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CCNA D02:

Chapter 06: Routing

NAME __________________________
DATE __________________________

6.1

Enabling Routing Protocols

6.1.1

Routing
1) Every router uses a ____________________
to make decisions where to send packets.
The ___________________ contains a set of
routes, where each route describes which
gateway or interface the router needs to use
to reach a specified network.

(a) routing table


(b) routing table

a) Destination value
b) Mask
2) What are the four main components of a route?
c) Gateway or Interface address
d) Route cost or metric
3) Routers make their routing decisions based on
which part of the packet?

The destination IP network address.

4) How does the router match the packet part in


(3) with the correct route?

The router looks up the subnet mask assigned to each


potential route. The router applies each subnet mask to
the destination IP address in the packet. The resulting
network address is then compared to the network
address of the route in the table.

5) What does a router do if no match can be


made?

If none of the route entries match, the router directs the


packet to the gateway specified by the default route if it
has been configured. If no default route is found, the
router will reply to the sender with Destination
Unreachable.

6) What is the command on a Cisco router that


will display all the routes the router knows?

Router# show ip route

7) What are the characteristics of directly


connected route?

During power up, as the interfaces become operational,


the router stores the directly attached local network
addresses as connected routes in the routing table. For
Cisco routers, these routes are identified in the routing
table with the prefix C.

8) What are the characteristics of static routes?

These routes are manually configured to point to a


specific network. A static route does not change until the
administrator manually reconfigures it. These routes are
identified in the routing table with the prefix S

9) What are the characteristics of dynamic


routes?

CCNA D 02 Mod 06: Routing

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Routes that are automatically created and maintained by


routing protocols. Routing protocols are implemented in
programs that run on routers and that exchange routing
information with other routers. Dynamic routes are
identified in the routing table by the prefix of the routing
protocol that created that route.
1

10) What is a default route?

A type of static route which specifies a gateway to use


when the routing table does not contain a path to use to
reach the destination network.

11) In global configuration mode, what is the


command used to configure a static route?

ip route [destination_network] [subnet_mask]


[gateway_address] or [exit interface]

12) Why do larger networks generally prefer


dynamic routing over static routing?

In a large network, the manual maintenance of routing


tables (needed for static routing) could require significant
administrative time.

Complete Packet Tracer Activity 6.1.1


6.1.2

Routing Protocols
13) What enables routers to automatically
manage information received from their own
interfaces and from other routers in order to
quickly update the routes they know?

Routing protocols

14) What do we call the method used by (13) in


order to determine the best route to a destination
network and place it in the routing table?

Routing algorithm

15) What two main classes of the method


described in (14)?

16) Whenever the topology of a network changes


because of reconfiguration or failure, the
_____(a)_____ in all the routers must also change
to reflect an accurate view of the new topology.
When all the routers in a network have updated
their ____(b)____ to reflect the new route, the
routers are said to have __(c)____.
17) In order for two routers to exchange routes,
they must be using ___(a)____ and therefore
___(b)____.

a) distance vector
b) link state

a) routes
b) routing tables
c) converged

a) the same routing protocol


b) the same routing algorithm
a)

18) What are the two criteria used by a distance


vector algorithm in order to evaluate the
information it receives from other routers?

b) Vector - In what direction should the packet be sent


to reach this network?
a) A metric is the Distance component of a distance
vector route and represent s the cost of a route
compared to other routes.

19) What is a metric?

CCNA D 02 Mod 06: Routing

Distance - How far away is the network from this


router?

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20) What factors can be used to evaluate a


metric?

21) With a distance vector routing protocol, how is


the best route determined?

Number of hops
Administrative cost
Bandwidth
Transmission speed
Likelihood of delays
Reliability
The route with the lowest metric is the best route.

Complete Lab 6.1.2


6.1.3
RIP

Common Interior Routing Protocols


22) What is RIP?

The Routing Information Protocol is a common


distance vector routing protocol.
a) Initially specified in RFC 1058

23) What are 5 key characteristics of RIP?


b) Is a distance vector routing protocol
c) Uses hop count as the metric for path selection
d) Defines a hop count greater than 15 as an
unreachable route
e) Sends routing table contents every 30 seconds, by
default.
24) What are the three advantages that make RIP
widely used and popular?

a) simple to use
b) easy to implement
c) available free of cost with most routers.

EIGRP

25) What are three disadvantages of using RIP?

a) Only allows a maximum of 15 hops, so it cannot be


used for networks that connect more than 15 routers
in series.
b) Periodically sends complete copies of the entire
routing table to directly connected neighbors. In a
large network, this can cause a significant amount of
network traffic each time there is an update.
c) When a larger network changes, it converges slowly.

26) What is the most significant difference


between RIP Version 1 and Version 2?

RIPv2 can support classless routing, because it includes


the subnet mask information in routing updates. RIPv1
does not send subnet mask information in the updates;
therefore it must rely on the classfull default subnet
masks.
Enhanced Interior Gateway Routing Protocol is a Cisco
proprietary enhanced distance vector routing protocol.
EIGRP was developed to address some of the limitations
of other distance vector routing protocols such as RIP.

27) What is EIGRP?

CCNA D 02 Mod 06: Routing

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28) What are three key characteristics of EIGRP?

a) Uses a variety of metrics to calculate the cost of a


route
b) Combines the next hop and metric features of
distance vector protocols, with additional database and
update features
c) Has a maximum hop count of 224 hops

29) Name and describe the two additional


databases (other than the routing table) used by
EIGRP.

a) The neighbor table - stores data about the


neighboring routers that are on directly connected local
networks.
b) The topology table - contains all of the routes
advertised by the neighbor routers.

30) What is the most significant difference


between Distance Vector routing protocols and
Link State routing protocols?

Distance vector routing algorithms have little information


about distant networks and none about distant routers,
while the link-state routing algorithms maintain a full
database of distant routers and how they interconnect.
a) Routing table - List of the known paths and interfaces

31) What are the 4 main features of link state


routing protocols?

b) Link-state advertisement (LSA) a small packet of


routing information that is sent between routers. LSAs
describe the state of the interfaces (links) of a router, as
well as other information.
c) Topological database - Collection of information
gathered from all the LSAs received by the router
d) SPF (Shortest Path First) algorithm - Calculation
performed on the database that results in the SPF tree.
e) The SPF tree - a map of the network as seen from the
point of view of the router. The information in this tree is
used to build the routing table

OSPF

32) What is OSPF?

OSPF is the Open Shortest Path First routing protocol, a


non-proprietary link-state routing protocol described in
RFC 2328.

33) What are the 5 key characteristics of OSPF?

a) Uses the SPF algorithm to calculate the lowest cost to


a destination
b)Sends routing updates only when the topology
changes; does not send periodic updates of the entire
routing table
c) Provides fast convergence
d) Supports VLSM and discontiguous subnets
e) Provides route authentication

CCNA D 02 Mod 06: Routing

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34) When do routers running OSPF send Link


State Advertisements? List three particular
examples.

Whenever there is a change in the topology of the


network. This can occur when:
a) A new neighbor is added
b) A link fails
c) A link is restored

6.1.4

Routing Within an Organization


35) Which routing options are probably most
appropriate for a small network with one gateway
to the internet?

Static routes.

36) Which routing options would be appropriate


for a growing network with several routers (not
exceeding 15)?

Dynamic routing using a distance vector protocol, RIPv2

37) Which routing options are most appropriate for


larger networks with more than 15 routers?

EIGRP and OSPF are common solutions.

38) Which 3 criteria should be considered when


selecting a routing protocol for a large network?

a) Ease of management
b) Ease of configuration
c) Efficiency

6.1.5

Configure and Verify RIP


39) Before configuring RIP to run on a router,
which 3 tasks must first be accomplished?

a) Assign IP addresses to all interfaces that will be using


RIP
b) Enable all these interfaces
c) Set a clock rate at the DCE end of all serial
connections involved in RIP.

40) What are the three commands required for


basic RIP configuration?

Router(config)#router rip
Router (config-router)#version 2
Router(config-router)#network [network-number]

41) Explain how each of the following actions will


help verify that RIP is configured and running
correctly:
a) ping devices on remote networks
b) show ip protocols
c) show ip route
d) debug ip rip

a) If all pinging is successful, it is likely that routing is


working.
b) Verifies that RIP routing is configured, that the correct
interfaces are sending and receiving RIP updates, and
that the router is advertising the correct networks.
c) Shows the routing table, which verifies that routes
received by RIP neighbors are installed in the routing
table.
d) Used to observe the networks advertised in the routing
updates as they are sent and received.

CCNA D 02 Mod 06: Routing

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Complete Packet Tracer Activity 6.1.5


Complete Lab 6.1.5

6.2
6.2.1

Exterior Routing Protocols


Autonomous Systems
43) What is an autonomous system?

A set of networks controlled by a single administrative


authority using the same internal routing policy
throughout

44) Give an example of an autonomous system.

An ISP.

45) Define ASN.

Autonomous System Number a unique number used to


identify an autonomous system. These numbers are
controlled and registered by the IANA.

46) Under what conditions would a business need


to request its own ASN?

6.2.2

6.2.3

When the business has offices that are geographically


separated and require the services of different ISPs.
Normally a business uses the ASN of its ISP. If more
than one ISP is used the business needs its own ASN to
avoid confusion.

Routing Between Autonomous Systems


47) Explain what an IGP is, and give three
examples.

IGP is Interior Gateway Protocol. These are used to


exchange routing information within an autonomous
system or individual organization. Examples of interior
gateway protocols are RIP, EIGRP and OSPF.

48) Explain what an EGP is and give one


example.

EGP are exterior gateway protocols. They are designed


to exchange routing information between different
Autonomous Systems. EGP protocols run on the exterior
routers, that is, the routers that are located at the border
of an AS. One example is the Border Gateway Protocol.

49) What is the most common EGP, and how


many autonomous systems use it?

The Border Gateway Protocol (BGP). It is estimated that


95% of Autonomous Systems use BGP. The most current
version of BGP is version 4 (BGP-4) for which the latest
description is provided in RFC 4271.

Routing Across the Internet


50) When a host sends a packet to an address
not in the same AS as the host, what do the
routers of the AS do with the packet?

The packet moves through the routers of the AS. These


routes do not recognize the destination network (since it
is on a different AS) and eventually the packet is
forwarded to an exterior router in that AS. That router will
look in its AS database to determine the best exterior
router on another AS to which to send the packet.

51) What does an exterior router do when it


receives a packet from a different AS?

The exterior router will check to see if the destination


address is within its AS. If it is, it will forward it to an
interior router. If it is not, it will check its AS database and
forward the packet to the next exterior router on a
different AS.

CCNA D 02 Mod 06: Routing

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6.2.4

Configure and Verify BGP


52) How do ISPs usually configure the routing on
a border router of at a customers location?

They usually configure it with a default static route to the


ISP.

53) List the three steps required in enabling BGP


on an exterior router. Explain each step

1) router bgp [AS number]


This configures the ASN on the router and initiates BGP
2) neighbor [IP Address] remote-as [AS number]
This command identifies the neighbor router in the
connected, external AS.

3) network [network address]


This command advertises the given internal network to
the outside (the Internet).
54) Can BGP be used to advertise private IP
addresses? Explain.

In very large organizations private addresses may be


used in the BGP process as illustrated. On the Internet,
BGP should never be used to advertise a private network
address.

Complete Lab 6.2.4

CCNA D 02 Mod 06: Routing

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