PART 1

Which is NOT an element?

water

A

B
oxygen

carbon

C

D
chlorine

hydrogen

E

Water is important to the interactions of biological molecules because

A
water molecules are attracted to the charged regions of molecules such as proteins.

it forms a cushion around the macromolecules.

B

C
it helps disperse the macromolecules for reactivity.

it prevents settling of the molecules in places where they would be unavailable.

D

E
all of these
Hydrophobic molecules are __________ water.

attracted to

A

B
absorbed by

repelled by

C

D
mixed with

polarized by

E

Glucose dissolves in water because it

A
ionizes.

is a polysaccharide.

B

is polar and forms many hydrogen bonds with the water molecules.

C

D
has a very reactive primary structure.

none of these

E

Which of the following is NOT true?

A
Acids release hydrogen ions.

In a neutral solution, the amounts of hydrogen and hydroxyl ions are almost equal.

B

C
Salts precipitate out of solution and have no function in cells.

Polar water molecules are attracted to water.

D

E
Hydrogen bonding between water molecules gives water its temperature-stabilizing and cohesive properties.
Cellular pH is kept near a value of 7 because of

salts.

A

B
buffers.

acids.

C

D
bases.

water.

E

Four of the five answers listed below are alkaline (pH above 7). Select the exception.

A
milk of magnesia

household ammonia

B

C
Tums

phosphate detergent

D

E
wine
Four of the five answers listed below are acidic (pH below 7). Select the exception.

vinegar

A

B
soft drink

soap

C

D
lemon juice

beer

E

Four of the five answers listed below are positively charged ions. Select the exception.

A
potassium ion

hydrogen ion

B

C
calcium ion

magnesium ion

D

E
chlorine ion
Four of the five answers listed below are characteristics of water. Select the exception.

stabilizes temperature

A

B
is a common solvent

has cohesion and surface tension

C

D
produces salts

changes shape of hydrophilic and hydrophobic substances

E

The three most common atoms in your body are

A
hydrogen, oxygen, and carbon.

carbon, hydrogen, and nitrogen.

B

C
carbon, nitrogen, and oxygen.

nitrogen, hydrogen, and oxygen.

D

E
carbon, oxygen, and sulfur.
An -NH2 group is a(n) __________ group.

carboxyl

A

B
hydroxyl

amino

C

D
methyl

ketone

E

Which are NOT macromolecules?

A
proteins

polysaccharides

B

C
nucleotides

lipids

D

E
nucleic acids
A condensation reaction typically produces

monomers.

A

B
salts.

polymers.

C

D
simple sugars.

amino acids.

E

The relatively unimportant by-product(s) of many condensation reactions is (are)

A
carbon dioxide.

aldehyde groups.

B

C
enzymes.

alcohols.

D

E
water.
A macromolecule is composed of smaller units called

polymers.

A

B
isomers.

monomers.

C

D
isotopes.

dimers.

E

The primary carbohydrate used in the transport of food from the leaves to the root is

A
glucose.

sucrose.

B

C
fructose.

maltose.

D

E
lactose.
The primary carbohydrate used in the transport of food from the leaves to the root is

glucose.

A

B
sucrose.

fructose.

C

D
maltose.

monerans. D E both animals and protistans.lactose. D E both in the way that their atoms are arranged and in the number of double bonds they possess. B C protistans. plants. fats. B C in the way that their atoms are arranged. E Glucose and fructose are different A in the number of carbons they possess. Plants store their excess carbohydrates in the form of starch. C D cellulose. in their relationship to the sucrose molecules. E Glycogen is a polysaccharide used for energy storage by A animals. in the number of double bonds they possess. A B glycogen. Which of the following includes all the others? sucrose A B glucose . glucose.

both liquid at room temperature and unsaturated fats. C D complex carbohydrates.cellulose C D glycogen carbohydrate E Which of the following is more soluble in a nonpolar solvent (such as acetone) than in water? A lipids polysaccharides B C fats sterols D E all of these except polysaccharides Oils are liquid at room temperatures. E Cholesterol A is synthesized in the large intestine. found only in animals. Polyunsaturated fats . floats free in the bloodstream. D E is much greater in the bloodstream of rats than humans. levels in the bloodstream can be increased by eating plant fats. A B unsaturated fats. B C is used in the construction of biomembranes.

B C butter. oleo. D E soybean oil.have fewer hydrogens than saturated fats. An example of a saturated fat is olive oil. E Sterols are A compounds that are related to lipids. C D oleo. are solid at room temperature. sex hormones. butter. . soybean oil. contribute to the possibility of arteriosclerosis. A B are more characteristic of animal fats than plant fats. E An example of a saturated fat is A olive oil. B C components of membranes. A B corn oil. C D have no double bonds. corn oil.

C D transport molecules. all of these E Which of the following is structurally the simplest of the amino acids? A proline serine B C tryptophan cysteine D E glycine Amino acids are linked by what kind of bonds to form the primary structure of a protein? disulfide A B hydrogen ionic C D peptide none of these E Denaturation of proteins may result in all but one of the following. D E all of these Proteins may function as structural units.troublesome on artery walls. storage molecules. A B hormones. Which one is it? A breakage of hydrogen bonds .

C D translates protein-building instructions into actual protein structures. A B steroids. DNA is one of the adenosine phosphates. A B is one of the nucleotide coenzymes. contains protein-building instructions. C D ATP.loss of three-dimensional structure B C removal of R groups from amino acids alteration of enzyme activity D E endangerment of cell's life Nucleotides are the building blocks for proteins. E Which of the following is NOT found in every nucleic acid? A ribose phosphate group B C single-ring base double-ring base D E All of these are characteristic of every nucleotide. lipids. and FAD carbohydrates. . NAD+.

A chitin cellulose B C collagen starch D E glycogen Four of the five answers listed below are lipids. glycerol A B cellulose starch C D sucrose glycogen E Four of the five answers listed below are polysaccharides.none of these E Which molecule is incorrectly matched with its component parts? A fat: fatty acids starch: riboses B C protein: amino acids glycogen: glucoses D E nucleic acids: nucleotides Four of the five answers listed below are carbohydrates. Select the exception. triglyceride A B wax . Select the exception. Select the exception.

butter C D insulin steroid E Four of the five answers listed below are amino acids. D The significance of Fred Griffith's experiment in which he used two strains of Streptococcus pneumoniae is that A the semiconservative nature of DNA replication was finally demonstrated. finding a cure for pneumonia. discovering nucleic acids. Select the exception. Select the exception. . B C telling us that A=T and G=C. A glycine adenine B C phenylalanine valine D E tyrosine Four of the five answers listed below are functional groups. R group A B amino group carboxyl group C D hydroxyl group aldehyde group E Friedrich Miescher is credited with A proposing DNA as the hereditary material.

A B it demonstrated that harmless bacterial cells had become permanently transformed through a change in the bacterial hereditary system. C it established that pure DNA extracted from disease-causing bacteria transformed harmless strains into killer strains. D it demonstrated that radioactively labeled bacteriophages transfer their DNA but not their protein coats to their host bacteria.B it demonstrated that harmless cells had become permanently transformed through a change in the bacterial hereditary system. D E protistans. C it established that pure DNA extracted from disease-causing bacteria transformed harmless strains into killer strains. B C viruses. The significance of the experiments in which 32P and 35S were used is that the semiconservative nature of DNA replication was finally demonstrated. cellular components. . E all of these Which scientist(s) identified the transforming substance involved in changing rough (R) bacteria to smooth (S)? Avery A B Griffith Chargaff C D Hershey and Chase Pauling E Bacteriophages are A large bacteria. pathogens (disease-producing bacteria). D it demonstrated that radioactively labeled bacteriophages transfer their DNA but not their protein coats to their host bacteria.

Rosalind Franklin's research contribution was essential in establishing the double-stranded nature of DNA. D E manganese.none of these E Nucleic acid contains A sulfur. D E relative amounts of nucleotide bases and sequence of base pairs. iron. relative amounts of nucleotide bases. pentose sugars. base-pair bonding and sequence of base pairs. The building blocks of nucleic acids are amino acids. A B establishing the principle of base pairing. E DNA varies from species to species in its A base-pair bonding. nitrogenous bases. B C potassium. C D phosphate groups. phosphorus. B C sequence of base pairs. A B nucleotides. .

C D sequencing DNA molecules.establishing most of the principal structural features of DNA. E Rosalind Franklin used which technique to determine many of the physical characteristics of DNA? A transformation transmission electron microscopy B C density-gradient centrifugation x-ray diffraction D E all of these . determining the bonding energy of DNA molecules.

D proposed the concept of the double helix. and cytosine always teams up with thymine. complementary base pairing occurs between A cytosine and uracil. C Each of the four nucleotides in a DNA molecule has the same nitrogen-containing base. they are linked by three hydrogen bonds. B adenine and guanine. . E all of these In DNA. D When adenine base pairs with thymine. B Adenine always pairs up with guanine in DNA. C explained how DNA's structure permitted it to be replicated. D adenine and thymine. E all of these Which of the following statements is true? A The hydrogen bonding of cytosine to guanine is an example of complementary base pairing. C adenine and uracil.PART 2 James Watson and Francis Crick A established the double-stranded nature of DNA B confirmed the principle of base pairing.

B semiconservative DNA replication. Each DNA strand has a backbone that consists of alternating A purines and pyrimidines. B nitrogen-containing bases.E In the DNA of all species. D . C sexual reproduction. C produces two molecules. D sugar and phosphate molecules. C hydrogen bonds. each of which is half-new and half-old DNA joined lengthwise to each other. E bloodlines. the amount of purines never equals the amount of pyrimidines. B produces only new DNA. D protein synthesis. The ultimate explanation for resemblances of traits from one generation to another is A gamete formation. Replication of DNA A produces RNA molecules. E amines and purines.

D derives energy from ATP for synthesis of DNA strands. E is too complex to characterize. E all of these Four of the five answers listed below are bases used to construct nucleic acids. A cytosine B adenine C thymine . B adds new nucleotides to a strand. E fragment old DNA that is no longer of use to the cell. B attach free nucleotides to the growing chain. The primary function of DNA ligase is to A cut the two strands of the DNA molecule prior to replication. D seal new short stretches of nucleotides into one continuous strand. which eventually causes the nucleus to divide. Select the exception. DNA polymerase A is an enzyme.generates excessive DNA. C proofreads DNA strands to see that they are correct. C remove bases that might have been inserted incorrectly.

Select the exception.D guanine E phenylalanine Four of the five answers listed below are correctly paired.pyrimidine The DNA molecule usually is made up of how many strands? A 1 B 2 C 3 D 6 E 12 __________ molecules carry protein-assembly instructions from the nucleus to the cytoplasm. A A-C B C-G C A-T D T-A E purine . A Template DNA B Messenger RNA C .

D transfer RNA. . C guanine. C ribosomal RNA. D uracil.Transfer RNA D Ribosomal RNA E all of these The form of RNA that carries the code from the DNA to the site where the protein is assembled is called A messenger RNA. The synthesis of an RNA molecule from a DNA template strand is A replication. B cytosine. E thymine. B nuclear RNA. E structural RNA. The nitrogenous base found in DNA but not in RNA is A adenine. B translation.

E transcriber. D terminator. D DNA synthesis. E none of these If the DNA triplets were ATG-CGT. the tRNA anticodons would be A AUG-CGU. E metabolism. C activator. the mRNA codons would be A AUG-CGU.C transcription. D UAG-CGU. If the DNA triplets were ATG-CGT. B ATG-CGT. B promoter. C UAC-GCA. B . Transcription starts at a region of DNA called a(n) A sequencer.

D is redundant. C UAC-GCA. each amino has more than one codon. B is based upon 64 codons made of sequences of three nucleotides. that is.ATG-CGT. E none of these Which of the following could NOT be an RNA transcript? A AUGCGU B ATGCGT C UACGCA D UAGCGU E GCGUUU The genetic code A is universal for all organisms. D UAG-CGU. E all of these There are how many different kinds of RNA codons? A 3 . C also comes equipped with punctuation marks.

" Which of the following carries amino acids to ribosomes. C cannot be copied. B do not specify a particular amino acid." E do not specify a particular amino acid and provide punctuation or instructions such as "stop. where amino acids are linked into the primary structure of a polypeptide? A mRNA B tRNA C hnRNA D rRNA E all of these All mRNA transcripts begin with A . D provide punctuation or instructions such as "stop. three of them A are involved in mutations.B 12 C 28 D 64 E 120 Of all the different codons that exist.

E all of these Mutations can be A random. A gene mutation A is a change in the nucleotide sequence of DNA. . E an anticodon. C AUG. C may arise spontaneously.methionine. D can occur in any organism. In a mutation. B beneficial C lethal. B a ribosome. D all of these E heritable. B may be caused by environmental agents. D the P site.

A cap put on one end B introns snipped out C action by DNA polymerase D poly-A tail placed on one end E exons spliced together Three of the four answers listed below are steps in translation. B . Four of the five answers listed below are steps in the process of transcription. Select the exception. D All of these may be true. Select the exception. A initiation B replication C chain elongation D termination The cell theory was proposed by A Robert Hooke.A the new codon may specify a different amino acid. C the new codon and resulting amino acid may destroy the function of the protein specified. B the new codon may specify the same amino acid as the old codon. but may not change the function of the new protein produced.

All cells except bacteria A are eukaryotes. C Theodor Schwann. .Robert Brown. D space. E division. and use organelles for compartmentalization. D Rudolf Virchow. B possess a nucleus. it would be unable to A extract energy from glucose. C diffusion. D possess a nucleus and use organelles for compartmentalization. If a cell did not have ribosomes. Cells are of small size because of considerations of A weight. B complexity. E Anton van Leeuwenhoek. C use organelles for compartmentalization. possess a nucleus. E are eukaryotes.

B . Which of the following is the primary advantage of the eukaryotic nuclear envelope? A providing residence for ribosomes B allowing isolation of DNA from cytoplasmic machinery C providing pore entry places D enabling faster cell division E enabling larger cell size Which of the following is NOT found as a part of all cells? A cell membrane B cell wall C ribosomes D DNA E RNA The cell wall A provides skeletal support for plants. C store food in the form of fat.B synthesize glucose. D form proteins.

Select the exception.controls what enters and leaves a cell. D is found in all eukaryotes. A mitochondrion B Golgi body . C replaces the plasma membrane of animal cells in plant cells. Which are examples of prokaryotes? A protozoa B bacteria C algae D fungi E mosses Which of the following are made of two subunits and are composed of RNA and protein? A Golgi bodies B mitochondria C chloroplasts D ribosomes E endoplasmic reticula Four of the five answers listed below are organelles found in eukaryotic cells.

B It is composed partially of epithelial cells and partially of connective tissue. Which of the following is NOT defined as connective tissue? A bone B skeletal muscle C cartilage D collagen E blood Which of the these is NOT connective tissue? A cartilage B . C It is mostly lipid and embedded celluloid fibers.C nucleoid D lysosome E vacuole Which of the following is true of the basement membrane? A It overlies the epithelium at its free surface. E It cements the layers of stratified epithelium together. D It lies between the epithelium and connective tissue.

B elasticity. C energy. D rigidity.blood C bone D fat E outer layer of skin Collagen fibers supply A strength. . B blood." Which of the following correctly matches connective tissue with its deposits? A blood: fats B adipose: polysaccharide C bone: mineral ions D cartilage: calcium Rapid communication throughout the body is accomplished by A neurons. E all except "energy.

C hormones. C the mesoderm. Muscle cells are produced by A the ectoderm. B the endoderm. E connective tissue. D the ectoderm and endoderm. E all of the germ layers. Which system is involved with heat production? A endocrine system B nervous system C muscular system D respiratory system E skeletal system Which system produces blood cells? A endocrine B . D muscles.

skeletal C muscular D defense E integumentary Four of the five answers listed below are related by a common tissue type. A adipose B bone C cartilage D blood E epithelium . Select the exception.

The resting potential of a neuron is approximately A 70 microvolts. the direction an impulse follows is A dendrite -> axon -> cell body. E cell body -> axon -> dendrite.PART 3 Within a single neuron. C 70 volts. The movement of potassium into the neuron when it is at rest is a result of A diffusion leakage. B the presence of some open potassium channels. B 70 millivolts. D cell body -> dendrite -> axon. D both diffusion leakage and the presence of some open potassium channels. C dendrite -> cell body -> axon. C the attraction of the positively charged potassium ions by the negatively charged interior of the neuron. B axon -> dendrite -> cell body. . E both the presence of some open potassium channels and the attraction of the positively charged potassium ions by the negatively charged interior of the neuron. D 70 electrovolts.

C the interior of the cell becomes positive. D changing voltage increases the number of open gates. B positive feedback causes more sodium ions to enter the cell. C essentially the same in neurons and muscle cells. D the sodium-potassium pump restores the electrical gradients. E .E 70 megavolts. Action potentials are A faster in neurons than in muscle cells. A sodium ions pass through gated channels. D completely different in neurons and muscle cells. B the opening of potassium gates allows the voltage difference across the neural membrane to be restored. C the protein channels for sodium movement remain open. E all of these The reason that an action potential is so brief is that A a wave of repolarization immediately follows an action potential. B faster in muscles than in neurons. During the passage of a nerve impulse.

C memory. D sense of taste and smell. . B coordination of hands and fingers.the membrane limits electrical activity. B speeds up the transmission of impulses. Which of the following is a junction between two neurons? A Schwann cell B chemical synapse C node of Ranvier D sodium gate E all of these The myelin sheath A is formed by the Schwann cell. C does not surround all nerves. E all of these The occipital lobe of the brain is responsible for A coordination of hands and fingers. D is interrupted along the axon by nodes.

E abstract abilities. D language skills.E vision. B mathematics. D control over the right side of the body. C long-term memories are lost more frequently in amnesia. B long-term memory is limited to a few years' duration. D long-term memory depends on structural or chemical changes in the brain. C music interpretation. E . The left hemisphere of the brain is responsible for A music. The right hemisphere of the cerebrum is specialized for A verbal ability. B artistic ability. Studies of memory indicate that A short-term memory is the product of chemical changes in neurons. C spatial relationships.

B stimulants. C photoreceptors. D hallucinogens or psychedelics. coffee. D nocireceptors.short-term memory is limited to several hundred bits of information. . and soft drinks are examples of which of the following? A depressant B stimulant C narcotic analgesic D hallucinogen or psychedelic E antipsychotic Pain relievers such as endorphins and enkephalins are A depressants. Active chemicals found in chocolate. B mechanoreceptors. C analgesics. Receptors in the human nose are A chemoreceptors. tea. E antipsychotics.

B tympanic membrane. E both equilibrium and hearing. the last place that pressure or sound waves pass through is the A bones of the middle ear. B smell. E hearing. In hearing. D smell. D . C oval window. D sight. C taste. C touch.E none of these Hair cells are important in the sense of A equilibrium. The acoustical sense deals with the sense of A taste. B hearing.

B hearing. E touch. Movable bones are features of the sense organs associated with A sight.round window. C taste. D smell. Which of the following has receptors for ultraviolet light? A bears B bees C birds D reptiles E amphibians Eyes are A chemoreceptors. E tectorial membrane. B mechanoreceptors. C photoreceptors. .

D nocireceptors. The dark middle layer of the eye that prevents the scattering of light is the A fovea. C sclera. D iris. B change the curvature of the cornea. C . B cornea. E none of these The layer of the eye where photoreceptors are located is the A lens. B retina. C pupil. E cornea. E retina. D choroid. Accommodation involves the ability to A change the sensitivity of the rods and cones by means of neurotransmitters.

E retina. . D choroid. Rods and cones are located in the A lens. B cornea. E all of these The outer transparent protective cover of the eyeball is the A fovea. B carbohydrate. C pupil. D adapt to large changes in light intensity. Rhodopsin is a A protein. E cornea.change the width of the lens by contracting or relaxing certain muscles. C sclera. D iris. B retina.

Select the exception.C vitamin. E alkaloid. D steroid. A sulfur B . Select the exception. Four of the five answers listed below are related by a similar sense receptor. A light B pressure C touch D temperature E pain Vitamin D is required for __________ metabolism. A touch or pressure B olfaction C balance (equilibrium) D hearing E muscle sense Four of the five answers listed below are somatic senses.

C sea anemones. Bones in fingers or toes are called A hyoid. B mollusks. . D insects and crabs. E vertebrates.phosphorus C calcium D potassium E zinc Which of the following is NOT characteristic of the epidermis? A stratified epithelium B fat for insulation and capillaries C keratinocytes D stratum corneum E melanin pigments Organisms with external skeletons are exemplified by A octopuses and earthworms.

Growth of long bones A follows the cartilage model. B . then at both ends. E phalanges. E all of these The ability to extend a leg originates from A contraction of ligaments and tendons. D combination of push and pull by antagonistic muscle pairs. C lengthening of a muscle. B occurs in the middle at first. D is characterized by the persistence of cartilage at both ends of the shaft at the epiphyseal plates until growth stops. Each muscle fiber is also called a A muscle. C scapula.B patella. D clavicle. B contraction of a muscle. C is characterized by bone tissue replacing calcified cartilage.

C push rods. B levers. E all of these In their action. C the filaments move toward the middle of the sarcomere during contraction and away on relaxation. E all of these During muscle contractions. D screws. E hammers. D sarcomere. Which cell does NOT belong with the others? A erythrocytes . muscles would be most like A ropes. B the actin and myosin filaments slide over each other.muscle cell. A the myofibrils shorten. D the muscle fibers thicken. C myofibril.

B neutrophils C lymphocytes D eosinophils E monocytes Which cell is the most abundant in the human body? A lymphocytes B basophils C erythrocytes D neutrophils E platelets Human red blood cells A have no nucleus. C are phagocytes. E are produced in lymphoid organs. What percent of the total blood volume does plasma normally amount to? A . D release clotting factors when they are ruptured. B are the primary carriers of carbon dioxide in the blood.

B type A blood. Which blood type is the universal donor? . E types A and AB. C type AB blood.15 to 25 B 33 to 40 C 50 to 60 D 66 to 75 E about 80 Hemoglobin contains which element? A chlorine B sodium C iron D copper E magnesium Type A blood will NOT agglutinate when mixed with A type B blood. but will clump with types B and O. D type O blood.

Blood from the body is first received by the heart in the A coronary vein. C right ventricle. E left ventricle. D right atrium. B travels away from the heart only if it is oxygen-rich. D travels from the lungs. C always travels toward the heart.A A+ B B C AB+ D AB E O Blood in arteries A always travels away from the heart. B left atrium. E is always oxygen-rich. .

The diastolic pressure for a normal young adult would be A 60 mm Hg. D 120 mm Hg. B 80 mm Hg. E inferior vena cava. D subclavian vein. C capillary bed. C 100 mm Hg.The pacemaker is which of the following nodes? A sinoatrial B semilunar C atrioventricular D inferior vena cava E superior vena cava Blood pressure is highest in the A aorta. B pulmonary artery. E .

140 mm Hg. D triglycerides. E both high-density and low-density lipoproteins. Select the exception. C low-density lipoproteins. Cholesterol is believed to be carried by A albumin. Select the exception. B high-density lipoproteins. Four of the five answers listed below are related by a common property. A epinephrine B globulin C hemoglobin D fibrinogen . A neutrophil B erythrocyte C lymphocytes D monocyte E basophil Four of the five answers listed below are blood proteins.

A blood volume reservoirs B contain valves C low resistance-transport tubes D transport oxygen E low blood pressure Four of the five answers listed below are related by a common feature. A A B B C AB D .E albumin Four of the five answers listed below are related by the "type" of blood they carry. Select the exception. Select the exception. Select the exception. A pulmonary artery B aorta C hepatic portal vein D inferior vena cava E jugular vein Four of the five answers listed below are characteristics of most veins.

Rh+ E O Four of the five answers listed below are related by a common function. A heart B spleen C thymus D tonsils E lymph node . Select the exception.

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