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Fender Design

Ship Tables
Berthing Modes
Coefcients
Berth Layout
Panel Design
Materials
Fender Testing
Section 12

Trelleborg Marine Systems

www.trelleborg.com/marine
Ref. M1100-S12-V1.1-EN

122

FENDER DESIGN
Fenders must reliably protect ships,
structures and themselves. They
must work every day for many years
in severe environments with little or
no maintenance.
As stated in the British
Standard, fender design should
be entrusted to appropriately
qualified and experienced people.
Fender engineering requires an
understanding of many areas:
B
B
B
B
B
B
B
B

Ship technology
Civil construction methods
Steel fabrications
Material properties
Installation techniques
Health and safety
Environmental factors
Regulations and codes of practice

Using this guide


This guide should assist with many
of the frequently asked questions
which arise during fender design. All
methods described are based on the
latest recommendations of PIANC*
as well as other internationally
recognised codes of practice.
Methods are also adapted to
working practices within Trelleborg
and to suit Trelleborg products.
Further design tools and utilities
including generic specifications,
energy calculation spreadsheets,
fender performance curves and much
more can be downloaded from the
Trelleborg Marine Systems website
(www.trelleborg.com/marine).

Codes and guidelines


ROM 0.2-90

1990

Actions in the Design of Maritime and Harbor


Works

BS6349 :

1994

Code of Practice for Design of Fendering and


Mooring Systems

Part 4 : 1994

Exceptions

EAU 1996

1996

Recommendations of the Committee for


Waterfront Structures

These guidelines do not encompass


unusual ships, extreme berthing
conditions and other extreme cases
for which specialist advice should be
sought.

PIANC Bulletin 95

1997

Approach Channels A Guide to Design


Supplement to Bulletin No.95 (1997) PIANC

Japanese MoT 911

1998

Technical Note of the Port and Harbour


Research Institute, Ministry of Transport, Japan
No. 911, Sept 1998

* PIANC 2002

2002

Guidelines for the Design of Fender Systems :


2002 Marcom Report of WG33

M1100-S12-V1.1-EN
Trelleborg AB, 2007

123

GLOSSARY
Commonly used symbols
Symbol
B
C
CB
CC
CE
CM
CS
D
EN
EA
FL
FS
H
K
KC
LOA
LBP
LS
LL
M
M50
M75
MD
P
R
RF
V
VB

Definition
Beam of vessel (excluding beltings and strakes)
Positive clearance between hull of vessel and face of structure
Block coefficient of vessels hull
Berth configuration coefficient
Eccentricity coefficient
Added mass coefficient (virtual mass coefficient)
Softness coefficient
Draft of vessel
Normal berthing energy to be absorbed by fender
Abnormal berthing energy to be absorbed by fender
Freeboard at laden draft
Abnormal impact safety factor
Height of compressible part of fender
Radius of gyration of vessel
Under keel clearance
Overall length of vessels hull
Length of vessels hull between perpendiculars
Overall length of the smallest vessel using the berth
Overall length of the largest vessel using the berth
Displacement of the vessel
Displacement of the vessel at 50% confidence limit
Displacement of the vessel at 75% confidence limit
Displacement of vessel
Fender pitch or spacing
Distance from point of contact to the centre of mass of the vessel
Reaction force of fender
Velocity of vessel (true vector)
Approach velocity of the vessel perpendicular to the berthing line
Berthing angle
Deflection of the fender unit
Hull contact angle with fender
Coefficient of friction
Velocity vector angle (between R and V)

Units
m
m

m
kNm
kNm
m

m
m
m
m
m
m
m
tonne
tonne
tonne
tonne
m
m
kN
m/s
m/s
degree
% or m
degree

degree

Denitions
Rubber fender

Units made from vulcanised rubber (often with encapsulated steel plates) that absorbs energy by
elastically deforming in compression, bending or shear or a combination of these effects.

Pneumatic fender

Units comprising fabric reinforced rubber bags filled with air under pressure and that absorb energy
from the work done in compressing the air above its normal initial pressure.

Foam fender

Units comprising a closed cell foam inner core with reinforced polymer outer skin that absorb
energy by virtue of the work done in compressing the foam.

Steel Panel

A structural steel frame designed to distribute the forces generated during rubber fender
compression.

M1100-S12-V1.1-EN
Trelleborg AB, 2007

124

WHY FENDER?
There is a simple reason to use fenders: it is just too
expensive not to do so. These are the opening remarks of
PIANC* and remain the primary reason why every modern port
invests in protecting their structures with fenders.
Well-designed fender systems will reduce construction
costs and will contribute to making the berth more efficient by
improving turn-around times. It follows that the longer a fender
system lasts and the less maintenance it needs, the better the
investment.
It is rare for the very cheapest fenders to offer the lowest
long term cost. Quite the opposite is true. A small initial saving
will often demand much greater investment in repairs and
upkeep over the years. A cheap fender system can cost many
times that of a well-engineered, higher quality solution over the
lifetime of the berth as the graphs below demonstrate.

10 reasons for quality fendering


B
B
B
B
B
B
B
B
B
B

Capital costs

Maintenance costs
700

180
160

120

500

400

80

300

Purchase price

100

60
40
20

Trelleborg

COST
SAVING

200

rg

o
Trelleb

100

Other

Purchase price
+ Design approvals
+ Delivery delays
+ Installation time
+ Site support
= Capital cost

er
Oth

Other costs

600

140

Safety of staff, ships and structures


Much lower lifecycle costs
Rapid, trouble-free installation
Quicker turnaround time, greater efficiency
Reduced maintenance and repair
Berths in more exposed locations
Better ship stability when moored
Lower structural loads
Accommodate more ship types and sizes
More satisfied customers

10

20
30
Service life (years)

40

50

Wear & tear


+ Replacements
+ Damage repairs
+ Removal & scrapping
+ Fatigue, corrosion
= Maintenance cost

Capital cost + Maintenance cost = FULL LIFE COST

M1100-S12-V1.1-EN
Trelleborg AB, 2007

125

DESIGN FLOWCHART
Functional
B type(s) of cargo
B safe berthing and mooring

B better stability on berth


B reduction of reaction force

Operational
B berthing procedures
B frequency of berthing
B limits of mooring and operations
(adverse weather)
B range of vessel sizes, types
B special features of vessels
(flare, beltings, list, etc)
B allowable hull pressures

B light, laden or partly laden ships


B stand-off from face of structure
(crane reach)
B fender spacing
B type and orientation of
waterfront structure
B special requirements
B spares availability

Site conditions
B wind speed
B wave height
B current speed

B topography
B tidal range
B swell and fetch

B temperature
B corrosivity
B channel depth

Design criteria
B
B
B
B
B
B

codes and standards


design vessels for calculations
normal/abnormal velocity
maximum reaction force
friction coefficient
desired service life

B
B
B
B
B

safety factors (normal/abnormal)


maintenance cost/frequency
installation cost/practicality
chemical pollution
accident response

Design criteria

Calculation of berthing energy

Mooring layout
CC berth configuration factor
CS softness factor

CM virtual mass factor


CE eccentricity factor

B location of mooring
B strength and type B pre-tensioning of
equipment and/or dolphins
of mooring lines
mooring lines

Calculation of fender energy absorption

Assume fender system and type

B selection of abnormal berthing safety factor

Computer simulation (first series)


Selection of appropriate fenders
Check results
Determination of:
B energy absorption
B reaction force
B deflection

B check vessel motions in six


degrees of freedom
B check vessel acceleration

B environmental factors B frictional loads


B angular compression B chains etc
B hull pressure

Check impact on structure and vessel


B horizontal and vertical loading
B chance of hitting the structure
(bulbous bows etc)
B face of structure to
accommodate fender

Computer simulation (optimisation)

B implications of installing the


fender
B bevels/snagging from hull
protrusions
B restraint chains

Final selection of fender


B determine main characteristics
of fender
B PIANC Type Approved
B verification test methods

M1100-S12-V1.1-EN
Trelleborg AB, 2007

B check deflection, energy and


reaction force
B check mooring line forces

B
B
B
B

check availability of fender


track record and warranties
future spares availability
fatigue/durability tests

126

THE DESIGN PROCESS


Many factors contribute to the design of a fender:

Ships
Ship design evolves constantly shapes
change and many vessel types are getting
larger. Fenders must suit current ships and
those expected to arrive in the foreseeable
future.

Structures
Fenders impose loads on the berthing
structure. Many berths are being built in
exposed locations, where fenders can
play a crucial role in the overall cost of
construction. Local practice, materials
and conditions may influence the choice
of fender.

Berthing
Many factors will affect how vessels
approach the berth, the corresponding
kinetic energy and the load applied to the
structure. Berthing modes may affect the
choice of ship speed and the safety factor
for abnormal conditions.

Installation and maintenance


Fender installation should be considered
early in the design process. Accessibility
for maintenance, wear allowances and
the protective coatings will all affect the
full life cost of systems. The right fender
choice can improve turnaround times
and reduce downtime. The safety of
personnel, structures and vessels must be
considered at every stage before, during
and after commissioning.

M1100-S12-V1.1-EN
Trelleborg AB, 2007

127

ENVIRONMENT
Typical berthing locations
Berthing structures are located in a variety of places from sheltered basins to unprotected, open waters. Local
conditions will play a large part in deciding the berthing speeds and approach angles, in turn affecting the type and size
of suitable fenders.

Non-tidal basins
With minor changes in water
level, these locations are usually
sheltered from strong winds,
waves and currents. Ship sizes
may be restricted due to lock
access.

Tidal basins
Larger variations in water level
(depends on location) but still
generally sheltered from winds,
waves and currents. May be used
by larger vessels than non-tidal
basins.

Coastal berths
Maximum exposure to
winds, waves and currents.
Berths generally used by
single classes of vessel
such as oil, gas or bulk.

River berths
Largest tidal range (depends on site),
with greater exposure to winds, waves
and currents. Approach mode may be
restricted by dredged channels and
by flood and ebb tides. Structures on
river bends may complicate berthing
manoeuvres.

Tides

Currents and winds

Tides vary by area and may have


extremes of a few centimetres
(Mediterranean, Baltic) or over 15
metres (parts of UK and Canada).
Tides will influence the structures
design and fender selection.

HRT

HRT
HAT
MHWS
MHWN
MLWN
MLWS
LAT
LRT

MLWS

Highest Recorded Tide


Highest Astronomical Tide
Mean High Water Spring
Mean High Water Neap
Mean Low Water Neap
Mean Low Water Spring
Lowest Astronomical Tide
Lowest Recorded Tide

M1100-S12-V1.1-EN
Trelleborg AB, 2007

HAT
MHWS
MHWN

MSL
MLWN

LAT
LRT

Current and wind forces can push


vessels onto or off the berth, and
may influence the berthing speed.
Once berthed, and provided the
vessel contacts several fenders,
the forces are usually less critical.
However special cases do exist,
especially on very soft structures.
As a general guide, deep draught
vessels (such as tankers) will be
more affected by current and high
freeboard vessels (such as RoRo
and container ships) will be more
affected by strong winds.

128

STRUCTURES
The preferred jetty structure can influence the fender design and vice versa. The type of structure depends on local
practice, the geology at the site, available materials and other factors.
Selecting an appropriate fender at an early stage can have a major effect on the overall project cost. Below are some
typical structures and fender design considerations.

Features
Open pile jetties

B Simple and cost-effective


B Good for deeper waters
B Load-sensitive
B Limited fixing area for fenders

Design considerations
B Low reaction reduces pile
sizes and concrete mass
B Best to keep fixings above
piles and low tide
B Suits cantilever panel designs

B Vulnerable to bulbous bows

Dolphins

B Common for oil and gas terminals

B Few but large fenders

B Very load-sensitive

B Total reliability needed

B Flexible structures need careful


design to match fender loads

B Low reactions preferred

B Structural repairs are costly

Monopiles

B Inexpensive structures
B Loads are critical
B Not suitable for all geologies
B Suits remote locations
B Quick to construct

B Large panels for low hull


pressures need chains etc

B Fenders should be designed


for fast installation
B Restricted access means low
maintenance fenders
B Low reactions must be
matched to structure
B Parallel motion systems

Mass structures

B Most common in areas with small tides

B Keep anchors above low tide

B Fender reaction not critical

B Care needed selecting fender


spacing and projection

B Avoid fixings spanning pre-cast and


in situ sections or expansion joints

B Suits cast-in or retrofit anchors


B Many options for fender types

Sheet piles

B Quick to construct
B Mostly used in low corrosion regions
B In situ concrete copes are common
B Can suffer from ALWC (accelerated
low water corrosion)

B Fixing fenders direct to piles


difficult due to build tolerances
B Keep anchors above low tide
B Care needed selecting fender
spacing and projection

M1100-S12-V1.1-EN
Trelleborg AB, 2007

129

SHIP TYPES
General cargo ship
B
B
B
B

Prefer small gaps between ship and quay to minimise outreach of cranes.
Large change of draft between laden and empty conditions.
May occupy berths for long periods.
Coastal cargo vessels may berth without tug assistance.

B
B
B
B

Need to be close to berth face to minimise shiploader outreach.


Possible need to warp ships along berth for shiploader to change holds.
Large change of draft between laden and empty conditions.
Require low hull contact pressures unless belted.

B
B
B
B
B

Flared bows are prone to strike shore structures.


Increasing ship beams needs increase crane outreach.
Some vessels have single or multiple beltings.
Bulbous bows may strike front piles of structures at large berthing angles.
Require low hull contact pressures unless belted.

B
B
B
B

Need to avoid fire hazards from sparks or friction.


Large change of draft between laden and empty conditions.
Require low hull contact pressures.
Coastal tankers may berth without tug assistance.

B
B
B
B
B

Ships have own loading ramps usually stern, slewed or side doors.
High lateral and/or transverse berthing speeds.
Manoeuvrability at low speeds may be poor.
End berthing impacts often occur.
Many different shapes, sizes and condition of beltings.

B
B
B
B

Small draft change between laden and empty.


White or light coloured hulls are easily marked.
Flared bows are prone to strike shore structures.
Require low hull contact pressures unless belted.

B
B
B
B
B

Quick turn around needed.


High berthing speeds, often with end berthing.
Intensive use of berth.
Berthing without tug assistance.
Many different shapes, sizes and condition of beltings.

B
B
B
B
B

Need to avoid fire hazards from sparks or friction.


Shallow draft even at full load.
Require low hull contact pressures.
Single class of vessels using dedicated facilities.
Manifolds not necessarily at midships position.

Bulk carrier

Container ship

Oil tanker

RoRo ship

Passenger (cruise) ship

Ferry

Gas carrier

M1100-S12-V1.1-EN
Trelleborg AB, 2007

1210

SHIP FEATURES
Bow
flares

Common on container vessels and cruise ships.


Big flare angles may affect fender performance.
Larger fender may be required to maintain
clearance from the quay structure, cranes, etc.

Bulbous
bows

Most modern ships have bulbous bows. Care is


needed at large berthing angles or with widely
spaced fenders to ensure the bulbous bow does
not catch behind the fender or hit structural piles.

Beltings &
strakes

Almost every class of ship could be fitted with


beltings or strakes. They are most common on
RoRo ships or ferries, but may even appear on
container ships or gas carriers. Tugs and offshore
supply boats have very large beltings.

Flying
bridge

Cruise and RoRo ships often have flying bridges.


In locks, or when tides are large, care is needed to
avoid the bridge sitting on top of the fender during
a falling tide.

Low
freeboard

Barges, small tankers and general cargo ships can


have a small freeboard. Fenders should extend
down so that vessels cannot catch underneath at
low tides and when fully laden.

Stern &
side doors

RoRo ships, car carriers and some navy vessels


have large doors for vehicle access. These are
often recessed and can snag fenders especially
in locks or when warping along the berth.

High
freeboard

Ships with high freeboard include ferries, cruise


and container ships, as well as many lightly loaded
vessels. Strong winds can cause sudden, large
increases in berthing speeds.

Low hull
pressure

Many modern ships, but especially tankers


and gas carriers, require very low hull contact
pressures, which are achieved using large fender
panels or floating fenders.

Aluminium
hulls

High speed catamarans and monohulls are


often built from aluminium. They can only accept
loads from fenders at special positions: usually
reinforced beltings set very low or many metres
above the waterline.

Special
features

Many ships are modified during their lifetime with


little regard to the effect these changes may have
on berthing or fenders. Protrusions can snag
fenders but risks are reduced by large bevels and
chamfers on the frontal panels.

M1100-S12-V1.1-EN
Trelleborg AB, 2007

1211

BERTHING MODES
Side berthing

Typical values

0 15
100mm/s V 300mm/s

60 90

Dolphin berthing

Tug

Typical values
0 10

100mm/s V 200mm/s
30 90

V
End berthing

Typical values

0 10

200mm/s V 500mm/s
0 10

Lock entrances

Typical values

0 30

300mm/s V 2000mm/s
0 30

Ship-to-ship berthing

Typical values
0 15
150mm/s V 500mm/s

M1100-S12-V1.1-EN
Trelleborg AB, 2007

60 90

1212

BERTHING ENERGY
The kinetic energy of a berthing ship needs to be absorbed by a suitable fender system and this is most commonly
carried out using well recognised deterministic methods as outlined in the following sections.

Normal Berthing Energy (EN)


Most berthings will have energy less than or equal to the normal berthing energy (EN). The calculation should take into
account worst combinations of vessel displacement, velocity, angle as well as the various coefficients. Allowance should
also be made for how often the berth is used, any tidal restrictions, experience of the operators, berth type, wind and
current exposure.
The normal energy to be absorbed by the fender can be calculated as:

EN = 0.5 M VB2 CM CE CC CS
Where,
EN = Normal berthing energy to be absorbed by the fender (kNm)
M = Mass of the vessel (displacement in tonne) at chosen confidence level.*
VB = Approach velocity component perpendicular to the berthing line (m/s).
CM = Added mass coefficient
CE = Eccentricity coefficient
CC = Berth configuration coefficient
CS = Softness coefficient
* PIANC suggests 50% or 75% confidence limits (M50 or M75) are appropriate to most cases.
Berthing velocity (VB) is usually based on displacement at 50% confidence limit (M50).

Abnormal Berthing Energy (EA)


Abnormal impacts arise when the normal energy is exceeded. Causes
may include human error, malfunctions, exceptional weather conditions
or a combination of these factors.
The abnormal energy to be absorbed by the fender can be calculated as:

EA = FS EN

PIANC Factors of Safety (FS)


Vessel type

Size

FS

Tanker, bulk, cargo

Largest
Smallest

1.25
1.75

Container

Largest
Smallest

1.5
2.0

General cargo

Where,
EA = Abnormal berthing energy to be absorbed by the fender (kNm)
FS = Safety factor for abnormal berthings

1.75

RoRo, ferries

2.0

Tugs, workboats, etc

2.0

Choosing a suitable safety factor (FS) will depend on many factors:

Source: PIANC 2002; Table 4.2.5.

B
B
B
B
B
B

PIANC recommends that the factor of


abnormal impact when derived should be
not be less than 1.1 nor more than 2.0
unless exception circumstances prevail.
Source: PIANC 2002; Section 4.2.8.5.

The consequences a fender failure may have on berth operations.


How frequently the berth is used.
Very low design berthing speeds which might easily be exceeded.
Vulnerability to damage of the supporting structure.
Range of vessel sizes and types using the berth.
Hazardous or valuable cargoes including people.

M1100-S12-V1.1-EN
Trelleborg AB, 2007

1213

SHIP DEFINITIONS
Many different definitions are used to describe ship sizes and classes. Some of the more common descriptions are
given below.
Vessel Type

DWT

10,00040,000 dwt
130,000200,000 dwt
>200,000 dwt
200,000300,000 dwt
>300,000 dwt

Comments
1st Generation container
<1,000 teu
2nd Generation container
1,0002,500 teu
3rd Generation container
2,5005,000 teu
4th Generation container
5,0008,000 teu
5th Generation container
>8,000 teu
All vessel types in Suez Canal
All vessel types in St Lawrence Seaway
Bulk carrier
Bulk carrier
Bulk carrier
Oil tanker
Oil tanker

2. Suez Canal
The canal, connecting the Mediterranean
and Red Sea, is about 163km long and
varies from 80135m wide. It has no
lock chambers but most of the canal has
a single traffic lane with passing bays.

3. St Lawrence Seaway
The seaway system allows ships to
pass from the Atlantic Ocean to the
Great Lakes via six short canals totalling
110km, with 19 locks, each 233m long,
24.4m wide and 9.1m deep.

Length Beam Draft

Small feeder

200m 23m 9m

Feeder

215m 30m 10m

Panamax1

290m 32.3m 12m

Post-Panamax

305m >32.3m 13m

Super post-Panamax (VLCS)


Suezmax 2
Seaway-Max3
Handysize
Cape Size
Very large bulk carrier (VLBC)
Very large crude carrier (VLCC)
Ultra large crude carrier (ULCC)

500m 70m 21.3m


233.5m 24.0m 9.1m

1. Panama Canal
Lock chambers are 305m long and
33.5m wide. The largest depth of the
canal is 12.513.7m. The canal is about
86km long and passage takes eight
hours.

The ship tables show laden draft (DL) of vessels. The draft of a partly loaded ship (D) can be estimated using the
formula below:
LWT

MD = LWT + DWT

DWT

=
MD

DL LWT

MD

DL (MD DWT)
MD

DL

USING SHIP TABLES


50%

M1100-S12-V1.1-EN
Trelleborg AB, 2007

75%

Ship tables originally appeared in PIANC 2002. They are divided into
Confidence Limits (CL) which are defined as the proportion of ships of the
same DWT with dimensions equal to or less than those in the table. PIANC
considers 50% to 75% confidence limits are the most appropriate for design.
Please ask Trelleborg Marine Systems for supplementary tables of latest
and largest vessel types including Container, RoRo, Cruise and LNG.

1214
50%

SHIP TABLES
smaller

Type

General
cargo ship

Bulk carrier

Container
ship

Oil tanker

DWT/GRT

Displacement
M50

LOA

LBP

FL

DL

larger

Wind area
Lateral
Front
Full Load Ballast Full Load Ballast

1000

1580

63

58

10.3

1.6

3.6

227

292

59

88

2000

3040

78

72

12.4

1.9

4.5

348

463

94

134

3000

4460

88

82

13.9

2.1

5.1

447

605

123

172

5000

7210

104

96

16.0

2.3

6.1

612

849

173

236

7000

9900

115

107

17.6

2.5

6.8

754

1060

216

290

10000

13900

128

120

19.5

2.7

7.6

940

1340

274

361

15000

20300

146

136

21.8

3.0

8.7

1210

1760

359

463

20000

26600

159

149

23.6

3.1

9.6

1440

2130

435

552

30000

39000

181

170

26.4

3.5

10.9

1850

2780

569

709

40000

51100

197

186

28.6

3.7

12.0

2210

3370

690

846

5000

6740

106

98

15.0

2.3

6.1

615

850

205

231

7000

9270

116

108

16.6

2.6

6.7

710

1010

232

271

10000

13000

129

120

18.5

2.9

7.5

830

1230

264

320

15000

19100

145

135

21.0

3.3

8.4

980

1520

307

387

20000

25000

157

148

23.0

3.6

9.2

1110

1770

341

443

30000

36700

176

167

26.1

4.1

10.3

1320

2190

397

536

50000

59600

204

194

32.3

4.8

12.0

1640

2870

479

682
798

70000

81900

224

215

32.3

5.3

13.3

1890

3440

542

100000

115000

248

239

37.9

5.9

14.8

2200

4150

619

940

150000

168000

279

270

43.0

6.6

16.7

2610

5140

719

1140

200000

221000

303

294

47.0

7.2

18.2

2950

5990

800

1310

250000

273000

322

314

50.4

7.8

19.4

3240

6740

868

1450

7000

10200

116

108

19.6

2.4

6.9

1320

1360

300

396

10000

14300

134

125

21.6

3.0

7.7

1690

1700

373

477

15000

21100

157

147

24.1

3.9

8.7

2250

2190

478

591

20000

27800

176

165

26.1

4.6

9.5

2750

2620

569

687

25000

34300

192

180

27.7

5.2

10.2

3220

3010

652

770

30000

40800

206

194

29.1

5.8

10.7

3660

3370

729

850

40000

53700

231

218

32.3

6.8

11.7

4480

4040

870

990

50000

66500

252

238

32.3

7.7

12.5

5230

4640

990

1110

60000

79100

271

256

35.2

8.5

13.2

5950

5200

1110

1220

1000

1450

59

54

9.7

0.5

3.8

170

266

78

80

2000

2810

73

68

12.1

0.7

4.7

251

401

108

117

3000

4140

83

77

13.7

1.0

5.3

315

509

131

146

5000

6740

97

91

16.0

1.4

6.1

419

689

167

194

7000

9300

108

102

17.8

1.7

6.7

505

841

196

233

10000

13100

121

114

19.9

2.0

7.5

617

1040

232

284

15000

19200

138

130

22.5

2.6

8.4

770

1320

281

355

20000

25300

151

143

24.6

3.1

9.1

910

1560

322

416

30000

37300

171

163

27.9

3.7

10.3

1140

1990

390

520

50000

60800

201

192

32.3

4.9

11.9

1510

2690

497

689

70000

83900

224

214

36.3

5.7

13.2

1830

3280

583

829

100000

118000

250

240

40.6

6.8

14.6

2230

4050

690

1010

150000

174000

284

273

46.0

8.3

16.4

2800

5150

840

1260

200000

229000

311

300

50.3

9.4

17.9

3290

6110

960

1480

300000

337000

354

342

57.0

11.4

20.1

4120

7770

1160

1850

M1100-S12-V1.1-EN
Trelleborg AB, 2007

1215
50%

SHIP TABLES
smaller

larger

Type

RoRo ship

Passenger
(cruise) ship

DWT/GRT

Displacement
M50

LOA

LBP

FL

DL

1000

1970

66

60

13.2

2.0

3.2

2000

3730

85

78

15.6

2.9

3000

5430

99

90

17.2

3.6

5000

8710

119

109

19.5

Wind area
Lateral
Front
Full Load Ballast Full Load Ballast
700

810

216

217

4.1

970

1110

292

301

4.8

1170

1340

348

364

4.7

5.8

1480

1690

435

464

7000

11900

135

123

21.2

5.5

6.6

1730

1970

503

544

10000

16500

153

141

23.1

6.7

7.5

2040

2320

587

643

15000

24000

178

163

25.6

8.2

8.7

2460

2790

701

779

20000

31300

198

182

27.4

9.5

9.7

2810

3180

794

890

30000

45600

229

211

30.3

11.7

11.3

3400

3820

950

1080

1000

850

60

54

11.4

2.2

1.9

426

452

167

175

2000

1580

76

68

13.6

2.8

2.5

683

717

225

234

3000

2270

87

78

15.1

3.2

3.0

900

940

267

277

5000

3580

104

92

17.1

3.9

3.6

1270

1320

332

344

7000

4830

117

103

18.6

4.5

4.1

1600

1650

383

396

10000

6640

133

116

20.4

5.0

4.8

2040

2090

446

459

15000

9530

153

132

22.5

5.9

5.6

2690

2740

530

545

20000

12300

169

146

24.2

5.2

7.6

3270

3320

599

614

30000

17700

194

166

26.8

7.3

7.6

4310

4350

712

728

50000

27900

231

197

30.5

10.6

7.6

6090

6120

880

900

70000

37600

260

220

33.1

13.1

7.6

7660

7660

1020

1040

1000

810

59

54

12.7

1.9

2.7

387

404

141

145

2000

1600

76

69

15.1

2.5

3.3

617

646

196

203

3000

2390

88

80

16.7

2.8

3.7

811

851

237

247

5000

3940

106

97

19.0

3.3

4.3

1150

1200

302

316

7000

5480

119

110

20.6

3.7

4.8

1440

1510

354

372

10000

7770

135

125

22.6

4.2

5.3

1830

1930

419

442

15000

11600

157

145

25.0

4.7

6.0

2400

2540

508

537

20000

15300

174

162

26.8

5.2

6.5

2920

3090

582

618

30000

22800

201

188

29.7

5.9

7.4

3830

4070

705

752

40000

30300

223

209

31.9

6.5

8.0

4660

4940

810

860

1000

2210

68

63

11.1

1.0

4.3

350

436

121

139

2000

4080

84

78

13.7

1.6

5.2

535

662

177

203

3000

5830

95

89

15.4

2.0

5.8

686

846

222

254

5000

9100

112

104

17.9

2.7

6.7

940

1150

295

335

7000

12300

124

116

19.8

3.2

7.4

1150

1410

355

403

10000

16900

138

130

22.0

3.8

8.2

1430

1750

432

490

15000

24100

157

147

24.8

4.6

9.3

1840

2240

541

612

20000

31100

171

161

27.1

5.4

10.0

2190

2660

634

716

30000

44400

194

183

30.5

6.1

11.7

2810

3400

794

894

50000

69700

227

216

35.5

9.6

11.7

3850

4630

1050

1180

70000

94000

252

240

39.3

12.3

11.7

4730

5670

1270

1420

100000

128000

282

268

43.7

15.6

11.7

5880

7030

1550

1730

Ferry

Gas carrier

M1100-S12-V1.1-EN
Trelleborg AB, 2007

1216
75%

SHIP TABLES
smaller

Type

General
cargo ship

Bulk carrier

Container
ship

Oil tanker

DWT/GRT

Displacement
M75

LOA

LBP

FL

DL

larger

Wind area
Lateral
Front
Full Load Ballast Full Load Ballast

1000

1690

67

62

10.8

1.9

3.9

278

342

63

93

2000

3250

83

77

13.1

2.3

4.9

426

541

101

142

3000

4750

95

88

14.7

2.5

5.6

547

708

132

182

5000

7690

111

104

16.9

2.8

6.6

750

993

185

249

7000

10600

123

115

18.6

3.0

7.4

922

1240

232

307

10000

14800

137

129

20.5

3.3

8.3

1150

1570

294

382

15000

21600

156

147

23.0

3.6

9.5

1480

2060

385

490

20000

28400

170

161

24.9

3.9

10.4

1760

2490

466

585

30000

41600

193

183

27.8

4.3

11.9

2260

3250

611

750

40000

54500

211

200

30.2

4.6

13.0

2700

3940

740

895

5000

6920

109

101

15.5

2.4

6.2

689

910

221

245

7000

9520

120

111

17.2

2.6

6.9

795

1090

250

287

10000

13300

132

124

19.2

2.9

7.7

930

1320

286

340

15000

19600

149

140

21.8

3.3

8.6

1100

1630

332

411

20000

25700

161

152

23.8

3.6

9.4

1240

1900

369

470

30000

37700

181

172

27.0

4.1

10.6

1480

2360

428

569

50000

61100

209

200

32.3

4.7

12.4

1830

3090

518

723

70000

84000

231

221

32.3

5.2

13.7

2110

3690

586

846

100000

118000

255

246

39.2

5.9

15.2

2460

4460

669

1000

150000

173000

287

278

44.5

6.7

17.1

2920

5520

777

1210

200000

227000

311

303

48.7

7.3

18.6

3300

6430

864

1380

250000

280000

332

324

52.2

7.8

19.9

3630

7240

938

1540

7000

10700

123

115

20.3

2.6

7.2

1460

1590

330

444

10000

15100

141

132

22.4

3.3

8.0

1880

1990

410

535

15000

22200

166

156

25.0

4.3

9.0

2490

2560

524

663

20000

29200

186

175

27.1

5.0

9.9

3050

3070

625

771

25000

36100

203

191

28.8

5.7

10.6

3570

3520

716

870

30000

43000

218

205

30.2

6.4

11.1

4060

3950

800

950

40000

56500

244

231

32.3

7.4

12.2

4970

4730

950

1110

50000

69900

266

252

32.3

8.4

13.0

5810

5430

1090

1250

60000

83200

286

271

36.5

9.2

13.8

6610

6090

1220

1370

1000

1580

61

58

10.2

0.5

4.0

190

280

86

85

2000

3070

76

72

12.6

0.8

4.9

280

422

119

125

3000

4520

87

82

14.3

1.1

5.5

351

536

144

156

5000

7360

102

97

16.8

1.5

6.4

467

726

184

207

7000

10200

114

108

18.6

1.8

7.1

564

885

216

249

10000

14300

127

121

20.8

2.1

7.9

688

1090

255

303

15000

21000

144

138

23.6

2.7

8.9

860

1390

309

378

20000

27700

158

151

25.8

3.2

9.6

1010

1650

355

443

30000

40800

180

173

29.2

3.9

10.9

1270

2090

430

554

50000

66400

211

204

32.3

5.0

12.6

1690

2830

548

734

70000

91600

235

227

38.0

6.0

13.9

2040

3460

642

884

100000

129000

263

254

42.5

7.1

15.4

2490

4270

761

1080

150000

190000

298

290

48.1

8.5

17.4

3120

5430

920

1340

200000

250000

327

318

42.6

9.8

18.9

3670

6430

1060

1570

300000

368000

371

363

59.7

11.9

21.2

4600

8180

1280

1970

M1100-S12-V1.1-EN
Trelleborg AB, 2007

1217
75%

SHIP TABLES
smaller

larger

Type

RoRo ship

Passenger
(cruise) ship

DWT/GRT

Displacement
M75

Wind area
Lateral
Front
Full Load Ballast Full Load Ballast

LOA

LBP

FL

DL

73

66

14.0

2.7

3.5

880

970

232

232

1000

2190

2000

4150

94

86

16.6

3.9

4.5

1210

1320

314

323

3000

6030

109

99

18.3

4.7

5.3

1460

1590

374

391

5000

9670

131

120

20.7

6.1

6.4

1850

2010

467

497

7000

13200

148

136

22.5

7.3

7.2

2170

2350

541

583

10000

18300

169

155

24.6

8.8

8.2

2560

2760

632

690

15000

26700

196

180

27.2

10.7

9.6

3090

3320

754

836

20000

34800

218

201

29.1

12.4

10.7

3530

3780

854

960

30000

50600

252

233

32.2

15.2

12.4

4260

4550

1020

1160

1000

1030

64

60

12.1

2.3

2.6

464

486

187

197

2000

1910

81

75

14.4

2.9

3.4

744

770

251

263

3000

2740

93

86

16.0

3.4

4.0

980

1010

298

311

5000

4320

112

102

18.2

4.2

4.8

1390

1420

371

386

7000

5830

125

114

19.8

4.7

5.5

1740

1780

428

444

10000

8010

142

128

21.6

5.3

6.4

2220

2250

498

516

15000

11500

163

146

23.9

6.2

7.5

2930

2950

592

611

20000

14900

180

160

25.7

7.3

8.0

3560

3570

669

690

30000

21300

207

183

28.4

9.8

8.0

4690

4680

795

818

50000

33600

248

217

32.3

13.7

8.0

6640

6580

990

1010

70000

45300

278

243

35.2

16.6

8.0

8350

8230

1140

1170

1000

1230

67

61

14.3

2.1

3.4

411

428

154

158

2000

2430

86

78

17.0

2.6

4.2

656

685

214

221

3000

3620

99

91

18.8

2.9

4.8

862

903

259

269

5000

5970

119

110

21.4

3.5

5.5

1220

1280

330

344

7000

8310

134

124

23.2

3.9

6.1

1530

1600

387

405

10000

11800

153

142

25.4

4.3

6.8

1940

2040

458

482

15000

17500

177

164

28.1

5.0

7.6

2550

2690

555

586

20000

23300

196

183

30.2

5.5

8.3

3100

3270

636

673

30000

34600

227

212

33.4

6.2

9.4

4070

4310

771

819

40000

45900

252

236

35.9

6.9

10.2

4950

5240

880

940

1000

2480

71

66

11.7

1.1

4.6

390

465

133

150

2000

4560

88

82

14.3

1.5

5.7

597

707

195

219

3000

6530

100

93

16.1

2.0

6.4

765

903

244

273

5000

10200

117

109

18.8

2.6

7.4

1050

1230

323

361

7000

13800

129

121

20.8

3.2

8.1

1290

1510

389

434

10000

18900

144

136

23.1

3.9

9.0

1600

1870

474

527

15000

27000

164

154

26.0

4.8

10.1

2050

2390

593

658

20000

34800

179

169

28.4

5.5

11.0

2450

2840

696

770

30000

49700

203

192

32.0

6.7

12.3

3140

3630

870

961

50000

78000

237

226

37.2

10.5

12.3

4290

4940

1150

1270

70000

105000

263

251

41.2

13.4

12.3

5270

6050

1390

1530

100000

144000

294

281

45.8

16.9

12.3

6560

7510

1690

1860

Ferry

Gas carrier

M1100-S12-V1.1-EN
Trelleborg AB, 2007

1218

APPROACH VELOCITY (VB)


Berthing speeds depend on the ease or difficulty of the approach, the exposure of the berth and the vessels size.
Conditions are normally divided into five categories as shown in the charts key table.
The most widely used guide to approach speeds is the Brolsma table, adopted by BS1, PIANC2 and other standards.
For ease of use, speeds for the main vessel sizes are shown at the bottom of this page.

0.8
a
b
c
d
e

0.7

VB

Approach velocity, VB (m/s)

e
0.6

Berthing condition
Easy berthing, sheltered
Difficult berthing, sheltered
Easy berthing, exposed
Good berthing, exposed
Difficult berthing, exposed

d
0.5
c

0.4

most commonly
used conditions

0.3
b
0.2
a
0.1
USE WITH CAUTION
0
1,000

10,000

100,000

500,000

Deadweight (DWT)*
* PIANC suggests using DWT from 50% or 75% confidence limit ship tables.

Velocity, VB (m/s)
DWT

1,000

0.179

0.343

0.517

0.669

0.865

2,000

0.151

0.296

0.445

0.577

0.726

3,000

0.136

0.269

0.404

0.524

0.649

4,000

0.125

0.250

0.374

0.487

0.597

5,000

0.117

0.236

0.352

0.459

0.558

10,000

0.094

0.192

0.287

0.377

0.448

20,000

0.074

0.153

0.228

0.303

0.355

30,000

0.064

0.133

0.198

0.264

0.308

40,000

0.057

0.119

0.178

0.239

0.279

50,000

0.052

0.110

0.164

0.221

0.258

100,000

0.039

0.083

0.126

0.171

0.201

200,000

0.028

0.062

0.095

0.131

0.158

300,000

0.022

0.052

0.080

0.111

0.137

400,000

0.019

0.045

0.071

0.099

0.124

500,000

0.017

0.041

0.064

0.090

0.115

B Approach velocities less than


0.1m/s should be used with
caution.
B Values are for tug-assisted
berthing.
B Spreadsheets for calculating the
approach velocity and berthing
energy are available at
www.trelleborg.com/marine .
B Actual berthing velocities can be
measured, displayed and recorded
using a SmartDock Docking Aid
System (DAS) by Harbour Marine.

Harbour Marine is part of


Trelleborg Marine Systems.

Caution: low berthing speeds are easily exceeded.

M1100-S12-V1.1-EN
Trelleborg AB, 2007

1219

BLOCK COEFFICIENT (CB)


The block coefficient (CB) is a function of the hull shape and is expressed as follows:

CB =

Typical block coefcients (CB)

MD
LBP B D SW

Container vessels
General cargo and bulk carriers
Tankers
Ferries
RoRo vessels

where,
MD = displacement of vessel (t)
LBP = length between perpendiculars (m)
B = beam (m)
D = draft (m)
SW = seawater density 1.025t/m3

0.60.8
0.720.85
0.85
0.550.65
0.70.8

Source: PIANC 2002; Table 4.2.2

Given ship dimensions and using typical block coefficients,


the displacement can be estimated:

LBP

MD CB LBP B D SW

ADDED MASS COEFFICIENT (CM)


B
The added mass coefficient allows for the body of water carried
along with the ship as it moves sideways through the water. As
the ship is stopped by the fender, the entrained water continues
to push against the ship, effectively increasing its overall mass.
The Vasco Costa method is adopted by most design codes for
ship-to-shore berthing where water depths are not substantially
greater than vessel drafts.
PIANC (2002)

for

KC

0.1

for

KC
D

KC
D

0.5

VB

KC

Shigera Ueda
(1981)

Vasco Costa*
(1964)

0.5

KC
D

CM = 1.875 0.75

2D

CM = 1.5

CM =

2 CB B

CM = 1 +

where,
D = draft of vessel (m)
B = beam of vessel (m)
LBP = length between
perpendiculars (m)
KC = under keel clearance (m)

* valid where VB 0.08m/s, KC 0.1D

Special case longitudinal approach

1219

CM = 1.8

for 0.1

Quay

CM = 1.1
Recommended by PIANC.

1220

ECCENTRICITY COEFFICIENT (CE)


The Eccentricity Coefficient allows
for the energy dissipated by rotation
of the ship about its point of impact
with the fenders. The correct point of
impact, berthing angle and velocity
vector angle are all important
for accurate calculation of the
eccentricity coefficient.
In practice, CE often varies
between 0.3 and 1.0 for different
berthing cases.
Velocity (V) is not always
perpendicular to the berthing line.

LBP
y

B
2

berthing line
VB

V
VL
VL = longitudinal velocity component (forward or astern)

x+y=

R=

LBP
2

y2 +

(assuming the centre of mass is at mid-length of the ship)

B
2

Common berthing cases

Quarter-point berthing
K = (0.19 CB + 0.11) LBP
x=
2

CE =

LBP
4

CE 0.40.6

K + R cos
Third-point berthing

K2 + R2

x=
where,
B = beam (m)
CB = block coefficient
LBP = length between perpendiculars (m)
R = centre of mass to point of impact (m)
K = radius of gyration (m)

LBP
3

CE 0.60.8

Midships berthing
x=

LBP
2

CE 1.0

Caution: for < 10, CE J 1.0


Lock entrances and guiding fenders

Dolphin berths
Tug

V
R

V
a

Where the ship has a significant forward motion, PIANC


suggests that the ships speed parallel to the berthing
face (Vcos) is not decreased by berthing impacts, and
it is the transverse velocity component (Vsin) which
much be resisted by the fenders. When calculating the
eccentricity coefficient, the velocity vector angle () is
taken between V and R.

Ships rarely berth exactly midway between dolphins.


ROM 0.2-90 suggests a=0.1L, with a minimum of 10m
and maximum of 15m between the midpoint and the
vessels centre of mass. This offset reduces the vector
angle () and increases the eccentricity coefficient.

M1100-S12-V1.1-EN
Trelleborg AB, 2007

1221

ECCENTRICITY COEFFICIENT (CE)


Special cases for RoRo Terminals
Modern RoRo terminals commonly use two different approach modes during berthing. PIANC defines these as mode b)
and mode c). It is important to decide whether one or both approach modes will be used, as the berthing energies which
must be absorbed by the fenders can differ considerably.

Mode b)

Mode c)

15

Breasting
dolphins

Outer end

A
A

V1
0.25LS

Approach

V1

1.05LL

0.25LS

15

Breasting
dolphins

V2

0.25LS

V2

0.25LS
Inner end

V3

V3

0.25LS

0.25LS

End fender and


shore based ramp

Fender
Side

B
C

Side
End

Typical values
100mm/s V1 300mm/s
60 90
N/A
300mm/s V2 500mm/s
200mm/s V3 500mm/s
0 10

RoRo vessels with bow and/or stern ramps make a


transverse approach to the berth. The ships then move
along the quay or dolphins using the side fenders for
guidance until they are the required distance from the
shore ramp structure.
B Lower berthing energy
B Reduced speeds may affect ship manoeuvrability
B Increased turn-around time
B CE is smaller (typically 0.40.7)

M1100-S12-V1.1-EN
Trelleborg AB, 2007

End fender and


shore based ramp

Fender
Side

Typical values
1000mm/s V1 3000mm/s

0 50

B
C

Side
End

500mm/s V2 1000mm/s
200mm/s V3 500mm/s

0 50
0 10

RoRo vessels approach either head-on or stern-on with a


large longitudinal velocity. Side fenders guide the vessel
but ships berth directly against the shore ramp structure
or dedicated end fenders.
B Quicker berthing and more controllable in strong winds
B High berthing energies
B Risk of vessel hitting inside of fenders or even the
dolphins
B CE can be large (typically 0.60.9)

1222

BERTH CONFIGURATION COEFFICIENT (CC)


When ships berth at small angles against solid
structures, the water between hull and quay acts as
a cushion and dissipates a small part of the berthing
energy. The extent to which this factor contributes will
depend upon several factors:
B
B
B
B
B

Closed structure

Quay structure design


Underkeel clearance
Velocity and angle of approach
Projection of fender
Vessel hull shape

Semi-closed structure
PIANC recommends the following values:

CC = 1.0

B
B
B
B

CC = 0.9

B Solid quay structures


B Berthing angles > 5

Open structures including berth corners


Berthing angles > 5
Very low berthing velocities
Large underkeel clearance

Note: where the under keel clearance has already been


considered for added mass (CM), the berth configuration
coefficient CC =1 is usually assumed.

SOFTNESS COEFFICIENT (CS)


Where fenders are hard relative to the flexibility of the ship hull, some of the berthing energy is absorbed by elastic
deformation of the hull. In most cases this contribution is limited and ignored (CS =1). PIANC recommends the following
values:
CS = 1.0

Soft fenders (f > 150mm)

CS = 0.9

Hard fenders (f 150mm)

M1100-S12-V1.1-EN
Trelleborg AB, 2007

1223

Every type and size of fender


has different performance
characteristics. Whatever type of
fenders are used, they must have
sufficient capacity to absorb the
normal and abnormal energies of
berthing ships.
When selecting fenders the
designer must consider many factors
including:
B
B
B
B
B
B

Single or multiple fender contacts


The effects of angular compressions
Approach speeds
Extremes of temperature
Berthing frequency
Fender efficiency

Reaction

FENDER SELECTION

ENERGY
= area under curve

Deflection

Comparing efciency
Fender efficiency is defined as the
ratio of the energy absorbed to
the reaction force generated. This
method allows fenders of many sizes
and types to be compared as the
example shows.
Comparisons should also be made
at other compression angles, speeds
and temperatures when applicable.

This comparison shows Super


Cone and SeaGuard fenders
with similar energy, reaction
and hull pressure, but different
height, deflection and initial
stiffness (curve gradient).

Super Cone
SCN 1050 (E2)

SeaGuard
SG 2000 3500 (STD)

E = 458kNm
R = 843kN
D = 768mm
P = 187kN/m2 *

E = 454kNm
R = 845kN
D = 1200mm
P = 172kN/m2

E
= 0.543 kNm/kN
R
* for a 4.5m2 panel

M1100-S12-V1.1-EN
Trelleborg AB, 2007

E
= 0.537 kNm/kN
R

1224

B Smaller ships have smaller bow


radius but usually cause smaller
fender deflection.
B Clearance distances should take
account of bow flare angles.
B Bow flares are greater near to
the bow and stern.
B Where ship drawings are
available, these should be used
to estimate bow radius.

s, RB

Fenders spaced too far apart may


allow ships to hit the structure.
A positive clearance (C)
should always be maintained,
usually between 515% of the
uncompressed fender height (H).
A minimum clearance of 300mm
inclusive of bow flare is commonly
specified.

Bow radiu

FENDER PITCH

P/
2

Fender pitch

LOA2
8B

where,
RB = bow radius (m)
B = beam of vessel (m)
LOA = vessel length overall (m)
The bow radius formula is
approximate and should be checked
against actual ship dimensions
where possible.

Caution
Large fender spacings
may work in theory but
in practice a maximum
spacing of 1215m is more
realistic.

As a guide to suitable distance between fenders on a continuous wharf, the


formula below indicates the maximum fender pitch. Small, intermediate and
large vessels should be checked.

P 2 RB2 (RB h + C)2


where,
P = pitch of fender
RB = bow radius (m)
h = fender projection when compressed, measured at centreline of fender
a = berthing angle
C = clearance between vessel and dock (C should be 515% of the
undeflected fender projection, including panel)
= hull contact angle with fender
According to BS 6349: Part 4: 1994, it is also recommended that the fender
spacing does not exceed 0.15 L S, where L S is the length of the smallest ship.
Bow radius (metres)

RB

P/
2

h = H F

Bow radius

Cruise liner

Container ship

200

Bulk carrier/
general cargo

150
100
50
0
0

65
Displacement (1000 t)

140 0
425
Displacement (1000 t)
Displacement (1000 t)

M1100-S12-V1.1-EN
Trelleborg AB, 2007

1225

MULTIPLE CONTACT CASES


3-fender contact

RB

F2

2-fender contact

RB

RB

F1

RB

F2

Berthing
H line

B
B
B
B

B
B
B
B

Energy absorbed by three (or more) fenders


Larger fender deflection likely
Bow flare is important
1-fender contact also possible for ships with small
bow radius

P/
2

P/
2

Berthing
line

Energy divided over 2 (or more) fenders


Smaller fender deflections
Greater total reaction into structure
Clearance depends on bow radius and bow flare

ANGULAR BERTHING
The berthing angle between the fender and the ships hull may result in some loss of energy absorption. Angular berthing
means the horizontal and/or vertical angle between the ships hull and the berthing structure at the point of contact.
There are three possible conditions for the effects of angular berthing: flare, bow radius and dolphin.

Flare

Bow radius

Dolphin

Bow

radi
us,
RB

P
sin =

M1100-S12-V1.1-EN
Trelleborg AB, 2007

P
2RB

where RB = bow radius

1226

FENDER PANEL DESIGN


3 design cases

Fender panels are used to


distribute reaction forces into
the hulls of berthing vessels.
The panel design should
consider many factors including:
B
B
B
B
B
B
B
B
B
B
B
B
B
B
B
B
B

Full-face contact

Hull pressures and tidal range


Lead-in bevels and chamfers
Bending moment and shear
Local buckling
Limit state load factors
Steel grade
Permissible stresses
Weld sizes and types
Effects of fatigue and cyclic
loads
Pressure test method
Rubber fender connections
UHMW-PE attachment
Chain connections
Lifting points
Paint systems
Corrosion allowance
Maintenance and service life

Low-level impact

Double contact

nT

F1

R1

R2

F2

Steel Properties
PIANC steel thicknesses
Standard

EN 10025

JIS G-3101

Grade

Yield Strength (min)

Tensile Strength (min)

Temperature

N/mm

psi

N/mm

psi

S235JR
(1.0038)

235

34 000

360

52 000

S275JR
(1.0044)

275

40 000

420

61 000

S355J2
(1.0570)

355

51 000

510

74 000

-20

-4

S355J0
(1.0553)

355

51 000

510

74 000

32

SS41

235

34 000

402

58 000

32

SS50

275

40 000

402

58 000

32

SM50

314

46 000

490

71 000

32

A-36

250

36 000

400

58 000

32

A-572

345

50 000

450

65 000

32

PIANC recommends the following


minimum steel thicknesses for
fender panel construction:
Exposed both faces
Exposed one face
Internal (not exposed)

12mm
9mm
8mm

Source: PIANC 2002; Section 4.1.6.


Corresponding minimum panel thickness
will be 140160mm (excluding UHMW-PE
face pads) and often much greater.

Typical panel weights


ASTM

The national standards of France and Germany have been replaced by EN 10025. In the
UK, BS4360 has been replaced by BS EN 10025. The table above is for guidance only
and is not comprehensive. Actual specifications should be consulted in all cases for the
full specifications of steel grades listed and other similar grades.

The table can be used as a guide


to minimum average panel weight
(excluding UHMW-PE face pads) for
different service conditions:
Light duty
Medium duty
Heavy duty
Extreme duty

200250kg/m2
250300kg/m2
300400kg/m2
400kg/m2

M1100-S12-V1.1-EN
Trelleborg AB, 2007

1227

HULL PRESSURES
W

Allowable hull pressures depend on hull plate thickness and frame spacing.
These vary according to the type of ship. PIANC gives the following advice on
hull pressures:
Size/class

Hull pressure
(kN/m2)

< 1 000 teu (1st/2nd generation)


< 3 000 teu (3rd generation)
< 8 000 teu (4th generation)
> 8 000 teu (5th/6th generation)

< 400
< 300
< 250
< 200

General cargo

20 000 DWT
> 20 000 DWT

400700
< 400

Oil tankers

20 000 DWT
60 000 DWT
> 60 000 DWT

< 250
< 300
150200

Gas carriers

LNG/LPG

< 200

Vessel type

P=

Container ships

WH

P = average hull pressure (kN/m2)


R = total fender reaction (kN)
W = panel width, excluding bevels (m)
H = panel height, excluding bevels (m)

Bulk carriers

< 200

RoRo
Passenger/cruise
SWATH

Usually fitted with


beltings (strakes)

Source: PIANC 2002; Table 4.4.1

BELTINGS

Belting types

Most ships have beltings (sometimes called belts or


strakes). These come in many shapes and sizes some
are well-designed, others can be poorly maintained or
modified.
Care is needed when designing fender panels to cope
with beltings and prevent snagging or catching which may
damage the system.
Belting line loads exert crushing forces on the fender
panel which must be considered in the structural design.
Application
Light duty
Medium duty
Heavy duty

Vessels

Belting Load (kN/m)

Aluminium hulls

150300

Container
RoRo/Cruise

Belting
range

M1100-S12-V1.1-EN
Trelleborg AB, 2007

h
3

5001 000
1 0001 500

Belting range is
often greater than
tidal range due
to ship design,
heave, roll, and
changes in draft.

Common on RoRo/Cruise ships.


Projection 200400mm (typical).

Common on LNG/Oil tankers, barges, offshore


supply vessels and some container ships.
Projection 100250mm (typical).

1228

FRICTION
Typical friction design values

Friction has a large influence on the fender design, particularly for


restraint chains. Low friction facing materials (UHMW-PE) are often
used to reduce friction. Other materials, like polyurethanes (PU) used
for the skin of foam fenders, have lower friction coefficients than
rubber against steel or concrete.
The table can be used as a guide to typical design values. Friction
coefficients may vary due to wet or dry conditions, local temperatures,
static and dynamic load cases, as well as surface roughness.

Materials
UHMW-PE
HD-PE
Polyurethane
Rubber
Timber
Steel

Steel
Steel
Steel
Steel
Steel
Steel

Friction Coefficient ()
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.7
0.4
0.5

CHAIN DESIGN
Chains can be used to restrain the movements of fenders
during compression or to support static loads. Chains
may serve four main functions:
B Weight chains support the steel panel and prevent
excessive drooping of the system. They may also resist
vertical shear forces caused by ship movements or
changing draft.
B Shear chains resist horizontal forces caused during
longitudinal approaches or warping operations.
B Tension chains restrict tension on the fender rubber.
Correct location can optimise the deflection geometry.
B Keep chains are used to moor floating fenders or to
prevent loss of fixed fenders in the event of accidents.

1
3

Factors to be considered when designing fender chains:


B Corrosion reduces link diameter and weakens the chain.
B Corrosion allowances and periodic replacement should
be allowed for.
B A weak link in the chain system is desirable to prevent
damage to more costly components in an accident.

SWL =

R + W
n cos

MBL FC SWL

where,
SWL = safe working load (kN)
FC = safety factor
= coefficient of friction
R = fender reaction (kN)
W = gross panel weight (kg)
(for shear chains, W = 0)
n = number of chains
= effective chain angle (degrees)

Tension chains

Weight chains

Shear chains

M1100-S12-V1.1-EN
Trelleborg AB, 2007

1229

UHMW-PE FACING
The contact face of a fender panel
helps to determine the lifetime
maintenance costs of a fender
installation. UHMW-PE (FQ1000) is
the best material available for such
applications. It uniquely combines
low friction, impact strength,
non-marking characteristics and
resistance to wear, temperature
extremes, seawater and marine
borers.
Sinter moulded into plates at
extremely high pressure, UHMW-PE
is a totally homogeneous material
which is available in many sizes and
thicknesses. These plates can be
cut, machined and drilled to suit any
type of panel or shield.

Fastening example
W
t

Always use oversize washers


to spread the load.

Application
Light duty
Medium duty

Heavy duty

Extreme duty

t (mm)

W* (mm)

Bolt

30

35

M16

40

710

50

1015

60

1519

70

1825

80

2232

90

2536

100

2840

M16M20

M24M30

M30M36

* Where allowances are typical values, actual wear allowance may vary due fixing detail.

The standard colour is black,


but UHMW-PE is available
in many other colours if

Large pads vs small pads


Larger pads
are usually
more robust
but smaller
pads are easier
and cheaper to
replace.

M1100-S12-V1.1-EN
Trelleborg AB, 2007

1230

CORROSION PREVENTION
Fenders are usually installed in corrosive
environments, sometimes made worse by high
temperature and humidity. Corrosion of fender
accessories can be reduced with specialist paint
coatings, by galvanising or with selective use of
stainless steels.
Paint coatings and galvanising have a finite life.
Coating must be reapplied at intervals during the life
of the fender. Galvanised components like chains or
bolts may need periodic re-galvanising or replacement.
Stainless steels should be carefully selected for their
performance in seawater.

Paint coatings
ISO EN 12944 is a widely used international standard defining the durability of corrosion protection systems in various
environments. The C5-M class applies to marine coastal, offshore and high salinity locations and is considered to be the
most applicable to fenders.
The life expectancy or durability of coatings is divided into three categories which estimate the time to first major
maintenance:
Low
Medium
High

25 years
515 years
>15 years

Durability range is not a guarantee. It is to help


operators estimate sensible maintenance times.

The table gives some typical C5-M class paint systems which provide high durability in marine environments. Note that
coal tar epoxy paints are not available in some countries.
Priming Coat(s)

Top Coats

Paint System

Paint
Surface
System Preparation

Binder

Primer

No. coats

NDFT

Binder

No. coats

NDFT

No. coats

NDFT

Expected durability
(C5-M corrosivity)

S7.09

Sa 2.5

EP, PUR

Zn (R)

40

EP, PUR

3-4

280

4-5

320

High (>15y)

S7.11

Sa 2.5

EP, PUR

Zn (R)

40

CTE

360

400

High (>15y)

S7.16

Sa 2.5

CTE

Misc

100

CTE

200

300

Medium (5-15y)

Sa 2.5 is defined in ISO 8501-1


NDFT = Nominal dry film thickness
Zn (R) = Zinc rich primer

Misc = miscellaneous types of


anticorrosive pigments
EP = 2-pack epoxy

PUR = 1-pack or 2-pack polyurethane


CTE = 2-pack coal tar epoxy

Design considerations
Other paint systems may also satisfy the C5-M requirements but in choosing any coating the designer should carefully
consider the following:
B
B
B
B
B
B
B

Corrosion protection systems are not a substitute for poor design details such as re-entrant shapes and corrosion traps.
Minimum dry film thickness >80% of NDFT (typical)
Maximum film thickness <3 NDFT (typical)
Local legislation on emission of solvents or health & safety factors
Application temperatures, drying and handling times
Maximum over-coating times
Local conditions including humidity or contaminants

Refer to paint manufacturer for advice on specific applications and products.

M1100-S12-V1.1-EN
Trelleborg AB, 2007

1231

CORROSION PREVENTION
Galvanising
Hot-dip galvanising is the process of coating steel parts with a
zinc layer by passing the component through a bath of molten
zinc. When exposed to sea water the zinc acts as an anodic
reservoir which protects the steel underneath. Once the zinc is
depleted the steel will begin to corrode and lose strength.
Galvanising thickness can be increased by:
B shot blasting the components before dipping
B pickling the components in acid
B double dipping the components (only suitable for some steel
grades)
Spin galvanising is used for threaded components which are
immersed in molten zinc then immediately centrifuged to
remove any excess zinc and clear the threads. Spin galvanised
coatings are thinner than hot dip galvanised coatings and will
not last as long in marine environments.
Typical galvanising thicknesses:
Hot dip galvanising
Spin galvanising

85m
40m

Stainless steels
Pitting Resistance

Galling

Stainless steel performance in seawater varies according


to pitting resistance. Chemical composition especially
Chromium (Cr), Molybdenum (Mo) and Nitrogen (N)
content is a major factor in pitting resistance.
The pitting resistance equivalent number (PREN) is a
theoretical way to compare stainless steel grades. The
most common formula for PREN is:

Galling or cold welding affects threaded stainless


steel components including nuts, bolts and anchors.
The protective oxide layer of the stainless steel gets
scraped off during tightening causing high local friction
and welding of the threads. After galling, seized fasteners
cannot be further tightened or removed and usually needs
to be cut out and replaced.
To avoid this problem, always apply anti-galling
compounds to threads before assembly. If these are
unavailable then molybdenum disulfide or PTFE based
lubricants can be used.

PREN = Cr + 3.3Mo + 16N


Cr and Mo are major cost factors for stainless steel.
A high PREN material will usually last longer but cost
more.
Grade

Common
Name

Type

1.4501 Zeron 100 Duplex


1.4462 SAF 2205 Duplex
1.4401 316S31 Austenitic
1.4301
304
Austenitic
1.4003 3CR12
Ferritic

Cr (%)

Mo (%)

N (%)

PREN

Comments

24.026.0
21.023.0
16.518.5
17.019.5
10.512.5

3.0 4.0
2.53.5
2.02.5

0.20.3
0.10.22
00.11
00.11
00.03

37.144.0
30.938.1
23.128.5
17.021.3
10.513.0

used where very long service life is needed


or access for inspection is difficult
widely used for fender fixings
unsuitable for most fender applications

Percentages of Cr, Mo and N are typical mid-range values and may differ within permissible limits for each grade.
Source: British Stainless Steel Association (www.bssa.org.uk).

M1100-S12-V1.1-EN
Trelleborg AB, 2007

1232

PROJECT REQUIREMENTS
PROJECT DETAILS

PROJECT STATUS

Port

TMS Ref:

Project

Preliminary

Designer

Detail design

Contractor

Tender

F
D
LBP
LOA

LARGEST VESSEL

SMALLEST VESSEL

Vessel type

Vessel type

Deadweight

(t)

Deadweight

(t)

Displacement

(t)

Displacement

(t)

Length overall (LOA)

(m)

Length overall (LOA)

(m)

Length between perps (LBP)

(m)

Length between perps (LBP)

(m)

Beam (B)

(m)

Beam (B)

(m)

Draft (D)

(m)

Draft (D)

(m)

Freeboard (F)

(m)

Freeboard (F)

(m)

Hull pressure (P)

(t/m2)

Hull pressure (P)

(t/m2)

BERTH DETAILS
Closed structure

Semi-open structure

Structure

Open structure

Other (please describe)

Tide levels

Length of berth

(m)

Tidal range

(m)

Fender/dolphin spacing

(m)

Highest astronomic tide (HAT)

(m)

Mean high water spring (MHWS)

(m)

Permitted fender reaction

(kN/m)

Quay level

(m)

Mean sea level (MSL)

(m)

Cope thickness

(m)

Mean low water spring (MLWS)

(m)

Seabed level

(m)

Lowest astronomic tide (LAT)

(m)

M1100-S12-V1.1-EN
Trelleborg AB, 2007

1233

PROJECT REQUIREMENTS
BERTHING MODE

BERTHING APPROACH
Approach conditions

Side berthing

a) easy berthing, sheltered


b) difficult berthing, sheltered
c) easy berthing, exposed

Dolphin berthing
incl. RoRo mode b)

d) good berthing, exposed


e) difficult berthing, exposed
Largest ship

End berthing
Berthing speed

(m/s)

Berthing angle

(deg)

Lock or dock entrance


Abnormal impact factor
Smallest ship
Ship-to-ship berthing
Berthing speed

(m/s)

Berthing angle

(deg)

RoRo mode c)
Abnormal impact factor

ENVIRONMENT

QUALITY

Operating temperature

SAFETY

Highest quality

Maximum safety

Lowest price

Not safety-critical

Minimum ___________________________________ (C)


Maximum __________________________________ (C)
Corrosivity
low

medium

high

extreme

FURTHER DETAILS AVAILABLE FROM


Name

Tel

Company

Fax

Position

Mobile

Address

Email
Web

M1100-S12-V1.1-EN
Trelleborg AB, 2007

1234

RUBBER PROPERTIES
All Trelleborg rubber fenders are made using the highest quality Natural Rubber (NR) or Styrene Butadiene Rubber (SBR)
based compounds which meet or exceed the performance requirements of international fender recommendations,
such as PIANC and EAU. Trelleborg can also make fenders from other NR/SBR compounds or from materials such as
Neoprene, Butyl Rubber, EPDM and Polyurethane.
Different manufacturing processes such as moulding, wrapping and extrusion require certain characteristics from the
rubber. The tables below give usual physical properties for fenders made by these processes which are confirmed during
quality assurance testing.* All test results are from laboratory made and cured test pieces. Results from samples taken
from actual fenders will differ due to the sample preparation process please ask for details.

Moulded and wrapped fenders


Property

Testing Standard

Condition

Requirement

DIN 53504; ASTM D 412 Die C; AS 1180.2;


BS ISO 37; JIS K 6251

Original

16.0 MPa (min)

Aged for 96 hours at 70C

12.8 MPa (min)

Elongation at Break

DIN 53504; ASTM D 412 Die C; AS 1180.2;


BS ISO 37; JIS K 6251

Original

350%

Aged for 96 hours at 70C

280%

Hardness

DIN 53505; ASTM D 2240;


AS1683.15.2; JIS K 6253

Original

78 Shore A (max)

Aged for 96 hours at 70C

Original +8 Shore A (max)

Compression Set

ASTM D 395 Method B; AS 1683.13 Method B;


BS903 A6; ISO 815; JIS K 6262

22 hours at 70C

30% (max)

Tear Resistance

ASTM D 624 Die B; AS 1683.12;


BS ISO 34-1; JIS K 6252

Original

70kN/m (min)

Ozone Resistance

DIN 53509; ASTM D 1149; AS 1683-24;


BS ISO 1431-1; JIS K 6259

50pphm at 20% strain,


40C, 100 hours

No cracks

Seawater Resistance

BS ISO 1817; ASTM D 471

28 days at 95C

Hardness: 10 Shore A (max)


Volume: +10/-5% (max)

ASTM D5963-04; BS ISO 4649 : 2002

Original

100mm3 (max)

BS903 A9, Method B

3000 revolutions

1.5cc (max)

Bond Strength

ASTM D429, Method B; BS 903.A21 Section 21.1

Rubber to steel

Dynamic Fatigue

ASTM D430-95, Method B

15,000 cycles

7N/mm (min)
Grade 01

Tensile Strength

Abrasion

Extruded fenders
Property

Testing Standard

Condition

Requirement

DIN 53504; ASTM D 412 Die C; AS 1180.2;


BS ISO 37; JIS K 6251

Original

13.0 MPa (min)

Aged for 96 hours at 70C

10.4 MPa (min)

DIN 53504; ASTM D 412 Die C; AS 1180.2;


BS ISO 37; JIS K 6251

Original

280% (min)

Aged for 96 hours at 70C

224% (min)

Hardness

DIN 53505; ASTM D 2240;


AS1683.15.2; JIS K 6253

Original

78 Shore A (max)

Aged for 96 hours at 70C

Original +8 Shore A (max)

Compression Set

ASTM D 395 Method B; AS 1683.13 Method B;


BS903 A6; ISO 815; JIS K 6262

22 hours at 70C

30% (max)

Tear Resistance

ASTM D 624 Die B; AS1683.12;


BS ISO 34-1; JIS K 6252

Original

60kN/m (min)

Ozone Resistance

DIN 53509; ASTM D 1149; AS 1683-24;


BS ISO 1431-1; JIS K 6259

50pphm at 20% strain,


40C, 100 hours

No cracks

Seawater Resistance

BS ISO 1817; ASTM D 471

28 days at 95C

Hardness: 10 Shore A (max)


Volume: +10/-5% (max)

Abrasion

ASTM D5963-04; BS ISO 4649 : 2002

Original

180mm3 (max)

Tensile Strength

Elongation at Break

* Material property certificates are issued for each different rubber grade on all orders for SCN Super Cone, SCK Cell Fender, Unit
Element, AN/ANP Arch, Cylindrical Fender, MV and MI Elements. Unless otherwise requested at time of order, material certificates
issued for other fender types are based on results of standard bulk and/or batch tests which form part of routine factory ISO9001
quality procedures and are for a limited range of physical properties (tensile strength, elongation at break and hardness).
Dynamic fatigue testing is optional at extra cost.
Grade 0 = no cracks (pass). Grade 1 = 10 or fewer pinpricks <0.5mm long (pass). Grades 210 = increasing crack size (fail).

Trelleborg AB, 2007


M1100-S12-V1.1-EN

1235

TOLERANCES
Trelleborg fenders are subject to standard manufacturing and performance tolerances.
For specific applications, smaller tolerances may be agreed on a case-by-case basis.
Fender type
Moulded fenders

Composite fenders

Block fenders
Cube fenders
M fenders
W fenders
Cylindrical fenders

Extruded fenders

HD-PE sliding fenders

UHMW-PE face pads

Dimension

Tolerance

All dimensions
Bolt hole spacing

3% or 2mm*
4mm (non-cumulative)

Cross-section
Length

3% or 2mm*

Drilled hole centres


Counterbore depth

4mm (non-cumulative)
2mm (under-head depth)

Cross-section
Length

2% or 2mm*

Fixing hole centres


Fixing hole diameter

3mm
3mm

Outside diameter
Inside diameter
Length

4%
4%
30mm

Cross-section
Length

4% or ISO 3302-E3*

Drilled hole centres


Counterbore depth

4mm (non-cumulative)
3mm (under-head depth)

Cross-section
Length

4%
2% or 10mm*

Drilled hole centres


Counterbore depth

2mm (non-cumulative)
2mm (under-head depth)

Length and width


Length and width

5mm (cut pads)


20mm (uncut sheets)

Thickness:
30mm
(planed) 31100mm
101mm

0.2mm
0.3mm
0.5mm

Thickness:
30mm
(unplaned) 31100mm
101mm

2.5mm
4.0mm
6.0mm

Drilled hole centres


Counterbore depth

2mm (non-cumulative)
2mm (under-head depth)

2% or 25mm*

2% or 10mm*

30mm

* Whichever is the greater dimension


HD-PE and UHMW-PE dimensions are measured at 18C and are subject to thermal expansion coefficients (see material properties)

Performance tolerances
Fender type
SCN, SCK, UE, AN, ANP, MV and MI fenders

Parameter
Reaction, energy

Cylindricals (wrapped)
Cylindricals (extruded)
Extruded fenders
Pneumatic fenders
Block, cube, M, W, tug and workboat fenders
SeaGuard, SeaCushion and Donut fenders

Reaction, energy
Reaction, energy
Reaction, energy
Reaction and energy
Reaction
Reaction and energy

Tolerance
10%
10%
20%
20%
10%
10%
15%

Performance tolerances apply to Rated Performance Data (RPD). They do not apply to energy and/or reaction at intermediate
deflections. The nominal rated deflection when RPD is achieved may vary and is provided for guidance only. Please consult Trelleborg
Marine Systems for performance tolerance on fender types not listed above.

Trelleborg AB, 2007


M1100-S12-V1.1-EN

1236

TESTING PROCEDURES
Trelleborg testing procedures for solid-type rubber fenders comply with PIANC Guidelines for the Design of Fender
Systems: 2002: Appendix A: Section 6: Verification/Quality Assurance Testing. The Constant Velocity (CV) test method
is used for SCN, SCK, UE, AN/ANP and Cylindrical Fenders. MV and MI fenders are tested using the Decreasing Velocity
(DV) method on the dedicated Trelleborg high speed test press. All other fender types are tested on special request.

Compression Test Method

Test Apparatus & Reporting

B All fenders will be given a unique manufacturing serial


number for traceability.
B Sampling is 1 in 10 fenders (rounded up to a unit) unless
otherwise agreed.1
B No additional break-in cycles are carried out unless
otherwise agreed.1
B Performance will be measured at 0 compression angle.
B Readings shall be taken at intervals of between 0.01H to
0.05H (where H = nominal fender height).
B Fender temperature will be stabilised to 23C 5C for
at least 24 hours before compression testing.
B Minimum temperature stabilisation time will be
calculated as tmin = 20x1.5 (where x is the thickness of
the fender body in metres).
B Stabilising time (tmin) can include the time taken for
break-in and recovery.
B Break in the fender by deflecting it three times to rated
deflection.
B Remove load from the fender and allow recovery for at
least 1 hour.
B Stop testing when deflection reaches rated deflection or
RPD2 is achieved.
CV only:
B Deflect the fender once at a constant deflection speed
of 0.00030.0013m/s (28cm/min) and record reaction
and deflection.
DV only:
B Deflect the fender once at a linearly-decreasing or
sinusoidally decreasing variable velocity with initial
velocity of 0.15m/s (or other speed as agreed) and final
velocity 0.005m/s.

The test apparatus shall be equipped with a calibrated3


load cell system and linear transducer(s) for measuring
displacement. These will provide continuous real-time
monitoring of fender performance.
Test reports shall include the following as a minimum:
B Serial Number and description of test fender.
B Date of test, name of test supervisor and signature of
Quality Manager.
B Table and graph of reaction (RVT) versus deflection and
energy (EVT) versus deflection.

Where testing of cylindrical, Arch, element and similar fenders


over 2.0m long is required, please contact your local office to
discuss exact requirements.

Pass Criteria4
Fenders have passed verification testing if they meet the
following conditions:
RVT RRPD 1.1 VF TF
EVT ERPD 0.9 VF TF
Where,
RVT
= reaction from verification testing
RRPD = Rated Performance Data
(or customers required reaction)
EVT
= energy from verification testing
ERPD = Rated Performance Data
(or customers required energy)
TF
= Temperature factor when test sample is above
or below 23C 5C
CV only:
VF
= velocity factor for actual test speed/time
(or 1.0 unless otherwise stated)
DV only:
VF
= velocity factor for test speeds other than
0.15m/s (or 1.0 unless otherwise stated)

Notes
1 Standard PIANC Verification Testing of 10% of fender order (rounded up to the nearest unit) is included within the
price for the fender types listed. Additional tests, third-party witnessing and special procedures will incur extra
charges. For load-sensitive structures, a single break-in deflection for all fenders with reaction of 100t or more is
included in the fender price if notified at the time of order.
2 Rated Performance Data (RPD) is defined in the relevant product sections of this catalogue.
3 All measuring equipment shall be calibrated and certified accurate to within 1% in accordance with ISO or equivalent
JIS or ASTM requirements. Calibration shall be traceable to national/international standard and shall be performed
annually by an accredited third party organization.
4 Pass criteria as defined by PIANC Guidelines for the Design of Fender Systems: 2002: Appendix A. Deflection is not
considered to be a pass/fail criterion by PIANC. Non-compliant units will be clearly marked and segregated.

Trelleborg AB, 2007


M1100-S12-V1.1-EN

1237

PERFORMANCE TESTING
Trelleborg is committed to providing
high quality products. Consistency
and performance are routinely
checked in accordance with the
latest procedures and test protocols.
PIANC has introduced new
methods and procedures for
testing the performance of solid
rubber fenders, allowing for real
world operating conditions, in their
document Guidelines for the
Design of Fender Systems: 2002:
Appendix A.
Many of Trelleborgs most popular
fender types are PIANC Type
Approved. This brings the following
benefits:
B proven product quality
B tests simulate real operating
conditions
B longer service life
B lower maintenance
B greater reliability
B reduced lifetime costs
B manufacturer commitment
B excludes unsafe copy and fake
fenders
B simplifies contract specifications

Verification testing of SCK 3000

Testing is carried out in two stages: to prove behaviour of the generic fender
type, and then to confirm that performance of fenders made for each project
meet the required performances.

Type Approval testing (Stage 1)

Verication testing (Stage 2)

PIANC Type Approval testing is


carried out to determine the effects
of environmental factors on the
performance of various fender types.
Trelleborgs Type Approval tests are
witnessed by Germanischer Lloyd.
Super Cone, Unit Element, SCK Cell
and Arch Fenders have been Type
Approved to PIANC standards.

Verification testing using either CV


method (all fender types except MV
and MI elements) or DV method
(MV and MI elements only) is
carried out on all significant orders
to confirm the Rated Performance
Data (RPD) of the fender. Results are
normalised to 0.15m/s compression
speed, 23C temperature and 0
compression angle.

CV testing of SCN Super Cones

DV testing of MV elements

Note: Testing programmes for


foam, pneumatic, extruded,
composite, shear, and other
fender types are agreed with
customers on request and on a
case-by-case basis.

Trelleborg AB, 2007


M1100-S12-V1.1-EN

1238

RATED PERFORMANCE DATA (RPD)


RPD is normalised to:
B 0.15m/s initial impact speed
B 23C temperature
B 0 compression angle.

Re
a

ct
io

RRP

Energ

ERP

Deflection

Correction factors from type approved tests


VF

Impact speed

0.001m/s to 0.3m/s

Rubber is a visco-elastic material, meaning that reaction and energy are


affected by the speed of compression. Some rubbers are more affected by the
compression speed than others. RPD is normalised to 0.15m/s.

1.0
Vi

0.15m/s (VRP)

Temperature

30C to +50C

At low temperatures rubber becomes stiffer, which increases reaction forces.


At higher temperatures rubber softens, which reduces energy absorption.
RPD is normalised to 23C.

TF

1.0

23C (TRP)

Compression angle

0 to 20

Most fenders lose some energy absorption capacity when compressed at an


angle. RPD is normalised to 0.

AF
1.0

0C (RP)

Durability

3000 cycles minimum

To prove durability, fenders should be subjected to a long-term fatigue test of


at least 3000 cycles to rated deflection without failure.

1.0

To be meaningful, Type Approval testing should be monitored and witnessed by accredited third-party inspectors such as
Germanischer Lloyd. After successful Type Approval testing, the manufacturer should publish Rated Performance Data
(RPD) for their fenders along with correction factor tables for different velocities, temperatures and compression angles.

Trelleborg AB, 2007


M1100-S12-V1.1-EN

1239

PASS CRITERIA
Verification testing (or quality control testing) is carried out to prove the performance of fenders for each project in
accordance with catalogue RPD or other customer-specified values.
Samples from the project (usually 10% of the total quantity in each size and grade) are tested and the results obtained
are adjusted if necessary using the correction factor tables for initial impact speed and temperature.

Reaction force pass criteria

FAIL
PASS

Reaction

RRP x 1.1

RVT RRP VF TF 1.1


Assuming a +10% manufacturing
tolerance on reaction.
Deflection

Energy absorption pass criteria

PASS
FAIL

Energy

ERP x 0.9

EVT ERP VF TF 0.9


Assuming a 10% manufacturing
tolerance on energy.
Deflection

where,
RVT = reaction from verification testing
RRP = customers required reaction
EVT = energy from verification testing
ERP = customers required energy
VF = velocity factor for actual test speed
TF = temperature factor for actual test
temperature

Trelleborg AB, 2007


M1100-S12-V1.1-EN

1240

TYPE APPROVAL CERTIFICATES

Trelleborg AB, 2007


M1100-S12-V1.1-EN

1241

TYPE APPROVAL CERTIFICATES

Trelleborg AB, 2007


M1100-S12-V1.1-EN

1242

QUALITY DOCUMENTS
Customers should expect to receive appropriate documents to prove the quality of the fenders and accessories ordered.
A comprehensive document package might include:

Quality and environmental

Fixing accessories

B Factory ISO 9001: 2000 quality management system


B Factory ISO 14001: 2004 environmental management
system

B Mill certificates
B Visual inspection report
B Certificate of conformity

Literature and data sheets

Chains

B Printed brochures or leaflets for the supplied products


B PIANC correction tables (where applicable)
B PIANC Type Approval certificates (where applicable)

B
B
B
B
B

Performance tests
B Verification test results and curves for each fender tested
B Third party witness certificate (optional but
recommended)
B Certificate of conformity

Proof load test


Mill certificates (optional but recommended)
Galvanising certificate
Dimensional inspection report (where applicable)
Certificate of conformity

Low friction pads


B Dimensional inspection report
B Certificate of conformity

Physical properties

Other

B Laboratory report for hardness, tensile strength and


elongation at break, before and after ageing
B Durability test report (optional but recommended)
B Wear, tear and ozone resistance test reports
B Third party witness certificate (optional but
recommended)
B Certificate of conformity

B
B
B
B
B
B

As built drawings
Installation, operation and maintenance manual
Inspection logbook
Warranty certificate
General certificate of conformity
After-sales contact details

Steel fabrications
B
B
B
B
B
B
B
B
B

Mill certificates
Welder qualification certificates
Weld procedures
Dimensional check report (including flatness for panels)
NDT inspection report minimum 5% MPI (optional but
recommended)
Pressure (leak) test inspection report
Paint application report (temperature, humidity, dew point,
etc)
Dry film thickness test report
Certificate of conformity

The accuracy and authenticity of quality documents is very important. Trelleborg will provide an original or certified copy
of any third party report on request.

Trelleborg AB, 2007


M1100-S12-V1.1-EN

1243

CONVERSION TABLES
Length

Area

Volume

Mass

ft

in

3.281

39.37

ft

0.3048

12

in

0.0245

0.0833

m2

Energy

Pressure

Density

Acceleration

Angle

Trelleborg AB, 2007


M1100-S12-V1.1-EN

1550

0.0929

144

645.2 10 -6

6.944 10 -3

m3

m3

ft3

in3

35.315

61024

ft3

0.0283

1728

in3

16.387 10 -6

578.7 10 -6

tonne

kN

tonne

kip

2.2046

0.4536

kN

tonne-f

kip-f

0.102

0.225

tonne-f

9.81

2.2046

kip-f

4.45

0.454

kNm

tf-m

kip-ft

kNm

0.102

0.7376

tf-m

9.81

0.205

kip-ft

1.36

4.88

kN/m2

kN/m2

t/m2

kip/ft2

0.102

0.0209

t/m2

9.81

0.205

kip/ft2

47.9

4.88

tonne/m3

N/mm2
psi

Velocity

in2

10.764

ft2

kip/ft3

Stress

ft2

in2

kip

Force

m2

tonne/m3

kip/ft3

0.0624

16.018

N/mm2

psi

145.04

6.895 10 -3

Visit www.trelleborg.com/marine
to download a free units
conversion programme, Convert.
Registered visitors can find
Convert on the Technical menu
after registering or logging in to
the site.

1kJ = 1kNm

1ksf = 1kip/ft2

1MPa = 1N/mm2

m/s

ft/s

km/h

mph

knot

m/s

3.2808

3.600

2.2369

1.9438

ft/s

0.3048

1.0973

0.6818

0.5925

km/h

0.2778

0.9113

0.6214

0.5400

mph

0.4470

1.4667

1.6093

0.8690

knot

0.5144

1.6878

1.8520

1.1508

m/s2

ft/s2

9.807

32.17

m/s2

0.102

3.281

ft/s2

6.895 10 -3

0.3048

degree

radian

degree

17.45 10 -3

radian

57.3

1244

CALCULATIONS
TRELLEBORG MARINE SYSTEMS
Project

Prepared

Title

Date

Client

Ref

Sheet N

www.trelleborg.com/marine

Trelleborg AB, 2007


M1100-S12-V1.1-EN

1245

CALCULATIONS
TRELLEBORG MARINE SYSTEMS
Project

Prepared

Title

Date

Client

Ref

www.trelleborg.com/marine

Trelleborg AB, 2007


M1100-S12-V1.1-EN

Sheet N

1246

Disclaimer
Trelleborg AB has made every effort to ensure that the technical specifications and product descriptions in this
catalogue are correct.
The responsibility or liability for errors and omissions cannot be accepted for any reason whatsoever. Customers are
advised to request a detailed specification and certified drawing prior to construction and manufacture. In the interests
of improving the quality and performance of our products and systems, we reserve the right to make specification
changes without prior notice. All dimensions, material properties and performance values quoted are subject to normal
production and testing tolerances. This catalogue supersedes the information provided in all previous editions. If in
doubt, please check with Trelleborg Marine Systems.
Trelleborg AB, PO Box 153, 231 22 Trelleborg, Sweden.
This catalogue is the copyright of Trelleborg AB and may not be reproduced, copied or distributed to third parties without
the prior consent of Trelleborg AB in each case.
Fentek, Rubbylene and Orkot are Registered Trade Marks of Trelleborg AB.

Designed by Harrison Sigala


(www.harrisonsigala.com)

Trelleborg AB, 2007


M1100-S12-V1.1-EN

1247

Four business areas


Trelleborg is a global industrial group whose
leading positions are based on advanced polymer
technology and in-depth applications know-how.
We develop high-performance solutions that
seal, damp and protect in demanding industrial
environments.
The Group has annual sales of approximately
3 billion, with about 24,000 employees in 40
countries. The head office is located in Trelleborg,
Sweden.
Trelleborg AB was founded in 1905. With 100
years behind us, our history, like our future, is
characterised by a constant drive for quality and
a passion for identifying new solution to complex
problems.

Trelleborg Engineered Systems


is a leading global supplier of
engineered solutions that focus on
the sealing, protection and safety
of investments, processes and
individuals in extremely demanding
environments.

Trelleborg Automotive is a worldleader in the development and


production of polymer-based
components and systems used for
noise and vibration damping for
passenger car and light and heavy
trucks.

Trelleborg Sealing Solutions is a


leading global supplier of precision
seals for the industrial, aerospace
and automotive markets.

In 2005, the Trelleborg Group celebrated its centenary. To us,


quality is a state of mind. We adopt an in-depth approach to each
problem, aiming for long-term solutions.
Yesterdays and todays innovations, know-how and quality form the
foundation of tomorrow.

Trelleborg AB, 2007


M1100-S12-V1.1-EN

Trelleborg Wheel Systems is a


leading global supplier of tires
and complete wheel systems for
farm and forest machinery, forklift
trucks and other materials-handling
vehicles.

Trelleborg Marine Systems is part of Trelleborgs Engineered


Systems Business Area and specialises in the safe berthing
and mooring of vessels within ports and harbours, on offshore
structures and in waterways around the world.
We bring together the industrys best known and respected
brands for fendering and mooring systems with the unrivalled

Americas
Tel: +1 540 667 5191
tms.americas@trelleborg.com
Asia
Tel: +65 6268 8005
tms.asia@trelleborg.com
Australia
Tel: +61 2 9285 0200
tms.australia@trelleborg.com
Benelux
Tel: +31 180 434040
tms.benelux@trelleborg.com
Central Asia
Tel: +91 79 4003 8700
tms.india@trelleborg.com
France
Tel: +33 1 41 39 22 20
tms.france@trelleborg.com
Germany
Tel: +49 40 600 4650
tms.germany@trelleborg.com

Japan
Tel: +81 3 3512 1981
tms.japan@trelleborg.com

collective experience and knowledge of its sales and


engineering staff. Our customers benefit from great choice and
helpful support at every stage from initial concept and detailed
design right through to supply, commissioning and after-sales
service all provided by our network of regional offices and
local agents.

Presented by

Middle East
Tel: +971 4 886 1825
tms.middleeast@trelleborg.com
Scandinavia
Tel: +46 410 51 667
tms.scandinavia@trelleborg.com
Spain
Tel: +34 945 437 906
tms.spain@trelleborg.com
UK
Tel: +44 1666 827660
tms.uk@trelleborg.com
Harbour Marine
Tel: +61 3 9575 9999
sales@harbourmarine.com

Trelleborg AB has made every effort to ensure that the technical specifications
and product descriptions in this catalogue are correct. The responsibility
or liability for errors and omissions cannot be accepted for any reason
whatsoever. Customers are advised to request a detailed specification and
certified drawing prior to construction and manufacture. In the interests of
improving the quality and performance of our products and systems, we
reserve the right to make specification changes without prior notice. All
dimensions, material properties and performance values quoted are subject
to normal production and testing tolerances. This catalogue supersedes the
information provided in all previous editions. If in doubt, please check with
Trelleborg Marine Systems.

www.trelleborg.com/marine
tms@trelleborg.com