairing.

Replication of DNA A produces RNA molecules. the amount of purines never equals the amount of pyrimidines. C sexual reproduction. each of which is half-new and half-old DNA joined lengthwise to each other. E amines and purines. B semiconservative DNA replication. C produces two molecules. C hydrogen bonds. D sugar and phosphate molecules. The ultimate explanation for resemblances of traits from one generation to another is A gamete formation. Each DNA strand has a backbone that consists of alternating A purines and pyrimidines.E In the DNA of all species. D . D protein synthesis. B nitrogen-containing bases. B produces only new DNA. E bloodlines.

E all of these Four of the five answers listed below are bases used to construct nucleic acids. DNA polymerase A is an enzyme. B attach free nucleotides to the growing chain. B adds new nucleotides to a strand. which eventually causes the nucleus to divide. D derives energy from ATP for synthesis of DNA strands.generates excessive DNA. D seal new short stretches of nucleotides into one continuous strand. E fragment old DNA that is no longer of use to the cell. The primary function of DNA ligase is to A cut the two strands of the DNA molecule prior to replication. Select the exception. E is too complex to characterize. A cytosine B adenine C thymine . C remove bases that might have been inserted incorrectly. C proofreads DNA strands to see that they are correct.

Select the exception.pyrimidine The DNA molecule usually is made up of how many strands? A 1 B 2 C 3 D 6 E 12 __________ molecules carry protein-assembly instructions from the nucleus to the cytoplasm.D guanine E phenylalanine Four of the five answers listed below are correctly paired. A A-C B C-G C A-T D T-A E purine . A Template DNA B Messenger RNA C .

D transfer RNA. B translation. B nuclear RNA. B cytosine. E thymine. The synthesis of an RNA molecule from a DNA template strand is A replication. . The nitrogenous base found in DNA but not in RNA is A adenine. C guanine. C ribosomal RNA.Transfer RNA D Ribosomal RNA E all of these The form of RNA that carries the code from the DNA to the site where the protein is assembled is called A messenger RNA. D uracil. E structural RNA.

E none of these If the DNA triplets were ATG-CGT. D UAG-CGU.C transcription. C activator. C UAC-GCA. the tRNA anticodons would be A AUG-CGU. D DNA synthesis. B promoter. the mRNA codons would be A AUG-CGU. B . Transcription starts at a region of DNA called a(n) A sequencer. If the DNA triplets were ATG-CGT. D terminator. E metabolism. E transcriber. B ATG-CGT.

E none of these Which of the following could NOT be an RNA transcript? A AUGCGU B ATGCGT C UACGCA D UAGCGU E GCGUUU The genetic code A is universal for all organisms. C UAC-GCA. D UAG-CGU. E all of these There are how many different kinds of RNA codons? A 3 . D is redundant. that is. C also comes equipped with punctuation marks. each amino has more than one codon.ATG-CGT. B is based upon 64 codons made of sequences of three nucleotides.

D provide punctuation or instructions such as "stop. C cannot be copied. where amino acids are linked into the primary structure of a polypeptide? A mRNA B tRNA C hnRNA D rRNA E all of these All mRNA transcripts begin with A .B 12 C 28 D 64 E 120 Of all the different codons that exist." Which of the following carries amino acids to ribosomes. three of them A are involved in mutations. B do not specify a particular amino acid." E do not specify a particular amino acid and provide punctuation or instructions such as "stop.

D can occur in any organism. B beneficial C lethal. In a mutation. A gene mutation A is a change in the nucleotide sequence of DNA. D all of these E heritable. C may arise spontaneously.methionine. E an anticodon. B a ribosome. E all of these Mutations can be A random. C AUG. B may be caused by environmental agents. D the P site. .

Four of the five answers listed below are steps in the process of transcription. A cap put on one end B introns snipped out C action by DNA polymerase D poly-A tail placed on one end E exons spliced together Three of the four answers listed below are steps in translation. B the new codon may specify the same amino acid as the old codon. C the new codon and resulting amino acid may destroy the function of the protein specified.A the new codon may specify a different amino acid. A initiation B replication C chain elongation D termination The cell theory was proposed by A Robert Hooke. but may not change the function of the new protein produced. Select the exception. D All of these may be true. Select the exception. B .

D possess a nucleus and use organelles for compartmentalization. C Theodor Schwann. and use organelles for compartmentalization. D space. E Anton van Leeuwenhoek. B complexity. . E are eukaryotes. possess a nucleus. E division. All cells except bacteria A are eukaryotes. C use organelles for compartmentalization. If a cell did not have ribosomes. Cells are of small size because of considerations of A weight.Robert Brown. it would be unable to A extract energy from glucose. B possess a nucleus. C diffusion. D Rudolf Virchow.

B .B synthesize glucose. Which of the following is the primary advantage of the eukaryotic nuclear envelope? A providing residence for ribosomes B allowing isolation of DNA from cytoplasmic machinery C providing pore entry places D enabling faster cell division E enabling larger cell size Which of the following is NOT found as a part of all cells? A cell membrane B cell wall C ribosomes D DNA E RNA The cell wall A provides skeletal support for plants. C store food in the form of fat. D form proteins.

A mitochondrion B Golgi body .controls what enters and leaves a cell. C replaces the plasma membrane of animal cells in plant cells. D is found in all eukaryotes. Select the exception. Which are examples of prokaryotes? A protozoa B bacteria C algae D fungi E mosses Which of the following are made of two subunits and are composed of RNA and protein? A Golgi bodies B mitochondria C chloroplasts D ribosomes E endoplasmic reticula Four of the five answers listed below are organelles found in eukaryotic cells.

C nucleoid D lysosome E vacuole Which of the following is true of the basement membrane? A It overlies the epithelium at its free surface. E It cements the layers of stratified epithelium together. B It is composed partially of epithelial cells and partially of connective tissue. D It lies between the epithelium and connective tissue. C It is mostly lipid and embedded celluloid fibers. Which of the following is NOT defined as connective tissue? A bone B skeletal muscle C cartilage D collagen E blood Which of the these is NOT connective tissue? A cartilage B .

" Which of the following correctly matches connective tissue with its deposits? A blood: fats B adipose: polysaccharide C bone: mineral ions D cartilage: calcium Rapid communication throughout the body is accomplished by A neurons.blood C bone D fat E outer layer of skin Collagen fibers supply A strength. B elasticity. C energy. D rigidity. . E all except "energy. B blood.

C hormones. B the endoderm. E connective tissue. D muscles. E all of the germ layers. Which system is involved with heat production? A endocrine system B nervous system C muscular system D respiratory system E skeletal system Which system produces blood cells? A endocrine B . Muscle cells are produced by A the ectoderm. D the ectoderm and endoderm. C the mesoderm.

Select the exception. A adipose B bone C cartilage D blood E epithelium .skeletal C muscular D defense E integumentary Four of the five answers listed below are related by a common tissue type.

The resting potential of a neuron is approximately A 70 microvolts. C 70 volts. The movement of potassium into the neuron when it is at rest is a result of A diffusion leakage. . the direction an impulse follows is A dendrite -> axon -> cell body. D both diffusion leakage and the presence of some open potassium channels. B the presence of some open potassium channels.PART 3 Within a single neuron. B 70 millivolts. E both the presence of some open potassium channels and the attraction of the positively charged potassium ions by the negatively charged interior of the neuron. D cell body -> dendrite -> axon. D 70 electrovolts. C dendrite -> cell body -> axon. B axon -> dendrite -> cell body. E cell body -> axon -> dendrite. C the attraction of the positively charged potassium ions by the negatively charged interior of the neuron.

C the protein channels for sodium movement remain open. B the opening of potassium gates allows the voltage difference across the neural membrane to be restored. Action potentials are A faster in neurons than in muscle cells. A sodium ions pass through gated channels. C the interior of the cell becomes positive. During the passage of a nerve impulse. C essentially the same in neurons and muscle cells. D completely different in neurons and muscle cells. E . D changing voltage increases the number of open gates. E all of these The reason that an action potential is so brief is that A a wave of repolarization immediately follows an action potential. B positive feedback causes more sodium ions to enter the cell. D the sodium-potassium pump restores the electrical gradients.E 70 megavolts. B faster in muscles than in neurons.

Which of the following is a junction between two neurons? A Schwann cell B chemical synapse C node of Ranvier D sodium gate E all of these The myelin sheath A is formed by the Schwann cell. E all of these The occipital lobe of the brain is responsible for A coordination of hands and fingers.the membrane limits electrical activity. C memory. D is interrupted along the axon by nodes. C does not surround all nerves. D sense of taste and smell. B speeds up the transmission of impulses. B coordination of hands and fingers. .

B mathematics. E . D language skills. B artistic ability. C spatial relationships. The right hemisphere of the cerebrum is specialized for A verbal ability.E vision. The left hemisphere of the brain is responsible for A music. C long-term memories are lost more frequently in amnesia. D long-term memory depends on structural or chemical changes in the brain. Studies of memory indicate that A short-term memory is the product of chemical changes in neurons. B long-term memory is limited to a few years' duration. D control over the right side of the body. C music interpretation. E abstract abilities.

. tea. B stimulants. C analgesics. coffee. and soft drinks are examples of which of the following? A depressant B stimulant C narcotic analgesic D hallucinogen or psychedelic E antipsychotic Pain relievers such as endorphins and enkephalins are A depressants. E antipsychotics. D nocireceptors. C photoreceptors. D hallucinogens or psychedelics. Receptors in the human nose are A chemoreceptors. Active chemicals found in chocolate. B mechanoreceptors.short-term memory is limited to several hundred bits of information.

C touch. D . C oval window. B hearing.E none of these Hair cells are important in the sense of A equilibrium. E both equilibrium and hearing. E hearing. the last place that pressure or sound waves pass through is the A bones of the middle ear. C taste. D smell. The acoustical sense deals with the sense of A taste. B tympanic membrane. D sight. In hearing. B smell.

. Movable bones are features of the sense organs associated with A sight. Which of the following has receptors for ultraviolet light? A bears B bees C birds D reptiles E amphibians Eyes are A chemoreceptors.round window. D smell. E touch. E tectorial membrane. B hearing. C photoreceptors. C taste. B mechanoreceptors.

C . E none of these The layer of the eye where photoreceptors are located is the A lens. C sclera. E retina. D choroid. Accommodation involves the ability to A change the sensitivity of the rods and cones by means of neurotransmitters.D nocireceptors. The dark middle layer of the eye that prevents the scattering of light is the A fovea. E cornea. C pupil. B cornea. B retina. B change the curvature of the cornea. D iris.

change the width of the lens by contracting or relaxing certain muscles. Rods and cones are located in the A lens. B carbohydrate. D choroid. E retina. . E cornea. C sclera. C pupil. E all of these The outer transparent protective cover of the eyeball is the A fovea. B retina. D iris. B cornea. Rhodopsin is a A protein. D adapt to large changes in light intensity.

A touch or pressure B olfaction C balance (equilibrium) D hearing E muscle sense Four of the five answers listed below are somatic senses. Four of the five answers listed below are related by a similar sense receptor. E alkaloid. Select the exception. A sulfur B . Select the exception. D steroid. A light B pressure C touch D temperature E pain Vitamin D is required for __________ metabolism.C vitamin.

E vertebrates. B mollusks. C sea anemones. .phosphorus C calcium D potassium E zinc Which of the following is NOT characteristic of the epidermis? A stratified epithelium B fat for insulation and capillaries C keratinocytes D stratum corneum E melanin pigments Organisms with external skeletons are exemplified by A octopuses and earthworms. D insects and crabs. Bones in fingers or toes are called A hyoid.

Each muscle fiber is also called a A muscle. D is characterized by the persistence of cartilage at both ends of the shaft at the epiphyseal plates until growth stops. B occurs in the middle at first. B contraction of a muscle. C scapula. B . C lengthening of a muscle. D combination of push and pull by antagonistic muscle pairs.B patella. E all of these The ability to extend a leg originates from A contraction of ligaments and tendons. Growth of long bones A follows the cartilage model. C is characterized by bone tissue replacing calcified cartilage. then at both ends. D clavicle. E phalanges.

E all of these During muscle contractions. C push rods. A the myofibrils shorten. Which cell does NOT belong with the others? A erythrocytes . E all of these In their action. D sarcomere. E hammers. muscles would be most like A ropes. D screws.muscle cell. C the filaments move toward the middle of the sarcomere during contraction and away on relaxation. B levers. D the muscle fibers thicken. C myofibril. B the actin and myosin filaments slide over each other.

E are produced in lymphoid organs. C are phagocytes.B neutrophils C lymphocytes D eosinophils E monocytes Which cell is the most abundant in the human body? A lymphocytes B basophils C erythrocytes D neutrophils E platelets Human red blood cells A have no nucleus. D release clotting factors when they are ruptured. B are the primary carriers of carbon dioxide in the blood. What percent of the total blood volume does plasma normally amount to? A .

B type A blood.15 to 25 B 33 to 40 C 50 to 60 D 66 to 75 E about 80 Hemoglobin contains which element? A chlorine B sodium C iron D copper E magnesium Type A blood will NOT agglutinate when mixed with A type B blood. but will clump with types B and O. E types A and AB. D type O blood. Which blood type is the universal donor? . C type AB blood.

D right atrium. B left atrium. . E left ventricle. C right ventricle. E is always oxygen-rich. Blood from the body is first received by the heart in the A coronary vein. C always travels toward the heart. B travels away from the heart only if it is oxygen-rich.A A+ B B C AB+ D AB E O Blood in arteries A always travels away from the heart. D travels from the lungs.

C 100 mm Hg. C capillary bed. B 80 mm Hg. B pulmonary artery. D subclavian vein. E inferior vena cava. D 120 mm Hg.The pacemaker is which of the following nodes? A sinoatrial B semilunar C atrioventricular D inferior vena cava E superior vena cava Blood pressure is highest in the A aorta. The diastolic pressure for a normal young adult would be A 60 mm Hg. E .

Four of the five answers listed below are related by a common property. E both high-density and low-density lipoproteins. A epinephrine B globulin C hemoglobin D fibrinogen .140 mm Hg. A neutrophil B erythrocyte C lymphocytes D monocyte E basophil Four of the five answers listed below are blood proteins. Select the exception. Cholesterol is believed to be carried by A albumin. Select the exception. B high-density lipoproteins. D triglycerides. C low-density lipoproteins.

Select the exception. Select the exception.E albumin Four of the five answers listed below are related by the "type" of blood they carry. A pulmonary artery B aorta C hepatic portal vein D inferior vena cava E jugular vein Four of the five answers listed below are characteristics of most veins. A A B B C AB D . Select the exception. A blood volume reservoirs B contain valves C low resistance-transport tubes D transport oxygen E low blood pressure Four of the five answers listed below are related by a common feature.

A heart B spleen C thymus D tonsils E lymph node .Rh+ E O Four of the five answers listed below are related by a common function. Select the exception.

Master your semester with Scribd & The New York Times

Special offer for students: Only $4.99/month.

Master your semester with Scribd & The New York Times

Cancel anytime.