PART 1

Which is NOT an element?

water

A

B
oxygen

carbon

C

D
chlorine

hydrogen

E

Water is important to the interactions of biological molecules because

A
water molecules are attracted to the charged regions of molecules such as proteins.

it forms a cushion around the macromolecules.

B

C
it helps disperse the macromolecules for reactivity.

it prevents settling of the molecules in places where they would be unavailable.

D

E
all of these
Hydrophobic molecules are __________ water.

attracted to

A

B
absorbed by

repelled by

C

D
mixed with

polarized by

E

Glucose dissolves in water because it

A
ionizes.

is a polysaccharide.

B

is polar and forms many hydrogen bonds with the water molecules.

C

D
has a very reactive primary structure.

none of these

E

Which of the following is NOT true?

A
Acids release hydrogen ions.

In a neutral solution, the amounts of hydrogen and hydroxyl ions are almost equal.

B

C
Salts precipitate out of solution and have no function in cells.

Polar water molecules are attracted to water.

D

E
Hydrogen bonding between water molecules gives water its temperature-stabilizing and cohesive properties.
Cellular pH is kept near a value of 7 because of

salts.

A

B
buffers.

acids.

C

D
bases.

water.

E

Four of the five answers listed below are alkaline (pH above 7). Select the exception.

A
milk of magnesia

household ammonia

B

C
Tums

phosphate detergent

D

E
wine
Four of the five answers listed below are acidic (pH below 7). Select the exception.

vinegar

A

B
soft drink

soap

C

D
lemon juice

beer

E

Four of the five answers listed below are positively charged ions. Select the exception.

A
potassium ion

hydrogen ion

B

C
calcium ion

magnesium ion

D

E
chlorine ion
Four of the five answers listed below are characteristics of water. Select the exception.

stabilizes temperature

A

B
is a common solvent

has cohesion and surface tension

C

D
produces salts

changes shape of hydrophilic and hydrophobic substances

E

The three most common atoms in your body are

A
hydrogen, oxygen, and carbon.

carbon, hydrogen, and nitrogen.

B

C
carbon, nitrogen, and oxygen.

nitrogen, hydrogen, and oxygen.

D

E
carbon, oxygen, and sulfur.
An -NH2 group is a(n) __________ group.

carboxyl

A

B
hydroxyl

amino

C

D
methyl

ketone

E

Which are NOT macromolecules?

A
proteins

polysaccharides

B

C
nucleotides

lipids

D

E
nucleic acids
A condensation reaction typically produces

monomers.

A

B
salts.

polymers.

C

D
simple sugars.

amino acids.

E

The relatively unimportant by-product(s) of many condensation reactions is (are)

A
carbon dioxide.

aldehyde groups.

B

C
enzymes.

alcohols.

D

E
water.
A macromolecule is composed of smaller units called

polymers.

A

B
isomers.

monomers.

C

D
isotopes.

dimers.

E

The primary carbohydrate used in the transport of food from the leaves to the root is

A
glucose.

sucrose.

B

C
fructose.

maltose.

D

E
lactose.
The primary carbohydrate used in the transport of food from the leaves to the root is

glucose.

A

B
sucrose.

fructose.

C

D
maltose.

Which of the following includes all the others? sucrose A B glucose . in the number of double bonds they possess. E Glucose and fructose are different A in the number of carbons they possess. A B glycogen. glucose. D E both in the way that their atoms are arranged and in the number of double bonds they possess. plants. D E both animals and protistans. fats.lactose. C D cellulose. B C protistans. monerans. in their relationship to the sucrose molecules. B C in the way that their atoms are arranged. E Glycogen is a polysaccharide used for energy storage by A animals. Plants store their excess carbohydrates in the form of starch.

A B unsaturated fats. Polyunsaturated fats .cellulose C D glycogen carbohydrate E Which of the following is more soluble in a nonpolar solvent (such as acetone) than in water? A lipids polysaccharides B C fats sterols D E all of these except polysaccharides Oils are liquid at room temperatures. D E is much greater in the bloodstream of rats than humans. both liquid at room temperature and unsaturated fats. floats free in the bloodstream. C D complex carbohydrates. found only in animals. levels in the bloodstream can be increased by eating plant fats. B C is used in the construction of biomembranes. E Cholesterol A is synthesized in the large intestine.

E An example of a saturated fat is A olive oil. A B corn oil. D E soybean oil. . contribute to the possibility of arteriosclerosis. An example of a saturated fat is olive oil. E Sterols are A compounds that are related to lipids. are solid at room temperature. A B are more characteristic of animal fats than plant fats. butter.have fewer hydrogens than saturated fats. oleo. C D oleo. B C butter. C D have no double bonds. sex hormones. B C components of membranes. corn oil. soybean oil.

A B hormones. Which one is it? A breakage of hydrogen bonds .troublesome on artery walls. storage molecules. C D transport molecules. D E all of these Proteins may function as structural units. all of these E Which of the following is structurally the simplest of the amino acids? A proline serine B C tryptophan cysteine D E glycine Amino acids are linked by what kind of bonds to form the primary structure of a protein? disulfide A B hydrogen ionic C D peptide none of these E Denaturation of proteins may result in all but one of the following.

contains protein-building instructions. lipids. A B is one of the nucleotide coenzymes. A B steroids. C D translates protein-building instructions into actual protein structures. DNA is one of the adenosine phosphates. and FAD carbohydrates. C D ATP. E Which of the following is NOT found in every nucleic acid? A ribose phosphate group B C single-ring base double-ring base D E All of these are characteristic of every nucleotide. NAD+. .loss of three-dimensional structure B C removal of R groups from amino acids alteration of enzyme activity D E endangerment of cell's life Nucleotides are the building blocks for proteins.

A chitin cellulose B C collagen starch D E glycogen Four of the five answers listed below are lipids. Select the exception. Select the exception. glycerol A B cellulose starch C D sucrose glycogen E Four of the five answers listed below are polysaccharides. triglyceride A B wax . Select the exception.none of these E Which molecule is incorrectly matched with its component parts? A fat: fatty acids starch: riboses B C protein: amino acids glycogen: glucoses D E nucleic acids: nucleotides Four of the five answers listed below are carbohydrates.

D The significance of Fred Griffith's experiment in which he used two strains of Streptococcus pneumoniae is that A the semiconservative nature of DNA replication was finally demonstrated.butter C D insulin steroid E Four of the five answers listed below are amino acids. A glycine adenine B C phenylalanine valine D E tyrosine Four of the five answers listed below are functional groups. . finding a cure for pneumonia. B C telling us that A=T and G=C. Select the exception. R group A B amino group carboxyl group C D hydroxyl group aldehyde group E Friedrich Miescher is credited with A proposing DNA as the hereditary material. discovering nucleic acids. Select the exception.

. D it demonstrated that radioactively labeled bacteriophages transfer their DNA but not their protein coats to their host bacteria. pathogens (disease-producing bacteria). D it demonstrated that radioactively labeled bacteriophages transfer their DNA but not their protein coats to their host bacteria. D E protistans. B C viruses. A B it demonstrated that harmless bacterial cells had become permanently transformed through a change in the bacterial hereditary system.B it demonstrated that harmless cells had become permanently transformed through a change in the bacterial hereditary system. E all of these Which scientist(s) identified the transforming substance involved in changing rough (R) bacteria to smooth (S)? Avery A B Griffith Chargaff C D Hershey and Chase Pauling E Bacteriophages are A large bacteria. cellular components. C it established that pure DNA extracted from disease-causing bacteria transformed harmless strains into killer strains. C it established that pure DNA extracted from disease-causing bacteria transformed harmless strains into killer strains. The significance of the experiments in which 32P and 35S were used is that the semiconservative nature of DNA replication was finally demonstrated.

E DNA varies from species to species in its A base-pair bonding. base-pair bonding and sequence of base pairs.none of these E Nucleic acid contains A sulfur. The building blocks of nucleic acids are amino acids. C D phosphate groups. nitrogenous bases. B C sequence of base pairs. iron. relative amounts of nucleotide bases. phosphorus. D E manganese. D E relative amounts of nucleotide bases and sequence of base pairs. A B nucleotides. . pentose sugars. Rosalind Franklin's research contribution was essential in establishing the double-stranded nature of DNA. A B establishing the principle of base pairing. B C potassium.

E Rosalind Franklin used which technique to determine many of the physical characteristics of DNA? A transformation transmission electron microscopy B C density-gradient centrifugation x-ray diffraction D E all of these .establishing most of the principal structural features of DNA. determining the bonding energy of DNA molecules. C D sequencing DNA molecules.

B Adenine always pairs up with guanine in DNA. C explained how DNA's structure permitted it to be replicated. D proposed the concept of the double helix. E all of these Which of the following statements is true? A The hydrogen bonding of cytosine to guanine is an example of complementary base pairing. D When adenine base pairs with thymine. B adenine and guanine.PART 2 James Watson and Francis Crick A established the double-stranded nature of DNA B confirmed the principle of base pairing. E all of these In DNA. C adenine and uracil. they are linked by three hydrogen bonds. D adenine and thymine. complementary base pairing occurs between A cytosine and uracil. C Each of the four nucleotides in a DNA molecule has the same nitrogen-containing base. . and cytosine always teams up with thymine.

D protein synthesis. D . B nitrogen-containing bases. B semiconservative DNA replication. Each DNA strand has a backbone that consists of alternating A purines and pyrimidines. The ultimate explanation for resemblances of traits from one generation to another is A gamete formation. C produces two molecules. C sexual reproduction. the amount of purines never equals the amount of pyrimidines. C hydrogen bonds. each of which is half-new and half-old DNA joined lengthwise to each other.E In the DNA of all species. E amines and purines. Replication of DNA A produces RNA molecules. E bloodlines. D sugar and phosphate molecules. B produces only new DNA.

D derives energy from ATP for synthesis of DNA strands. DNA polymerase A is an enzyme. E fragment old DNA that is no longer of use to the cell. B adds new nucleotides to a strand. E is too complex to characterize. D seal new short stretches of nucleotides into one continuous strand. The primary function of DNA ligase is to A cut the two strands of the DNA molecule prior to replication. C proofreads DNA strands to see that they are correct.generates excessive DNA. A cytosine B adenine C thymine . E all of these Four of the five answers listed below are bases used to construct nucleic acids. Select the exception. C remove bases that might have been inserted incorrectly. B attach free nucleotides to the growing chain. which eventually causes the nucleus to divide.

Select the exception.pyrimidine The DNA molecule usually is made up of how many strands? A 1 B 2 C 3 D 6 E 12 __________ molecules carry protein-assembly instructions from the nucleus to the cytoplasm. A Template DNA B Messenger RNA C .D guanine E phenylalanine Four of the five answers listed below are correctly paired. A A-C B C-G C A-T D T-A E purine .

D transfer RNA.Transfer RNA D Ribosomal RNA E all of these The form of RNA that carries the code from the DNA to the site where the protein is assembled is called A messenger RNA. B nuclear RNA. B translation. D uracil. E thymine. B cytosine. E structural RNA. The synthesis of an RNA molecule from a DNA template strand is A replication. C guanine. The nitrogenous base found in DNA but not in RNA is A adenine. C ribosomal RNA. .

the mRNA codons would be A AUG-CGU. E metabolism. D terminator. C activator.C transcription. D DNA synthesis. the tRNA anticodons would be A AUG-CGU. B promoter. D UAG-CGU. B ATG-CGT. E none of these If the DNA triplets were ATG-CGT. If the DNA triplets were ATG-CGT. B . E transcriber. Transcription starts at a region of DNA called a(n) A sequencer. C UAC-GCA.

C also comes equipped with punctuation marks. each amino has more than one codon. C UAC-GCA. E all of these There are how many different kinds of RNA codons? A 3 .ATG-CGT. B is based upon 64 codons made of sequences of three nucleotides. E none of these Which of the following could NOT be an RNA transcript? A AUGCGU B ATGCGT C UACGCA D UAGCGU E GCGUUU The genetic code A is universal for all organisms. that is. D UAG-CGU. D is redundant.

D provide punctuation or instructions such as "stop. B do not specify a particular amino acid. C cannot be copied." Which of the following carries amino acids to ribosomes." E do not specify a particular amino acid and provide punctuation or instructions such as "stop. three of them A are involved in mutations.B 12 C 28 D 64 E 120 Of all the different codons that exist. where amino acids are linked into the primary structure of a polypeptide? A mRNA B tRNA C hnRNA D rRNA E all of these All mRNA transcripts begin with A .

D all of these E heritable. A gene mutation A is a change in the nucleotide sequence of DNA. E all of these Mutations can be A random. C may arise spontaneously. B beneficial C lethal. C AUG. D can occur in any organism. B a ribosome. In a mutation. D the P site. B may be caused by environmental agents. E an anticodon.methionine. .

B the new codon may specify the same amino acid as the old codon. A cap put on one end B introns snipped out C action by DNA polymerase D poly-A tail placed on one end E exons spliced together Three of the four answers listed below are steps in translation. Four of the five answers listed below are steps in the process of transcription. Select the exception. but may not change the function of the new protein produced. Select the exception. B . D All of these may be true. C the new codon and resulting amino acid may destroy the function of the protein specified.A the new codon may specify a different amino acid. A initiation B replication C chain elongation D termination The cell theory was proposed by A Robert Hooke.

Cells are of small size because of considerations of A weight. D Rudolf Virchow. E Anton van Leeuwenhoek. and use organelles for compartmentalization. All cells except bacteria A are eukaryotes. E are eukaryotes. If a cell did not have ribosomes. D possess a nucleus and use organelles for compartmentalization. D space. C diffusion. B possess a nucleus.Robert Brown. C use organelles for compartmentalization. possess a nucleus. . B complexity. C Theodor Schwann. it would be unable to A extract energy from glucose. E division.

Which of the following is the primary advantage of the eukaryotic nuclear envelope? A providing residence for ribosomes B allowing isolation of DNA from cytoplasmic machinery C providing pore entry places D enabling faster cell division E enabling larger cell size Which of the following is NOT found as a part of all cells? A cell membrane B cell wall C ribosomes D DNA E RNA The cell wall A provides skeletal support for plants. C store food in the form of fat. B .B synthesize glucose. D form proteins.

C replaces the plasma membrane of animal cells in plant cells. Select the exception. Which are examples of prokaryotes? A protozoa B bacteria C algae D fungi E mosses Which of the following are made of two subunits and are composed of RNA and protein? A Golgi bodies B mitochondria C chloroplasts D ribosomes E endoplasmic reticula Four of the five answers listed below are organelles found in eukaryotic cells. D is found in all eukaryotes. A mitochondrion B Golgi body .controls what enters and leaves a cell.

E It cements the layers of stratified epithelium together.C nucleoid D lysosome E vacuole Which of the following is true of the basement membrane? A It overlies the epithelium at its free surface. Which of the following is NOT defined as connective tissue? A bone B skeletal muscle C cartilage D collagen E blood Which of the these is NOT connective tissue? A cartilage B . B It is composed partially of epithelial cells and partially of connective tissue. C It is mostly lipid and embedded celluloid fibers. D It lies between the epithelium and connective tissue.

blood C bone D fat E outer layer of skin Collagen fibers supply A strength. B blood. D rigidity. E all except "energy." Which of the following correctly matches connective tissue with its deposits? A blood: fats B adipose: polysaccharide C bone: mineral ions D cartilage: calcium Rapid communication throughout the body is accomplished by A neurons. B elasticity. . C energy.

C hormones. E all of the germ layers. B the endoderm. D the ectoderm and endoderm. Muscle cells are produced by A the ectoderm. D muscles. C the mesoderm. E connective tissue. Which system is involved with heat production? A endocrine system B nervous system C muscular system D respiratory system E skeletal system Which system produces blood cells? A endocrine B .

Select the exception. A adipose B bone C cartilage D blood E epithelium .skeletal C muscular D defense E integumentary Four of the five answers listed below are related by a common tissue type.

D cell body -> dendrite -> axon. The movement of potassium into the neuron when it is at rest is a result of A diffusion leakage. B axon -> dendrite -> cell body. the direction an impulse follows is A dendrite -> axon -> cell body. D 70 electrovolts. E cell body -> axon -> dendrite. E both the presence of some open potassium channels and the attraction of the positively charged potassium ions by the negatively charged interior of the neuron. C the attraction of the positively charged potassium ions by the negatively charged interior of the neuron. C dendrite -> cell body -> axon.PART 3 Within a single neuron. . C 70 volts. B the presence of some open potassium channels. The resting potential of a neuron is approximately A 70 microvolts. B 70 millivolts. D both diffusion leakage and the presence of some open potassium channels.

E all of these The reason that an action potential is so brief is that A a wave of repolarization immediately follows an action potential. D completely different in neurons and muscle cells. C essentially the same in neurons and muscle cells. B the opening of potassium gates allows the voltage difference across the neural membrane to be restored. C the interior of the cell becomes positive. E . B positive feedback causes more sodium ions to enter the cell.E 70 megavolts. B faster in muscles than in neurons. Action potentials are A faster in neurons than in muscle cells. D the sodium-potassium pump restores the electrical gradients. D changing voltage increases the number of open gates. A sodium ions pass through gated channels. During the passage of a nerve impulse. C the protein channels for sodium movement remain open.

B speeds up the transmission of impulses. E all of these The occipital lobe of the brain is responsible for A coordination of hands and fingers. . B coordination of hands and fingers. C does not surround all nerves. Which of the following is a junction between two neurons? A Schwann cell B chemical synapse C node of Ranvier D sodium gate E all of these The myelin sheath A is formed by the Schwann cell.the membrane limits electrical activity. D is interrupted along the axon by nodes. C memory. D sense of taste and smell.

D language skills. E abstract abilities.E vision. B long-term memory is limited to a few years' duration. D control over the right side of the body. B artistic ability. C music interpretation. The left hemisphere of the brain is responsible for A music. B mathematics. The right hemisphere of the cerebrum is specialized for A verbal ability. C spatial relationships. E . C long-term memories are lost more frequently in amnesia. Studies of memory indicate that A short-term memory is the product of chemical changes in neurons. D long-term memory depends on structural or chemical changes in the brain.

. B mechanoreceptors. C analgesics. D hallucinogens or psychedelics. B stimulants. tea.short-term memory is limited to several hundred bits of information. and soft drinks are examples of which of the following? A depressant B stimulant C narcotic analgesic D hallucinogen or psychedelic E antipsychotic Pain relievers such as endorphins and enkephalins are A depressants. E antipsychotics. Receptors in the human nose are A chemoreceptors. D nocireceptors. C photoreceptors. Active chemicals found in chocolate. coffee.

C touch. In hearing. C oval window. The acoustical sense deals with the sense of A taste. B tympanic membrane. D . D sight. E both equilibrium and hearing. C taste.E none of these Hair cells are important in the sense of A equilibrium. D smell. B hearing. the last place that pressure or sound waves pass through is the A bones of the middle ear. B smell. E hearing.

Movable bones are features of the sense organs associated with A sight. B mechanoreceptors. C taste.round window. D smell. B hearing. C photoreceptors. E touch. . E tectorial membrane. Which of the following has receptors for ultraviolet light? A bears B bees C birds D reptiles E amphibians Eyes are A chemoreceptors.

C sclera. C pupil. E none of these The layer of the eye where photoreceptors are located is the A lens. B retina. B cornea. The dark middle layer of the eye that prevents the scattering of light is the A fovea. C . D iris. Accommodation involves the ability to A change the sensitivity of the rods and cones by means of neurotransmitters. E retina.D nocireceptors. D choroid. E cornea. B change the curvature of the cornea.

D iris. E all of these The outer transparent protective cover of the eyeball is the A fovea. . Rods and cones are located in the A lens. E cornea. B carbohydrate. C sclera. C pupil. D adapt to large changes in light intensity. D choroid. B retina. E retina. B cornea. Rhodopsin is a A protein.change the width of the lens by contracting or relaxing certain muscles.

Four of the five answers listed below are related by a similar sense receptor. E alkaloid. A sulfur B . Select the exception. D steroid.C vitamin. A light B pressure C touch D temperature E pain Vitamin D is required for __________ metabolism. Select the exception. A touch or pressure B olfaction C balance (equilibrium) D hearing E muscle sense Four of the five answers listed below are somatic senses.

D insects and crabs. . Bones in fingers or toes are called A hyoid. B mollusks. C sea anemones. E vertebrates.phosphorus C calcium D potassium E zinc Which of the following is NOT characteristic of the epidermis? A stratified epithelium B fat for insulation and capillaries C keratinocytes D stratum corneum E melanin pigments Organisms with external skeletons are exemplified by A octopuses and earthworms.

Growth of long bones A follows the cartilage model. Each muscle fiber is also called a A muscle. D combination of push and pull by antagonistic muscle pairs. B occurs in the middle at first. D is characterized by the persistence of cartilage at both ends of the shaft at the epiphyseal plates until growth stops. C scapula. then at both ends. C is characterized by bone tissue replacing calcified cartilage.B patella. E all of these The ability to extend a leg originates from A contraction of ligaments and tendons. D clavicle. C lengthening of a muscle. B contraction of a muscle. E phalanges. B .

C the filaments move toward the middle of the sarcomere during contraction and away on relaxation. C myofibril. E hammers. B levers. B the actin and myosin filaments slide over each other. A the myofibrils shorten. D sarcomere. E all of these During muscle contractions. muscles would be most like A ropes. D the muscle fibers thicken. D screws. Which cell does NOT belong with the others? A erythrocytes . E all of these In their action. C push rods.muscle cell.

B neutrophils C lymphocytes D eosinophils E monocytes Which cell is the most abundant in the human body? A lymphocytes B basophils C erythrocytes D neutrophils E platelets Human red blood cells A have no nucleus. C are phagocytes. E are produced in lymphoid organs. What percent of the total blood volume does plasma normally amount to? A . D release clotting factors when they are ruptured. B are the primary carriers of carbon dioxide in the blood.

B type A blood. C type AB blood. but will clump with types B and O.15 to 25 B 33 to 40 C 50 to 60 D 66 to 75 E about 80 Hemoglobin contains which element? A chlorine B sodium C iron D copper E magnesium Type A blood will NOT agglutinate when mixed with A type B blood. D type O blood. E types A and AB. Which blood type is the universal donor? .

. Blood from the body is first received by the heart in the A coronary vein. D right atrium. C always travels toward the heart. D travels from the lungs. B left atrium.A A+ B B C AB+ D AB E O Blood in arteries A always travels away from the heart. E is always oxygen-rich. E left ventricle. C right ventricle. B travels away from the heart only if it is oxygen-rich.

C capillary bed. D subclavian vein. B 80 mm Hg. B pulmonary artery. E . The diastolic pressure for a normal young adult would be A 60 mm Hg.The pacemaker is which of the following nodes? A sinoatrial B semilunar C atrioventricular D inferior vena cava E superior vena cava Blood pressure is highest in the A aorta. D 120 mm Hg. C 100 mm Hg. E inferior vena cava.

Four of the five answers listed below are related by a common property. Select the exception.140 mm Hg. Select the exception. C low-density lipoproteins. A epinephrine B globulin C hemoglobin D fibrinogen . A neutrophil B erythrocyte C lymphocytes D monocyte E basophil Four of the five answers listed below are blood proteins. Cholesterol is believed to be carried by A albumin. E both high-density and low-density lipoproteins. D triglycerides. B high-density lipoproteins.

A blood volume reservoirs B contain valves C low resistance-transport tubes D transport oxygen E low blood pressure Four of the five answers listed below are related by a common feature.E albumin Four of the five answers listed below are related by the "type" of blood they carry. Select the exception. Select the exception. A A B B C AB D . Select the exception. A pulmonary artery B aorta C hepatic portal vein D inferior vena cava E jugular vein Four of the five answers listed below are characteristics of most veins.

A heart B spleen C thymus D tonsils E lymph node . Select the exception.Rh+ E O Four of the five answers listed below are related by a common function.

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