Nelson Mathematics

© All Rights Reserved

72 vues

Nelson Mathematics

© All Rights Reserved

- Practice Makes Perfect 5 Transformations)
- Staad Pro V8i KPE Introduction
- Angry Birds Project
- Milling Programming Manual
- G4 Profiles
- 11-Geometry String Functionsa
- Yearly Lesson Plan Mathematics Form2 2016
- Robertson
- Demonstration of Markup Language
- T
- TIJERAL SIMETRICO 1.rtf
- Lesson 2.3 - Plotting Integers on the Coordinate Plane
- A New Similarity Measure Based on Falsity Value between Single Valued Neutrosophic Sets Based on the Centroid Points of Transformed Single Valued Neutrosophic Numbers with Applications to Pattern Recognition
- UP100618_U3R1
- Appendix b
- Add Maths Pra Spm Module 2 _ Sept 2016 _ p2 (1)
- Area Under Curves
- 127_1
- Problem Set 5
- 052_MEDICION_HERRAMIENTA

Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 9

5Vectors in R 2 and R 3

In the introduction to this chapter, we said vectors are important because of their

application to a variety of different areas of study. In these areas, the value of using

vectors is derived primarily from being able to consider them in coordinate form, or

algebraic form, as it is sometimes described. Our experience with coordinate systems

in mathematics thus far has been restricted to the xy-plane, but we will soon begin to

see how ideas in two dimensions can be extended to higher dimensions and how this

results in a greater range of applicability.

Introduction to Algebraic Vectors

Mathematicians started using coordinates to analyze physical situations in about the

fourteenth century. However, a great deal of the credit for developing the methods

used with coordinate systems should be given to the French mathematician Rene

Descartes (15961650). Descartes was the first to realize that using a coordinate

system would allow for the use of algebra in geometry. Since then, this idea has

become important in the development of mathematical ideas in many areas. For our

purposes, using algebra in this way leads us to the consideration of ideas involving

vectors that otherwise would not be possible.

At the beginning of our study of algebraic vectors, there are a number of ideas

that must be introduced and that form the foundation for what we are doing. After

we start to work with vectors, these ideas are used implicitly without having

to be restated each time.

One of the most important ideas that we must consider is that of the unique

representation

of vectors in the xy-plane. The unique representation of the vector

!

!

OP is a matter of showing the unique representation of the point P because OP is

determined by this point. The uniqueness

! of vector representation will be first

considered for the position vector OP , which has its head at the point P1a, 0 2 and

its tail at the origin O10, 02 shown on the x-axis below. The x-axis is the set of real

numbers, R, which is made up of rational and irrational numbers.

y

2

1

O(0, 0)

1

OP

P(a, 0)

The point P is a distance of a units away from the origin and occupies exactly

one position on the !x-axis. Since each point P has a unique position on this axis,

this implies that OP is also unique because this vector is determined by P.

310 6 . 5

V E C TO R S I N R 2 A N D R 3

NEL

The xy-plane is often referred to as R2, which means that each of the x- and

y-coordinates for any point on the plane is a real number. In technical terms,

we would say that R2 5 1x, y2 , where x and y are real numbers6.

Points and Vectors in R2 !

In the following diagram, OP can also be represented in component form by

the vector defined as 1a, b2 . This is a vector with its tail at O10, 02 and its head

at P1a, b2. Perpendicular lines have been drawn

! from P to the two axes to help

show the meaning of 1a,! b 2 in relation to OP . a is called the x-component and b is

the y-component of OP . Again, each of the coordinates of this

! point is a unique

real number and, because of this, the associated vector, OP , has a unique location

in the xy-plane.

3

y

P(a, b)

2

b

2

NEL

1

O

0

1

x

2

All planes in R2 are flat surfaces that extend infinitely far in all directions and are

said to be two-dimensional because each point is located using an x and a y or two

coordinates. It is also useful to be able to represent points and vectors in three

dimensions. The designation R3 is used for three dimensions because

each of the

!

coordinates of a point P1a, b, c2 , and its associated vector OP 1a, b, c2 , is a real

number. Here, O(0, 0, 0) is the origin in three dimensions. As in R2, each point

!

has a unique location in R3, which again implies that each position vector OP

is unique in R3.

z

In placing points in R3, we choose three axes called the x-, y-, and z-axis.

Each pair of axes is perpendicular, and each axis is a copy of the real

number line. There are several ways to choose the orientation of the

positive axes, but we will use what is called a right-handed system.

If

we imagine ourselves looking down the positive z-axis onto the

y

xy-plane

so that, when the positive x-axis is rotated 90 counterclockwise

xy-plane

it becomes coincident with the positive y-axis, then this is called a

right-handed system. A right-handed system is normally what is used to

represent R3, and we will use this convention in this book.

CHAPTER 6

311

z

positive z-axis

positive y-axis

y

x

positive x-axis

z

yzplane

y

x

xzplane

Each pair of axes determines a plane. The xz-plane is determined by the x- and

z-axes, and the yz-plane is determined by the y- and z-axes. Notice that, when we

are discussing, for example, the xy-plane in R3, this plane extends infinitely far in

both the positive and negative directions. One way to visualize a right-handed

system is to think of the y- and z-axes as lying in the plane of a book, determining

the yz-plane, with the positive x-axis being perpendicular to the plane of the book

and pointing directly toward you.

z

D

P (a, b, c)

C

O (0, 0, 0)

A(a, 0, 0)

B (a, b, 0)

Each point P1a, b, c2 in R3 has its location determined by an ordered triple. In the

diagram above, the positive x-, y-, and z-axes are shown such that each pair of

axes is perpendicular to the other and each axis represents a real number line.

If we wish to locate P1a, b, c2, we move along the x-axis to A1a, 0, 0 2, then in a

direction perpendicular to the xz-plane, and parallel to the y-axis, to the point

B1a, b, 02. From there, we move in a direction perpendicular to the xy-plane and

parallel to the z-axis to the point P1a, b, c2 . This point is a vertex of a right

rectangular prism.

312 6 . 5

V E C TO R S I N R 2 A N D R 3

NEL

Notice that the coordinates are signed, and so, for example, if we are locating the

point A12, 0, 0 2 we would proceed along the negative x-axis.

A source of confusion might be the meaning of P1a, b, c2 because it may be

confused as either being a point or a vector. When referring to a vector, it

will! be stated explicitly that we are dealing with a vector and will be written as

OP 1a, b, c2, where a, b, and c are the x-, y-, and z-components respectively of

the vector. In the diagram, this position vector is formed by joining the origin

O10, 0, 02 to P1a, b, c2. When dealing with points, P1a, b, c2 will be named

specifically as a point. In most situations, the distinction between the two should

be evident from the context.

EXAMPLE 1

In the diagram on the previous page, determine the coordinates of C, D, E, and F.

Solution

C is on the xz-plane and has coordinates 1a, 0, c2, D is on the z-axis and has

coordinates 10, 0, c2, E is on yz-plane and has coordinates 10, b, c2, and F is on

the y-axis and has coordinates 10, b, 02.

In the following example, we show how to locate points with the use of a

rectangular box (prism) and line segments. It is useful, when we first start

labelling points in R3, to draw the box to gain familiarity with the coordinate

system.

EXAMPLE 2

a. In the following diagram, the point P16, 2, 4 2 is located in R3. What are the

coordinates of A, B, C, D, E, and F?

!

b. Draw the vector OP .

z

E

P(6, 2, 4)

F

O(0, 0, 0)

NEL

CHAPTER 6

313

Solution

a. A16, 0, 0 2 is a point on the positive x-axis, B16, 2, 0 2 is a point on the xy-plane,

C16, 0, 4 2 is a point on the xz-plane, D10, 0, 4 2 is a point on the positive z-axis,

E10, 2, 42 is a point on the yz-plane, and F10, 2, 02 is a point on the positive

y-axis.

!

b. The vector OP is the vector associated with the point P1a, b, c2. It !is the vector

with its tail at the origin and its head at P16, 2, 4 2 and is named OP 16, 2, 42 .

z

E(0, 2, 4)

D(0, 0, 4)

C(6, 0, 4)

P(6, 2, 4)

F(0, 2, 0)

y

O(0, 0, 0)

A(6, 0, 0)

B(6, 2, 0)

EXAMPLE 3

a. In the following diagram, the point T is located in R3. What are the coordinates

of P, Q, R, M, N, and

! S?

b. Draw the vector OT .

z

O(0, 0, 0)

M

P

y

N

x

R

T (3, 2, 2)

Solution

a. The point P10, 2, 0 2 is a point on the positive y-axis. The point Q10, 2, 2 2 is

on the yz-plane. The point R10, 0, 2 2 is on the negative z-axis. The point

314 6 . 5

V E C TO R S I N R 2 A N D R 3

NEL

xz-plane. The point S13, 2, 0 2 is on the xy-plane.

z

O(0, 0, 0)

x

R(0, 0, 2)

M(3, 0, 0)

S(3, 2, 0)

P (0, 2, 0)

y

T (3, 2, 2)

N(3, 0, 2)

Q(0, 2, 2)

!

b. The vector OT is the vector associated with the point T 13,

! 2, 2 2 and is a

vector with O as its tail and T as its head and is named OT 13, 2, 22 .

When working with coordinate systems in R3, it is possible to label planes using

equations, which is demonstrated in the following example.

EXAMPLE 4

The point Q12, 3, 5 2 is shown in R3.

a. Write an equation for the xy-plane.

z

P(0, 3, 0)

containing the points P, M, Q, and T.

c. Write a mathematical description of

the set of points in rectangle PMQT.

d. What is the equation of the plane

parallel to the xy-plane passing

through R10, 0, 5 2?

M(2, 3, 0)

O(0, 0, 0)

S(2, 0, 0)

T(0, 3, 5)

Q(2, 3, 5)

R(0, 0, 5)

N(2, 0, 5)

Solution

a. Every point on the xy-plane has a z-component of 0, with every point on the plane

having the form 1x, y, 0 2, where x and y are real numbers. The equation is z 0.

b. Every point on this plane has a y-component equal to 3, with every point

on the plane having the form 1x, 3, z 2, where x and z are real numbers.

The equation is y 3.

c. Every point in the rectangle has a y-component equal to 3, with every point

in the rectangle having the form 1x, 3, z2, where x and z are real numbers

such that 0 x 2 and 5 z 0.

d. Every point on this plane has a z-component equal to 5, with every point

on the plane having the form 1x, y, 5 2, where x and y are real numbers.

The equation is z 5.

NEL

CHAPTER 6

315

There is one further observation that should be made about placing points on

coordinate axes. When using R2 to describe the plane, which is two-dimensional,

the exponent, n, in R n is 2. Similarly, in three dimensions, the exponent is 3. The

exponent in R n corresponds to the number of dimensions of the coordinate system.

IN SUMMARY

Key Idea

In R2 or R3, the location of every point is unique. As a result, every vector

drawn with its tail at the origin and its head at a point is also unique. This

type of vector is called a position vector.

Need to Know

In R2, P 1a, b2 is a point that is a units from O 10, 02 along the x-axis and

b units parallel to the y-axis.

!

The! position vector OP has its tail located at O 10, 02 and its head at P 1a, b 2.

OP 1a, b2

In R3, P 1a, b, c2 is a point that is a units from O 10, 0, 0 2 along the x-axis,

b units parallel to the y-axis, and c units parallel to the z-axis. The position

!

vector

OP has its tail located at O 10, 0, 02 and its head at P 1a, b, c2.

!

OP 1a, b, c2

In R3, the three mutually perpendicular axes form a right-handed system.

Exercise 6.5

PART A

1

2. a. Describe in your own words what it means for a point and its associated

vector to be uniquely represented in R3.

!

!

b. Suppose that OP 1a, 3, c2 and OP 14, b, 8 2. What are the

corresponding values for a, b, and c? Why are we able to be certain that

the determined values are correct?

3. a. The points A15, b, c2 and B1a, 3, 8 2 are located at the same point in R3.

What are the values of a, b, and c?

!

b. Write the vector corresponding to OA .

316 6 . 5

V E C TO R S I N R 2 A N D R 3

NEL

4. In R3, each of the components for each point or vector is a real number. If

we use the notation I 3, where I represents the set of integers, explain why

!

!

OP 12, 4, V3 2 would not be an acceptable vector in I 3. Why is OP

an acceptable vector in R3?

5. Locate the points A14, 4, 2 2 , B14, 4, 2 2 , and C14, 4, 2 2 using coordinate

axes that you construct yourself. Draw the corresponding rectangular box

(prism) for each, and label the coordinates of its vertices.

6. a. On what axis is A10, 1, 0 2 located? Name three other points on this axis.

!

b. Name the vector OA associated with point A.

7. a. Name three vectors with their tails at the origin and their heads on the z-axis.

b. Are the vectors you named in part a. collinear? Explain.

c. How would you represent a general vector with its head on the z-axis and

its tail at the origin?

K

8. Draw a set of x-, y-, and z-axes and plot the following points:

a. A11, 0, 0 2

b. B10, 2, 02

c. C10, 0, 3 2

d. D12, 3, 0 2

e. E12, 0, 3 2

f. F10, 2, 32

PART B

9. a. Draw a set of x-, y-, and z-axes and plot the following points: A13, 2, 4 2 ,

B11, 1, 4 2, and C10, 1, 4 2 .

b. Determine the equation of the plane containing the points A, B, and C.

10. Plot the following points in R3, using a rectangular prism to illustrate each

coordinate.

a. A11, 2, 3 2

b. B12, 1, 1 2

c. C11, 2, 12

d. D11, 1, 1 2

e. E11, 1, 12

f. F11, 1, 12

11. Name the vector associated with each point in question 10, express it in

component form, and show the vectors associated with each of the points

in the diagrams.

12. P12, a c, a 2 and Q12, 6, 11 2 represent the same point in R3.

a. What are the values of a and c?

!

!

b. Does @ OP @ @ OQ @ ? Explain.

13. Each of the points P1x, y, 02, Q1x, 0, z2, and R10, y, z2 represent general points

on three different planes. Name the three planes to which each corresponds.

NEL

CHAPTER 6

317

14. a. What is the equation of the plane that contains the points M11, 0, 3 2,

N14, 0, 6 2, and P17, 0, 9 2 ? Explain your answer.

b. Explain why the plane that contains the points M, N, and P also contains

!

!

!

the vectors OM , ON , and OP .

below.

z

B

C

x

F

D

P(2, 4, 7)

E

b. What are the vectors associated with each of the points in part a.?

c. How far below the xy-plane is the rectangle DEPF?

d. What is the equation of the plane containing the points B, C, E, and P?

e. Describe mathematically the set of points contained in rectangle BCEP.

16. Draw a diagram on the appropriate coordinate system for each

of the following vectors:

!

!

!

a. OP 14, 22

c. OC 12, 4, 5 2

e. OF 10, 0, 5 2

!

!

!

b. OD 13 ,4 2

d. OM 11, 3, 2 2 f. OJ 12, 2, 0 2

PART C

T

318 6 . 5

51x, y, z2R3 0 0 x 1, 0 y 1, 0 z 16.

!

!

18. Show that if OP 15, 10, 10 2, then @ OP @ 15.

!

19. If OP 12, 3, 6 2 and B14, 2, 8 2 , determine the coordinates of point A

!

!

such that OP AB .

V E C TO R S I N R 2 A N D R 3

NEL

- Practice Makes Perfect 5 Transformations)Transféré pardikwanz
- Staad Pro V8i KPE IntroductionTransféré partBuddika
- Angry Birds ProjectTransféré parMarguerite S.
- Milling Programming ManualTransféré parAhmad Suffian Ismail
- G4 ProfilesTransféré parRenalTamP
- 11-Geometry String FunctionsaTransféré parTran Van Dai
- Yearly Lesson Plan Mathematics Form2 2016Transféré parMohd Sabri
- RobertsonTransféré parPriscila Araújo
- Demonstration of Markup LanguageTransféré parRaj
- TTransféré parAdalbert Júnior
- TIJERAL SIMETRICO 1.rtfTransféré parwalter
- Lesson 2.3 - Plotting Integers on the Coordinate PlaneTransféré parehystad
- A New Similarity Measure Based on Falsity Value between Single Valued Neutrosophic Sets Based on the Centroid Points of Transformed Single Valued Neutrosophic Numbers with Applications to Pattern RecognitionTransféré parMia Amalia
- UP100618_U3R1Transféré parLuis Enrique Pichardo
- Appendix bTransféré parRJ Wakefield-Carl
- Add Maths Pra Spm Module 2 _ Sept 2016 _ p2 (1)Transféré parbjkhaw75
- Area Under CurvesTransféré parabhishekv0697
- 127_1Transféré parbedo39
- Problem Set 5Transféré parKamel Hamdan
- 052_MEDICION_HERRAMIENTATransféré parDavid Martinez
- tn032Transféré parJean Grégoire
- ampw 11Transféré parNadia Syazwina
- Algebra Unidad 2Transféré parPaula Moreno
- Solomon F PaperTransféré parice100
- 2. Double Integrals (Where Limits Are Not Given, But Region of Integration is Given)Transféré parrajlagwal
- 2017 12 Maths Sample Paper 01 Ans QeiwshTransféré paralisha
- Calculus Review 2Transféré parjcb30189
- Line ChartsTransféré parpratyusha
- Diff Calculus(SQ) and AsymptoteTransféré parSubhajyoti Das
- SolidCAM_2016_2.5D_Milling_Training_Course.pdfTransféré parSerbia- Србија

- Sys102 - Bss (Gprs) Database_02Transféré parNguyenPhuoc
- An Efficient RDL Routing for Flip Chip DesignsTransféré parAparna Tiwari
- profile essay farm runoffTransféré parapi-242201041
- Tender is the night - SummaryTransféré parCeline Fratus
- Cases on Sexual HarassmentTransféré parLourd Sydnel Roque
- Starch to Plastics Lab March 26 2015Transféré parPhilip Jayson L. Lestojas
- placeless place recognition.pdfTransféré parsuudfiin
- An Overview of Trolling StrategiesTransféré parmaleficetorrent
- ASPTransféré parAshok Phuliya
- Logistic KavinTransféré parMeena Sivasubramanian
- Irony BooklistTransféré parAhmed S. Mubarak
- IBM Informix 11.7Transféré parFábio Augusto Kepalas Chiaradia
- 23 Abis InterfaceTransféré parHazem Ahmed Maher
- $102 Million Awarded For FBI Frame-Up Of Four Innocent MenTransféré parmary eng
- lab 04Transféré parTenis Vijesti
- Prepare for Law School_ a Hacker's Free Tips on How to Study Law and SucceedTransféré parAbi STagz
- LAYERS and LEVELS - What a Column of Water Tells Us About Human CognitionTransféré parwiesio1
- CSTransféré parPratik Nakrani
- MEAM-Interatomic Potentials for Binary AlloyTransféré parQuantum Knots
- Lean Six Sigma and BPM - The Power of TwoTransféré parMichel Berthus
- Pathfinder Adventure Path - Jade Regent - Player's GuideTransféré parlaura
- 2011 FOCUS on the Arts BookTransféré parBryce Robertson
- Diagnostic AssessmentTransféré parEnirethac Llrettoc
- 1810.04805Transféré parStefano Salcedo
- Korsgaard - Activity of Reason.pdfTransféré parCedric Zhou
- Vadiraja a Proposal PPTTransféré parVadiraja Acharya
- 211613521-Unit-6-3Âº-Primaria-pdf.pdfTransféré parCris
- AnnualReport 07-08 - latest versionTransféré parSandip Patel
- GLOBOCAN 2012 copia 2.pdfTransféré parFernando Cruz
- Job Duties of an Altar ServerTransféré parAngie Lawrence