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Chapter 06: Routing

NAME __________________________
DATE __________________________


Enabling Routing Protocols


1) Every router uses a ____________________
to make decisions where to send packets.
The ___________________ contains a set of
routes, where each route describes which
gateway or interface the router needs to use
to reach a specified network.

(a) routing table

(b) routing table

a) Destination value
b) Mask
2) What are the four main components of a route?
c) Gateway or Interface address
d) Route cost or metric
3) Routers make their routing decisions based on
which part of the packet?

The destination IP network address.

4) How does the router match the packet part in

(3) with the correct route?

The router looks up the subnet mask assigned to each

potential route. The router applies each subnet mask to
the destination IP address in the packet. The resulting
network address is then compared to the network
address of the route in the table.

5) What does a router do if no match can be


If none of the route entries match, the router directs the

packet to the gateway specified by the default route if it
has been configured. If no default route is found, the
router will reply to the sender with Destination

6) What is the command on a Cisco router that

will display all the routes the router knows?

Router# show ip route

7) What are the characteristics of directly

connected route?

During power up, as the interfaces become operational,

the router stores the directly attached local network
addresses as connected routes in the routing table. For
Cisco routers, these routes are identified in the routing
table with the prefix C.

8) What are the characteristics of static routes?

These routes are manually configured to point to a

specific network. A static route does not change until the
administrator manually reconfigures it. These routes are
identified in the routing table with the prefix S

9) What are the characteristics of dynamic


CCNA D 02 Mod 06: Routing

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Routes that are automatically created and maintained by

routing protocols. Routing protocols are implemented in
programs that run on routers and that exchange routing
information with other routers. Dynamic routes are
identified in the routing table by the prefix of the routing
protocol that created that route.

10) What is a default route?

A type of static route which specifies a gateway to use

when the routing table does not contain a path to use to
reach the destination network.

11) In global configuration mode, what is the

command used to configure a static route?

ip route [destination_network] [subnet_mask]

[gateway_address] or [exit interface]

12) Why do larger networks generally prefer

dynamic routing over static routing?

In a large network, the manual maintenance of routing

tables (needed for static routing) could require significant
administrative time.

Complete Packet Tracer Activity 6.1.1


Routing Protocols
13) What enables routers to automatically
manage information received from their own
interfaces and from other routers in order to
quickly update the routes they know?

Routing protocols

14) What do we call the method used by (13) in

order to determine the best route to a destination
network and place it in the routing table?

Routing algorithm

15) What two main classes of the method

described in (14)?

16) Whenever the topology of a network changes

because of reconfiguration or failure, the
_____(a)_____ in all the routers must also change
to reflect an accurate view of the new topology.
When all the routers in a network have updated
their ____(b)____ to reflect the new route, the
routers are said to have __(c)____.
17) In order for two routers to exchange routes,
they must be using ___(a)____ and therefore

a) distance vector
b) link state

a) routes
b) routing tables
c) converged

a) the same routing protocol

b) the same routing algorithm

18) What are the two criteria used by a distance

vector algorithm in order to evaluate the
information it receives from other routers?

b) Vector - In what direction should the packet be sent

to reach this network?
a) A metric is the Distance component of a distance
vector route and represent s the cost of a route
compared to other routes.

19) What is a metric?

CCNA D 02 Mod 06: Routing

Distance - How far away is the network from this


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20) What factors can be used to evaluate a


21) With a distance vector routing protocol, how is

the best route determined?

Number of hops
Administrative cost
Transmission speed
Likelihood of delays
The route with the lowest metric is the best route.

Complete Lab 6.1.2


Common Interior Routing Protocols

22) What is RIP?

The Routing Information Protocol is a common

distance vector routing protocol.
a) Initially specified in RFC 1058

23) What are 5 key characteristics of RIP?

b) Is a distance vector routing protocol
c) Uses hop count as the metric for path selection
d) Defines a hop count greater than 15 as an
unreachable route
e) Sends routing table contents every 30 seconds, by
24) What are the three advantages that make RIP
widely used and popular?

a) simple to use
b) easy to implement
c) available free of cost with most routers.


25) What are three disadvantages of using RIP?

a) Only allows a maximum of 15 hops, so it cannot be

used for networks that connect more than 15 routers
in series.
b) Periodically sends complete copies of the entire
routing table to directly connected neighbors. In a
large network, this can cause a significant amount of
network traffic each time there is an update.
c) When a larger network changes, it converges slowly.

26) What is the most significant difference

between RIP Version 1 and Version 2?

RIPv2 can support classless routing, because it includes

the subnet mask information in routing updates. RIPv1
does not send subnet mask information in the updates;
therefore it must rely on the classfull default subnet
Enhanced Interior Gateway Routing Protocol is a Cisco
proprietary enhanced distance vector routing protocol.
EIGRP was developed to address some of the limitations
of other distance vector routing protocols such as RIP.

27) What is EIGRP?

CCNA D 02 Mod 06: Routing

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28) What are three key characteristics of EIGRP?

a) Uses a variety of metrics to calculate the cost of a

b) Combines the next hop and metric features of
distance vector protocols, with additional database and
update features
c) Has a maximum hop count of 224 hops

29) Name and describe the two additional

databases (other than the routing table) used by

a) The neighbor table - stores data about the

neighboring routers that are on directly connected local
b) The topology table - contains all of the routes
advertised by the neighbor routers.

30) What is the most significant difference

between Distance Vector routing protocols and
Link State routing protocols?

Distance vector routing algorithms have little information

about distant networks and none about distant routers,
while the link-state routing algorithms maintain a full
database of distant routers and how they interconnect.
a) Routing table - List of the known paths and interfaces

31) What are the 4 main features of link state

routing protocols?

b) Link-state advertisement (LSA) a small packet of

routing information that is sent between routers. LSAs
describe the state of the interfaces (links) of a router, as
well as other information.
c) Topological database - Collection of information
gathered from all the LSAs received by the router
d) SPF (Shortest Path First) algorithm - Calculation
performed on the database that results in the SPF tree.
e) The SPF tree - a map of the network as seen from the
point of view of the router. The information in this tree is
used to build the routing table


32) What is OSPF?

OSPF is the Open Shortest Path First routing protocol, a

non-proprietary link-state routing protocol described in
RFC 2328.

33) What are the 5 key characteristics of OSPF?

a) Uses the SPF algorithm to calculate the lowest cost to

a destination
b)Sends routing updates only when the topology
changes; does not send periodic updates of the entire
routing table
c) Provides fast convergence
d) Supports VLSM and discontiguous subnets
e) Provides route authentication

CCNA D 02 Mod 06: Routing

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34) When do routers running OSPF send Link

State Advertisements? List three particular

Whenever there is a change in the topology of the

network. This can occur when:
a) A new neighbor is added
b) A link fails
c) A link is restored


Routing Within an Organization

35) Which routing options are probably most
appropriate for a small network with one gateway
to the internet?

Static routes.

36) Which routing options would be appropriate

for a growing network with several routers (not
exceeding 15)?

Dynamic routing using a distance vector protocol, RIPv2

37) Which routing options are most appropriate for

larger networks with more than 15 routers?

EIGRP and OSPF are common solutions.

38) Which 3 criteria should be considered when

selecting a routing protocol for a large network?

a) Ease of management
b) Ease of configuration
c) Efficiency


Configure and Verify RIP

39) Before configuring RIP to run on a router,
which 3 tasks must first be accomplished?

a) Assign IP addresses to all interfaces that will be using

b) Enable all these interfaces
c) Set a clock rate at the DCE end of all serial
connections involved in RIP.

40) What are the three commands required for

basic RIP configuration?

Router(config)#router rip
Router (config-router)#version 2
Router(config-router)#network [network-number]

41) Explain how each of the following actions will

help verify that RIP is configured and running
a) ping devices on remote networks
b) show ip protocols
c) show ip route
d) debug ip rip

a) If all pinging is successful, it is likely that routing is

b) Verifies that RIP routing is configured, that the correct
interfaces are sending and receiving RIP updates, and
that the router is advertising the correct networks.
c) Shows the routing table, which verifies that routes
received by RIP neighbors are installed in the routing
d) Used to observe the networks advertised in the routing
updates as they are sent and received.

CCNA D 02 Mod 06: Routing

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Complete Packet Tracer Activity 6.1.5

Complete Lab 6.1.5


Exterior Routing Protocols

Autonomous Systems
43) What is an autonomous system?

A set of networks controlled by a single administrative

authority using the same internal routing policy

44) Give an example of an autonomous system.


45) Define ASN.

Autonomous System Number a unique number used to

identify an autonomous system. These numbers are
controlled and registered by the IANA.

46) Under what conditions would a business need

to request its own ASN?



When the business has offices that are geographically

separated and require the services of different ISPs.
Normally a business uses the ASN of its ISP. If more
than one ISP is used the business needs its own ASN to
avoid confusion.

Routing Between Autonomous Systems

47) Explain what an IGP is, and give three

IGP is Interior Gateway Protocol. These are used to

exchange routing information within an autonomous
system or individual organization. Examples of interior
gateway protocols are RIP, EIGRP and OSPF.

48) Explain what an EGP is and give one


EGP are exterior gateway protocols. They are designed

to exchange routing information between different
Autonomous Systems. EGP protocols run on the exterior
routers, that is, the routers that are located at the border
of an AS. One example is the Border Gateway Protocol.

49) What is the most common EGP, and how

many autonomous systems use it?

The Border Gateway Protocol (BGP). It is estimated that

95% of Autonomous Systems use BGP. The most current
version of BGP is version 4 (BGP-4) for which the latest
description is provided in RFC 4271.

Routing Across the Internet

50) When a host sends a packet to an address
not in the same AS as the host, what do the
routers of the AS do with the packet?

The packet moves through the routers of the AS. These

routes do not recognize the destination network (since it
is on a different AS) and eventually the packet is
forwarded to an exterior router in that AS. That router will
look in its AS database to determine the best exterior
router on another AS to which to send the packet.

51) What does an exterior router do when it

receives a packet from a different AS?

The exterior router will check to see if the destination

address is within its AS. If it is, it will forward it to an
interior router. If it is not, it will check its AS database and
forward the packet to the next exterior router on a
different AS.

CCNA D 02 Mod 06: Routing

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Configure and Verify BGP

52) How do ISPs usually configure the routing on
a border router of at a customers location?

They usually configure it with a default static route to the


53) List the three steps required in enabling BGP

on an exterior router. Explain each step

1) router bgp [AS number]

This configures the ASN on the router and initiates BGP
2) neighbor [IP Address] remote-as [AS number]
This command identifies the neighbor router in the
connected, external AS.

3) network [network address]

This command advertises the given internal network to
the outside (the Internet).
54) Can BGP be used to advertise private IP
addresses? Explain.

In very large organizations private addresses may be

used in the BGP process as illustrated. On the Internet,
BGP should never be used to advertise a private network

Complete Lab 6.2.4

CCNA D 02 Mod 06: Routing

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