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Coinage of Cilician Armenia

By PAUL Z. BEDOUKIAN

THE AMERICAN NUMISMATIC SOCIETY

NEW YORK

I962

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ALL RIGHTS RESERVED BY

THE AMERICAN NUMISMATIC SOCIETY

PRINTED IN GERMANY

AT J. J. AUGUSTIN - GLUCKSTADT

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NUMISMATIC NOTES AND MONOGRAPHS

Number 147

NUMISMATIC NOTES AND MONOGRAPHS

is devoted to essays and treatises on subjects relating

to coins, paper money, medals and decorations.

PUBLICATION COMMITTEE

ALFRED R. BELLINGER, Chairman

THEoDoRE V. BUTTREY, JR.

JoHN V. A. FINE

THOMAS O. MABBOTT

EDITORIAL STAFF

SAwYER MCA. MossER, Editor

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HowARD L. ADELSON, Associate Editor

7t

27 i

TABLE OF CONTENTS ., J *

FOREWORD V

BIBLIOGRAPHY AND KEY TO ABBREVIATIONS X

SURVEY OF PUBLICATIONS ON ROUPENIAN COINS

MAP 2

HISTORICAL INTRODUCTION

THE COMING OF THE ARMENIANS TO CILICIA 3

THE BARONIAL PERIOD OF CILICIAN ARMENIA 5

THE ARMENIAN KINGDOM OF CILICIA 9

TRADE AND COMMERCE OF CILICIAN ARMENIA 25

ARMENIAN TERMS USED FOR VARIOUS COINS 43

THE COINAGE OF THE ROUPENIANS 50

DESIGN AND STYLE OF COINS 56

INSCRIPTIONS ON ROUPENIAN COINS 65

COINS FROM THE PERIOD OF PRINCES 67

THE GOLD COINS 68

COINS ISSUED BY THE KINGS 76

LEVON I 76

HETOUM I 82

LEVON II 86

HETOUM II 89

SMPAD 90

GOSDANTIN I 91

LEVON III 91

OSHIN 92

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LEVON IV 94

GUY LUSIGNAN (GOSDANTIN II) 95

GOSDANTIN III 95

LEVON THE USURPER 97

GOSDANTIN IV 98

LEVON V LUSIGNAN 99

FORGERIES 101

SURVEY OF COLLECTIONS OF ROUPENIAN COINS I03

vi Table of Contents

METROLOGY I08

SOME STATISTICS

THE CORPUS I27

ARRANGEMENT OF THE CORPUS 128

PRINCES I29

PRINCE LEVON II 129

GOLD COINS I30

LEVON I 13

HETOUM i (hetoum-zabel) 227

LEVON II 29

HETOUM II 3*4

SMPAD 25

GOSDANTIN I 334

LEVON III 6

OSHIN 353

LEVON IV 368

GUY LUSIGNAN (GOSDANTIN II) 380

GOSDANTIN III 382

LEVON THE USURPER 395

GOSDANTIN IV 399

LEVON V LUSIGNAN 40S

POST ROUPENIAN 4

INDEX OF LEGENDS 411

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GENERAL INDEX 49

FOREWORD

The establishment of an Armenian dynasty in Cilicia (10801375)

led to one of the most interesting periods in the long history of the

Armenian people. The wealth of material from the Cilician kingdom

and the historical data available from Armenian and European sources

encouraged the writer to attempt this work on the coinage of Cilician

Armenia.

The early numismatic studies of Brosset and Langlois are pri-

marily of historical interest since they contain a large number of errors.

Sibilians book, written in 1877, is fairly accurate, with the exception

of the section on the latter period of the kingdom; but it is limited in

scope, and being written in Armenian, is not comprehensible to most

numismatists. Since there is no adequate publication in a Western

language on the coinage of Cilician Armenia, the writer hopes that

the present work will serve a useful purpose.

In the past, published material consisted for the most part of

drawings of coins. Brosset's work contains 17 drawings, Langlois', 70,

Sibilian's, about 130, and Basmadjian's, about 50, all of the latter being

taken from Morgan's book on the History of the Armenian People.

The drawings are generally badly made and the inscriptions are often

not copied accurately. The present volume contains the photographs

of some 51o Roupenian coins, few of which have previously appeared

in print.

In order to have the corpus as complete and accurate as possible,

it was necessary to examine first hand all the coins in the important

collections whenever this was feasible. Fortunately, most of the

coins are gathered in a limited number of collections. This mission

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took the author to Europe in 1958, and some 4ooo rubbings were

obtained of coins in several collections within a period of three

weeks. The following method of obtaining clear rubbings was found

to be most practicable. Hard rubber sheets were attached to the

upper and lower jaws of a blank corporation seal, which was used

as a hand press. By folding aluminum foil and placing the coin in the

vii

viii Foreword

fold, it was possible to obtain over one hundred impressions per

hour. The impressions were very clear, photographed satisfactorily,

withstood repeated careful handling, and could be filed like stamps

in albums or kept in envelopes for reference purposes.

Most vital to the task of assembling the corpus was the acquisition

of rubbings of the collection of the Mekhitarists in Vienna. This col-

lection, consisting of nearly 2400 pieces, is by far the largest and most

valuable in the world. Gathered for the most part by Father Sibilian

about a hundred years ago, it includes many rarities and some unique

specimens. The author is particularly grateful to his Grace, Arch-

bishop Mesrob Habozian, the chief Abbot of the Mekhitarist order in

Vienna, for his generosity and assistance in making available the

entire collection so that rubbings could be made of the 24oo coins.

Without the inclusion of this important collection, this work would

have suffered greatly. The same encouraging cooperation was given

by the Mekhitarist order in Venice, where the chief Abbot, Arch-

bishop Oulouhojian, readily granted the writer permission to make

rubbings of their collection of nearly 600 pieces, among them some

unique coins. The writer is particularly grateful to Father Nerses

Nersessian for his active assistance in the preparation of the rubbings.

Special thanks are also due to M. Jean Babelon and M. Georges

Le Rider for their cooperation in getting aluminum impressions made

of the collection of Roupenian coins in the Bibliothque Nationale.

Dr. John Walker and Mr. G. K. Jenkins of the British Museum

graciously permitted me on very short notice to examine their inter-

esting collection of coins of this period and to obtain rubbings.

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The writer was most fortunate in securing rubbings of three im-

portant collections in France: that of Mme. N. Kapamadji of the

Maison Florange in Paris, of M. Kamer Baghdadlian of the Galeries

Kamer in Cannes, and of M. Albert Achdjian of Galeries Chirvan in

Paris.

The collections of Armenian coins in the Near East seemed to be

beyond reach. But here again, willing hands undertook the arduous

task of preparing rubbings. Mr. Garabed Sanjian of Beirut, Lebanon,

provided rubbings of the large and valuable collection of the Mar-

dikian Museum of the Armenian National Cultural Society in Beirut.

Another important collection, that of Prof. Asbed Donabedian of

Beirut, was made available by the owner, who personally made the

Foreword ix

rubbings of his entire collection. The well-known coin dealer, M. Ar-

menak Poladian, of Beirut, sent paper rubbings of the hoards of

Levon and Hetoum-Zabel. Examination of the latter, in conjunction

with a hoard in the ANS collection, made it possible to establish a

chronological order of classification of the Hetoum-Zabel trams. Prof.

A. A. Ebeyan of Beirut submitted rubbings of the coins in his

collection for inclusion in the corpus. Father Berard Marthaler

kindly made arrangements with Miss Nakriman Olcay, curator of

non-Islamic coins at the Istanbul Archeological Museum, to have

impressions prepared of the Armenian coins in the collection of that

Inuseum.

The corpus includes the Roupenian coins in the Asiatic and the

Hermitage Museum in Leningrad. Special thanks are given to

Prof. A. A. Bykov and Prof. E. Dobrovoleskii for sending me

rubbings of the two collections. The existence of a unique copper

coin of Gosdantin III struck in Tarsus establishes the fact that

both silver and copper coins were struck in this mint. This coin

is in the Hermitage Museum. Prof. K. Ghafadarian and Mr. Kh. Mou-

shegian of the Numismatic Division of the State Museum in Soviet

Armenia supplied rubbings of the trams and double trams of Levon I

and of the trams of Hetoum-Zabel, numbering over one hundred pieces.

On this side of the Atlantic, the writer is indebted to the late

Kegham Kalajian" of New York for his ready willingness to permit

rubbings to be made of his entire collection, and to Mr. H. Kurdian

of Wichita, Kansas, who prepared and sent rubbings of his coins.

The corpus also includes the collection of Roupenian coins of the

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American Numismatic Society, as well as the writer's own collection.

It is estimated that the Roupenian coins in public and private

collections number less than 12,000. On this basis, the present corpus,

listing over Io,000 coins, covers over eighty per cent of the coins

above ground.

The arrangement of the corpus presented many problems. None of

the Roupenian coins carries the date of issue, and it was therefore

necessary to adopt an artificial method of classification. After much

experimentation, a uniform system of classification was chosen,

applicable to all of the coins of this period. The method consisted

* The major part of this collection is now in the State Historical Museum

of Erivan, Soviet Armenia.

X Foreword

essentially of listing each type of coin issued by a ruler and arranging

its variants in the order of completeness of the legend on the obverse.

Each obverse legend was accompanied by varieties of the legend on

the reverse. It is hoped that this simple classification will enable the

reader to locate any coin speedily and without much difficulty.

During the course of writing this book, it was frequently necessary

to seek the advice of various members of the staff of the American

Numismatic Society, and the author wishes to take this opportunity

of expressing his special appreciation to Dr. George C. Miles for

reading the first draft of the text and for his many very helpful

suggestions. In addition, all the Arabic inscriptions on the bilingual

coins of Hetoum were studied and classified by Dr. Miles. Sincere

thanks are also due to Mr. Sawyer McA. Mosser for his assistance

during the preparation of the text and corpus. On numerous occa-

sions, the author had to call on Mr. Henry Grunthal and Mr. William

L. Clark for advice, and the library work was greatly facilitated by

the whole-hearted cooperation of Mr. G. H. North and Mr. Richard

P. Breaden.

To Prof. Sirarpie Der Nersessian the writer wishes to express his

thanks for her careful reading of the manuscript and for the many

corrections and valuable suggestions which she made.

Finally, the author would like to express his gratitude to Mr.

R. W. Johnson, the photographer of the ANS, for obtaining such

clear photographs from the aluminum impressions, and of course to

J. J. Augustin for coping with this manuscript, with its numerous

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unusual field marks and legends.

BIBLIOGRAPHY AND ABBREVIATIONS

AACollection of Mr. Albert Achdjian, Paris, France.

ADCollection of Prof. Asbed Donabedian, Beirut, Lebanon.

ADONTZN. Adontz, L'aeul des Roubniens, Byzantion X (1935),

pp. I8523.

ADLERJ. G. C. Adler, Museum Cuficum Borgianum Velitris, Romae,

I782. Ist part. pp. 6162, I59. Nummus Arabico-Armenus, Pl. XII, C.

ALISHANL. M. Alishan, Sissouan. Venice, 1885. (In Armenian).

[<. T. lll zul, Uhunl ul, <ulliuqpn. Hhi li <uyhuhui, 'iLhhhqy fil-

lr nl, Uhuqnp, 'lh'infrinhh, 1885]

ALISHANL. M. Alishan, Sissouan ou l'Armno-Cilicie. Description go-

graphique et historique, avec carte et illustrations. Traduit du texte

armnien. Venice, 1899.

ALISHANL. M. Alishan, L'Armeno-Veneto, Compendio storico e docu-

menti delle relazioni degli Armeni coi Veneziani. Primo periodo, secoli

XIIIXIV. 2 vols. Venice, 1893.

ALISHANL. M. Alishan, Hay-Vened. Venice, 1896. (In Armenian).

[<. T. UI zul. <uy-'16'bhin hull'8uppisni Hhi kp <uyng hl- lhlhinhuj

| d.?-7 hi H db-2 7upu, lhlhinh4, 1896]

AMAsiatic Museum, Leningrad, U.S.S.R.

ASSISES D'ANTIOCHEAssises d'Antioche, reproduites en Franais et

publies au sixime centenaire de la mort de Sempad le Conntable, leur

ancien traducteur armnien. Venice, 1876.

AVKERIANH. Avkerian, Explanation of Measures and Weights of the

Ancients, Venice, 1821. (In Armenian). [3. $. Uliqhpfrui, Fuguinpni -

Hii i Qunig hi- 'izn ng Luullrug, lln uginpq nl-Hhul bulhhulini-,

h/nphlug y b- G hpuhulgi y, 'lh'infrinh4,1821.]

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BAR HEBRAEUSBar Hebraeus, Chronography, 2 vols., Oxford, 1932.

Trans. E. A. Budge.

BARTHLEMYA. de Barthlemy, Nouveau manuel complet de numis-

matique de moyen ge et moderne. Paris, 1851.

X1

xii Bibliography and Abbreviations

BASMADJIANK. J. Basmadjian, Numismatique gnrale de l'Armnie.

Venice, 1936. (In Armenian). ['i. 8. Ruulinghui, <uyuhui,

uq Sulump "Pulliuzhinn-Ehlh, 'lli'uhulh, 1936]

BASMADJIANK. J. Basmadjian, Leo V Lusignan, Paris, 1908. (In

Armenian). ['i. 8. Ruu/u?/rub, lil-ni, b. In "Fukuit, "uphu, 1908.]

BEDOUKIANP. Bedoukian, The Coinage of Constantine III and IV,

Kings of Lesser Armenia, The American Numismatic Society

Museum Notes VI (1954), pp. 193199.

BEDOUKIANP. Bedoukian, The Bilingual Coins of Hetoum I, The

American Numismatic Society Museum Notes VII (1957), pp. 219230.

BEDOUKIANP. Bedoukian, Two Hoards of Hetoum-Zabel Trams,

The American Numismatic Society Museum Notes VIII (1958),

pp. I45-180.

BEDOUKIANP. Z. Bedoukian, The Coins of Constantine I (1298 to

1299), King of Cilician Armenia, Handes Amsorya, LXXII (1958),

pp. 381390. (In Armenian.) [9. Q. "inn Mhui, 'ih/Mlin/ Puqu mp

'inuintuhtli, U. R. (12981299) 'purukpp, Zuuq tu lllliophuy, 26,

'll hibu, 1958, #. 381390].

BEDOUKIANP. Z. Bedoukian, What were the Armenian Coins Called

Bissancios Stauratos,? Handes Amsorya, LXXIII (1959), pp. 241

to 250. (In Armenian.) [2. 7. Winn, huh, // Fiz khi, ,Bissancios

Stauratos" 'insni ul 3'ih/fifty <uyuhuit, "pulf 'uhpg,<uilt ku Ulliophus{/,

4%. Ilifflihu, 1959, , 8. 241250.]

BEDOUKIANP. Z. Bedoukian, The Gold Coins of the Armenian

Kings of Cilicia, Handes Amsorya, LXXIV (1960), pp. 1627. (In

Armenian.) [9. Q. "inn Mhuib, 'ih/ hihn/ <"ty Puqu "phhp.m. /luhhapu-

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Tuhpg, &miut lullophuy, 4%, Lhhuuu, 1960 48. 1627.]

BEDOUKIANP. Z. Bedoukian, The Origin of the Designs of the

Levon I Coins, Handes Amsorya, LXXIV (1960), pp. 525-534. (In

Armenian.) [3. Q. "inn Mhuib, l/rl-nl, ll. Puqun npfiu "unlikputnutfit,

Uiuqn il, <uilt u liliophuy, 3%. 'll hibu, 1960, #. 525-534.]

BLANCARDL. Blancard, Le besant d'or sarrazinas, Memoire de

l'Acadmie des Science, Belles-Lettres et Arts de Marseilles, 18771878,

pp. I5I-I94.

BMCollection of the British Museum, London.

BNBibliothque Nationale, Cabinet des Mdailles, Paris. The three col-

lections of Roupenian coins found in this museum consist of the

former Schlumberger collection (about 370 coins), the Vogue col-

Bibliography and Abbreviations xiii

lection (over Ioo coins) and the Cabinet des Mdailles collection (near-

ly 1oo coins). In the Corpus the coins of all three are denoted by BN.

BORRELLH. P. Borrell, Restitution a Hthum I et Isabella, sa

femme, d'une mdaille attribue par Sestini a Hthem I et Lon III,

roi d'Armnie, Revue Numismatique, X, pp. 451-458.

BROSSETM. Brosset, Monographie des monnaies armniennes, St. Pters-

bourg, 1839. (Extrait de Bulletin de la classe historico-philologique de

l'Acadmie Impriale des Sciences de St. Ptersbourg, 1839, VI, No. 34,

pp. 33-64.)

BROSSETM. Brosset, Histoire du Bas-Empire, Nouvelle dition, Cor-

rige et augmente d'aprs les historiens orientaux, par Saint Martin et

continue par M. Brosset, 21 vols. (Paris, 18241836): XVI, p. 26,

Silver coin of Levon I, wrongly attributed to prince Levon I (II23);

XVI, p. 305, A copper coin of a Moslem ruler which was previously

attributed in error to Mleh; XVII, p. 43, Eight copper coins of

Levon I from the cabinet de M. le duc de Blacas; XVII, pp. 324

to 325, Six copper coins of Hetoum I from cabinet de Paris and

four of duc de Blacas. An unpublished bilingual coin of Hetoum-

Kaikobad; XX, p. 5Io, An unpublished silver coin of Oshin from

cabinet de M. le duc de Blacas.

BROSSETM. Brosset, Rapport sur un voyage archologique dans la

Gorgie et dans l'Armnie, St. Ptersbourg, 185o.

BUCHENAUH. Buchenau, Der Bracteatfund von Seega, Marburg, 195.

BUCHONI. A. C. Buchon, Recherches et matriaux pour servir a une

histoire de la domination Franaise au XIII, XIVe et XV sicles,

Paris, I8II.

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CAHENC. Cahen, La Syrie du Nord l'poque des Croisades, et la princi-

paut franque d'Antioche, Paris, 194o.

CALEYE. R. Caley, Estimation of Composition of Ancient Metal Ob-

jects. Utility of Specific Gravity Measurements. Analytical Chem-

istry, XXIV (1952), pp. 676681.

CAPPELLETTIG. Cappelletti, L'Armenia, Firenze, 1841.

CATALOGOCatalogo della collezione d'un distinto numismatico . . . di

monete . . . della Georgia e dell' Armenia, Firenze, 1888. (From

Sibilian XII.)

CATALOGUECatalogue de monnaies du moyen ge composant la col-

lection du prince Al. Troubetzkoy, Paris, 186o, p. Io. Royaume ar-

menien de Cilicie, I-5. (Sibilian XIII.)

xiv Bibliography and Abbreviations

CHAMCHIANM. Chamchian, History of Armenia, Venice, 3 vols. 1781

to 1786. (In Armenian.) [U . Quil'zhuil, quinifu Ghri, <uyng, 'll bhin4

17811786, 3 uinnp.

CHAMICHM. Chamich, History of Armenia, from B.C. 2247 to the year

of Christ 178o. Translated from the Original Armenian by Johannes

Avdall, Calcutta, 1827.

COLOPHONSColophons of Manuscripts from the Fifth to the Seventeenth

Century, Antelias, Lebanon, 1951. [?-uphqfl. ll. Hul}nq hhnu,

6zuinuhuipuil, p 2hn uqpug, b. 'hupni y Ulil zh d (? 'hup, Uli HHL Hulu,

lppuihuil, I95I.]

CORPUS NUMMORUM ITALICORUM Vols. VI and VII, Rome,

I922.

CRUSADESA History of the Crusades, Vol. I. Edited by Marshall

W. Baldwin, University of Pennsylvania Press, Philadelphia, 1955.

CUPERIG. Cuperi, In Lactantium, de mortibus persecutorum notae, Ed.

P. Bauldri, Trajecti ad R. 1693. (See Migne, Petrologiae Cursus Com-

pletus, Series Prima, Paris, 1844, VII, p. 48o.)

D'AIXAlbert d'Aix, Recueil des Historiens Croisades, Historiens Occi-

dentaux, Paris, 18441895, Vol. IV.

DARDELJ. Dardel, Chronicles, Recueil des Historiens des Croisades,

Documents Armniens, II, Paris, 1869.

DE BEAUMONTA. de Beaumont, Recherches sur l'origine du blason et en

particulier sur la fleur de lis, Paris, 1853.

DER GHAZARIANH. Der Ghazarian, A Copper Coin of Prince Levon II,

Pazmaveb, Venice, 192o, p. 167; Zouartnotz, Paris, 1930, pp. 409 to

4Io. (In Armenian.) [4. Slip luquphuil, lhl ni, h luulf "Llib4

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hpulle , Fuqiliul Hul, 'll bhin4, 192o, H? 167. 2nLuplifung,uphq ,

1930, 4 P. 409-4Io.]

DER NERSESSIANS. Der Nersessian, Armenia and the Byzantine

Empire, Cambridge, Mass. 1947.

DER NERSESSIANS. Der Nersessian, Manuscrits armniens illustrs,

des XII, XIIIe et XIVe sicles, Paris, 1936.

DESIMONIC. Desimoni, Actes passs en 1271, 1274 et 1279 l'Aias

(Petite Armnie) et Beyrouth par devant des notaires gnois, Archives

de l'Orient Latin, Paris, 188I, pp. 434-534.

DU CANGEC. D. Seigneur Du Cange, Histoire de S. Louys, par le sire

de Joinville, Paris, 1668.

EBCollection of Prof. A. A. Ebeyan, Beirut, Lebanon.

Bibliography and Abbreviations XV

ERState Museum of Armenia, Erivan, Armenia, U.S.S.R. The coins

cited in the Corpus contain all the double trams which were part of

the hoard of Daphne. These were donated to the State Museum of

Erivan by Mr. Armenak Poladian of Beirut, Lebanon.

ERACLESRecueil des Historiens Croisades, Historiens Occidentaux,

Paris, 18441895, Vol. II (L'Estoire de Eracles).

FONROBERT-Verzeichnis von Mnzen und Denkmnzen der Jules Fon-

robert'schen Sammlung, Berlin, 1878. (Armenien, No. 48444873.)

GAMALOV-CHURAEVS. A. Gamalov-Churaev, Classification of

Roupenian Coins (According to C. Sibilian), St. Petersbourg, 1923. (In

Russian.) [C. A. TaMaMob-UlypaeB, KIIacchdowkauwa PyeHMICKMx

MoHet IIo K. CM6MUIAHy, TleTep6ypr, 1923.]

GARABETIANB. M. Garabetian, The Roupenian Coins in the Museum

of the Mekhitarian Congregation, St. Lazare, Venice, Pazmaveb, CX,

Venice, 1952, pp. 155168. (In Armenian.) [7. Hupuuthukuit, U.

Tuquipm. Puiu Tupuiuli, Mkm-Pfuhuil, Trull uhpg, Fugiliu//ut, Ed.,

l/ru/ru//, 1952, #8. 155168.]

GARABETIANB. M. Garabetian, The Lion on the Armenian Coins,

Hask, Annual Number, Antelias (Lebanon), 19491950, pp. 265-293.

(In Armenian.) [7. 'lupuuthukuit, Unh &g <uy 'pull ulipni l'ny,

&uu/. <uyuzhnului, Suphalipe, lugh, huu, lhpuihuih, I949-1950,

3. 265-293.]

GARABETIANB. M. Garabetian, The Hoard of Daphne, Hask, Annual

Number, Antelias (Lebanon), 19491950, pp. 1621. (In Armenian.)

[7 'lupuukinkuh, Surpukh Tipuliughling, &uuh, Auyuithnului,

Sup/r?/pip, lludh, huu, lipuihui, 19491950, #3. 1621.]

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GARABETIANB. M. Garabetian, The Origin and Development of Ar-

menian Numismatics, Hask, Antelias (Lebanon), XIX, 1950, pp. 274

to 280. (In Armenian.)[7. Hupuukinhuih, zuyuhui, Mulliumhuin Ph-

u, Uugn J", n- 3up?ugu-Ug, &uu/, d/, l'h'// huu, liguibulu,

1950, 48.274280.]

GARABETIANB. M. Garabetian, An Outline of Armenian Numis-

matics, Pazmaveb, CIX, Venice, 1951, pp. 317324. (In Armenian.)

[7. 'rupuukinkuh, /hpm uth& <"y "fulfu?hinn (Hruil, Quintln, Idhuib,

fugilial ul, BP. lhuku.h4, 1951, 3. 317-324.]

GELZERH. Gelzer, Abriss der byzantinischen Kaisergeschichte. In

K. Krumbacher, Geschichte der byzantinischen Literatur, Zweite Auf-

lage (Mnchen, 1897), pp. 911-1067.

xvi Bibliography and Abbreviations

GRIERSON-P. Grierson, **A Rare Crusader Besant with the Christus

Vincit Legend,' The American Numismatic Society Museum Notes VI

(1954), pp. 169-178, Pl. XVIII, 1-2.

GROUSSET-H. Grousset, Histoire des Croisades, 3 vols., Paris, 1948

GROUSSET-H. Grousset, Histoire de l'Armnie, Paris, 1947.

GUILHIERMOZ-P. Guilhiermoz, "Note sur les poids des moyen ge,'

Bibliothque de l'cole des Chartes, LXVII (19o6), pp. 161-233,

4O2-45O.

HABESHIAN-H. Habeshian, "A Half Tram of Oshin,' Azadanard

Weekly, No. 34, Constantinople (Istanbul), I9II, p.544. (In Ar-

menian.) [&. & uuq42hul, 02 fil Puquinpfih ihuuq puul, Ulquunuuliupun

Gupudu dhp d, du 34, %n fu, 1911, 4 S. 544.]

HAGOPYAN-V. A. Hagopyan, Minor Chronicles of the XIII to XVIII

Centuries, Vol. II, Erivan, Armenia, U.SS.R., 1956. Institute of

History, Academy of Sciences, Armenian SS.R. [ l. Ul. &utnfuih,

dululu4uqpndflibhp XIII-XVIII "). ). & uj utul U. lJ. I).

*hunn djmlihhpf Uluq hrulbuf lunulfin juil Fhuufunnn. bphuil,

1956.]

HAYASTAN-Hayastan, Armenian Numismatics, 1851, No. 33-85. (In

(Armenian) (Sibilian XII). [&uyuuunuh, & uju4ul Tpuuliuqifunn dfh,

1951. Ph. 33-85.]

HE-Hermitage Museum, Leningrad, U.SS.R.

HEYD-W. Heyd, Histoire du commerce du Levant, 2 vols., Leipzig 1936.

HK-Collection of Mr. H. Kurdian, Wichita, Kansas, U.S.A.

IBN AL-ATHIR-Ibn Al-Athir, Kamel-Altevarykh (Selections with

French Translations), Recueil des Historiens des Croisades, Historiens

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Orientaux, Vol. I. 1872, pp. 187-744.

INDJIDJIAN-G. Indjidjian, Report on Armenian Coins, Tarabadoum,

Venice, 1827, Vol. 7, pp. 239-24o. (In Armenian.) [T. Fihhxhuil,

&uj4uuh 7pull hp, Tupuuquunnd Ihhhunf4, 1827. &np. B. 4g.

239-24O.]

IORGA-N. Iorga, Brve Histoire de la Petite Armnie, Paris, 193o.

IS-Istanbul Archeological Museum, Istanbul, Turkey.

IS-H-Mersin hoard of Levon I trams in IS.

KAREKIN-Karekin I. Catholicos, Colophons of Manuscripts, Vth to

XVIIIth Centuries, Antelias, Lebanon, 1951, Vol. I. (In Armenian.)

d* Tup. & ump. U. Uhdhp buu, lfpubul, I95I.]

Bibliography and Abbreviations xvii

KBCollection of Mr. Kamer Baghdadlian, Cannes, France. This col-

lection was formed by the father of Mrs. Kamer Baghdadlian, the

late Mr. Nishan Kalebjian.

KHACHIGYANL. S. Khachigyan, Colophons of Fourteenth Century

Armenian Manuscripts, Erivan, Armenia, 195o. U.S.S.R. Institute

of History, Academy of Sciences, Armenian S.S.R. [l. U. hu, H4 juil,

d'? 'Pupp uyhpi 2hn uqphp| <h2uinuhupuilibhp, $uyhuhul, U. U. /P.

?inni Hynllibhph llhuq hilkuyh Quinilin Hyuil, Fuuinhunni-in. bpb |uil,

I950.]

KKCollection of Mr. Kegham Kalajian of New York.

KRAFTA. Kraft, Jahrbcher der Literatur, Wien, 1843, CIII. Anzeige-

Blatt fr Wissenschaft und Kunst, CIII, pp. I-29. (Beschreibung

armenischer Mnzen der rupenischen Dynastie in Cilicien.)

KUNSTHISTORISCHES MUSEUMKunsthistorisches Museum in

Vienna. This museum possesses a small collection of Roupenian coins

which includes a rare silver tram of Constantine I, thought to be the

only specimen in existence until quite recently.

KUNZC. Kunz, Secondo catalogo di ogetti di numismatica, Venezia, 1855.

(III, p. 57, Monete di Re d'Armenia della Dinastia Rupena.)

LA CROZEM. V. de La Croze, Histoire du Christianisme d'Ethiopie et

d'Armnie. Haie, 1739.

LANGLOISV. Langlois, Chronique de Michel le Grand, Venice, 1868.

LANGLOISV. Langlois, Cartulaire, Le trsor des chartes d'Armnie, ou

cartulaire de la chancellerie royale des Roupniens, Venice, 1863.

LANGLOISV. Langlois, Numismatique de l'Armnie au moyen ge,

Paris, 1855.

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LANGLOISV. Langlois, Lgende Arabe d'une monnaie bilingue

d'Hthum, Revue Archologique, VII (185o), pp. 22o-233.

LANGLOISV. Langlois, Sur les monnaies des rois armniens de la

dynastie de Roupne, Revue Archologique, VII (185o), pp. 262275,

357-368, 416-426, Pl. I44, I47, I48.

LANGLOISV. Langlois, Sur une pice indite d'Ochine (Cuivre),

Revue Archologique, VIII (1851), pp. 225232.

LANGLOISV. Langlois, Sur quelques monnaies indites ou peu con-

nues, Revue Archologique, X (1853), pp. 467475, Pl. 222-223.

LANGLOISV. Langlois, Sur deux monnaies indites de Lon II,

Revue de la Numismatique Belge, 1866, pp. 474-477. Pl. XVIII.

xviii Bibliography and Abbreviations

LASDVERDTSIAristages Lasdverdtsi, History, Eye Witness Account of

the Seljuk Invasions (9891071), Venice, 1844 and Alexandropol

(Leninakan), Armenia, 1893. (In Armenian.) [lphunu'u l'uu" /-

Apurgh.<ht Fuulfil du/iuhuhuffy Quinlin Phili, (989107I). lbhinh/,

1844. U/h.puuib"polio L, 1893].

French Translation: E. Prudhomme, Histoire d'Armnie par Aris-

tagues, Paris, 1864.

LEBEAUSee M. Brosset, Histoire du Bas-Empire.

LELEWELJ. Lelewel, Notes in Gnie de l'Orient by L. L. Sawasz-

kiewicz, Bruxelle, 1846, p. 214, Pl. XI. 94, 95.

LOPEZR. S. Lopez and I. W. Raymond, Medieval Trade in the Mediter-

ranean World, New York, 1955.

MACLERF. Macler, Cambridge Mediaeval History, 1936, Vol. IV.

MANANTYANH. Manantyan, A Critical Treatise of the History of the

Armenian People, 4 vols. Erivan, Armenia, 19441960. Published by

the Institute of History, The Academy of Sciences, Armenian S.S.R.

(In Armenian.)[4.U'uihuilt huiu, Ruhului, Shun-E/ni, <"y dinin! ("th

Quintlhi-Ryuib, 4.4"p. bphilub, 19441960 4.U.U./k. %hirn. E/nihhph

l/u?huhu, Quinlin-Ryuil, Fuuinhinnlin].

MARCARS. Marcar, Description of a Copper Coin of Leo, King

of Armenia, Madras Journal of Literature and Science, Madras,

1851.

MARCO POLOG. Pauthier, Nouvelle Biographie Gnrale, Paris,

Vol. XL, 1866, pp. 637659.

MARSDENW. Marsden, Oriental Coins, London, 1823.

MAS LATRIEL. de Mas Latrie, Histoire de Chypre, 3 vols. Paris, 1852

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to I86 I.

MATEOS OURHAIETZIMateos Ourhaietzi, History (952-1136), Je-

rusalem (1869) and Vagharshabad, Armenia (1898). (In Armenian.)

["uniliu-Phth Ulum/J^nuf /I-n-Suykg. Ty, bpm uuqu, 1869; Luquip-

2uulum, 1898.] French Translation: E. Dulaurier, Matthieu d'desse,

Paris, 1858. French and Armenian Versions: Recueil des Historiens

des Croisades, Documents Armniens, I. Paris, 1869.

MERTENSE. Mertens, Der Brakteatfund von Nordhausen, Halle,

I929.

MIGEONG. Migeon, Manuel d'art Musulman, Paris, 1907.

MMCollection in the Mardikian Museum, Armenian National Cultural

Society, Beirut, Lebanon.

Bibliography and Abbreviations xix

MNATSAGANYANA. Sh. Mnatsaganyan, Armenian Decorative Art,

Erivan, Armenia, U.S.S.R. 1955. (InArmenian.)[U.6.U'huguhuiyuib,

<"y Up:/humb 3up?uibhutibhp, bphilub, I955.]

MONTGOMERYCompte de Montgomery. See Pembroke.

MORGAN-Jacques de Morgan, History of the Armenian People, Trans-

lated from the French, Hairenik Press, Boston, 1952.

NKCollection of Mme. Nadia Kapamadji, Paris, France.

NUBARBibliothque armnienne Nubar. The collection of this library

consisting of about fifty Roupenian coins and formerly belonging to

Catholicos Sahag of Sis, contains a rare copper coin of Prince Levon II

and also a bilingual half tram of Hetoum I-Kaikhusrew.

STRUPJ. strup, Catalogue des monnaies Arabes et Turques, Copen-

hagen, 1938.

PBCollection of the author, New York.

PEGOLOTTIFrancesco di Balduccio Pegolotti, La pratica della marca-

tura, Ed. by Allan Evans, Cambridge, Mass. 1936.

PELLERINJ. Pellerin, Lettres de l'Auteur des recueils de mdailles de

Rois, du Peuples et de Villes, Paris, 1770.

PEMBROKET. Pembroke et Compte de Montgomery, Numismatica

antiqua in tres partes divisa, London, 1746.

PETIT-M. Petit, Histoire gnrale des peuples, Paris, 1925.

PHPoladian Hoards. The author was fortunate in securing from Mr. Ar-

menak Poladian of Beirut the paper rubbings of two hoards, one of

Hetoum I and the other of Levon I. Part of the Levon hoard was

purchased by the author.

POLO see Marco Polo.

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RAYMONDI. W. Raymond, see Lopez, R.S.

R.H.C. D.A.Recueil des Historiens Croisades, Documents Armniens,

2 vols. Paris, 18691906.

REINAUD-J. T. Reinaud, Descriptions des monumens Musulmans, Paris,

I828.

ROYAL CHRONICLEA hand copy of a manuscript by the late Prof.

Robert P. Blake of Harvard University. The original presumably

written in the XII-XIV century, is in the Mekhitarian library in Venice.

RUNCIMANS. Runciman, The History of the Crusades, 3 vols. Cam-

bridge, England, 19511954.

SABATIERJ. Sabatier, Descriptions gnrale des monnaies byzantines,

2 vols. Paris, 1862. (Reprint Graz, 1955.)

XX Bibliography and Abbreviations

SAMUEL ANETSIS. Anetsi, History from 1126 till the 17th Century,

Vagharshabad, Armenia, 1895. [Uuilh 'L luhgh, 'luTupoultuin,

1895.] French Translation: M. Brosset, Collection d'historiens ar-

mniens, vol. II, St. Ptersbourg, 1876. (Tables chronologique de

Samuel d'Ani.)

SAKISIANA. Sakisian, Page d'art armnien, Paris, 1940.

SANUTOM. Sanuto, In J. Bongars, Gesta dei per Francos, 1611. Fidelim

Crucis Lib. II, Pars IV.

SARREF. Sarre, L'Art de la Perse ancienne, Paris, 1922.

SAULCYF. de Saulcy, Numismatique byzantine, 2 vols. Metz, 1836.

(Essaie de classifications des suites monetaire Byzantines.)

SAULCYF. de Saulcy, Numismatique des Croisades, Paris, 1847.

SCHLUMBERGERG. Schlumberger, Archives de l'Orient Latin, Paris,

I88I.

SCHLUMBERGERG. Schlumberger, Numismatique de l'Orient Latin,

Paris, 1878.

SCHLUMBERGERG. Schlumberger, Mlanges d'Archologie Byzantine,

Paris, 1895.

SCHLUMBERGERG. Schlumberger, Monnaies des princes Chrtiens

d'Orient, Leon II roi d'Armnie, Revue Archologique, XXX (1875),

N.S. XVI, pp. 345349. (Description of a billon of Levon I struck in

Antioch and also an unpublished half double tram of Levon I.)

SESTINID. Sestini, Lettere e Dissertazione Numismatiche, sopra alcune

medaglio rare della Collezione Ainsliena. Livorno, 1779. (Description

of a Toros coin in the Ainsley collection, III, p. 147.)

SESTINID. Sestini, Lettere e Dissertazione Numismatiche, etc., Disser-

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tazione sopra alcune monete Armene dei Principi Rupenensi, Livorno,

1789, II, pp. 2255, Pl. I, II.

SESTINID. Sestini, Lettere e Dissertazione Numismatiche, etc., Sopra dei

Monete Armene dei Principi Rupenensi, Livorno, 1790, IV, Lettere

VIII, p. 84.

SIBILIANC. Sibilian, Classification of Roupenian Coins, Vienna, 1892

(Written in 1877, but published in 1892 with extensive additions by

K. V. Kalemkiarian (In Armenian). ['i. Uhuth/huih, Muuu-npm-Ahli,

/km-Pfuhuit, "pullig, llibiihu, 1892.%pm u 1877 Fu Hi Sulm u 1892 Fi,

fugiliu/Jh 8tul him ifuhpn/ Q. l. luth/Phulphuibh inq#.]

SIBILIANC. Sibilian, Unpublished Coins of the Roupenian Kings,

Europa, Vienna, 1851, No.46, 48: 1852, No. 2,9,11,16. (In Armenian.)

Bibliography and Abbreviations xxi

['i - UhuthLhuil. f /km (fuhui, Puqu mphhp.m. UFligh- <hiliu 99pu an upulin-

u& Tru/ukp, , befnulu, 1851, Gh-e 46,48; 1852. Ph-P 2, 9, 11, 16.]

SIBILIANC. Sibilian, Numismatique armnienne, Revue de l'Orient,

Paris, XII, 1860, pp. 193203.

SIBILJANC. Sibiljan, Beschreibung von XVII noch unedirten

Mnzen der Armenisch-Rupenischen Dynastie in Kilikien, Sitzungs-

berichte der philos.-histor. Classe der k. Akademie der Wissenschaften,

Wien, 1852. VIII, p. 275.

SMITH-H. R. Smith, A Meeting of East and West, Semitic and

Oriental Studies, University of California Publications of Semitic

Philology, XI (1951), pp. 423427.

SMPADConstable of the kingdom of Cilicia. Chronicle 9521274 and

continuation until 1331. Armenian text published in Moscow in 1856,

Paris in 1859 and a recent text in Venice in 1956. French translation

V. Langlois, Chronique de Sempad (extrait), St. Ptersbourg, 1862.

[U./hum Uutupuuthull, Suphalipe, 'lhukshi, 1956.]

SPINELLID. Spinelli, Monete Cufiche, bettute da principi Longobardi,

Normanni et svevi del regno delle due Sicilie, Napoli, 1844.

STRZYGOWSKIJ. Strzygowski, Die Baukunst der Armenier und

Europa, 2 vols. Vienna, 1916.

SURMEYIANA. Surmeyian, The Psalter of King Oshin, Written in

1319. Chronicle, Antelias, Lebanon, 1933. (In Armenian.) [lpinul lug."

Ur-P. Uh-pi/h/ub, thupualif 02 [i. Puqu mphu du/ia7/pp/h, I319.

l'h&hl Ruu, lipuihuih, 1933]

TRISTAN-J. Tristan de Saint-Amant, Commentaires historiques con-

tenans l'histoire gnrale des empereurs, impratrices, caesars et tyrans

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de l'empire romain. 3 vols. Paris, 1644.

TROUBETZKOY-Al. Troubetzkoy. See Catalogue des monnaie etc.

VARTAN-Vartan, History, from the Beginning till 1265, Venice, 1862.

(In Armenian.) [Zulu.pm if i, Quinl/in (J/ruit, luptuouy 'luptuuthsh,

"l/ru/ru/4, 1862.]

VMCollection of the Mekhitarian Museum in Venice, Italy.

VON FALKEO. von Falke, Kunstgeschichte der Seidenweberei, 2 vols.

Berlin, 1913.

VON WELLENHEIM-Verzeichniss der Mnz- und Medaillen-Sammlung

des L. Werzel von Wellenheim, Wien, 1845. (Armenische Knige aus

dem Hause Rupenin Cilicien, No. 1205612060, II. Abtheilung, p. 570.)

WMCollection of the Mekhitarian Museum in Vienna, Austria.

SURVEY OF EARLIER PUBLICATIONS

ON ROUPENIAN COINS

The first mention of a Roupenian coin was apparently made in

1644 by Tristan" who included a drawing of a bilingual coin of

Hetoum-Kaikhusrew in his extensive work on numismatics. Tristan

was able to translate (although incorrectly) the Arabic inscription on

the coin but could not decipher the Armenian side, although he knew

the characters were Armenian. The drawing of this coin was done so

poorly that it is impossible to read the Armenian inscription. Some

twenty-four years later, Du Cange referred to Tristan's bilingual

coin, but ascribed it to a Persian monarch. The coin was again briefly

mentioned about twenty-five years later by Cuperi who more or less

summarized the statements made by Tristan and Du Cange. It was

not until 1739, nearly a hundred years after Tristan's publication,

that La Croze" attempted to decipher the Armenian inscription. Al-

though La Croze incorrectly read it as Thagavor Thagavoratz

Haiotz (The King of Kings of the Armenians), he apparently had

the assistance of some one with a good knowledge of Armenian be-

cause the incorrect version is grammatically accurate, and his faulty

interpretation may have been due to the poor condition of the coin.

Finally, in 1782, Adler" reproduced another bilingual coin of Hetoum-

Kaikhusrew, and succeeded in reading the inscription correctly.

The first Roupenian coins bearing entirely Armenian inscriptions

were apparently first described in a catalog of the St. Petersburg

(Leningrad) Museum in 1745." The description there is as follows:

* Tristan, pp. 5889.

* Du Cange, p. 238.

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* Cuperi, p. 480.

* La Croze, pp. 339344.

* Adler, pp. 612, Pl. XII, No. C.

* Musei Imperialis Petropolitani. Vol. II (1745) p. 452. The author is

deeply grateful to Prof. A. Bykov of the Hermitage Museum for locating

this reference after a search in various libraries of Leningrad. Only after

receiving Prof. Bykov's report was it possible to determine that this was

xxii

Survey of Earlier Publications on Roupenian Coins xxiii

1. Rex adversa fronte, coronatus, sedens, dextra crucem, sinistra scept-

rum, seu simile quid tenens.

LEON CZAAR HAIWEZ (i. e. Armeniae). A. Insignia regni:

EX. MISERICORDIA DEI

2. Similis, crassus susus.

3. Duae figurae coronates flantes crucem tenent.

HEETOM CZAAR HAIWEZ. A. Leo gradiens, supra quem crux.

EX. MISERICORDIA DEI Nimmus susus.

Although the inscriptions were read incorrectly, the descriptions are

clearly of the two trams of Levon I and the one of Hetoum-Zabel.

A good reproduction of a copper coin of Levon I appeared in Pem-

broke and Montgomery's treatise published in 1746, but the authors

unfortunately listed it erroneously as a Runic coin. In 1762, Pellerins

reported the existence of six copper coins of Levon I with Armenian

legends, but could not read the inscription. Shortly thereafter, before

the publication of the second volume of his work in 1770 he noted

an engraving of a similar coin in a publication which described the

collection of the Marquis de Savorgnan. It is presumed that this

catalog was published sometime between 1762 and 1770, as Pellerin

did not see it in time to make use of the information in his first

volume. By 1770, the Mekhitarian Fathers in Venice had published

a number of Armenian books, thus introducing the language to

Western readers, and Pellerin was then able to read, though not

most likely the first report in print of Roupenian coins, with the exception

of the bilingual coin of Hetoum I. In his monograph on Roupenian coins,

Brosset lists the following references:

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Museum imp. Petrop. 1745, II, Pl. III, p. 452;

Corsini, Dissertation de Minnisari aliorumque Armeniae regum nummis,

Liburni, 1754, 1756;

Froelich, Dubia de Minnisari aliorumque Armeniae regum nummis. Vienna,

1754; Alter, Miscellen, p. 138; Mionnet IV, pp. 451458. Brosset adds that

the last author deals with ancient Armenian coins with Greek legends and

not with coins of the Roupenian period. His remarks would lead one to

believe that the others dealt with Roupenian coins. Froelich's book is con-

cerned only with some pre-Christian period coins and not Roupenian coins.

It is regrettable that it was impossible to check either Corsini or Alter, but

a remark by Langlois (p. 1) would lead one to believe that only the first

dealt with Roupenian coins.

* Pembroke and Montgomery, IV, Part 4, Pl. XL.

* Pellerin, p. 218.

* Pellerin, pp. 112147, Pl. I. Nos. 6, 7, 8.

xxiv Survey of Earlier Publications on Roupenian Coins

accurately, some of the variations of the inscriptions on the copper

coins of Levon I.

In 17811786, Chamchian" published his monumental History of

Armenia in three volumes. This study, published in Armenian, was

later translated into English." In his work, Chamchian mentions

that the Roupenians struck gold, silver and copper coins, and gives

several illustrations.

In 1789, Sestini wrote a treatise on the coinage of the Roupenians

and briefly discussed the history of the dynasty. He listed thirteen

coins of which two were Serbian and erroneously identified as Ar-

menian. A year later, Sestini gave a description and engraving of a

half-tram of Zabel-Hetoum and of a new copper coin of Levon I. It

may be mentioned here that Sestini also reproduced an engraving

of a coin which he ascribed to the Roupenian king, Toros. This is one

of several instances in which a coin has been attributed to this king.

Unfortunately, Sestini's pictorial representation was so poor that it

is impossible to decipher the inscription. How did Sestini manage to

obtain so much data on the history and coinage of the Roupenians?

The answer is given by Father Indjidjian" in a report appearing in

1827 in an Armenian publication. Apparently, in 1788, when Lord

Ainsley saw Father Indjidjian in Constantinople (Istanbul), he

showed him a large number of unidentified coins and insisted on

our identifying and classifying these coins. It became necessary to

make a chronology of the Roupenian kings to give to Sestini, the

numismatist, and also to make models of the old and new forms of

Armenian letters which Sestini used in his Italian treatise. Sestini

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himself acknowledges" the invaluable help given him in this phase

of his work. It becomes obvious that Father Indjidjian was probably

the first to possess some knowledge of the coinage of the Roupenian

dynasty, and it is unfortunate that he made no attempt to publish

his studies.

* Chamchian, History of Armenia, Vol. III, p. 365.

* Chamich, History of Armenia.

* Sestini, 1789, II, pp. 2255, Pl. I, II.

* Sestini, 1790, IV, p. 84.

* Sestini, 1779, III, p. 147.

* Indjidjian, p. 23940.

* Sestini, 1790, p. 84, Lettere VIII.

Survey of Earlier Publications on Roupenian Coins xxv

Within the next fifty years, the coinage of the Roupenians received

increasing attention. Buchon" described the design of some Armenian

coins in his discussion of the coins of Cyprus. Brosset, the noted

armenologist, first discussed a number of Roupenian coins which

included an unpublished bilingual coin of Hetoum-Kaikobad and

an unpublished silver coin of Oshin; and later, in 1839, published a

monograph in which he listed about sixty coins in various Russian

and French collections. This work did much to arouse interest in the

coinage of the Roupenian period. At a later date, Brosset reported

on a silver coin of Gosdantin.

Apart from a passing remark on a coin of Levon I by Cappelletti

in his History of Armenia, the next important contribution was made

by Kraft in 1843. His work contains a good review of the previous

publications on the subject, with appropriate comments on their con-

tents and shortcomings. According to Marcar (45), this article has

been published in book form. Kraft discusses at some length the

coinage and history of the Roupenian kingdom and lists 59 coins, of

which 29 belonged to the Royal Museum in Vienna, 23 to the col-

lection of Father Timoni, and 7 to the Mekhitarian Museum in

Vienna. The article was well illustrated and included a silver coin of

Gosdantin I. Following Brosset's and Kraft's treatises, Roupenian

coins began appearing in some catalogs. One published in 1845 listed

seven silver and copper coins of Levon I and Hetoum I* and an-

other, published in 1878, listed a sizable collection of the coins of the

various rulers39 coins. Other contemporary catalogs also in-

dicated the interest in this field.

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Buchon, pp. 403-405.

* Brosset, Histoire du Bas-Empire, XVI, p. 26, 305; XVII, p. 43;

* Ibid., XVII, pp. 324325;

* Ibid., XX, p. 510.

* Brosset, Monographie des Monnaies Armniennes.

* Brosset, Rapports sur un Voyage Archologique dans la Gorgie et dans

l'Armnie, II, p. I4.

* Cappelletti, pp. 178181.

* Kraft, pp. 1-29.

* Von Wellenheim Catalogue, p. 570.

* Fonrobert's collection, p. 294.

* Kunz's Catalogue, 1855, p. 57; I have not seen the catalog of Prince

Troubetzkoy's collection, and this reference is copied from Sibilian XII.

xxvi Survey of Earlier Publications on Roupenian Coins

The earlier literature gave more prominence to the copper coins.

Later on, possibly because of the discovery of various hoards of silver

coins, the situation was reversed. In 1845, three silver coins of Zabel-

Hetoum were reported by Borrell. The following year, another

silver Zabel-Hetoum was described by Lelewel, along with a coin

of Levon IV with an Arabic surcharge. In 1847, Saulcy illustrated

a coin of Levon V which he ascribed to Cyprus, and another Arme-

nian coin with an illegible inscription.

After 1850, there was a period of intense activity in the field of

Armenian numismatics. Outstanding contributions were made by

Victor Langlois who also elucidated the relationship of the Roupenian

kingdom with the western world, and by Father Sibilian whose re-

searches and activities in the cause of Armenian numismatics far

surpassed Langlois' work in scope and accuracy. Langlois, writing in

French, familiarized Europeans with this branch of numismatics, and

Sibilian, writing in Armenian, placed the coinage on a firm foundation.

It is significant that Sibilian's work remained a classic for nearly a

hundred years.

In his earlier papers, Langlois reported the complete reading of the

bilingual coin of Hetoum-Kaikhusrew. He later published a general

review of the subject, listing all the known collections, both public

and private. He also speculated on the origin of the designs of the

coinage of the Roupenians. In another article, Langlois discussed

the two reports on coins attributed to Toros. In 1851, he reported

a copper coin of Oshin and published three articles summing up

the existing knowledge on Roupenian coins. Two years later, he pub-

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lished an extensive article listing hitherto unknown or little known

coins. These studies by Langlois were brought together in book

form in an important publication entitled Numismatique de l'Ar-

* Borrell, p. 451, Pl.

* Lelewel, pp. 214, Pl. XI, No. 94, 95.

*Saulcy, Numismatique de Croisades, 1847, Pl. XIX, Nos. 5, 7.

* Langlois, Revue Archologique, 1850, pp. 22023.

* Langlois, ibid. pp. 262-271; 357368; 416426; Pl. I44, 147, I48.

* Langlois, ibid. pp. 416426.

* Langlois, ibid. 1851, pp. 225232.

* Langlois, ibid. 1851, pp. 262-274; 357368; 416426 and 3 plates.

* Langlois, ibid. 1853, pp. 467475, Pl. 222, and 223.

Survey of Earlier Publications on Roupenian Coins xxvii

mnie au Moyen Age. It was a notable contribution, but as Sibilian

pointed out some years later, it contained no less than sixty-nine

glaring errors, and in the light of our present knowledge, this number

can be multiplied many fold. In 1866, Langlois also reported on a

hitherto unpublished double tram of Levon I. This coin with the

lion turned right had the complete inscription on both sides

(Corpus No. 16).

During this same period, Sibilian wrote several important articles.

Father Sibilian was a member of the Armenian Roman Catholic

Mekhitarian order in Vienna, an order established in 1717 in St. La-

zare, Venice, by Mekhitar of Sebastia. In 1811, some members of the

order moved to Vienna. Both branches of the order have made ex-

tremely valuable contributions to Armenian culture. The Mekhitarists

today have large collections of Armenian books and an impressive

number of ancient Armenian manuscripts. Vienna possesses by far

the largest collection of Roupenian coins, and the collection in Venice

is also important. Scholars have long depended on these two establish-

ments for their source of information on Armenian studies. Neither

Sestini nor Langlois could have carried out their studies without the

active assistance of the Mekhitarists.

Sibilian can be considered the father of Armenian numismatics.

His writings were based on exhaustive studies and have proved re-

markably accurate. On Sibilian's death Schlumberger wrote, le

Pre Cl. Sibilian, qui connaissait admirablement cette branche de

l'archologie armnienne et qui lavait tudie la fois en patriote fer-

vent, et en numismatiste distingu n'est plus.

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Sibilian was born in Constantinople (Istanbul) on February 17,

1824, and joined the Mekhitarist order in Vienna in 1838. Encouraged

by Chief Abbot Azarian, he took an active interest in Armenian coins

and by 1846 had begun a treatise on the coinage of the Roupenians.

As he felt that there was insufficient material in Vienna for a satis-

factory study, he journeyed to Armenia and neighboring countries in

search of numismatic material. Thus, in addition to his religious

duties, he spent much time in writing on numismatic and historical

* Langlois, Numismatique de l'Armnie au Moyen Age, Paris, 1855.

* Langlois, Revue de la Numismatique Belge, 1866, p. 474., Pl. XVIII.

* Schlumberger, Archives de l'Orient Latin, 1881, pp. 675678.

* See F. Kalemkiarian's Preface to Sibilian's book, XVII.

xxviii Survey of Earlier Publications on Roupenian Coins

subjects. He died in 1878, at the age of 54, as a result of an illness

contracted during his travels. He was unable to write the exhaustive

treatise on Roupenian coins which he had planned, but did complete

his Classification of Roupenian Coins written in Armenian in 1877

and published in 1892 with extensive notes by Father K. H. Kalem-

kiarian of the same order. It included a bibliography of early refer-

ences on Armenian coins. Although limited in scope and inaccurate

in its treatment of the latter period of the kingdom, this has served

as a standard reference to this day.

In 1851 and 1852, Sibilian wrote a series of six papers on un-

published Roupenian coins." These papers were incorporated in an

extensive article which appeared in German in a Viennese publica-

tion." At a later date, Sibilian published additional information on

his numismatic findings.

Other publications of this period include a note on a copper coin of

Levon I," on Hetoum-Zabel silver coins* previously discussed by

Borrell, and a general treatise on Roupenian coins" in an Armenian

journal.

In 1875, another famous numismatist, Schlumberger, made a

number of important contributions to our knowledge of Roupenian

coins. He was the first to publish a coin of Levon I struck in Antioch

in Latin characters." In the same article he first described a half

double-tram of Levon I. Shortly thereafter, again for the first time,

Schlumberger reported on a gold coin of Levon I." Schlumberger

* Sibilian's book is the only reference work on the coinage of Cilician

Armenia, and it is unfortunate that it has never been translated into a

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Western language.

* Sibilian, Europa, Vienna, 1851. Nos. 46, 48, 1852, No. 2, 9, II, 16.

These articles, originally appearing in a newspaper, were added to Sibilian's

book and thus made available to the general reader.

* Sibiljan, p. 275, and reprinted in book form.

* Sibilian, Revue de l'Orient, 1860, XII, p. 193203.

* Marcar, Madras Journal of Literature and Science, 1851, p. 151. It is

curious that the photograph of this copper coin as printed is a mirror image

of the usual Levon I coins. This is probably due to an error in printing

since no other reverse inscription and image coins have been reported.

* Barthelemy, pp. 403, 446, Pl. XIII.

* Hayastan, No. 3385 (in Armenian).

* Schlumberger, Revue Archologique, 1875, pp. 345349.

* Schlumberger, Archives de l'Orient Latin, 1881, pp. 675678.

Survey of Earlier Publications on Roupenian Coins xxix

had an important collection of Roupenian coins, which eventually

found its way to the Bibliothque Nationale in Paris.

In 1865, Father Alishan of the Mekhitarist Order in Venice pub-

lished his monumental treatise, Sissouan, on Cilician Armenia. He

devoted a full section to the coinage of the kingdom and discussed at

some length the commercial relationship of the kingdom with the

Mediterranean countries. Numismatically, the value of his work is

important in that it was the first to contain a description of the copper

coins of the princes Gosdantin, Toros and Levon II, and also of the

gold coin of Gosdantin I. His work was translated into French

in 1899.

Active interest in the coinage of the Roupenian dynasty seemed to

wane after Alishan's work, and for the next fifty years there were no

publications of importance. The discovery of several copper coins of

Prince Levon II prompted several articles elucidating the inscription

on them. In 1936, Basmadjian" published his general treatise on

the numismatics of Armenia, in which he gave an account not only

of the Roupenian coins but also of coins struck on the soil of Greater

Armenia by earlier Armenian kings and by the Mohammedan in-

vaders, beginning with the Arabs. He also gave descriptions of coins

pertaining to Armenia, including Roman coins with the inscription

Armeniacus, Armenia, etc., and of the coins of many Byzantine

emperors of Armenian origin. This volume, however, added little new

data to the numismatic knowledge of the Roupenian period.

In the past few years, there has been renewed activity in the field

of Armenian numismatics and considerable progress has been made.

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Of particular interest are publications by Garabetian who, in his

travels through Europe, catalogued a number of collections and

wrote an account of the collection in the Mekhitarist Museum in

* Alishan, Sissouan (in Armenian), 1885.

* Alishan, 1899.

* Der Ghazarian, Two articles in Armenian publications listed in the

Bibliography.

* This book, written in Armenian, contains a section on Roupenian coins.

Unfortunately, the author has taken little care in preparing this section

and has not availed himself of the numismatic material to be found in

various museums. All of the drawings are taken from Jacques de Morgan's

book History of the Armenian People.

xxx Survey of Earlier Publications on Roupenian Coins

Venice. Of special value is a description of the hoard of Daphne,

discovered near Antioch, which contained a large number of rare

types of double-trams. Other interesting and informative articles by

Garabetian include a lengthy treatise on some aspects of the design

of Roupenian coins and bibliographical surveys on publications

dealing with the study of Armenian numismatics.

In describing a hoard found in 1874 in Cilicia, Sibilian pointed out

the similarity in styling between the Levon coins (written lb"/") and

those of Guy (13421344) and Gosdantin III (13441364). He sug-

gested that it was most likely that these coins were all made by the

same die-maker. Garabetian was apparently the first to attribute

the Levon (lb'l/Tu) coins to Levon the Usurper who ruled from 1363

to 1365. It was only after the discovery of the Chronicle of Dardel in

1883 that the existence of the rule of Leo the Usurper became known.

This information was therefore not available to Sibilian. Metrological

data obtained by the writer in support of Garabetian's theory are

given elsewhere in this book.

More recently, a number of studies have been published which have

helped to clear up a few of the problems concerning the coinage of the

Roupenians. It had hitherto been impossible to distinguish the coins

of Gosdantin III and Gosdantin IV from each other. This has now

been made possible through a critical examination of the weights and

specific gravities of a large number of coins of these two rulers. Since

the Roupenian coins bear no dates, it is not possible to classify the

coins of each ruler chronologically according to their order of issue.

However, by comparative studies and examination of two large

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* Garabetian, Pazmaveb, No. 79, 1952, pp. 155168. Garabetian has

prepared the catalogs of the collections in the Bibliothque Nationale in

Paris, the Mekhitarist Museum in Vienna and Venice, and also the small

collection of the Bibliothque Armnienne Nubar in Paris. These catalogs,

duplicates of which are in Garabetian's possession, are not available to the

student, possibly pending publication.

* Garabetian, Hask, Annual Number, 194950, pp. 1621. This valuable

hoard, formerly the property of Mr. Armenak Poladian of Beirut, Lebanon,

was donated to the State Museum in Erivan, Armenia.

* Garabetian, Hask, Annual Number, 194950, pp. 265-293.

* Garabetian, Hask, 1950, pp. 274280; Garabetian, Pazmavab, 1951,

pp. 3I7-324.

* Bedoukian, ANS Museum Notes, VI (1954), pp. 193199, Pl. XX.

Survey of Earlier Publications on Roupenian Coins xxxi

hoards of Hetoum-Zabel trams, an order of issue was assigned to the

different types of these coins.

Other publications include an historical study on the causes of the

issuance of bilingual coins by Hetoum I, the identity of bissantios

stauratos mentioned by contemporary writers with the trams of

Levon I and Hetoum-Zabel, and an account of the coinage of Gos-

dantin I." Another publication" established the authenticity of the

gold coins of this period by pointing out the existence of authentic

silver trams struck with the same dies as the gold coins. A more recent

article discusses the origin of the design of the coins of Levon I.

* Bedoukian, ANS Museum Notes, VIII (1958), pp. 145180, Pl. XXXIX.

58 Bedoukian, ANS Museum Notes, VII (1957), pp. 219230, Pl. XXX.

* Bedoukian, Handes Amsorya, 1959, pp. 241250 (In Armenian).

* Bedoukian, Handes Amsorya, 1958, pp. 381390 (In Armenian).

* Bedoukian, Handes Amsorya, 1960, pp. 1627 (In Armenian).

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* Bedoukian, Handes Amsorya, 1960, pp. 525-534 (In Armenian).

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COINAGE OF CILICIAN ARMENIA

As a " ' " o .

A.

~#

-1

Partzrpert O

Gouglag

Cilician

./ S Y R 1 A

A. ** * r 21

Tww. >

Gorigos t- P/ ~1 - A.

- 2-/ O Baghris

Seleucia |- M Z/ S>''

s EEE STY Bellan

Af (#77 Syrian Gates

*A =X

\ Antioch O Aleppo

Aw

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MAP OF CILICIAN ARM ENIA

HISTORICAL INTRODUCTION

THE COMING OF THE ARMENIANS TO CILICIA

It is a curious fact that a territory which did not belong to Armenia

until the early part of the eleventh century became the seat of an

Armenian dynasty which was the first to issue a series of coins bearing

Armenian characters. Previously, the rulers of Greater Armenia had

struck coins patterned after early Greek coins, and ones bearing Greek

legends. The historical events leading to the founding of the Rou-

penian dynasty in Cilicia are briefly reviewed here to give background

to the coinage of this period.

Following the decline of the power of the Caliphate of Baghdad at

the beginning of the ninth century, a number of independent or semi-

dependent principalities were formed in Armenia. Of these, the

Bagratids of Ani were the most powerful and founded a kingdom in

885 which lasted until IoA5. Unfortunately, the existing feudal system

in Armenia made it impossible for the rival principalities to combine

and form a sufficiently powerful state capable of resisting the machi-

nations of the Arab and Byzantine empires. The rulers of both empires

saw to it that Armenia was kept in a constant turmoil through petty

quarrels among the various kingdoms, of which there were six in the

ninth century. Even the ruler of Ani, crowned king of kings and so

acknowledged by the caliph and the emperor of Byzantium, exerted

only a nominal influence beyond his feudal holdings.

Although there were a number of semi-independent principalities,

large sections of Armenia were under Byzantine rule. The Byzantine

emperors encouraged the Armenian nobility to settle in various parts

of the empire, especially in Cappadocia and Cilicia, and numerous

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high diplomatic and military positions were given to Armenians.

Gradually, Byzantium adopted a policy of subjugating the in-

dependent kingdoms of both Armenia and Georgia, a policy carried

out at times through military or diplomatic measures, and often by

offering to the nobility rich lands and high offices within the bound-

aries of the empire. An outstanding example of this trend was the

1* 3

4 Coinage of Cilician Armenia

transfer of the Armenian king, Senekerim of Vaspourakan, in the

year 1021, to the district of Sebastia with a large portion of his

subjects.

In the long run, the policy of shifting populations in order to erase

nationalistic tendencies proved to be short-sighted and disastrous.

With the coming of the Seljuk Turkish tribes from Central Asia, it

proved to be a decisive factor in the downfall of the Byzantine empire.

The native elements which had long protected the eastern lands of the

empire were weakened and leaderless, so that there were no estab-

lished forces left to check the advance of the Seljuks.

The Seljuks forced the Armenians to move from their ancestral

homes, and in Iofia, Gagik, the king of Kars, exchanged his kingdom

for some lands in the Taurus mountainsthe cities of Dsamentav,

Laria, Amasia and Gomana, together with a hundred villages, and

like Senekerim, moved with a large portion of his nobility and

population."

By 1086, the Seljuks had conquered not only Armenia but a very

large part of Asia Minor. Only in the mountainous districts of Greater

Armenia were the people able to survive. In the mountains of Cilicia

and in certain cities, the Armenians were left without the protection

of Byzantine forces, and their historical antagonism towards the

Greeks forced them into measures leading to independence. A Byzan-

tine general of Armenian descent, Philaretus, already held large

territories in northern Syria and eastern Cilicia, including Antioch.

Possibly Philaretus had ambitions of establishing an Armenian

kingdom, and he encouraged Armenians to come and settle in his

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lands. The Danishmends had captured Sebastia and put an end to

Senekerim's kingdom. Some of the noblemen who held lands as

vassals of Senekerim apparently came to Cilicia and settled in the

mountainous regions. Roupen, who claimed to be related to the

Bagratid kings of Ani, held Partzrbert and the surrounding territory

as an independent ruler. There were numerous other Armenian rulers

in Cilicia, who professed loyalty to the Byzantine emperor and be-

longed to the Greek Orthodox rather than the Armenian National

* An excellent account of these events, including conditions before the

coming of the Seljuks and the short-sighted policy of Byzantium, is given

in the first part of Manantyan, Vol. III (in Armenian) and also in Grousset,

Histoire de l'Armnie des Origines Io?I, pp. 34I-635.

Historical Introduction 5

Church. Thus, at the beginning of the eleventh century Oshin held

Lampron and the surrounding territory; Tatoul held Marash; Gabriel,

Melitene, and Toros, Edessa. Kogh Vasil, who belonged to the Ar-

menian National Church, held extensive lands around Gaban and

Kesoun.

Apparently, the times were not propitious for Philaretus to form a

kingdom, and the position of many of the above rulers was precarious

in the face of the advancing Seljuk tide. Only one of the princes,

Roupen, succeeded in maintaining his rule and began a dynasty which

ruled over Cilicia for nearly three hundred years.

THE BARONIAL PERIOD OF CILICIAN ARMENIA

RouBEN (10801095) profited from favorable circumstances and

managed to consolidate his position. Taking advantage of the political

situation when both the Byzantines and the Seljuks were busy with

their own difficulties, Roupen extended his holdings. It is highly un-

likely that he issued any coins, since he ruled only over a small

mountainous territory.

GosDANTIN I (Io95IIoo) succeeded his father, Roupen. It was

during this period that the first wave of Crusaders arrived, and the

Armenians established close ties with them as natural allies against

both the Byzantines and the Seljuks. The Armenians actively assisted

the Crusaders by supplying them with necessities during the siege of

Antioch. It is not likely that Gosdantin issued coins, although a

unique specimen, badly worn, with the inscription only partially

legible, has been attributed by some to Gosdantin.

ToRos I (IIoo1123) felt himself sufficiently strong to come down

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from the mountains and capture the important city of Anazarpus

from its Byzantine ruler. With the help of Kogh Vasil, he was able to

successfully fight off the Seljuk attacks and extended his territory

considerably.

By this time, the Armenians were beginning to play a part in the

internal struggles of the Crusaders. Toros helped Baldwin II of Edessa

in his wars against the Emir of Mosul. When Baldwin became the

king of Jerusalem, Joscelin of Courtenay succeeded him. Joscelin was

the brother-in-law of Toros, and the relationships were friendly. On

the other hand, both Toros and Kogh Vasil were forced to war against

6 Coinage of Cilician Armenia

Tancred, who had ambitions of establishing a Norman kingdom in

Cilicia. There are no coins left from Toros, and in all probability

none was issued.

LEvoN I (11231138) succeeded his brother. He was an ambitious,

energetic man, and in a short time captured the Byzantine cities of

Mamistra, Adana and Tarsus, and extended his boundaries to the

Mediterranean Sea. He had a quarrel with Bohemond II of Antioch

and in alliance with the Danishmend emir, Ghazi, defeated him.

Bohemond was killed by the Danishmends. Thereafter, Antioch went

to Count Raymond and thus became more French than Norman in

its ruling class. Raymond, in turn, managed to capture Levon through

a ruse and gave him his freedom only after Levon agreed to cede the

towns of Mamistra and Adana to his captor. Upon gaining his free-

dom, however, Levon recaptured the cities and prepared to resume

his feud with Raymond. Matters would have become worse had not

Levon's nephew, Joscelin of Edessa, arranged for a truce and a

friendly peace.

Probably the real reason the two adversaries decided to make

peace was the realization that a storm was breaking over their heads.

The Byzantine emperor, John Comnenus, who had always considered

both Cilicia and northern Syria as Byzantine territory, looked upon

the establishment of the Norman principality of Antioch and the

formation of an independent Cilician Armenia as outright acts of

rebellion.

In 1137, the Emperor reached Cilicia with a large army and

managed to capture not only the main cities, but also Levon and his

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wife, who was the sister of Baldwin of Edessa, and their two sons,

Roupen and Toros. Two other sons, Stephen and Mleh, were with

Joscelin of Edessa and thus escaped capture. The prisoners were

carried to Constantinople where Levon, broken hearted, died within

a year. One son, Roupen, was killed by the Byzantines, but Toros

escaped and returned to Cilicia after an absence of seven years.

TOROS II (II44II68) reached Cilicia, and upon hearing of his

arrival, the Armenians gathered their forces under him. In a short

time, Toros became master of Cilicia. A second attempt by the

Byzantines to subdue the Armenians failed. The emperor's son,

Andronicus, even though supported by local Armenian rulersOshin

of Lampron and Tigran of Bragan, who were vassals of the emperor,

Historical Introduction 7

suffered a crushing defeat. The prisoners were allowed to obtain their

freedom by paying high ransoms.

As a last resort, the Byzantine emperor Manuel coaxed Sultan

Masd of Konya to attack Toros. The Sultan was defeated by the

combined forces of the Armenians and the Templars. Following these

successes, Toros extended his territory by capturing Isauria from

the Sultan.

The Byzantines this time promised large sums to the prince of

Antioch, Reynald of Chatillon, to attack Cilicia. The results were

indecisive, and when the emperor failed to pay for the war expenses,

Reynald joined Toros and the two invaded and pillaged Cyprus.

As a last measure, the Emperor came to Cilicia with a large army.

Reynald came begging the forgiveness of the Emperor, and Toros

retired into the mountains. Eventually, through the intervention of

Baldwin III of Jerusalem, peace was established whereby Toros

swore allegiance to the Emperor and was named Pansebasdos by

the latter.

This was the last major interference on the part of the Byzantines

in the affairs of Cilicia, although there were several attempts by local

Byzantine governors to defy the will of Toros. In the bitter struggles

that ensued, Toros crushed their power and forced many of them to

leave Cilicia.

There is a thick coin or medal, probably struck by Toros II.

In addition, a small copper coin attributed to this prince recent-

ly came into the possession of the author. It bears the name of

Toros. As Toros II had considerable power and holdings, it is quite

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possible that he struck coins, although only the two coins men-

tioned above are known to be in existence.

MLEH (11691174). Although Toros had left a young son as his heir

under the care of the Bail Thomas, his ambitious brother, Mleh, ob-

tained the assistance of Nr-al-Din of Aleppo in whose service he had

been in the latter part of Toros' reign, and became ruler of Cilicia. He

was a man of curious qualities. He had at one time joined the order

of the Templars and had fought the infidels with distinction. He then

joined the Moslems and fought the Christians. His hatred of the

Byzantines knew no bounds, and he decimated the Greek population

* Alishan, Sissouan, p. 378. See Pl. I.

8 Coinage of Cilician Armenia

of Cilicia. He took every opportunity to rob the rich, including the

church and its dignitaries. His reign became unbearable, and the

Armenian princes finally assassinated him. Mleh was buried in the

monastery of Medskar, which he had built during a period of reli-

gious fervor.

Alishan mentions that Mleh struck coins, but unfortunately could

not recall his source of information. He might possibly have had in

mind Brosset's* attribution of a certain coin to Mleh, but Langlois*

has shown it to belong to some other ruler in Asia Minor.

RouPEN II (11751187). The princes elected Roupen, the son of

Stephen, as the successor of Mleh. He was a capable ruler, determined

to put an end to the elements still recognizing the suzerainty of the

emperor of Byzantium. Roupen laid siege to Lampron, whose rulers

were powerful princes still considering themselves the vassals of

Byzantium. Lampron's ruler appealed to Antioch and a conference

was arranged. Bohemond of Antioch treacherously held Roupen

prisoner. However, Roupen's brother continued the siege of Lampron

and forced its lord, Hetoum, to arrange for the release of Roupen.

The latter was released upon payment of a ransom of 30,000 dinars

and the cession of the cities of Adana and Mamistra to Antioch. Soon

after his release, Roupen and Levon recaptured the two cities and

arranged for the purchase of Tarsus. It appears from these trans-

actions that the payments were made with either Byzantine or

possibly Arab money, since no coins of Roupen have been found. One

cannot, however, entirely exclude the possibility that Roupen struck

some coins since both his predecessor and his successor issued coins.

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LEvoN II (as Prince or Baron, 11871199). When Roupen decided

to retire from active life and spend his remaining days in a monastery,

he turned over the reins of government to his younger brother, since

he had no living male heir. Levon proved to be the most capable and

ambitious of the Roupenians. He now had a large and powerful

country and he planned the establishment of a new Armenian dy-

nasty. Since it was the custom to receive the crown either from an

emperor or the Pope, Levon took steps to explore all avenues. Ac-

cording to Nerses of Lampron, a crown was promised by Frederick

Barbarossa because of the help rendered to the Crusaders by the

* Brosset, Hist. du Bas-Empire, XVI, p. 305.

* Langlois, Num. de l'Armnie au moyen ge, p. 34.

Historical Introduction 9

Armenians. It was indeed a shock to Levon when he learned that

the aged Emperor had accidentally drowned in the river Calycadnus

in Cilicia.

In 1196, an appeal was made to Frederick's successor, Henry VI,

while the latter was in Milan. The Emperor, having plans for a new

crusade, promised a crown to Amalric of Cyprus and to Levon. In the

meantime, Levon arranged a rapprochement between the Armenian

National Church and the Roman Church, in spite of the violent

opposition of the Armenian people and the Bishops. The superficial

agreement between the two churches won Pope Celestine III's

support for a crown for Levon.

In September, 1197, the Imperial Chancellor, Conrad, Bishop of

Hildesheim, came to Nicosia and crowned Amalric king of Cyprus.

Both the Pope and Emperor Henry were in favor of giving a crown

to Levon. Although the Emperor died in January II98, soon after

his death his Chancellor, Conrad of Hildesheim, came with the Papal

legate, Conrad of Mittelsbach, Archbishop of Mainz, to Tarsus and

a great coronation ceremony took place on January 6, 1199. The

Armenian Catholicos, Gregory Abirad, placed the crown on Levon's

head and anointed him as king while Conrad gave him a royal sceptre."

THE ARMENIAN KINGDOM OF CILICIA

Levon became king and nominally a vassal of the German emperor.

During his lifetime, Levon became embroiled in struggles with

Antioch which weakened the Christian cause. Levon had extracted

a promise from Bohemond III of Antioch that of the two heirs,

Raymond and not Bohemond IV of Tripoli would succeed the father.

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In his efforts to enforce the promise, Levon laid siege to Antioch in 1203

but was forced to withdraw upon the approach of Al-Zhir Ghzi of

Aleppo. In 1208, he managed to capture the town but the citadel held

and eventually the Armenian forces were withdrawn. In 1216, he

finally captured the city, including the citadel, and established his

great nephew Raymond-Roupen as prince of Antioch. However, in

1220 Raymond-Roupen was ousted by his uncle, Bohemond of Tripoli.

* For further details of the history of this period see Runciman's History

of the Crusades, Grousset's Histoire des Croisades, and A History of the

Crusades edited by K. M. Setton. Among the Armenian publications

Alishan in his Sissouan gives the most detailed account of this period.

IO Coinage of Cilician Armenia

In his last years, Levon suffered a severe reverse in his struggles

against his hereditary enemy, the Sultan Kaikaus of Konya. The

Armenian army under Constable Gosdantin suffered a calamitous

defeat and many of the nobility were taken prisoner. The aged Levon

was barely able to force the retreat of the Sultan by invading the

latter's territory and was later compelled to conclude a peace treaty

on the Sultan's terms in order to secure the release of the prisoners. It

was this treaty that most likely eventually led to the striking of

bilingual coins by Hetoum."

Besides the limited number of gold coins, thousands of silver and

copper coins struck by Levon have reached us. He also struck coins

in Antioch to commemorate his victory.

ZABEL AND HETOUM I (12261271). Levon left a three year old

daughter, Zabel, as his only heir. The inevitable struggles for suc-

cession began. The first pretender to the throne was John of Brienne

of Jerusalem, who claimed priority over Zabel because of his lineage

from the early Roupenians. The Armenians appealed to the Pope

who warned John not to interfere in Armenian affairs on pain of ex-

communication. The second pretender, Raymond-Roupen, managed

to gather some adherents and seized the city of Tarsus. However,

Constable Gosdantin succeeded in capturing him and caused his

death in prison in 1222.

Gosdantin then offered the throne to the fourth son of Bohemond

of Antioch, probably in the belief that an alliance with Antioch would

serve as a deterrent to the sultan of Konya, Kaikobad, who had

earlier invaded Cilicia. The eighteen year old Philip promised that he

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would join the Armenian National Church, abide by the regulations

and customs of the court, and make no effort to introduce Latin

customs. However, a year or two after his marriage to Zabel, Philip

began disregarding his promises and replaced many of the Armenians

in court with Latins. When it was discovered that he was also secretly

sending the royal treasures to his father in Antioch, the outraged

Armenian princes seized the young king and imprisoned him in the

fortress of Till-Hamdoon late in 1224. His father refused to return the

treasures, and Philip died in prison shortly thereafter, probably as a

result of poisoning.

* Bedoukian, ANS Museum Notes VII, pp. 219230.

Historical Introduction II

It is curious that although Philip was king for three years, we have

no coins issued by him.

Gosdantin was now the real ruler of the land and the head of the

Hetoumians, the second most powerful family after the Roupenians.

He obtained the consent of the Catholicos, the head of the Armenian

Church, and the majority of the barons to marry his son Hetoum to

Zabel. This marriage joined the two families and had a stabilizing

influence on the kingdom. Gosdantin made peace with the neigh-

boring countries and promised the sultan of Konya that he would

strike some bilingual coins in accordance with Levon's agreement

with the sultan. The peace treaty was probably signed in 1228 and

lasted until 1245, when the Armenians allied themselves with the

Mongols, thereby incurring the enmity of the Seljuks. No bilingual

coins were issued after 1245.

Hetoum proved to be a very capable ruler and took steps to con-

solidate his kingdom. His alliance with the Mongols saved the Ar-

menians from the attacks of the Seljuks and the Mamluks of Egypt.

When the Khan of the Mongols, Guyuk, died, and a new Khan,

Mongka, was elected, Hetoum set out in person to Karakorum, then

the center of the most powerful realm the world had ever known, and

was received with great honors by the Khan. Hetoum obtained con-

cessions for the Christians and his kingdom, and returned with

promises of assistance against his enemies.

For a while, the Khan's brother, Hulagu, carried out some success-

ful campaigns against the Mamluks, but gradually the tide turned

against him. In 1266, the Mamluk sultan, Baibars, captured most of

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the Crusader towns and threatened Cilicia. Aware of the danger,

Hetoum left his two sons, Levon and Toros, to guard the country and

set out to seek the assistance of the Ilkhan Abagha of Tabriz. The

Mamluk forces overwhelmed the outnumbered Armenians, and in the

fight Toros was killed and Levon was captured. One Mamluk army

sacked the towns of Ayas, Adana and Tarsus, and another one ad-

vanced on Sis, burning the town and looting the treasury. It was a

disaster from which the Armenians never fully recovered.

Hetoum returned too late with a small Mongol army. He was

forced to conclude a treaty with Baibars in which he ceded some

frontier forts, thus leaving the southern defenses in a very weak

position.

I2 Coinage of Cilician Armenia

The crown prince, Levon, was released in exchange for a prisoner

of the Mongols who was Baibars' favorite. Levon returned to his

country, and the aged Hetoum retired to a monastery. This was in

1269 and the following year Levon was crowned king.

Hetoum had continued his predecessor's policy of striking silver

coins of a high degree of fineness. A limited number of bilingual coins

were struck as previously mentioned, in compliance with the treaty

with the sultan of Konya. Later in his reign, Hetoum struck copper

coins similar to Levon's, as well as coins of lesser size and weight.

LEVON II (12701289). Levon was crowned king on January 6, 127I,

in the church of St. Sophia, in Tarsus. He faced a difficult period

since the country had suffered from the attacks of the Mamluks and

Baibars was threatening the complete destruction of the Crusader

principalities and the Armenian kingdom. In 1272 Baibars invaded

Cilicia, and in spite of the stubborn defense, succeeded in capturing

Adana and Mamistra. His efforts to capture Sis failed and on his

retreat, he sacked the city of Ayas. His successes and the failure of

the Mongols to help the Armenians encouraged Baibars to march into

Asia Minor in an effort to incite the Seljuks to revolt against the

Mongols. He defeated the Mongol garrison but retreated upon the

advance of the main Mongol army. On his return, he was harassed by

Levons forces and died near Damascus.

The Mongol Khan Abagha wreaked vengeance on the Seljuks by

slaughtering untold thousands. He then asked Levon to become the

ruler of this vast domain, but Levon, seeing the impossibility of

governing hostile peoples with his very limited forces, wisely rejected

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the offer. In the years 1280 and 1281 there were several bloody en-

counters between the Mamluk and Mongol-Armenian forces, without

conclusive results.

The new sultan of Egypt, Qaln, continued his attacks on Levon.

The constant wars were costing dear and seeing that the Mongols

were no longer in a position to help him, Levon sought peace and

accepted the terms set by the Mamluksan annual tribute of half a

million takvorins of which half was to be paid in cash, the remainder

in horses, mules and iron bars." The peace gave the Armenians a

breathing spell. The port of Ayas prospered since it was the only

* Langlois in his Cartulaire, pp. 217231 gives the original Arabic text of

this treaty along with its French translation.

Historical Introduction I3

Christian port open to the vast Mongol hinterland for trade and the

duties from goods shipped and received made possible the payment

of the annual tribute.

During the eleven years of peace, the country recovered and cul-

tural institutions were encouraged. Large numbers of manuscripts

were prepared and distributed to churches and monasteries which

were seats of learning. Some of these have survived and include the

finest examples of Armenian art as indicated in the illuminated

manuscripts.

Levon died on February 6, 1289. Of the eleven children born to

him, nine were living at the time of his death. His five sons fought

among each other and at one time or other each managed to occupy

the throne. Of the two daughters, Zabel married the brother of the

king of Cyprus and Rita became the empress of Byzantium. The

other two daughters married Crusader princes.

HETOUM II (12891293, 12951296, 12991301, 13011306), TOROS

(12931295), SMPAD (12961298), GOSDANTINI (12981299). Levon II

left his kingdom to his eldest son, Hetoum II, who, however, pre-

ferred a religious life to that of governing his land. In the first years

of his rule, the Mamluk sultan, Qaln, and later his son, al-Ashraf,

destroyed the remnants of the Crusader principalities so that by 1299

all of the coastal cities were captured and much of the population put

to the sword. The southern and eastern borders of Cilicia were left

open, with no friendly powers to protect them. When al-Ashraf in-

vaded Cilicia, Hetoum was forced to sue for peace and surrendered

a number of border forts to the enemy.

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In 1293, Hetoum retired to the monastery and turned over his

kingdom to his next brother, Toros. Two years later, however, at the

insistence of the princes as well as Toros, Hetoum again undertook

the task of ruling the country. During this period, Toros apparently

did not attempt to issue coins since he was not crowned king.

In 1296, Hetoum and Toros left for Constantinople to attend the

wedding of their sister with Michael, the son of Andronicus Palaelogus,

and the country was left in the care of the next brother, Smpad.

Smpad soon declared himself king with the consent of the Catholicos

and some of the princes, and consolidated his position by paying a

visit to the Ilkhan Ghzn who recognized his claim to the throne.

When his brothers returned from the wedding, he had them im-

I4 Coinage of Cilician Armenia

prisoned. Toros was later killed and Hetoum partially blinded. These

deeds caused the next brother, Gosdantin, to rebel against Smpad,

and in the ensuing struggles, Gosdantin managed to capture the city

of Sis, imprison Smpad, and set Hetoum free. The blind Hetoum was

quite willing to let his brother Gosdantin rule the country. The fol-

lowing year, however, Hetoum recovered his eyesight, and the princes

again appealed to him to rule the country. Gosdantin, not willing to

give up the throne, liberated his brother Smpad and the two set out

to eliminate Hetoum. The country was with Hetoum as the lawful

king, and with the assistance of the Templars and Hospitallers who

were his vassals and held forts in Cilicia, Hetoum emerged victorious.

The two rebel brothers were captured and sent to Constantinople,

where they eventually died.

The Ilkhan Ghzn, now having become a Moslem, declared him-

self Sultan, came to Syria with an army, and with the help of Ar-

menian forces won a resounding victory over the Mamluks. Hetoum

was able to recover much lost territory, including the important

border fortress of Till-Hamdoon.

In 1301, the Mamluks gained control of Syria, and again invaded

Cilicia, laying waste the lowlands. The Mongol-Armenian forces met

defeat, and Cilicia was repeatedly attacked. Hetoum appealed to the

Khan to send a Mongol force to defend the southern borders. The

Khan complied and a token Mongol force under Pilarghou was

stationed near Anazarpus. Hetoum left the problems of state to his

appointed successor, and in 1305 again retired to a monastery.

LEvoN III (13011307). Hetoum II had appointed his brother Toros'

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son, Levon, as co-ruler on June 29, 1301, so that he could eventually

retire to a monastery. Although the coronation of Levon took place

on July 30, 1306, he was in fact recognized as king of the Armenians

from 1301 on, and in at least one instance, he is referred to as king

in a contemporary manuscript dated 1302. It is therefore logical to

date his rule from 1301 and to assume that his coinage extends over

the period of 13011307. The silver coins of Levon III are sufficiently

numerous to rule out the possibility that they could have all been

struck from his coronation in 1306 until his death, November 17, 1307.

In addition to the external forces burdening the kingdom, religious

controversies within the country began to create a turmoil which soon

* Hagopyan, pp. 193194.

Historical Introduction I5

divided the land into two antagonistic camps. The coming of the

Crusaders had helped to establish an Armenian kingdom in Cilicia,

and its ruling family had formed close ties with the leaders of the

Crusader principalities. Intermarriage between the Armenian and

Crusader nobility was very common. In order to strengthen their ties

with the Crusaders, the Armenian kings attempted to bring about a

rapprochement between the Armenian National Church and the

Church of Rome. Nevertheless, although the Armenian royalty was

partially Latinized as a result of the frequent intermarriages, the

common people and most of the princes remained staunch adherents

of the National Church. A meeting was held in March of 1307 in Sis,

in an effort to find common theological grounds for the union of the

two churches. Many of the high clergymen of Cilicia, hoping that such

a union would lead to a new Crusade, advocated union with the

Catholic Church. The clergymen from greater Armenia, however,

opposed such a union, considering it tantamount to Latinization of the

Armenian nation. Typical of events in the Middle Ages, religious

feelings ran high and the nation was torn in two.

Perhaps at the instigation of the nationalists, Hetoum and Levon

were called on false pretexts by the Mongol general, Pilarghou, to

attend a meeting, and then were treacherously murdered (No-

vember 17, 1307). It was ironic that Hetoum should die at the hands

of a man who at his own request had been sent by the great Khan to

help him stave off the Mamluk attacks.

osHIN (13081320). Upon hearing of his brother's murder, Oshin

went to Anazarpus and drove out the Mongol general. The latter, on

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Oshin's complaint, was recalled by the great Khan and decapitated

for his deed. Oshin then declared himself ruler of the land, and was

crowned the following year in the St. Sophia Cathedral in Tarsus.

During Oshin's reign, several religious meetings were held in an

effort to find a solution to the problem of rapprochement between the

two churches. At first, Oshin took stern measures in an attempt to

force the nationalist elements to comply with his wishes and went to

the extent of exiling or imprisoning those who opposed him. However,

seeing the futility of his efforts to join the Armenian and Roman

churches, he had the wisdom to permit matters to take their natural

course and henceforth pursued the middle road to avoid religious

controversies.

I6 Coinage of Cilician Armenia

During the years 13141315, external enemies again invaded Cilicia.

An incursion by some Anatolian tribes was successfully repelled by

the Lord of Gorigos in the westernmost part of Cilicia. The following

year, the Mamluk Sultan, Al-Nasir Muhammad, captured Malatia

(Melitene). Oshin still controlled considerable territory, larger in area

than the former Crusader principalities. The loss of Laranda to the

Mamluks in 1316 brought about the gradual shrinking of the boundaries

under the attacks of the Mamluks. Two years later, the Qaramnids

invaded the western parts of the land, but were beaten back by the

Lord of Gorigos (also named Oshin). Determined to destroy the last

remaining Christian power on the mainland, the Mamluks entered

Cilicia with a large army in 1320 and began ravaging the land. The

Armenian army was no longer able to meet the enemy in the open,

but under the able leadership of the Bail Oshin and Constable Gos-

dantin, it surprised the enemy, slaughtered 6000 of them near Ayas,

and forced the Mamluks to flee. King Oshin did not live to see this

victory, having died shortly before this eventon July 20, 1320.

There are a limited number of Oshin's coins, bearing an Arabic

surcharge struck in the name of Al-Nsir. It is probable that these

represent coins in the royal treasury which Oshin's successor used to

pay tribute to the Mamluks, who then overstruck Nasir's name. The

tribute money, consisting mostly of Levon IV coins, most likely in-

cluded some takvorins of Oshin.

LEvoN IV (13201342). Oshin was succeeded by his only son, Levon,

who was ten years old at the time of his father's death. Of the four

regents who had been appointed, Oshin, the Lord of Gorigos, became

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the actual ruler of the country, and eventually married his daughter

to the king.

The Mamluk attacks continued. The Armenian forces were often

compelled to fight back from the mountains and fortified points since

they were not able to face the enemy on open ground. Eventually, at

the intervention of the Khan in Persia, the Mamluk sultan consented

to a fifteen year peace on condition that the Armenians pay an annual

tribute of 1,200,000 takvorins, half the income from the port of Ayas,

and half the income from salt revenues. "

* See a report on this treaty in Langlois Cartulaire p. 232233.

* Most of the Armenian coins having an Arabic surcharge belong to

Levon IV although a small number are from Oshin. About one quarter of

Historical Introduction 17

Had Levon shown some wisdom in managing the internal affairs

of the country, the nation might have survived and even prospered.

Unfortunately, internal dissension weakened the land. The regent

put to death the king's sister and her two children, and these acts so

aroused the king's anger that he had Oshin and his brother de-

capitated. Levon then put to death his queen, who was Oshin's

daughter, and married the daughter of Frederick II of Sicily, who had

a large income.

Levon's efforts to establish a closer relationship with the west

angered Al-Nsir, who then persuaded the Emir of Aleppo to invade

Cilicia in spite of the existing peace treaties. Levon was forced to

conclude a new treaty which gave all the land east of the Djehiun

river to the Egyptians, including the highly profitable port of Ayas.

This treaty, signed in 1337, spelled the end of the Armenian kingdom.

Not learning his lesson, Levon raised the question of unity be-

tween the Armenian and the Roman Catholic churches. Religious

feelings again ran high, and the nationalist elements, finding the

actions of the king intolerable, assassinated him on August 28, 1342.

GUY LUSIGNAN (13421344). With the death of Levon IV, there

being no heirs, the male royal line of Roupen-Hetoum became extinct.

Levon had designated as his successor his nearest of kin, Guy Lu-

signan, the son of his paternal aunt, Isabel (who was the wife of

Amaury of Lusignan, Count of Tyre, nephew of Henry II of Cyprus).

At the time of Levon's death, Guy was in Constantinople. The nobles

and clergy agreed to call him to the throne, and in the meantime,

appointed Guy's brother John as guardian of the throne until Guy's

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arrival. Guy consented to become king with understandable re-

luctance, since the country was in dire straits and needed outside

help for survival.

Guy arrived with a force of three hundred soldiers and was crowned

in October, 1342. Guy, or Gosdantin II, as he was called by the Ar-

menians, was a good soldier and he refused to continue payment of

tributes to the Moslems. In the ensuing fights, Guy proved his mettle,

managing to keep his territory intact, and during his short reign made

no payments. This, considering the conditions at the time, was an

accomplishment of some merit.

the coins (takvorins) of Levon examined had a surcharge bearing Sultan

Nasir's name.

I8 Coinage of Cilician Armenia

Guy, however, was French in spirit, and most likely felt little kin-

ship with the Armenians. The fact that his mother and two brothers

had been put to death by Oshin during the reign of King Levon IV

did not increase his love for the Armenians. Mindful of the necessity

of obtaining help from the Pope, he proceeded to send ambassadors

to Avignon in an effort to bring about the union between the Roman

and Armenian churches. The court took on the appearance of a Latin

house, and the king surrounded himself with French speaking cour-

tiers, who held the highest positions in the land.

The assassination of earlier rulers who had behaved in a similar

manner did not seem to deter Guy. The Armenians did not feel that

he was their chosen king, and strongly believed that a union with

the Roman church would result in the loss of their identity. Under

the leadership of a nobleman, by the name of Oshin, the Armenians

attacked and killed the king, along with his brother and the three

hundred soldiers who had come to Armenia as the king's bodyguard.

There is not much information to be found about Guy in contem-

porary Armenian manuscripts. One has to rely on Dardel's report and

also records of communications between the king and the Pope when

negotiations were being carried on to bring about a union between

the two churches.

The fact that the king's French name, Guy, and not the Armenian

name, Gosdantin, appears on his coins, perhaps indicates a lack of

consideration on his part of his subjects feelings. On the other hand,

Guy was a good soldier, and had he lived, he might have been able

to strengthen the country militarily and economically by resisting the

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demands of the Moslems.

GoSDANTIN III (13441363). After the assassination of Guy (Gos-

dantin II), the Armenian nobles chose as their King the eldest son of

Baldwin, the Lord of Neghir and head of a powerful family of the

realm. The crown thus passed to a person who although distantly

related to the royal house, was not of royal blood.

In order to consolidate his position, Gosdantin III thought it

prudent to eliminate all those who by their family relationships to

the Hetoumians or Lusignans might have prior claim to the throne.

He imprisoned the wife and two young children of Guy's brother,

John de Lusignan, and may have planned to cause their death, but

the mother, aware of their peril, escaped and fled with her children,

Historical Introduction I9

Bohemond and Leo, to the court of Cyprus. The young Leo, then

aged two, was destined to be the last king of Cilician Armenia.

With a native Armenian as their ruler, the people and princes were

content for a while, but reports indicate that negotiations for

an understanding between the Roman and Armenian churches con-

tinued.

In 1347, Gosdantin gained possession of the important port of

Ayas, with the aid of the Knights of Rhodes. This victory was short-

lived, however, since in the same year the Egyptian fleet blockaded

the city and finally captured it. Simultaneously, the Turcoman tribes

from Asia Minor attacked the country and managed to capture the

fort of Baberon near Tarsus. As if these disasters were not sufficient,

the Asiatic plague swept over Armenia and on to Europe, causing the

death of countless millions.

The final blow came in 1360 when Sultan Al-Nsir's army under

the leadership of Sayf al-Din, the Emir of Aleppo, captured the cities

of Adana and Tarsus and devastated Sis. An Egyptian garrison was

placed permanently in Adana and Tarsus, and thus these two cities

were lost to the Armenians.

Gosdantin was left only in possession of the inland mountainous

regions of the country. All of the cities and countryside adjacent to

the sea were in the hands of the enemies. Even the fort of Gorigos

was captured by the Qaramnids but it was later regained by Peter I

of Cyprus and thereafter belonged to Cyprus and not Armenia.

It may be of interest to note that at this time the Emir of Aleppo

had coins struck in Tarsus in the name of Sultan Al-Nsir.

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Gosdantin was powerless to oppose the relentless attacks of his

enemies. In the meantime, Peter I of Cyprus had ambitions of either

becoming the king of Armenia or placing the nephew of the former

King Guy on the throne. He was able to find some encouragement for

his plans among the Armenian princes, who, no doubt discouraged by

the reverses of Gosdantin, hoped to regain some of the lost possessions

with outside assistance.

Peter took the elder nephew of Guy, named Bohemond, and set

out to Avignon in 1362 in the hope of persuading the Pope to crown

Bohemond as king of the Armenians. Unfortunately, Bohemond

became ill in Venice and died shortly thereafter, the claim to the

throne thus passing to his younger brother, Leo. The Pope in a letter

2*

2O Coinage of Cilician Armenia

given to Peter and addressed to the Armenians, dated April 3, 1365,

exhorted the Armenians to accept Leo as their true king.

While these events were taking place in Europe, Gosdantin died

and a Levon, who was probably Gosdantin's son, claimed the throne.

LEVON THE USURPER (13631365). Although Gosdantin III died in

1363, Gosdantin IV did not ascend the throne until 1365. In the two

intervening years, it appears that another person, usually referred to

as Levon the Usurper, occupied the throne. Contemporary Armenian

historians make no mention of this Levon, but it seems possible that

he was a son of Gosdantin III.

Basmadjian" considered this possibility and pointed out that

Gosdantin himself mentioned in 1345 that he had two sons named

Oshin and Levon. Alishan mentions the chronicler, Avedik of Amida,

who said that one by the name of Levon became king and there

was much disorder in the land. Alishan, however, did not believe

that any children of Gosdantin III were alive in 1363, and this point

is made quite clear in one of his publications. Dulaurier states that

in a Gospel belonging to Gosdantin III, dated 1345, Levon is men-

tioned as being one of the king's sons. The Greek historian, Ma-

khaeras," reports that in 1360 the Armenian throne was in the hands

of Levon who had two hundred castles and towns. The discrepancy

of three years in the dates may not be significant.

Although historical evidence seems to be rather meager in support

of the existence of a Levon who ruled from 1363 to 1365, there is

ample numismatic evidence to indicate that such a king did exist

and did issue coins.

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GoSDANTIN IV (13651373). It is not known just why Levon the

Usurper resigned and permitted the son of Hetoum of Neghir to be

crowned king under the name of Gosdantin IV, in 1365. Most likely,

political pressures made it impossible for him to remain on the throne.

The new Gosdantin was well aware of his difficult situation and

was in constant touch with Peter I, the vigorous king of Cyprus. It

appears that in 1367 an agreement was reached between the two kings

* Basmadjian, Leo V Lusignan, p. 27.

* Alishan, Sissouan p. 544 and 560.

* Recueil des Historiens des Croisades, Documents Armniens, Vol. I p. 714

and 707. See also Khachigyan, p. 343.

* See Basmadjian, Leo V Lusignan, p. 24, footnote I.

Historical Introduction 2I

to attack Ayas. Peter approached Ayas and captured the city, but

was unsuccessful in his attempts to enter the Citadel fort. Gosdantin

on his part was not able to reach Ayas, and after waiting eight days,

Peter returned to Cyprus. The inability of Gosdantin to make a

contact by land indicated his military weakness, and the enemy was

already well established in the lowlands between Sis and Ayas.

The Armenians, including the king, were quite willing to have Peter

as their king in the hope of obtaining some military assistance. A

delegation followed Peter who had again gone to Europe in the hope

of obtaining aid from the kings of Europe. The Armenian delegation

met Peter in August, 1368 in Venice, and offered him his long sought

throne of Armenia. Peter hurried back to Cyprus in order to enter

Armenia. After having settled some urgent matters in Cyprus, he

got ready to sail for Cilicia, but was murdered by one of his courtiers

on July 1, 1369. Peter thus never did become king of the Armenians

and Gosdantin continued to reign. Langlois assertion that he saw

a silver coin of Peter, King of the Armenians, must be dismissed, as

the coin must either have been a forgery or a mistake was made in

its identification."

In the meantime, the Moslems were relentlessly pressing their

attacks on the Armenians and Gosdantin's realm now consisted

solely of a small landlocked territory around Sis and Anazarpus.

Even these small holdings were constantly under attack, and in 1369

the enemy succeeded in setting fire to Sis itself. The attacks were

repeated in the following year and the Emir of Aleppo succeeded in

capturing the city. This apparently referred to the lower city, as the

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Citadel always remained in the hands of the king and his armed

forces, who regained the city after the retreat of the enemy.

To some, the only solution to their desperate situation seemed to

be a close alliance with Cyprus and the Western powers, and constant

efforts were made to find a suitable person for the throne of Armenia

who could save the country.

Leo appears to have been actively inciting the pro-Western party

in Cilicia to depose Gosdantin IV and place him on the throne. A

* Langlois, Num. de l'Armnie au moyen ge p. 9697. Pl. IV, No. 9.

* Sibilian expressed these views (p.69). The coin which Langlois pictures

was in the collection of Dr. Orta in Adana, Cilicia. This collection was

eventually dispersed and sold and no trace of the Peter coin was ever found.

22 Coinage of Cilician Armenia

delegation which arrived in Cyprus in 137273, inviting Leo to the

throne, did not achieve its purpose because at that time Peter of

Cyprus was still alive and had ambitions of adding Armenia to his

holdings. For this reason, Leo could not openly accept the offer. Soon

after the return of the delegation to Sis, Gosdantin IV was murdered

(1373, April) and the widow of Gosdantin III was elected Regent.

LEvoN v LUSIGNAN (13741375). After the murder of Gosdantin IV,

a second delegation, empowered by letters from the Catholicos and

princes, came to Cyprus and asked Peter II to permit Leo to ascend

the throne of Armenia. As mentioned earlier, Leo was the grandson

of Amaury and Isabel Lusignan. His father, John, had been called

from Cyprus by Levon III to become the constable. John was related

to the king, being his cousin on his paternal uncle's side. John was

well liked for his ability and understanding. He was married to a

daughter of King George VII of Georgia and had earned the trust of

the Armenians. It was no wonder then that he had been selected as

the Regent until the accession of Guy to the throne. John died in

1342, leaving five children, of whom the youngest was Leo, aged two.

When Gosdantin III, who was not of royal blood, ascended the

throne, he had, in an effort to eliminate all pretenders, imprisoned the

young Leo with his mother and elder brother. Eventually, they

escaped to Cyprus, the older brother died, and Leo was left as the

sole claimant.

Peter of Cyprus, having an eye on the throne, refused to grant Leo

permission to accept the offer of the Armenians. The delegation, after

receiving some orders from Leo, returned to Sis with the greatest

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difficulty. In the meantime, the Genoese had entered Cyprus, Peter

was assassinated, and Leo was imprisoned. After paying a heavy

ransom, which included loss of all of his and his wife's wealth, Leo

succeeded in getting permission to sail to the Cilician fort of Gorigos,

still possessed by Cyprus.

Leo arrived in Gorigos on April 2, 1374. He was planning a course

of action when he learned that the Genoese planned to take him back

to Cyprus to face charges of attempting to take Cyprus from the

Genoese. Forewarned of these charges, Leo placed his mother and

his wife in safe hands in Gorigos, and with 25 horse, Ioo foot soldiers,

and two guides, headed towards Sis, avoiding all possible contact

with the Moslems. He reached Sis safely, and the Armenians, being

Historical Introduction 23

notified of his approach, welcomed their new king. Leo reached Sis

on July 26, 1374, and a few days later had his family brought to Sis.

As Leo's wife was approaching childbirth, the coronation ceremonies

were postponed. Twin daughters were born to Leo. The coronation

took place on September 14, 1374, in the presence of the Catholicos

and a Latin bishop. Leo, being a Roman Catholic, had intended to be

crowned and consecrated according to the Latin rites, but in view of

the opposition of the nationalist Armenians, agreed to have two

ceremonies. He was crowned first by the Latin bishop and then by

the Catholicos, as Levon V, King of the Armenians. This dual cere-

mony was the only course open to Levon, but it apparently antag-

onized the nationalist elements who had long resisted any efforts to

introduce Latins or Latin customs to the Armenian court.

Levon further antagonized them by giving high positions to his

lieutenants. Prior to his arrival, the ruling elements in the city had

been paying tribute to the Moslems as the price of being left in peace.

Levon was quite willing to continue the payment of this tribute until

he could organize his newly acquired realm.

The enemy, possibly at the instigation of the nationalist element,

laid siege to Sis. Two Moslems leaders, Dd Beg and Abu-Bakr,

after a three month desultory siege, agreed to withdraw upon pay-

ment of a tribute. Within the city of Sis, religious feelings had

reached a high pitch and the thought of a Catholic king with a

Catholic ruling hierarchy had become unbearable to the nationalists.

Many of them preferred to live under the domination of the king of

Egypt rather than Levon.

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The nationalists secretly wrote to a former Armenian prince, Ashot,

the nephew of Gosdantin IV, who had turned Moslem and gone to

the court of the Sultan of Egypt, asking him to come to Cilicia and

establish himself as their king. Ashot informed the Sultan of the turn

of events, and Sultan Melik al-Ashraf (13631377) commanded Abu-

Bakr to capture Sis. Abu-Bakr laid siege to the city with a force of

15,000 on January 5, 1375. Again at the invitation of the nationalist

group, the Emir of Aleppo, Al-Nsir Ashiqtimr Abu-Bakr, joined

with another force of 15,ooo on February 24. Levon retired to the

citadel and decided to fight to the end. At this point, the nationalists

made an effort to capture or assassinate the king, but were un-

successful. Levon saw the hopelessness of this situation and decided

24 Coinage of Cilician Armenia

to accept Eshiktimour Al-Nasir's offer of safe conduct if he sur-

rendered. Upon surrendering, Levon was received with great honors

by the victor and was sent to Cairo with his queen and fifteen nobles.

The surrender took place on April 16, 1375, thus ending the Rou-

penian rule in Cilicia which had begun some three hundred years

earlierin Io80.

Levon was eventually released at the intercession of Armenian

notables in Cairo, went to Europe, and after making numerous un-

successful attempts to obtain military aid from western rulers to

regain his kingdom, died in Paris in 1393.

17 The History of the latter part of the Roupenian kingdom was clarified

only after the discovery of the chronicle of Dardel in 1883. Dardel became

the confessor of Levon V Lusignan and wrote an account of the kingdom

with special emphasis on the latter periods. The chronicle was published

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in Recueil des Croisades, Documents Armniens, Vol. 2.

TRADE AND COMMERCE OF CILICIAN ARMENIA

The geographical position of Cilicia offered special advantages for

the development of trade with the Mediterranean nations and with

countries on the Asiatic mainland. Traders of many lands used the

Cilician ports for their commercial activities, and the country bene-

fited from this source of revenue.

The coastline of Cilicia possessed a number of fine harbors. A

thirteenth century writing and a map by Sanuto" describe the coastal

cities and harbors of Cilician Armenia. Starting from the easternmost

city and moving westward, Sanuto mentions Ayas (Lajasso, ancient

Aegae), portus Pallorum (also known as portus de Pallibus, Portella

(MR/k'u), and by similar names in medieval records), Mamistra

(Armenian Messis, ancient Mopsueste), Adana and Tarsus (Armenian

Darson), Gorigos, as well as several others of lesser importance. All of

these localities played an important role in the commercial activities

of the Roupenian kingdom.

Ayas became an extremely important port of commerce, especially

during the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries. With the disappear-

ance of the Crusader principalities in the east, much of the trade

between Europe and the vast Asiatic hinterland passed through this

busy port, where many nations and races mixed, giving it the char-

acter of an international city. The Genoese, Venetians, and other

nations had permanent establishments in this city and enjoyed

special trading privileges. The portus Pallorum, shown in a number of

medieval maps, was mentioned in various contemporary commercial

transactions as having the main customs house of Cilician Armenia.

Although the role of Ayas as the main port gradually overshadowed

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the activities of the portus Pallorum, it is apparent from the notarial

acts that the latter was still used by ships from Genoa and Barcelona

in 1274 and in 1300. Sanuto stated that the portus Pallorum was

Sanuto, Crucis Lib. II, Pars IV, p. 88.

* Desimoni, p. 436.

*Desimoni, I, pp. 451, 473,474475; II, 2, 40.

25

26 Coinage of Cilician Armenia

situated ten miles (Italian) west of Ayas, between Ayas and the river

Pyramus (Djehiun). Desimoni mentions other sources supporting

this location.

Ten miles further was the mouth of the river Pyramus (Djehiun)

and a short distance inland on the river was the important city of

Mamistra. The river Sarus (Sehiun) at that time flowed into the sea,

very close to the Pyramus, and formed a common entry to the sea."

The important city of Adana was situated on the Sarus a short

distance from the sea. Both Adana and Mamistra were thus on navi-

gable waters and ships were able to use these two ports for commerce.

Further west was the river Cydnus, and several leagues inland on the

river was the populous city of Tarsus. Records indicate that as late

as 1322, it was possible to approach the city by water. For example,

it was stated that in 1288 Levon II refused the Genoese permission

to enter Tarsus, but that in 1322, when the Egyptians captured Ayas,

Genoese and other European ships were forced to use the port of

Tarsus. The silt brought down by the rivers from the mountains has

changed the coastline, and today the three cities are removed from

the sea, no longer near navigable waters. Another important port was

Gorygos, on the sea. This port had long been used for commercial

activities.

There were also roads for caravans to travel by land. Caravans

coming from Aleppo, carrying goods brought from the lands bordering

on the Indian ocean, passed Antioch and crossed into Cilician Armenia

through the Beilan pass in the Amanus mountains." The road led

through the important centers of Ayas, Portella, Mamistra, Adana

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and Tarsus, then turned north to the pass of Gouglag in the Taurus

mountains. The passage was controlled by the powerful fortress of

Tarbas, which protected the frontier facing the domain of the Seljuk

sultan of Konya. It also had a custom house and collected duties on

merchandise leaving or entering the country. A second trade route

leading caravans from the northeast, coming from the Asiatic heart-

land, entered the country near Marash and reached the coastal cities.

This road was controlled by another powerful fortress, Gaban, which

like Tarbas, collected duties on goods entering or leaving the country.

* Rec. Hist. Croisades, Doc. Armniens, I, xlii, xliii.

* Rec. Hist. Croisades, Doc. Armniens, I, xlff.

* Heyd, pp. 367368.

Trade and Commerce 27

While the Armenians were engaged in the struggle to take control

of Cilicia, the political situation naturally did not encourage the

development of trading activities. With the coronation of Levon I

(II99), and the establishment of a large and well organized kingdom,

commerce began to flourish.

Genoa and Venice, the two most active trading nations of the

Mediterranean, immediately sent ambassadors to Levon's court

seeking trade agreements. The Genoese were the first to conclude

such an agreement, and a treaty was signed in March, 1201, be-

tween Levon and the Genoese ambassador, Ogerio di Pallo. The

Genoese obtained exemptions from paying duties on materials im-

ported or exported by them. They were also granted the right to have

residences and commercial establishments in Sis, Mamistra and

Tarsus. They had their own churches in Mamistra and Tarsus and

were allowed to build one in Sis. In addition, they had the right to

have their own officials manage and protect Genoese interests and

settle jurisdictional disputes.

About six months later, a somewhat similar treaty was signed with

the Venetians. They were granted the right to have residences and

business establishments in Mamistra, but no mention is made of such

privileges in the cities of Tarsus or Sis. They had the same exemptions

from duties on imports and exports, but they did not have a consul

or bail to protect their interests and settle disputes among themselves.

Although at this time, the Genoese appeared to have secured more

privileges and freedom of action, the situation was reversed later on,

and in the fourteenth century, the Venetians overtook the Genoese

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in their dealings with Cilician Armenia.

It is interesting to note that the privileges granted to the Venetians

stipulated that gold or silver brought to the country would be duty

free, except when these precious metals were imported for coinage

purposes, in which case the Venetians would pay the same duty as

they did in Acre. Curiously enough, this point is repeatedly made in

subsequent privileges granted to the Venetians by Hetoum I in 1245,

Levon II in 1271, Levon III in 1307, and Levon IV in 1321. This

suggests the possibility that the Venetians struck gold coins in

* Langlois, Cartulaire, pp. IO4Io8.

* Langlois, Cartulaire, pp. Io9112.

* Langlois, Cartulaire, pp. I43, 151153, 167168, 182184.

28 Coinage of Cilician Armenia

Armenia, of the type struck in Acre, in imitation of Arab coins. These

have not yet, however, been differentiated from similar coins struck

in Crusader principalities. Possibly the bissancios sarracinales

d'Armenie mentioned on numerous occasions in notarial acts of

Ayas, referred to such coins."

The privileges granted to the Genoese were renewed in 1215" with

additional advantages, especially with respect to their holdings in

Tarsus. Although the Genoese were permitted to trade within the

kingdom without paying duties, there were four strategically located

districts within the kingdom which maintained the right to impose

duties, independent of the king's regulations. The barons who held

these localities were listed as: Hetoum of Tabaria, Adom of Gaston,

Vahram of Gorygos, and Levon of Gaban. The identity of Hetoum

and the exact location of Tabaria are not known definitely. Tabaria

was most likely the fortress of Tarbas, near the pass of Gouglag,

which controlled the passes into the sultanate of Konya. Tabaria was

held by a Smpad in 1198, and is mentioned again in 1210 by Levon I

in a decree made to the Hospitallers. The fort of Gaston (Armenian,

Baghras), was situated just north of Antioch and commanded the

pass of Beilan." Gorygos was the well-known port facing Cyprus,

and ideally situated for trade with Konya. Gaban was another

fortress, northwest of Marash, situated on the trade routes to and

from Armenia and the northeast. It is obvious that the barons

holding these strategic positions enjoyed considerable autonomy, even

to the extent of taxing commerce. Levon's promise to eliminate

the duties exacted in these districts as soon as he could indicated

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that he had not yet established absolute control in his newly formed

kingdom.

It is unfortunate that no documents have been found listing the

goods that passed through Armenian ports during these early years.

However, it is obvious that both the Venetians and the Genoese

found their trade profitable since they took great pains to have their

* Desimoni, pp. 434-534.

* Langlois, Cartulaire, 126128.

* Rec. Hist. Croisades, Doc. Armniens, I, xcvii, p. 637.

* Rec. Hist. Croisades, Doc. Armniens, I, p. 637, Langlois, Cartulaire,

p. II6.

* Rec. Hist. Croisades, Doc. Armniens, I, p. 171.

* Rec. Hist. Croisades, Doc. Armniens, I, xxv, p. 483.

Trade and Commerce 29

privileges renewed. In 1245, Hetoum and Zabel renewed the privileges

granted to the Venetians," who now had holdings in Ayas as well as

Mamistra.

An event took place in 1268 which threatened to end the amicable

relations existing between the Armenians and the Genoese. The

Genoese admiral, Luchetto de Grimaldi, following an argument with

the captain of a galley at Gorigos, seized the ship by force. The galley

was laden with valuable merchandise and the owners protested to

Hetoum, demanding restitution. The king thereupon severed relations

with Genoa and cancelled all privileges until the injured parties were

given satisfaction. Genoa sent envoys to settle the matter, and finally,

an agreement was reached with the Genoese delegate, J. Palavicino,

whereby all claims were settled for the sum of 22,797 Armenian

besants and seven charatos. The Armenian besants were the trams

of Hetoum-Zabel, and the charatos, the copper coins (kardez) of

this period. It is unfortunate that the materials and their values are

not listed in contemporary documents.

The privileges of the Venetians were renewed in 1271 by Levon II,

and it is mentioned that at this time the Venetians had a consul or

bail to take care of their interests.

Ayas was now becoming increasingly important as a trading center.

In 1271, Marco Polo set out from Ayas on his famous voyages. He

remarked that Ayas was a prime port for all types of spices.

Ample evidence exists of the extensive trading activities of the

Genoese during this period. The notarial acts of Ayas, as reported by

Desimoni shed much light on this subject. The acts, covering mainly

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two years, 1274 and 1279, mention the commercial activities of the

Genoese, Pisans and others. They give information on the existence

of a hospital of the Teutonic knights, a pier belonging to the Templar

knights, ships belonging to the Hospitallers, etc. These documents

are extremely valuable in that they mention the various currencies

* Langlois, Cartulaire, pp. I43145.

* Langlois, Cartulaire, 149151; Desimoni, p. 441 lists individual pay-

mentS.

* Kardez is the Armenian for charatos.

* Mas Latrie, II, pp. 7477.

* Langlois, Cartulaire, pp. 15I-153.

* Marco Polo, Paulthier, I, pp. 15, 18, 34.

* Desimoni, pp. 434-534.

3O Coinage of Cilician Armenia

in use and sometimes give their equivalent values. The English trans-

lation of several of these acts are found in a recent publication.

In December of 1288, Levon II renewed the privileges granted to

the Genoese. In this document, we have an extensive list of materials

imported and exported, the duties paid for them, and other relevant

information indicative of the trading activities of the Genoese. The

whole document is of sufficient interest to be presented here in its

English version; the original Armenian and Latin versions, along

with a French translation, are given by Langlois.

PRIVILEGES ACCORDED TO THE GENOESE BY LEVON II,

DECEMBER 23, 1288

In the name of the Father, the Son, and the Holy Ghost, Amen. This is

our sublime and royal order, the invariable decree of Levon, true servant

of God, and by His grace and mercy, king of all the Armenians, which we

have accorded to the Genoese, whom God preserve, upon the request of

the illustrious and wise lord, the honorable consul of the Genoese, on this

side of the sea, Benedicti Zacarie, the perfect and trusted friend of our

kingdom. The Genoese merchants will be treated as follows: in all the

cities in our possession, the duties and taxes paid will be the same as in

Ayas, except where otherwise indicated, for materials which are sold on

the market through an agent, or at home; i.e., they will pay only the

brokerage fees. For the wine which they sell in barrels or in jugs, or the oil

which they sell in barrels or jars without weighing, they will not pay any

duty except a sales tax of one tram per barrel. For slaves purchased in our

country and exported from our country, formerly on payment of duty,

they will henceforth not pay any duty; but if they purchase Christian

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slaves, they will vow that the slaves will not be sold to Moslems or to

persons who are willing to sell them to Moslems. On lumber, for which

they paid a duty of 18 kardez per barzounag, 4 kardez per filakh, 13 kardez

per double filakh, and one per cent, these duties are maintained with the

exception of the one per cent. On wheat and barley which they imported

by sea, paying a duty of four per cent including the broker's commission,

they are not to pay the four per cent, but the broker's commission is main-

tained. On animals taken out of our country, for which they were paying

four trams (bissantios stauratos) on each horse or mule, five new trams per

donkey, three new trams and one kardez per head of cattle, four kardez

for each sheep, six kardez for a buffalo hide, and six kardez for a cattle

hide, they will no longer pay any duties, nor will they pay duty for poultry

and eggs brought into or taken out of the country. The anchorage tax of

* Lopez and Raymond, pp. 171,224.

* Langlois, Cartulaire, pp. 154160.

Trade and Commerce 3I

two new trams per ship's mast, which they paid at the estuary of our

rivers, is cancelled. On cattle which they buy, they are to pay no duty

except brokerage fees. On iron which they buy, they will pay but one per

cent. For the passage of a ship, they will pay half a new tram per load. If

the belongings of a Genoese are stolen, and the goods recovered, irrespec-

tive of the nationality of the thieves, there will not be a charge of a third

for the recovery of the goods. The merchants who receive goods, and are

obliged to open their cases and register their belongings, will no longer be

required to open their cases, to mark them, or to register their belongings.

When a Genoese merchant arrives, and it is not known whether he is

Genoese or the son of a Genoese, the consul and his assistants will decide

whether he is Genoese or the son of a Genoese. The consul will then send

his envoy with his staff to the customs house in order to liberate him and

to write in our records the name of the consul and his witnesses, so that

the belongings of a merchant will not have to be held until one goes to the

customs at Tarsus to bring this permission to the captain of the port. If a

Genoese dies without a will, our officers will not have the right to lay hands

on his belongings, and the commune (of Genoa) will obtain it and dispose

of it as it sees fit. The tax for passage between Ayas and Gouglag is fixed

in the following manner: a camel load of silk will be charged 25 new trams;

silk cloths, 25 new trams for a camel load. On indigo and botanicals, with

the exception of pepper, ginger and brazilwood, they will pay 25 new trams

for a camel load, 19 new trams for a mule load, and 16 new trams for a

donkey load; for pepper, ginger and brazilwood, 20 new trams for a camel

load; for all textiles from France, be they fine or coarse material, or all

toile, coarse or fine, they are to pay 20 new trams per camel load; and for

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all materials for which they pay 20 new trams for a camel load, they are to

pay 15 new trams for a mule load and 12 new trams for a donkey load. For

cotton, sugar, mercury, coral, lead, copper, and others, they are to pay

15 new trams for a camel load, 12 for a mule load, and 9 new trams for a

donkey load; for soap, Io new trams for a camel load, 8 for a mule load,

and 7 for a donkey load. And from this moment on, and in the future, may

no one subject to our royal power, be he great or small, have the audacity

to oppose our royal and sublime ordinance, or to cause any vexations to

the Genoese commune, may God protect it, by exacting other taxes or

impositions. And everything shall remain as we have ordained. It is for

this reason that we have accorded our royal and sublime ordinance, our

august decree, and in order to give it more authority, we have sealed it

with our sublime signature, in the year 737 of the Armenian era, the year 2

of the little era, the 23rd of December. May this ordinance be confirmed

by the Will of God. It was written by the efforts of the chancellor Hetoum,

humble servant of God and of the holy king who has granted this privilege.

If a Genoese living in our kingdom possesses hereditary goods, be it from

his wife or a gift from our kingdom, and if he dies without a will or hered-

itary descendants, his goods, with the exception of hereditary possessions,

will go to the Genoese, and the latter will revert to our domain.

32 Coinage of Cilician Armenia

The Venetians, on their part, were becoming increasingly active in

trading. Numerous documents of Venice covering the period from

1200 to 1340 are indicative of this fact. There is mention of a bail of

Venice in Armenia in 1274 to supervise and protect the interest of

Venetians. Thereafter, it appears that there was a Venetian bail in

residence in Armenia until the end of the kingdom. In 13031304, an

event took place which threatened to disrupt the commercial relations

of Venice with Armenia. For some unknown reason, the Venetians

attacked and captured the fort of Ayas and pillaged it. In retaliation,

the Armenians cancelled the privileges granted to the Venetians

and it took several years of negotiations before the matter was

settled and full compensation was made by the Venetians for the

damages incurred. The payments for the goods confiscated are

itemized in a document dated 1307.* This document written in

medieval Italian is of sufficient interest to be presented here in its

English translation.

SUMS RECLAIMED FOR DAMAGES INCURRED BY THE WENETIANS

I. For the canopies which were received from him by

them from the royal palace for the Venetian galleys 18,535 trams

One crossbow carried at the chest level received from

the royal arsenal for the above-mentioned ships of the

Venetians . . . . . . . . . . . . . IOO trams

Two crossbows of horn . . . . . . . . . 50 trams

One bow for arrows . . . . . . . . . . I5 trams

Two measures of buckram . . . . . . . . 40 trams

One measure of cotton . . . . . . . . . 20 trams

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Three measures of canvas . . . . . . . . 45 trams

One pennant . . . . . . . . . . . . I5 trams

Five canvas cuirasses . . . . . . . . . . I50 trams

Five pieces of armor (similar to cuirass) . . . . 200 trams

Four thousand bolts . . . . . . . . . . 460 trams

TOTAL Io95 trams

Also the king paid Andree Senuto and Paul Maureceni

for three days (use) of the above-mentioned galleys and

for the embassy which they sent to the king . . . 6757 trams

25 Alishan, Armeno-Veneto, vols. I, II.

* Langlois, Cartulaire, pp. 170175.

* These sums are obviously in new trams, and not the old trams of Levon I

and Hetoum-Zabel, which were heavier and of higher silver content.

Trade and Commerce 33

II. The following were received or stolen from the inhabitants of the royal

palace by the above-mentioned galleys:

One wallet from a woman named Rita . . . . . 8 trams

Denarii . . . . . . . . . . . . . 300 trams

One hundred takvorins . . . . . . . . . 77 trams

One skirt . . . . . . . . . . . . . I5 trams

One shirt of cotton . . . . . . . . . . 8 trams

One cushion (pillow). . . . . . . . . . . I5 trams

One half-ounce of silk-floss . . . . . . . . 5 trams

One cloak of silk floss, twelve pairs of hose . . . 24 trams

Two serviettes (towels) . . . . . . . . . 2 trams

One cotton sheet . . . . . . . . . . . IO trams

One copper basin . . . . . . . . . . . IO trams

One shirt and one cudgel. - - - - 7 trams

Two hams . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 trams

Two shoulders of hog . . . . . . . . . . 3 trams

TOTAL 490 trams

Also the following were received from Georgio Guardiani:

Denarii . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 200 trams

One priest's vestment . . . . . . . . . I5 trams

One maniple (vestment) . . . . . . . . . 5 trams

One cushion of silk-floss . . . . . . . . . 2 trams

One boy's flowered silk robe . . . . . . . . 20 trams

Two hams . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 trams

Thirty silver . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 trams

One empty canvas sack . . . . . . . . . 2 trams

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One garment . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 trams

One coarse altar cloth . . . . . . . . . 5 trams

One youth's shirt of silk floss . . . . . . . I2 trams

One napkin (or towel) . . . . . . . . . 2 trams

One silver crucifix . . . . . . . . . . 20 trams

One canvas sack . . . . . . . . . . . 4 trams

One cotton canvas sack . . . . . . . . . 6 trams

TOTAL 340 trams

Also the following was received from one by the name Tros Johaim:

Denarii . . - - - - - - - 58 trams

One woman's black mantle . . . . . . . . 50 trams

Two women's cloth shirts . . . . . . . . 50 trams

One cotton skirt . . . . . . . . . . . I2 trams

One Cyprian skirt . . . . . . . . . . . 20 trams

One sheet . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 trams

One horn crossbow . . . . . . . . . . 50 trams

One boy's skirt of cendal - - - - - 20 trams

TOTAL 268 trams

* Apparently referring to a purse containing a sum of non-Armenian coins.

* The original document often gives incorrect totals.

34

Coinage of Cilician Armenia

Also the following was received or robbed from Theros Paidar by the

above-mentioned galleys:

Denarii . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26o trams

Two embroidered pillows . . . . . . . . 20 trams

One copper pan . . . . . . . . . . . IO trams

One chest half full of horseshoes . . . . . . 30 trams

1700 nails for shoeing horses . . . . . . . 22 trams

One knife for paring hooves . . . . . . . . 2 trams

One iron bar . . . . . . . . . . . . I tram

One hammer . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 trams

TOTAL 35I trams

Also the following was received from Stephen Casseri by the above-

mentioned galleys:

Two robes, one man's robe, one woman's . . . . IIO trams

Thirty brachias of cloth . . . . . . . . . 90 trams

One Cyprian coverlet . . . . . . . . . . 80 trams

One embroidered shirt . . . . . . . . . 15 trams

TOTAL 295 trams

Also the following was received from Gregorio Gazar by the galleys:

One embroidered silk purse . . . . . . . . 30 trams

Denarii in said purse . . . . . . . . . . 5I trams

Four small basins . . . . . . . . . . . 40 trams

Two gold rings . . . . . . . . . . . 40 trams

One metal cap . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 trams

One casque . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 trams

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TOTAL 189 trams

Concerning the debit of Marini Signuoli we agree with

Baron Ossino Bassiliensi of the sum of . . . . . 15ooo trams

To Sir Bindo Sechamarenda by the oft mentioned galleys:

Denarii . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6IO trams

Two sheets . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30 trams

Two cotton skirts . . . . . . . . . . . 24 trams

Two pieces of cotton . . . . . . . . . . 40 trams

Fifteen (canella) of gold thread . . . . . . . 48 trams

One silver collar - - - - - - - - - IO trams

Three cushions . . . . . . . . . . . 24 trams

One sparrow-hawk from the nest . . . . . . 2O trams

Three women's shirts . . . . . . . . . . 30 trams

One embroidered woman's shirt . . . . . . . 30 trams

Two shirts, one hose . . . . . . . . . . 20 trams

Two shirts, two hose . . . . . . . . . . 16 trams

Four napkins (or towels) . . . . . . . . . IO trams

Trade and Commerce

35

One wooden container

One dagger . . .

One napkin (or towel)

One silver wand (or key).

One matalacius . - -

One woman's camelot garment

One camelot garment .

Three caps .

Two knives . .

One pair of boots .

One carpet .

One woman's skirt

One purse of samite

TOTAL

From Bertucio by the above-mentioned galleys:

One sack

One warmer

TOTAL

From Pisano, Count of Argenta:

Denarii . - - - -

Two measures of buckram

One napkin - -

TOTAL

From Lady Margaret:

Denarii . - - -

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One Cyprian coverlet .

One camelot garment . - -

Three silver collars (or necklaces)

One golden gorget

One measure of buckram

Nine measures of material - -

TOTAL

From Father Vasilli:

Denarii . -

One long cloak

One carpet . - -

TOTAL

From Janna Zachii:

One hatchet (or battle axe) .

One sword . . . . . .

One cape -

TOTAL

20 trams

20 trams

4 trams

3 trams

8 trams

50 trams

50 trams

3 trams

6 trams

IO tramS

4 trams

IO tramS

2 tramS

II34 trams

4 trams

IO tramS

I4 trams

I4I trams

19 trams

3 trams

164 trams

IOO trams

8o trams

50 trams

I8 trams

2O tramS

Coinage of Cilician Armenia

From Baron Ossino, Lord of Gaban, brother of the king through his

representatives:

One measure of patterned material .

Three hatchets (or axes) . * - -

One canvas sack . . . . . . . . . .

TOTAL

From Herucho from his bank

Trams

One silver ring

TOTAL

From Constantio:

Two doublets and a priest's shirt

From Yeusef de Baldaco:

One cloak - - -

From Vasillo Gressacans:

One carpet .

One cloak - - - - - - - - - -

One shirt and one pair hose . . . . . . . .

TOTAL

These debts are noted later:

Pantaleonus owes to one Squire Theroso Janni

The aforesaid Theros has for this, one white coverlet,

one woman's overgarment of camelot, one boy's shirt

of purple cendal, one copper container, and one wooden

container.

Also Pantaleonus owes to one Squire Avertaza

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Also he owes to one by name Constantino Vassarabam,

the bazaar chief for supplies . - - - - -

Also he owes to one by name Messor Hauranni for

supplies - - - - - - - - - - -

SUM TOTAL OF THE DEBTS OF PANTALE.ON US

Sir Paulus Moroceno owes the aforementioned Messori

Hauranni for supplies . . . . . . . . .

Marchetus Guillelmo, nephew of Sir Marci Guillelmo

and the Lord Marcie, owes the wife of Bonasere

The aforementioned Marchus Guillelmo owes for a

golden buckle . . . . . . . .

Also for four golden rings

2I trams

6 trams

5 trams

32 trams

I6 trams

4 trams

20 trams

34 trams

25 trams

I6 trams

I6 trams

IO trams

4I trams

300 trams

SUM TOTAL

30 trams

77' trams

60 trams

467; trams

30 trams

IOOO trams

2OO trams

I00 trams

300 trams

Trade and Commerce 37

It was only after full reparations had been made that Levon III

renewed the former privileges of the Venetians.

The Genoese and Venetians were not the only nations carrying on

extensive trade in Armenia. As noted above, the Pisans were compen-

sated for damages. The merchants of Montpellier were permitted to

trade in 1314, upon payment of duties amounting to two per cent

on imports. This privilege was renewed by Levon IV in 1321. A

similar privilege was granted to the Sicilians in 1333. Earlier records

also mention the Catalans and merchants from Marseille trading in

Armenia.80

The renewed privileges granted to the Venetians on March 1, 1321,

mention that they had establishments in all the principal cities: Sis,

Mamistra, Adana, Tarsus and Ayas. It was again stipulated that a

duty was to be paid on precious metals imported by the Venetians

if these metals were to be used for striking coins. The duty was at the

same rate as paid in Acre. Furthermore, in this case, Levon wanted

half the silver brought into the country for the royal mint. Levon

needed this silver to strike takvorins in order to pay the heavy in-

demnities demanded by the Egyptians.

The increase in commercial activities on the one hand, and the

deterioration of the political situation in Armenia on the other hand,

caused a number of misunderstandings to arise between the Venetians

and the Armenians, and strained their amicable relations. The

Venetians complained of mistreatment, abuse of their privileges, and

laxity of Armenian officials in protecting Venetian interests. The

Armenian king, Levon IV, was anxious to encourage commercial

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activities since they were his main source of income, and enabled him

to pay the heavy tributes demanded by the Egyptians. It was not

surprising, therefore, that full satisfaction was given to the demands

of the Venetians and their privileges reaffirmed and extended. In a

document of 1333 written in Latin which is given below in its

English translation, we note the scope of activities of the Venetians.

* Langlois, Cartulaire, pp. 185190.

* Langlois, Cartulaire, pp. 163164.

* Langlois, Cartulaire, pp. 180181; Mas Latrie, II. 118, 122.

* Alishan, L'Armeno-Veneto, II, p. II. Hay-Vened, p. 109.

* Langlois, Cartulaire, pp. 191-192.

* Langlois, Cartulaire, pp. 193194; Mas Latrie, III, p. 726.

38 Coinage of Cilician Armenia

In the name of the Father, Son, and Holy Ghost, Amen. Levon, by the

grace of God and His help, King of all the Armenians, powerful and sub-

lime descendant of the family of Roupen, son of Oshin, king of the Ar-

menians, departed and resting under Christ. With respect to the petitions

and requests of the great and glorious Doge, Sir Francis Dandolo, and the

Venetian Commune, through the honorable mediary and faithful am-

bassador whom they have appointed to our royal majesty, to wit, Sir

Jacob Trivisano, we grant these petitions to all Venetians and their de-

scendants in addition to the rights and privileges which we have previously

granted through a document sealed with the golden seal; in the same

manner we allow and confirm these new grants to them which they have

sought from our royal majesty.

I. That all Venetians of Venice and their descendants be allowed, with

their goods, to enter into, remain in, and retire from our country, which

is guarded by God, without any harm or hurt.

II. That those Venetians and their descendants from Venetian terri-

tories, to wit, Crete, Black Sea, Coron, Modon, and their other territories,

these, above mentioned should be treated in accordance with the con-

stitution concerning their privileges.

III. That to those Venetians who manufacture garments of camel hair,

and reside in our dominions, we extend to them the following privilege

through our prerogative, that what they or their descendants produce be

free of the royal jurisdictions concern their trades, and no one shall do

them injury.

IV. That those Venetians who manage an establishment for the sale of

wine in our dominions, shall no longer pay that tax which our officials

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receive from them, namely, one takvorin weekly; but if they shall not sell

wine in the agreed upon measures and shall construct measures that are

greater or smaller, our officials shall have the power to fine them according

to the degree of the offense, but they shall bring no greater harm nor hurt

against them.

V. That when Venetians should deal and transport wine or unfermented

grape juice, that law has been rescinded whereby they pay one new tram

per container; this law has been granted for we are most gracious to them.

VI. That what they gave under that law in the city of Tarsus for the

import and export per load, and the traffic in tanned hides, shall be similar

in the port of Tarsus, for we are most gracious to them.

VII. That all Venetians of Venice and their descendants be able to buy

and transport camel wool or other merchandise whatsoever outside of our

dominions, in accordance with what we have granted to them in the other

list of privileges.

VIII. That with respect to that law whereby they gave a measure of

cloth per bale, they shall no longer do so for we are most gracious to them.

* It is clear from this statement that the city of Tarsus at this time had a

port separate from the city proper.

Trade and Commerce 39

IX. That the Venetians should not be forced by our officials with respect

to the purchase of grain and salt, nor anything else, nor shall they make

them work by violent means.

X. If there be a theft of the goods of the Venetians and the thief be found

out, he shall be hailed into our courts and imprisoned; the stolen goods

shall be returned to their owner, but the thief shall remain to fulfill the

punishment ordered by our court. If any of our people or subjects shall be

a debtor to one of the Venetians, either through a debt proper or as a guar-

antor of a debt, he should free himself of his debt and repay when he will

be able. Indeed, the above-mentioned Venetians shall be esteemed honored

and safeguarded in person and property by our royal majesty and our

officers, and as of now, and verily, no one shall have the power from our

royal majesty to add to the privileges in respect to great or small matters,

or to resist our decrees, but they shall remain firm and ratified in particular

and in toto as we have decreed above without contradiction or resistance

by anyone, and in confirmation of the above we affix and seal with the

golden seal of our majesty. Granted in the year of our Lord 1333, and

according to the reckoning of the Armenians, the year 782, tenth day

of the month of November, under the chancellorship of the honorable

Sir John.

LEVON, King of all the Armenians

In a last communication addressed to the Venetians in 1341,

Levon IV disclosed that he had forced the Saracens living in Armenia

to leave the country, and that the sultan of Egypt demanded pay-

ment of all debts owed to his subjects, holding Levon responsible for

the debts of the Venetians also. Fearful of renewed invasions by the

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Mamluk sultan, Levon paid the Egyptians the sum of 27,ooo tak-

vorins. Of this sum, 16,ooo takvorins were owed by the Venetians,

and the balance by the Armenians.

It was during this latter part of the existence of the Armenian

kingdom of Cilicia that Francesco di Balducci Pegolotti, of the power-

ful Florentine banking house of Societas Bardorum, wrote extensively

on the commercial activities of the Mediterranean countries including

Cilician Armenia.

The chapter on Armenia gives a clear picture of commerce in

Armenia and also of the currency used. It is reproduced here in its

English translation.

* Langlois, Cartulaire, pp. 196198.

* Pegolotti, pp. 5963.

4O Coinage of Cilician Armenia

ARMENIA

Armenia by itself, that is to say, Ayas of Armenia, is where a great deal

of trading takes place because it is on the sea, and merchants from many

places reside there.

Pepper, ginger, sugar, cinnamon, incense, brazilwood, lac, cotton, and

all gross spices, iron, copper and tin, are all sold in Ayas in ruotoli, one

ruotoli being equal to 15 occhia, and 33 ruotolis to one catars of Armenia.*

Silk and all fine spices are sold in occhia, 12 occhia being counted as one

ruotoli, which is known as the market occhia.

Gold is sold by the pesi and 50 pesi is counted as one mars of Armenia.

Silver is sold by the mars which is equal to 50 pesi.

Skins are sold by a weight of marchio and 40 weights are needed to give

an ara of skins.

All linen and textiles are sold by the hundred cannes," and the prices

are so many besants and denars, ten takvorins being one besant.

Soap, wool and camel hair are sold in ruotoli, one ruotoli being 15 occhias.

Grain is sold in Ayas in Armenia in gross moggio" and marzapanni, and

also in subtle moggio and marzapanni, one moggio being Io marzapanni.

Red silk is sold by the occhia which weighs 11o direms.

Oil is sold by the barrel as it is.

The Byzantine besant is counted Io silver takvorins, the takvorin

Io denars of Armenia, and the denar, 4 poghs.

THE AMOUNT PAID BY THE ARMENIAN MINT FOR A MARS OF SILVER

Per mars of Sardesco, II4 takvorins and I denar.

For a piatta with the seal of Venice, 113 takvorins and I denar.

For a lega of Tornesi grossi, III takvorins.

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For a lega of Gigliati, IIo takvorins and 5 denars.

For a Bracciali, that is to say, Buenmini, IIo takvorins and 2 demars.

For a sterling, Io9 takvorins and 5 denars.

For a vergha with the seal of Genoa, Io9 takvorins and 5 denars.

For a vergha with the seal of Venice, Io9 takvorins and 5 denars.

The Raonesi silver of Sicily, Io9 takvorins and 5 denars.

* We have left unchanged Pegolotti's spelling of weights and measures.

The subtle pound of Venice was somewhat less than 320 grams (see Gui-

lhiermoz, pp. 16I-133,402450). On this basis, since one ruotoli was equal

to 20.2 subtle pounds of Venice (see below), the weight of ruotoli was about

6460 grams and one catars of Armenia 213.180 kilograms. The occhia at

I/I5 of a ruotoli was about 430 grams.

* One marc of Venice (see Guilhiermoz p. 447) was about 240 grams. Since

Ioo marc of silver of Venice was equal to Ioff.5 marc of silver of Armenia, the

Armenian silver marc was about 225 grams and the pesi about 4.5 grams.

"Alishan, Sissouan p. 377 gives the length of a canne as being equal to

2.15 meters.

* Again Alishan gives a figure of 129.407 liters for a moggio.

Trade and Commerce 4I

The Armenian mint strikes a silver coin which is called takvorin (tac-

colini), which contains 8 fine ounces of silver per pound, and 91 takvorins

are counted per marchio.

DUTIES PAID ON SALE OF GOODS IN ARMENIA

The Genoese and the Venetians are free of duty, as are the Sicilians,

who pay nothing on goods brought in or taken out, with the exception of

the mars which is weighed, and they pay one per cent of the weight.

The Compagnia de Bardi is free, and pays nothing throughout the king-

dom, neither on bringing in nor on taking out goods, without trouble or

limitations. The Florentines or any other persons of whatever language or

city, cannot raise an opposition to the Compagnia except when the fault

is with the company. Supporting this, there is a privilege, with the golden

seal of the king of the Armenians, granted in Armenia on the tenth day

of the month of January, in the year of our Savior, 1335.

This privilege for the Compagnia, Francesco Balducci succeeded in re-

ceiving, having come to Cyprus in the service of the Compagnia.

The Pisans pay 2 per cent of the value of the goods exported or imported.

The Compagnia de Peruzzi of Florenze, the Catalans, and the Provencals

pay 2 per cent on imports and exports.

All others pay 4 per cent on imports and exports.

COMPARISON OF WEIGHTS AND MEASURES OF ARMENIA

WITH THOSE OF OTHER COUNTRIES, AND PRIMARILY WITH VENICE

One ruotoli of spices of Armenia is exchanged with 20 subtle pounds and

3.25 ounces of Venice. 49 ruotoli of cotton in Armenia are equal to 9 subtle

pounds of Venice. One occhia of silk or fine spices of Armenia is the equiv-

alent of I subtle pound and 4 ounces of Venice. Gross thousand measure

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(migliaio) of Venice is 76 or 78 ruotoli in Armenia, or 20.5 catars of Ar-

menia. Ioo mars of silver of Venice is 106.5 mars of Armenia. 315 Venetian

braccia of textile equal Ioo canne of Armenia. II subtle pounds of Venice

are equal to Io pounds of Ayas in Armenia.

Transportation costs of materials brought to Armenia from Venice or

to Venice from Armenia, in ships of the Commune of Venice, are at the

rates given below: For gross textiles and linens, on a bale of 350 peso

grosso of Venice, the charge is 6 silver soldi grossi of Venice. For fine

textiles and linens, the charge is 6 soldigrossi for a bale weighing 260 pounds

grosso of Venice. Copper, tin, and iron6 soldi grossi for a migliajo grosso

of Venice. Silverone per cent.

Spun gold or spun silver, or similar articles3 per cent per case. All

spices13 soldi grossi for a subtle migliajo. Cotton-13 soldi grossi per

subtle migliajo.

Camel hairtwo per cent in an armed galley and 1.5 per cent in a mer-

chant ship.

SugarIo soldi grossi per subtle migliajo.

42 Coinage of Cilician Armenia

WITH GENOA

One ruotoli of spices in Armenia is equal to 20 Genoese pounds. Five

pounds of silver of Genoese weight is equal in Armenia to 5 mars. 7.5 ruotoli

of Armenia is equal to a Genoese catar.

Pegolotti gives similar comparative values with various cities

and countries, including Nimes, Montpellier, Majorca, Seville in

Spain, Bruges in Flanders, London, Apulia, Messina in Sicily, Sivas

in Turkey, Accre, Famagusta in Cyprus, etc.

The amount of trade transacted was considerable. In the year 1312,

the Venetian bail at Ayas wrote that 27 or 28 Venetian merchants

carried out business amounting to 400,000 new trams.

In 1323, the Sultan of Egypt captured and destroyed Ayas. He

then permitted its reconstruction, provided the Armenians paid an

annual indemnity of 1,200,ooo takvorins, with an additional Ioo,000

from Ayas. The fact that the Armenians were able to pay such a

heavy indemnity can be attributed directly to the revenues derived

from Ayas and other ports.

After the destruction of the Crusader principalities, the Egyptians

continued relentlessly their attacks against the Armenian kingdom.

Ayas had already been pillaged twice as early as 1266 and 1275. It

was captured again, and destroyed in 1322 by Nasir Mohammed of

Egypt. During the ensuing peace, the port was rebuilt, but the Sultan

would not permit the reconstruction of the sea fort which protected

the city. The city was captured again and destroyed in 1337. This

time, the Egyptians would not even permit the rebuilding of the walls

of the city, thus leaving it to the mercy of the enemy. Finally, in 1347,

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the city was taken over by the Mamluks and thereafter remained in

the hands of the enemy. After this date, the Armenian kingdom was

cut off from the sea and became land-locked territory. The enormous

trade carried on for nearly two centuries ended, and the seaports of

Cilicia ceased to be of any importance in international commerce.

* Alishan, Sissouan, p. 386.

* Alishan, Sissouan, p. 390.

ARMENIAN TERMS USED FOR VARIOUS COINS

The coinage of the Roupenian period has been best covered in

works by Langlois, Alishan, Basmadjian and Sibilian.* The first

three authors dwelt at some length on the names given to Armenian

coins, but unfortunately they chose to list the names given to gold,

silver and copper coins of ancient times, thereby leading the reader

to believe that these names also applied to Roupenian coins. Much

confusion has resulted from this and an attempt will be made here

to clarify the picture.

The following tabulation lists the names given to gold, silver and

copper coins by the authors mentioned above:

Gold Coins Silver Coins Copper Coins Uncertain

Tenarl, 3 Silver tahegan', " Tank!, * Taccolinil

Byzant", * Tahegan sbidag Kardez*, * Bissancios

Tahegan", *, * Tram1, 2, 3 Tenar2, 3 stauratos

Rouge", * Old tram? Half-tram

Bysantii New tram 2, 3 Poghl, *, *

stauratii Half-tram?

Bissancio Double tram?

sarracinati Byssantii

d'Armenie stauratii"

Gold pool Staurats

GOLD COINs. As mentioned in the previous section, the Roupenians

probably did not issue gold coins for circulation but merely struck a

small number of these for distribution on special occasions. The names

given to the gold coins, therefore, could not refer to the few gold

pieces struck by the Roupenians.

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* Langlois, Num. de l'Armnie au Moyen Age, Paris, 1855, pp. 9-15.

* Alishan, Sissouan, pp. 378-386.

* Basmadjian, Num. Gnrale de l'Armnie (in Armenian), pp. 134-135,

Venice 1936.

* Sibilian, Classification of Roupenian Coins, Vienna, 1892.

43

44 Coinage of Cilician Armenia

TENAR (8nvptov, "bull/", denarius) was the name usually given to

silver coins in ancient times. The word 8mVptov was translated from

the Bible as tenar or tahegan, and numerous instances of the use of

both tenar and tahegan are listed by Avkerian." On one occasion,

tahegan, vosgi (gold) and tenar were used interchangeably.

BYzANT (Rh211.7, besant) was the name commonly used in the

coinage of the East during the Middle Ages. When accompanied by

the word gold, it denoted the gold coins of the Arabs or Byzantium.

The notarial acts of Ayas" contain numerous references to instances

where besants of various types were used in commercial transactions.

For example, bissantios quadraginta duos sarracinales ad iustum

pondus Syrie, bissantios ducentos veteres auri Babilonie bones, et

legales, atque iusti ponderis ad generale pondus terre Egypti, bis-

santios centum duodecim et dimidium sarracinales Acconis ad gene-

rale pondus Acconis or bissantios quadragintos quinquaginta

Tripolitos.

TAHEGAN (8nvaptov, MlAbill', denarius) was a measure of weight

as well as the name of a silver coin. Shiragatzi, writing in the seventh

century, states that tahegan was the name given to a silver or gold

coin, and lists numerous references of early times where it denoted

either gold or silver coins. In more recent times (A.D. 972), Matthew

of Edessa" mentions that Arab gold of 30,000 tahegans was taken

out of Baghdad or 40,000 tahegans of Arab gold.

RouGE (garmir, ill/'U'h'/') of course refers to the color of the coin,

indicating that it was gold. Thus, Smpad mentions that 500 garmir

was paid for the assassination of Mawdd. It is interesting to note

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that in his description of the same event (in the year 1113) Matthew

of Edessa" states that 500 tahegans were paid. Vartan mentions that

the sultan of Egypt, Baybars I al-Bundukdri, invaded Cilicia and

finding the Armenians unprepared, captured and sacked the city of

Sis. The Egyptians located the royal treasury and found a container

which had 600,000 garmir. Unfortunately, Vartan does not make clear

the type of gold coin he had in mind. In any case, it represented a

* Avkerian, pp. 7174.

* Desimoni, pp. 434-534.

* Matthew of Edessa, 1869, pp. 9, 26, 181, 363, 410.

* Smpad, p. 141 (1956 Edition of Venice).

* Vartan, p. 161.

Armenian Terms 45

huge sum for those days. Samuel of Ani" speaks of Iooo tahegan

garmir which Ayyb, the father of Saladin, said his son will give to

the man for predicting the birth of a male child. In the chronicles

attached to the Psalter of King Oshin of Cilician Armenia," it is

mentioned that in the year 1260, the Turkomans captured the lord

of Beirut and sold him for 20,000 garmir. This event has also been

reported by another source. It is thus seen that the term garmir

was used for a particular gold coin which the writer had in mind, and

in all of the cases mentioned above, it referred to a foreign gold coin.

Not a single reference has been found in contemporary literature

using the word garmir for a Roupenian coin.

BYSANTII STAURATII will be discussed under silver coins.

BISSANCIO SARRACINATI D'ARMENIE. The numerous notarial acts

of the Armenian port of Ayas" make frequent mention of this coin,

along with the bissancio sarracinati of Acre, Tripoli, Syria, Egypt,

etc. Since these acts speak of transactions involving hundreds and

often thousands of bissancio sarracinati d'Armenie, it would seem

that they are gold coins of the type issued by the Crusaders in the

East. In all likelihood, some of the gold coins ascribed to the Crusaders

were struck in Armenia by the Venetians, as indicated in the privi-

leges granted by the Armenian kings in the years 1201, 1245, 1271

and 1307, giving the Venetians the right to issue coins on the same

terms as they enjoyed in their coinage in Acre. As reported by Schlum-

berger Sibilian held a similar opinion. Unfortunately, it has not yet

been possible to find a means of identifying the gold bissancio sar-

racinati coins of Armenia and differentiating them from the other

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gold coins in pseudo-cufic writing struck by the Crusaders in several

eastern cities. The notarial acts of Ayas indicate that the value of the

Armenian sarracinat besant was in 1274 ten sous or half a Genoese

pound, and in 1279, nine and a half sous." Since these besants were of

an entirely different type and struck by the Venetians, they are con-

sidered outside of the scope of this work.

GoLD Pool (Vosgi pool, fll/ih R/IRL) is listed by Basmadjian as one

of the names given to gold coins. It is probably a name given to

* Samuel of Ani, R.H.C. Documents Armniens, I, p. 453.

"Surmeyian, p. 98.

* Hagopyan, vol. I, p. 82, vol. II, p. 71.

* Schlumberger, Archives de l'Orient Latin, p. 677.

46 Coinage of Cilician Armenia

certain gold coins, but unfortunately Basmadjian does not give the

source of his information.

SILVER COINs. These are of far greater importance than the gold

or even the copper coins, since they constituted the backbone of

national and international trade.

SILVER TAHEGAN or TENAR (Greek: 8nvptov, Latin: denarius).

This name was employed since antiquity for the silver coins currently

in use. As mentioned above, Anania Shiragatzi," writing in the

7th century, said that tahegan and tenar were identical and were

used either as a measure of weight or a measure of coinage. Although

they sometimes denoted gold coins, especially when written as gold

tahegan or gold tenar, they were much more often used for silver

coins. In Biblical translations, the Greek 8nvoptov is always trans-

lated as tahegan, and occasionally the word tenar was used inter-

changeably with tahegan. During the time of the Crusaders and

before the establishment of the coinage of Cilician Armenia, tahegan

was used for dinars. Thus, Matthew of Edessa said that through the

intervention of Kogh Vasil, the Armenian prince, the release of

Bohemond was made possible by payment of the sum of Ioo,ooo tahe-

gans to the Danishmends. This sum is given as Ioo,ooo dinars by

Albert D'Aix, as besants by Runciman, pices d'or by Grousset,

and michelots (gold coins of Michael VII Ducas of Byzantium) by

Blancard." In another instance, Baldwins release was obtained for

the sum of 30,000 tahegans. Another writer gives the figure as

as 30,ooo dinars. Vartan wrote that when Saladdin captured

Jerusalem, he permitted each man to buy his freedom for the sum of

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Iotahegans and each woman, five tahegans. Smpad, in his Chronicle

stated that every inhabitant wishing to leave was to pay one Egyptian

tahegan, and those who wished to remain were assessed one red

tahegan. Runciman gives the figures as ten dinars for a man, five for

* Albert D'Aix, pp. 3336, 610612.

* Runciman, Vol. II, p. 38.

* Grousset, Vol. I, p. 398.

* Blancard, pp. 151194.

* The Royal Chronicle, p. 172.

* Bar Hebraeus, I, p. 243.

* Vartan, History, p. 135.

* Smpad, Venice 1956, pp. 199200.

* Runciman, Vol. II, p. 465.

Armenian Terms 47

a woman and one for a child, while Grousset quoting Eracles

states that the amount to be paid was ten besants per man, five per

woman, and one per child. Ibn al-Athir gives the figures in dinars

ten for men, five for women, and two for children, while an Armenian

source mentions ten tahegans for men and five for women.

In Hagopyan's Minor Chronicle the word tahegan occurs in

six places, apparently referring to silver coins in circulation at dif-

ferent periods, and in at least one instance, three different documents

speak of the same transaction using either the terms tahegan or

tram.27

It would therefore appear that tahegan was the name given to

silver coins in general rather than to the silver Roupenian coins. The

latter were most likely known as trams.

TAHEGAN SBIDAG or SBIDAG. Sbidag means white, and tahegan

sbidag may have been a silver tahegan, as differentiated from tahegan

vosgi (gold). Sometimes one of the words was omitted, and prices

would be given in terms of tahegan, vosgi or sbidag (the latter often

abbreviated as sdag. or sb.). In the years 12561260, tahegan, tram

and sbidag were used by the same writer indiscriminately, all

apparently denoting the same type of silver coin. Even earlier, in

1224, the word sbidag was used for a silver coin. In Khachigyan's

Fourteenth Century Colophons, the word sbidag is mentioned no less

than twelve times, generally for coinage other than Roupenian.

Nevertheless, this term came into more common use in later periods

and appeared frequently in fifteenth, sixteenth and seventeenth

century writings, to denote the silver coinage of the writer's particular

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locality, be it Greater Armenia, Asia Minor or the Crimea.

TRAM (Greek 8pxXuh, Latin drachma) was another word used for

silver coins, often interchangeably with tahegan or sbidag. It is

* Grousset, Vol. II, p. 813.

* Eracles, II, p. 91.

* Ibn al-Athir, p. 701.

* Khachigyan, p. 135.

* Hagopyan, pp. 3, 135, 143,346, 381,398.

* Hagopyan, p. 143.

* Hagopyan, pp. I42-I43.

* Karekin I. Catholicos, p. 838.

* Khachigyan, p. 811.

* Hagopyan, pp. 463,476, 497, 528,570,577.

48 Coinage of Cilician Armenia

noteworthy that the word tram was used more often during the

Roupenian period in manuscripts written in Cilicia. However, Vartan

speaks of the payment of a sum of 300,000 trams in the year 1045.

In Khachigyan's Fourteenth Century Colophons, tram is mentioned

on nine occasions. It is significant that Levon's payment of tribute

to Nasir is described as 600,000 trams rather than as tahegans or

sbidags.

NEw TRAMs (daremos novos) and OLD TRAMs (daremos vetere) were

mentioned on numerous occasions by Genoese notaries in 1274-1279."

The fact that these words were used to refer to coins in circulation

supports the belief that the Roupenian silver coins were called trams.

The earlier coins of Levon I and Hetoum I, being heavier and having

a higher silver content, were worth more and were known as daremos

vetere as differentiated from the coinage of Levon II which had a

lesser silver content.

HALF TRAMs (iku M'll/) were coins having half the weight and half

the value of trams.

DouBLE TRAMs (b/"I'l/'ll/) were issued only by Levon I and had

twice the weight and value of the trams.

BYSANTII STAURATI or STAURATS have been discussed at some

length in a later chapter. The word, staurat, meaning cross, referred

to the prominent cross on the silver coins of Levon I and Hetoum I.

The Bysantii staurati, therefore, were the silver besants or trams of

these two kings.

TAKvoRINs (Pll?/lh/m/F) were the debased silver coins issued

during the latter part of the Roupenian dynasty and will be discussed

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in the next chapter.

COPPER COINSTANK, TENAR or KARDEZ, and POGH. These coins

are described later in greater detail.

TANK (o0}\og, obolus, 'N' R) in ancient times was a measure of

weight as well as the name of a coin. Shiragatzi states that six tanks

were equal to one tram. The word tank often appears in the Armenian

translation of the Bible. There were both silver and gold tanks.

TENAR or KARDEz apparently referred to the medium-sized copper

Roupenian coin. Although the tenar or denar was usually the silver

* Vartan, History, p. 101.

* Khachigyan, p. 295.

* Bedoukian, Handes Amsorya, LXXIII, 1959, pp. 241-249.

Armenian Terms 49

coin, it also denoted a copper coin. Thus, Pegolotti states clearly

that one Taccolini (takvorin), was worth ten denars. Therefore, the

denar which he mentions was the copper coin used in Armenia around

1340. References dated about 1260 use the word kardez for the copper

COinS.36

POGH (po)\\g, follis, b/I'l) was used in ancient times as a general

name for small copper coins. When Pegolotti stated that one denar

was worth four folli, he may have meant that one large copper coin

was equalin value to four small coppers of Oshin, Levon IV or Levon V.

* Pegolotti, pp. 5960.

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*Assises d'Antioche, p. 61.

THE COINAGE OF THE ROUPENIANS

The Armenian dynasty in Cilicia issued literally millions of silver

and copper coins, of which about twelve thousand can now be found

in museums and private collections. In addition, ten gold coins are in

existence and are mentioned in the corpus. There are also records of

seven others which have been lost or destroyed.

The different types of coins struck during this period are as follows:

GoLD coins (Vosgi, fll/ih). The ten gold coins in existence today

are of a type similar to the silver coins of this dynasty. For want of a

better name, they are simply called vosgi, or gold. Certain pecu-

liarities in design and uncommon variations in weight, coupled with

the fact that so few have survived, have led the writer to believe that

these were not struck for circulation but rather as gifts which were

distributed on special occasions.

SILVER COINs. Approximately two thirds of the Roupenian coins

which have survived are in silver, and these constitute the most im-

portant and interesting portion of the coinage of this period.

The silver coins can be conveniently divided into several classes:

Double tram (Yergtram), b/"'M'll/

Half double tram (Guess yergtram) 'iku b/"I'lf'll/ b

Quarter double tram (Karort yergtram) RU/km/" b/"I'M'll/ on I

Coronation tram (Odzman tram) 00 l/'ll', 'M'll/

Bilingual tram and half-tram issued by Hetoum I

Tram or Old tram, 'M'll/', also known as besant staurat issued by

Levon I and Hetoum I

Half-tram (Guess tram), thu M'll/

New tram (Nor tram), u/l/ ?/'lllf issued by Levon II

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Takvorin (Pll'MR/m/F) silver coinage of all kings after Levon II

Billonstruck by Levon I in Antioch (bearing Latin characters), and

the small coins issued by Hetoum II.

Issued

The double tram and its smaller denominations constitute a distinct

class which is different from the usual coinage of Levon I. These coins

50

Coinage of the Roupenians 5I

are comparatively rare and were issued for a short time only, probably

in Tarsus. The above names were given in order to distinguish them

from trams or half-trams, although the half double tram is actually

a tram, and the quarter, a half-tram.

The coronation tram is unique in its design since it is the only coin

depicting the coronation of a monarch. It is noteworthy that no half-

trams of this type have been found as yet.

The bilingual trams of Hetoum I are rather rare and on one side

have an Arabic inscription in recognition of the nominal suzerainty

of the Seljuk sultans of Konya." Bilingual half-trams are very rare.

The trams of Levon I and Hetoum I are the commonest types of

coins of the Roupenian dynasty. Over half of the silver coins in

existence belong to this class. A cursory examination of trams will

show that there is a dominant cross on one side of the coin. In

coins struck by Levon I, the cross is flanked by two lions rampant

regardant, while coins of Hetoum I show the cross held by the king

and queen.

It is not surprising that contemporary writers referred to the tram

as besant staurat or the besant with a cross, and also daremos

vetere or old tram, thus differentiating it from the later silver coins

of less value. A document listing commercial privileges granted to the

Genoese by Levon II in 1288 discloses that the duty for exporting a

horse or a mule was four - - which was translated in the con-

temporary Latin text as bissancios stauratos, a donkeyfive new

trams, an oxthree new trams and one kardez, a sheepfour kardez.

The document also explains that the duty for pepper, ginger and

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other spices is determined by the weight carried by the animal. The

duty for a mule load is given as nineteen new trams, and for a donkey

load, sixteen new trams, thereby establishing a degree of relative

values for mules and donkeys. Obviously, four staurats were worth

somewhat more than five new trams. It will be seen below that the

silver content of four trams or staurats of Levon I and Hetoum I was

slightly higher than that of five new trams around 1288. One can

therefore reasonably assume that the besant staurat was the tram

of Levon I and Hetoum I.

* Bedoukian, ANS Museum Notes VII, 1957, pp. 219230. Pl. XXX.

* Langlois, Cartulaire, p. 154.

* Bedoukian, Handes Amsorya, LXXIII, 1959, pp. 241-249.

4*

52 Coinage of Cilician Armenia

Numismatists have long been puzzled and misled by the marriage

contract of the daughter of Hetoum I, Euphemia, to Julian, the Lord

of Sidon, in 1252." In this contract, it was stipulated that Hetoum

would give a dowry of twenty-five thousand besans sarrazinas au

pois d'Acre, of which the king was to pay seventeen thousand

besans sarrazinas al pois d'Acre, ce que nosauronse so quiremendra

chascun besans a sa valor, so e aire qui quatre besans de nos staurat por

un besant sarrazinas. Here it is made clear that one gold besant of

Acre was to be considered equal to four of the king's staurats. The

Acre besant weighed about three grams and contained about 65 per

cent gold or two grams of gold. Since the relative value of gold to silver

was about ten to one in those days," it is apparent that the gold

besant was equal to about twenty grams of silver. The silver trams of

Hetoum I contained about 2.5 grams of silver. Hence, it would take

eight (not four) staurats to equal a gold besant. This irregularity has

led both Langlois" and Alishan to suppose that the staurat was a

coin as yet undiscovered, or a very large silver coin. It is the opinion

of the writer that a mistake may have been made in copying the

original document (all efforts to obtain a photostat copy of this docu-

ment have failed), or that Hetoum, having promised a dowry of

25,000 gold pieces, had stipulated that part of this sum was to be paid

at the rate of four staurats per gold of Acre. It is obvious that the

besant staurat was a very common silver coin used in large numbers,

and the only such coin issued by Hetoum was the common tram.

Such arrangements were not uncommon and it is not necessary to

assume that they indicated an international rate of exchange. It is

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also interesting to note that the tram of Levon I and Hetoum I is

often called daremos vetere as distinct from the new tram da-

remos novos of Levon II.

* Langlois, Carulaire, p. 146.

* An Acre besant of the type Schlumberger, Pl. V, No. 24, was given to public

analysts. It assayed sixty-five per cent gold in content. It is interesting

that the same gold percentage was obtained by taking the specific gravity

of this coin and assuming that the metal was a mixture of gold and silver.

* Desimoni, p. 438, Vol. I.

* Langlois, Numismatique de l'Armnie au moyen ge, pp. 1213.

* Alishan, Sissouan, pp. 382383. See also Desimoni, p. 526, LXI.

* Desimonicites numerous instances where the terms daremosvetere, daremos

novos and bissancios stauratos are mentioned in commercial transactions.

Coinage of the Roupenians 53

The half-trams were half the weight and value of the trams and

were similar in design and type. While many trams are of barbaric

style, indicating that they were manufactured carelessly under pres-

sure, the half-trams are usually of good design and workmanship.

These coins were not made in any quantity and few have survived.

The half-trams are therefore quite scarce.

The new tram was obviously a coin of Levon II (12701289) since

it is frequently mentioned in documents written during his reign.

There is also historical evidence indicating the gradual debasement

of this coin, and this is matched by metrological data obtained by

the author.

We thus find that in 1273, eight new trams were the equivalent of

one sarrasin besant. In 1279 (May Io), it took nine new trams to

equal one sarrasin besant, whereas in 1284 the accepted rate was

ten new trams.

Other records indicate the international value of the new trams.

According to a Genoese notarial act of 1274, 177 new trams were

counted as being equal to Io Genoese livres or 200 sous. In an earlier

record (about 1260), when the Assisses d'Antioche was translated,"

44 new trams were considered equal to 36 sous. The latter were pro-

bably the coins of the Crusaders.

The continued debasement of the new trams is evidenced by the

fact that in 1289 ten new trams were worth 35 Venetian soldi, the

latter sum being the equivalent of one bissancio saracinato, and in

13131316, it took twelve new trams to equal this amount.

A few other available records throw light on the value of

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Armenian coins of this period. In 12991300, Ioo new trams were

equal in value to 27 besants of Cyprus. In 1307, in a settlement

for damages, 77 new trams were listed as being equivalent to Ioo

takvorins.

Examination of the weight and silver content of various new

trams of Levon II bears out a debasement which accounted for the

reduction of their value on the international market.

Desimoni, p. 456, XXIII.

* Assises d'Antioche, p. 28.

* Alishan, Armeno-Veneto, II, p. 53.

* Alishan, Sissouan, p. 383 (No source reference given).

* Langlois, Cartulaire, p. 171.

54 Coinage of Cilician Armenia

It is curious that although Levon II reigned for nineteen years,

his coins are relatively scarce. A possible explanation may be that

the wide variations in the silver content made transactions difficult,

and that most of his silvers were eventually melted to make the more

uniform coins of his successors.

The takvorins (literally translated as belonging to the king) were

the coins of Levon III, Oshin, Levon IV, and the three Gosdantins.

These coins were gradually debased, until finally the percentage of

silver was reduced to less than 50 per cent, and the weight of the coins

reduced from three to two grams. As a result, the takvorins of the

Gosdantins were actually worth considerably less than half of the

trams of Levon I or Hetoum I.

Contemporary writings give numerous instances where takvorins

(taccolini) were used in commercial transactions. As mentioned above,

in 1307, Ioo takvorins were declared to be worth 77 new trams. In

1223, the Egyptians exacted a tribute of 1,200,000 takvorins an-

nually from the Armenian king. According to Pope John XXII, this

was equal to 50,000 florins." In 1333 (June 17), a communication

from the Doge of Venice stated that 24 takvorins were to be regarded

as equal to a gold ducat." In the same year, 12 grossis of Venice were

worth 13 takvorins, which in turn were equal to 2 bissancios albos

of Cyprus.

In 13401342, Pegolotti" wrote that Il bisante de Romania si

conta X taccolini d'argento; il taccolini vale den. X de Erminia, e il

denaro valle IV folleri. He further states that the Armenian royal

mint struck coins made of an alloy containing eight ounces of silver

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per pound, and that 91 taccolinis were made from a marc (226.26gms.)

of alloy. This composition was verified by metrological data obtained

by the author.

Billons were struck on two special occasions. The first billon was

struck by Levon I in Antioch, in Latin characters, to commemorate

his capture of the city. The coin is very similar in appearance to the

contemporary Crusader coins of Antioch. The other coin was struck

by Hetoum II who issued no silver coins.

* Alishan, Sissouan, p. 384 (No source reference given).

* Alishan, Armeno-Veneto, II, p. 107.

"Alishan, Armeno-Veneto, II, p. 102.

* Pegolotti, pp. 5960.

Coinage of the Roupenians 55

A detailed examination of the names, weights and titre of the

silver coins is given in the section under metrology.

COPPER COINs. Apparently, three types of copper coins were struck

by the Roupenians:

Tank (N1,7) Large copper coins struck by Levon I and Hetoum I.

Tenar or Kardez (RU/"Sk8) Medium-sized copper coins of Hetoum I,

Levon II, Hetoum II, Smpad and Levon III.

Pogh (4/7?) The small copper coins of Oshin, Levon IV, Guy, Gos-

dantin III and later kings.

Sibilian expresses the opinion that all of the copper coins were

called Pogh, even though there was a gradual decrease in their size

and weight. He states that no half or quarter poghs were issued, but

offers no proof in support of this statement. In a document dated

1288, there are several instances where various sums are given in

new trams and R/., the latter obviously being an abbreviation of

kardez, the name given to the copper coins in circulation at that time.

In the Assises d'Antioche the word kardez (RUPS53) is written

out in full in Armenian. It is stated that one sol was equal to 12 kardez,

and 36 sols to 44 new trams, thus making a new tram equal to about

9.5 kardez at that time. Since the Assises d'Antioche was written

around 1260, the relative values refer to that period. This would

indicate that an old tram was probably worth 12 kardez, and since

the tank weighed twice as much as a kardez, it was twice as valuable,

and six tanks were most likely worth one old tram. Pegolloti, writing

in 1340, mentions that one takvorin was worth ten denars, and one

denar was worth four folli. A denar was the Latin term for kardez,

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and folli, for poghs.

We have chosen the name tank for the large copper coins of Levon I

and Hetoum I. It is unfortunate that no documents have been found

of that period which use the word tank for the large copper coins.

However, in previous periods, tank was a name commonly given to

copper coins, and six tanks were worth a silver coin. As noted above,

six large copper coins were equal in value to one old tram of Levon I

or Hetoum I. Hence, it is reasonable to assume that they were called

tanks.

* Assises d'Antioche, pp. 6061.

* Avkerian, p. 77.

* Alishan, Sissouan, p. 370. Also in Langlois, Cartulaire, pp. 170175.

DESIGN AND STYLE OF COINS

The designs of the coins issued by the Roupenians exhibit so many

variations that one is inevitably led to speculate on their origin.

LEvoN I. On the obverse of all the silver coins of Levon I (with

the exception of the coronation coins), the king is seated on a

throne ornamented with lions heads. He wears a crown and a royal

mantle on his shoulders, usually has a cross in his right hand and a

fleur de lys in his left. On most of the coins, the king's feet rest on a

footstool.

Langlois calls this design an imitation of the coins of carlins

d'Anjou and of blancs d'argent de Chypre, but there is little

similarity between the coins of Levon I and the Anjou silver coins,

and the Cyprus silver coins referred to were all issued much later.

In a lengthy study, Garabetian points out that the royal seal of

Louis VI (11081137)* bears a marked resemblance to the obverse of

the coins of Levon I. There are earlier seals of French kings where

the king is seated on a throne, holding a cross or lily in the right hand,

and an orb in the left hand. Garabetian concludes erroneously that

although such a design had appeared previously on royal seals, it was

first used on coins by Levon I.

Alishan approached the truth when he stated that this design

differed from the Byzantine and Near Eastern coin types, but re-

sembled German types. This thesis was developed further in an

article by Smith" who points out that Levon's promotion from prince

to king came through the German emperor, Henry VI, and speculates

on the possibility that the die on the obverse was a German design.

The similarity of this design to that of the bracteates of Augsburg

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* Langlois, Num. de l'Armnie au moyen ge, p. 41.

* Schlumberger, Num. de l'Orient Latin, Pl. VII.

* Garabetian, Hask Annuaire, 194950, p. 272.

* Petit, pp. 193,210.

* Alishan, Sissouan, p. 279.

* Smith, pp. 423427.

56

Design and Style of Coins 57

was also brought out. There is little doubt that the obverse of Levon's

trams was patterned after contemporary bracteates in circulation

during the reign of Henry VI. Mertens publication" contains re-

productions of the bracteates of Henry VI (whose liege Levon was),

which are very similar to the obverse of the trams of Levon I.

Historically, all this is in agreement with recorded events. Levon

had asked Frederick Barbarossa for the crown and had obtained his

consent. After Frederick's death, the promise was fulfilled by his

successor, Emperor Henry VI. Levon thus became nominally a vassal

of Henry and it was perhaps in gratitude that he placed the Em-

peror's coin design on his trams. The design was in general use in

Germany during this period and even earlier.

On the obverse of the few coronation coins, we find Christ standing,

and the king, wearing the royal mantle, is kneeling with the crown

on his head. Between the head of Christ and the king there is some-

times a ray of light descending from the sky, or the figure of a dove,

and occasionally an arm or hand extended toward the king's crown.

Langlois, Sibilian" and Alishan mention that this design was copied

from the coins of the Venetian Doges. However, Venetian coins of

this type were apparently first struck by Dandolo XLVIII in 128o

to 1289, almost ninety years after the coronation of Levon I.", *The

derivation of the design of Levon's coronation coins must therefore

be sought elsewhere.

There are a number of well-known types of Byzantine coins on

which Christ is seen crowning the standing emperor. Possibly, the

coronation coins may be considered modifications of the Byzantine

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types, but the Armenian types present sufficient differences in design

to be considered original.

The reverse of most of the trams of Levon I has a very unusual

designa cross between two lions rampant regardant. Langlois' sug-

gestion that such designs appeared on Mohammedan articles such as

7 Mertens, Pl. VIII, XII.

* Buchenau, Pl. 24, No. 20 (541, 542).

* Langlois, Num. de l'Armnie au moyen ge, p. 38.

* Sibilian, Classification of Roupenian Coins, p. 8.

* Corpus Nummorum Italicorum, Vol. VI, VII, p. 27, Pl. 1, 23.

* Marco, Coinage of Venice.

* Sabatier, p. 126, Pl. XLVI, Io; p. 169, Pl. L, 11, etc.

58 Coinage of Cilician Armenia

mirrors and served as models for Levon's coins must be rejected since

the designs to which he refers are mythical figures bearing little or

no resemblance to the lions found on the coins." Neither Sibilian

nor Alishan comment on the origin of the design of the two lions,

and Garabetian's lengthy article" does not shed any light on this

problem.

Since this design seems to have appeared for the first time on

Armenian coins, one is perhaps justified in stating that it was an

original contribution to numismatic art.

The lion, in its multitudinous forms, has been in widespread use in

the Near East since antiquity. In the famous ruins of Persepolis

dating 500300 B.C.," one finds lions walking, standing up against

figures of men, walking and facing, etc. On numerous textiles of the

seventh and eighth centuries A.D., there are lions seated with the tree

of life between them, and lions standing and facing the tree of life, etc.

The idea of using lion motifs was adopted by the Moslems and

eventually spread to Europe. The mantle of Roger II of Sicily (1133)

was decorated with two lions attacking camels, with the tree of life

between them. Lions standing and facing are also seen in a Seljuk

silk fabric of the 12th century.

Von Falke traces the development of designs on fabrics from

earliest times. Many of the lion motifs shown in illustrations dating

from the fifth to seventh centuries bear a close resemblance to the

lions on the coins of Levon. In all cases the lions flank the tree of life

rather than the cross as in the case of Levon's lions.

It should be recalled that the lion was native to southern Armenia

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and was hunted by the nobility. Neither the lion nor its use in orna-

mental designs was new to the Armenians. In Greater Armenia,

figures of lions appeared on buildings, city walls, and even churches.

There is a lion walking on the main city gate of Ani, the capital city

of the Bagratids. Strzygowski gives an illustration of an Armenian

throne which shows two lions facing each other.

* Reinaud, Vol. II, Pl. VIII, and p. 394.

* Garabetian, Hask Annuaire, 194950, pp. 274293.

* Sarre, pp. II, 17, 39, 52, 556, 98, 108, II23, 128, etc.

* Migeon, pp. 381, 395,417.

* Von Falke, pp. 40, 54, 68, 7077, 80, 90, 105, 13104, 162, etc.

* Strzygowski, p. 811.

Design and Style of Coins 59

De Beaumont describes lions in a position very similar to that in

the coins of Levon, flanking the tree of life. He claims that this illus-

tration was taken from a twelfth century Armenian Bible which he

saw at the Armenian Mekhitarist Monastery in St. Lazare, Venice.

In a Gospel of II93 there is a good example of rampant regardant

lions. In a comprehensive treatise recently published on illustrations

in Armenian manuscripts derived from vegetable and animal life,

there are numerous instances of lions shown in various positions. One

illustration taken from a fourteenth century manuscript shows the

lions rampant regardant as on a Levon I coin.

It may be concluded that the design of lions rampant regardant

was not uncommon in the Near East but that the adoption of the

cross in place of the tree of life was an innovation peculiar to the

coinage of the Roupenians.

The double tram of Levon and its smaller denominations, (also a

few rare coronation coins) have on the reverse a lion walking or

holding a cross. While it is true that the lion appeared on some of the

bracteates, the lion on Levon's coins has a characteristic design and

it is significant that in this instance, the lion is holding a cross or is

accompanied by a cross. This lion design may again be considered an

original contribution to numismatic art, and it is found on the coins

of most of the succeeding Roupenian rulers. One is reminded of the

Agnus Dei Crusader gold coins wherein the lamb appears holding a

pennant. These coins were most likely issued half a century after

the coins of Levon I, but the substitution of a lion holding the cross

instead of the usual lamb holding the cross, cannot be overlooked in

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connection with the design of Levon's double tram types.

The agnus dei appears on a rare copper coin attributed to

Raymond II of Tripoli (11521187), but the lamb is walking and is

not holding the cross. The agnus dei, holding a cross, also occurs

in the Armenian Gospel of Venice of the year II93.

* Beaumont, Pl. X, 6, 7, pp. 523.

* Der Nersessian, Manuscrits Armniens Illustrs, Pl. XVIII, Fig. 40.

* Mnatsaganyan, p. 396, No. 7374.

* Schlumberger, Num. de l'Orient Latin, Pl. XIX, 9. See also Grierson,

ANS Museum Notes, VI, 169176, Pl. XVIII, 12.

* Schlumberger, Num. de l'Orient Latin, p. 103, Pl. IV, 8.

* Der Nersessian, Manuscrits Armniens Illustrs, Pl. XXIX.

60 Coinage of Cilician Armenia

COPPER COINS. Levon I issued a large number of copper coins of

more or less uniform size and weight. On the obverse of these coins

appears the leonine head of the king with a crown, and on the re-

verse, a long cross with two stars.

Langlois states that the obverse of Levon's copper coins was

patterned after the coins of the Norman kings of Sicily. There seems

to be very little relationship between these two types, however, as

the Sicilian coins show a lion's head, whereas Levon's coins show the

leonine head of the king, with beard, crown, etc. It would therefore

appear that here again, Levon chose a design of some originality.

The reverse of Levon's copper coins, having a Patriarchal or Cal-

vary cross and two stars, appears to be related in design to some

Byzantine coins, but the introduction of stars indicates a degree of

originality in the design of these coins.

HETOUM I. With the ascension of Hetoum to the throne, a definite

change took place in the type of coinage. The double lion design dis-

appeared, and there was a tendency to imitate oriental types of

coinage, possibly indicating a weakening of the influence of the Cru-

sader principalities and a strengthening of the Mohammedan elements

surrounding the Armenians.

The most common silver coins were the trams. The reverse of these

coins shows a lion either holding a cross or accompanied by one. The

lion stands rightward, facing front, sometimes holds the cross as in

the coins of Levon, and sometimes walks with one paw in the air

(lion passant guardant), the cross behind him. There is no doubt that

this is a continuation of the coin design of Levon.

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The obverse of these trams, however, is unique in that it shows the

king and queen facing each other, wearing royal vestments, and both

holding the same cross. The representation of the queen's image on

the coin was obviously in recognition of the fact that she was of

royal lineage, whereas Hetoum was the prince consort, crowned king.

As Langlois points out, such a representation of a king and queen

appeared on a Byzantine coin of Constantine XIII Ducas and Queen

*Langlois, Num. de l'Armnie au moyen ge, p. 47.

Spinelli, p. 33, 721.

* Schlumberger, Num. de l'Orient Latin, p. 91, Pl. XLIII, 45.

* Langlois, Num. de l'Armnie au moyen ge, p. 54.

Design and Style of Coins 6I

Eudocia (10591067). The designs, however, are by no means

dentiical.

Another type of silver coin issued by Hetoum (in comparatively

small numbers) shows on one side the king on horseback, wearing a

crown and holding a sceptre. The horse is facing right in all cases.

The coin design showing the king on horseback was used on many

coins from the earliest times. Coins with an equestrian design were

issued by Kilij Arsln (11561188) of Konya and by his successors,, *

and this fact may have influenced Hetoum's choice of design for his

bilingual coins.

coPPER COINS. The copper coins of Hetoum also present novel

features and differ from those issued by Levon. Indeed, unlike Levon's

coppers, all of which were of the same type and of uniform size,

Hetoum's coppers represent several varieties and two distinct sizes.

There are the large copper coins of Hetoum, of about the same

weight and diameter as Levon's, with the king, on the obverse, seated

on a simple throne or on a throne ornamented with lions, wearing a

crown, and holding a sceptre in the right hand and a cross or orb in

the left. This design is apparently a variation of the obverse of Levon's

silver coins. The reverse of these copper coins bears a Greek or Potent

(Jerusalem) cross, with many types of field marks. The cross can be

found on some Byzantine coins as well as on numerous coins struck

by the Crusaders"an indication of the king's Christian faith.

Hetoum also issued a smaller version of these large copper coins.

A variation of this small copper shows the king on a throne orna-

mented with lions, as on the obverse of Levon's trams, but the

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execution is less careful.

A second type of small copper coin is also found in great numbers.

On the obverse, the king is on horseback. The design is very much

like that of the bilingual silver coins, but it has not been executed

with as much artistic skill. This is obviously a case where the design

* Saulcy, Numismatique Byzantine, Pl. XXV, 1.

* Sabatier, pp. 1689, Pl. L, 9.

* Bedoukian, ANS Museum Notes VII, pp. 219230, Pl. XXX.

* Marsden, pp. 8890, Vol. 1, Pl. VI, No. LXXXIII.

* Ostrup, p. 128, Pl. IV, No. 1312.

* Sabatier, Vol. II, Pl. LI, 3.

* Schlumberger, Num. de l'Orient Latin.

62 Coinage of Cilician Armenia

of the silver coins was merely transferred to the copper coins. The

reverse has the usual cross with various field marks.

LEVON II. On the obverse, the silver coins of Levon II are all of the

equestrian type issued by Hetoum I, with various field marks, and

exhibit no new features. The reverse of these silver coins also follows

the design used by his predecessors. The lion is walking or standing

in either direction.

The obverse of the copper coins shows a lion walking left, or in rare

cases, walking right. In all previous cases of silver coins with a single

lion, the lion was represented facing front, crowned, and either

holding a cross or accompanied by one. The lion on the copper coins

of Levon II does not face front, and is quite different in styling from

the lions appearing on the coins of the German emperors. It closely

resembles, however, the walking lions appearing in architectural de-

signs in greater Armenia, and quite likely the lion motif on Armenian

coins came from greater Armenia rather than elsewhere. The reverse

of the copper coins has the cross with various stars or lines as field

marks, reminiscent of the copper coins of Hetoum I.

HETOUM II. The coinage of Hetoum II presents certain pecu-

liarities as a result of political circumstances and personal eccen-

tricities of the king. He did not issue silver coins and contented

himself with striking copper coins and billons bearing his name.

The small billons resembles some of the contemporary Crusader

coins. The obverse shows the king's head executed in a style similar

to that of the coins of Guy de Lusignan of Jerusalem (11861192).

Jean de Brienne (12121225), and Henry I of Cyprus (12181253).

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On the reverse is the usual cross, not unlike the one on the coins of

Henry I.

The copper coins of Hetoum also show the Latin influence. On the

obverse is the head of the king, similar in style to the coinage of the

kings mentioned above. The reverse has a cross with ornamental

leaves at its base. This distinctive, ornamented cross appeared on the

earlier coins of the counts of Edessa, and on the coins of Latin em-

perors of Constantinople (12041261).

In another variety of copper coins, the king is seated in typical

oriental fashion, wearing a crown, his right hand at his breast and

* Strzygowski, pp. 285, 286, 295, 540, 811.

* Schlumberger, Num. de l'Orient Latin, Pl. IV, 25, 31, Pl. VI, 8, 9.

* Ibid., Pl. I, 8, 9, 14, 15.

Design and Style of Coins 63

his left holding a sceptre or cross. Designs of this type have appeared

on the coinage of several Moslem rulers in Asia Minor and Syria, e.g.

on the coins of Urtuqis of Mardin (Nsir al-Din Urtuq Arsln

628 H. or 12301231 A.D.). On the reverse there is an ornamented or

simple Greek cross.

SMPAD. The coins of Smpad do not exhibit any novel features. The

silver coins are rather poor imitations of those of Levon I, the main

difference being that in most cases the king's left hand is above the

knees, holding a mace which extends over the left shoulder. The coins

have been executed with little care. The equestrian design of the

copper coins is apparently derived from the bilingual coins of He-

toum I. The reverse has the usual cross but in the field there are four

lilies or figures resembling doves in flight.

GoSDANTIN I. It is interesting that although Gosdantin's rule lasted

less than a year, he nevertheless struck gold, silver, and copper coins

of unusual and distinctive designs.

There are records of two different types of gold coins.", * On the

obverse of both, the king is on horseback, facing right, and holding a

sword in his right hand. This design, although reminiscent of the

equestrian coins of Levon II and Hetoum I, shows marked dis-

similarities, in that instead of a mace or similar object being held

over the king's shoulder, the king here holds a raised sword in his

right hand as if ready to strike.

On the reverse, one type bears a pictorial representation of a fort

or castle with a single turret. The other type shows three turrets. The

reverse styling is similar to that of the coins of some of the Crusader

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princes, and of several kings of Cyprus.*

The obverse of the silver coins is like that of the gold coins. The

reverse shows the king standing and wearing a crown and royal robes,

holding a sword in his right hand and a cross in his left. The idea of

representing victory for justice by a cross and sword is not entirely

new. The die-maker has done his best to represent Gosdantin's image

on all of his coins. Somewhat similar, though cruder coins of this

type, were issued by the counts of Edessa about a century earlier.

40 Urtukis of Mardin, B. M. Oriental Coins, Vol. III, No. 469 (1877).

* Basmadjian, Num. Gnrale de l'Armnie, p. 165.

* Bedoukian, Handes Amsorya, 1958, pp. 381390.

43 Schlumberger, Num, de l'Orient Latin, Pl. IV, V, VI.

44 Ibid. Pl. I, I2; Pl. XIX, 2.

64 Coinage of Cilician Armenia

LATER KINGs. It would be repetitious to enumerate the coinage of

each ruler beginning with Levon III to the last king, Leo V Lusignan,

as the styling and design vary only slightly during this period. All of

the silver coins of Levon III, Oshin, Levon IV, Guy (Gosdantin II),

Gosdantin III, Levon the Usurper, and Gosdantin IV, show on

the obverse the king on horseback, with various mintmarks, and

on the reverse, the lion walking right, with a cross in the field above

the lion.

The styling and execution of the coins of each succeeding king de-

teriorated gradually, so that the silver coins of the last two Gosdantins

are often poorly shaped and present a greyish appearance because of

their low silver content.

Only the billons of Levon V Lusignan show a different styling, re-

sembling the billons of Hetoum II, and probably patterned after the

coin design of Crusader kings.

The size of the copper coins decreased as time went on. The coins

of Levon IV, Guy and Gosdantin III, are very small and are monoto-

nously similar. On the obverse, the king is seated on the throne,

usually holding a cross in his right hand and a fleur de lys in his left.

A simple Greek cross appears on the reverse. In design, these copper

coins represent an evolution of the large copper coins of Hetoum I.

They are quite scarce.

Both Levon the Usurper and Gosdantin IV abandoned the striking

of small copper coins (poghs), but used instead silver coin (takvorin)

type dies for their copper coinage. Levon's copper coins have the

letter /9 in the field in all cases so far encountered. Gosdantin IV

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also issued copper coins similar in design to the silver takvorins,

with the letter /9 in the field, but some do not have this mark.

Possibly, these were struck at a later period.

Only in the copper coins of Levon V, who was a Lusignan of

Cyprus, is there a variation in styling. The copper coins are quite

small in size. On the obverse, there is the characteristic lion of Cyprus,

walking right or left, and on the reverse, a cross."

* Since Sibilian attributes no coins to Levon the Usurper, all copper coins

with lb"l/l, and field mark / are listed as belonging to Levon V. In general,

Sibilian is incorrect for the period of 13441375, when dealing with the

coinage of Gosdantin III, Levon the Usurper, Gosdantin IV and Levon V.

* Schlumberger, Num. de l'Orient Latin, Pl. VI, 23, 26; Pl. VII, 9, 12,13.24.

INSCRIPTIONS ON ROUPENIAN COINS

With the exception of the small number of bilingual (Armenian-

Arabic) coins of Hetoum I, and the rare billons of Levon I (Latin

characters), all of the coins of the Roupenian dynasty bear Armenian

characters and inscriptions.

Although very few non-Armenians are familiar with the Armenian

language and alphabet, the reading of the inscriptions on the coins

can be mastered by anyone with a little practice. The Armenian al-

phabet was designed around 405 A.D. by an Armenian clergyman, and

is admirably suited for the language. Each letter carries a single sound

which is the same in any word.

Moreover, the inscriptions on the coins of the different rulers are

fairly uniform. By memorizing a few types of inscriptions, one can

recognize and identify most of the Roupenian coins.

The Armenian alphabet consisted of thirty-six characters (three

others have been added more recently and do not, of course, appear

on the Roupenian coins). The type and form of the script on the coins

are known as Yergatakir (b/"ill/0/1%h/') and are similar to the uncial

script used in some contemporary and earlier manuscripts.

It was common practice to use combined letters or ligatures on

coins, documents, etc. The most commonligatures were combinations of

the letters 0 and / to given (OR) as in Pll'UR/T (TAKAVOR) instead

of foll'UR/l/ and 0 and R to give /h (OU) as in UUS/NW/18 instead of

Ul/S/1/0/18 (ASDOUDZO). Other ligatures are seldom found on coins.

TRANSLITERATION OF THE ARMENIAN ALPHABET

U u A bar # / E ever

f P. P. mild p ( p, I ever

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% 7 K mild k /* [J T tank

7, 7 T mild t d; d. Zh azure

h E ever h I in

2 7 Z z l. L L 1

66 Coinage of Cilician Armenia

h; [u Khich (German) 2 : Ch mild ch

O & DZ Birds /k n R r hard

'i M G go U u S S

& S H hair 'l I V v

9 & Ts tsar S in D d

T. 7 Gh Paris (French) / p R r race

z & J George 8 y Ts tsiang

U if M m R - U or V in ligatures

8 J Y y ul au or beau

L L N n n' ou or poor

& 2. Sh shoe hi iu or puny

/7 m O or 4 + P park

9 : Ch church * P K kick

% in B b

Three later additions

0 o O or

$bFf

/. meaning and

The inscriptions on the Roupenian coins follow a general pattern.

Usually, the abbreviated form of the full inscription appears on the

coins, as seen from the examples given below.

Since the Armenians call themselves <ll8 (HAY, pronounced

HIGH), the word &ll608 (HAYOTS), meaning of the Armenians

appears on most of the coins, with numerous abbreviations.

The following illustrations will facilitate the reading of the legend

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on most of the coins of this period.

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COIN ILLUSTRATIONS IN ABOVE DIAGRAMS REDUCED

FROM ACTUAL SIZE

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COIN ILLUSTRATIONS IN ABOVE DIA GRAMS REDUCED

FROM ACTUAL SIZE

COINS FROM THE PERIOD OF PRINCES

From Io8o to 1199, eight successive Roupenian princes ruled over

some part of Cilicia. Levon II, the last of these princes, began his rule

in 1187, and was crowned king in 1199.

A few coins of this period have survived, although it is not known

whether all of the princes struck coins. The collection of the Biblio-

thque Nationale in Paris contains some coins which have been

attributed to Armenian rulers of Asia Minor. These coins do not bear

an inscription, and one has been placed in the corpus."

In the Mekhitarian Museum of Venice, there is a rather interesting

specimen with a worn legend. Alishan, who was the first to describe

this coin, attributed it to either Gosdantin I (Io95Io99) or to Toros.

A coin of unusual thickness, now in the Mekhitarian collection in

Vienna, is attributed to Toros I (11291137). On one side, it has the

ruler's name, and on the other, a cross with various unintelligible

signs. A different specimen, obviously a coin, recently came into the

author's possession.

The author recently acquired a small copper coin with the ins-

cription /9/1/00 which was attributed to Toros II.

Alishan, in his book Sissouan, mentions that Mleh had struck coins

jointly with Nr al-Din of Aleppo, but adds that he does not recall

the source of his information. It is possible that he had in mind a

remark by Brosset concerning a coin struck by a Mohammaden ruler

in Asia Minor.*, *

In all likelihood, some of the later princes struck coins as they were

quite independent and controlled extensive territories, comparable to

the Crusader principalities.

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Most of the coins which we have from this period were struck by

Prince Levon II, who later became the first king of Cilician Armenia.

Ten of these are known to exist in public and private collections,

and there is a record of one which has been lost."

* Morgan, p. 193. * Alishan, Sissouan p. 378. * Lebeau, XVI, p. 305.

* Langlois, Num. de l'Armnie au moyen age, p. 34.

* Garabetian, Pazmaveb, JulySept. 1952, p. 156. According to this article

a specimen belonging to Dr. Der Ghazarian of Aleppo has been lost.

5* 67

THE GOLD COINS*

The existence of a total of sixteen Armenian gold coins of the

Roupenian dynasty (IoSo1375) has been reported at various times

in the past.

Langlois in 18551 mentioned a gold coin of Gosdantin I (1298 to

1299). This coin belonged to Peter Markar Alishan, and after his

death in 1834 in Constantinople, was given to the museum of the

Mekhitarist Fathers in Venice, where it is to be found today.

A second gold coin, struck by Levon I (II991219) was reported

by Schlumberger in 1881, with a full description.

Father Alishan, the son of Peter Markar Alishan, and a member of

the Mekhitarist Monastery in Venice, mentioned another variety of a

gold coin of Levon I in his monumental treatise on Cilician Armenia.

This publication appeared in Armenian in 1885 and in French

in 1899."

Thereafter, more extensive listings of the known gold coins of this

period were given in Sibilian's book. It is indeed unfortunate that

this book, the only worth while publication on the coinage of the

Roupenian period, appeared only in Armenian, and was therefore

of little use to most numismatists. Sibilian wrote his manuscript in

1877 and it is obvious that at that time he was only familiar with the

gold coin of Gosdantin I. When the book was published in 1892, the

editor, Father Kalemkiarian, made many additions to the text in-

cluding a listing of the reported gold coins. On pages 1314 of this

book, Father Kalemkiarian quoted excerpts from a letter written on

* This section on gold coins duplicates essentially the author's article in

ANS Museum Notes X, pp. 113120.

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* V. Langlois, Numismatique de l'Armnie au moyen ge (Paris, 1855).

* G. Schlumberger, Archives de l'Orient latin, Vol. I, pp. 675678, 1881,

Paris.

* L. M. Alishan, Sissouan, (Venice, 1885) (In Armenian).

* L. M. Alishan, Sissouan ou l'Armno-Cilicie. Description geographique

et historique, avec carte et illustrations. Traduit du texte armnien.

(Venice, 1899.)

* C. Sibilian, Classification of Roupenian Coins (Vienna, 1892) (In Ar-

menian).

68

The Gold Coins 69

the 24th of December, 1885, by Serovpe M. Alishan, Father Alishan's

brother, who was then a well-known numismatist in Constantinople.

This letter is of interest in that it lists all the gold coins known to the

writer. A free translation of the relevant passages follows:

I. I have in my possession an old letter written to my father by

Father Phillippe of the Mekhitarists, who recalls that they had a gold

coin of Levon which was destroyed in the great fire of Pera in 1831.

2. A gold coin of Gosdantin which belonged to my father.

3. A gold coin of Levon was found upon the death of Djanig Amira."

Its whereabouts now unknown.

4. Many years ago a friend of mine saw a gold piece in the pos-

Session of a monk in an Armenian monastery in Caesarea.

5. A gold coin of Levon I, which is now in Venice and is illustrated

in Sissouan.

6. One in possession of Schlumberger brought from Caesarea.

7. A gold coin of Levon sold in Caesarea which eventually found

its way to Rollin.

8. I know of another one, possibly from Caesarea.

I know of these eight only. The last four being similar, it is possible

that a group of these have been found, possibly along with the silver

coins of Levon I which we received from Father Sibilian. I am in

doubt and consider the possibility of the ones written Ibhu being

forgeries. One lip of the king is missing but possibly the ancient die

cutter made it as such, as it is.

At a later date, a few other gold coins were discovered and these

were also reported by Serovpe M. Alishan.

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9. A gold coin of Levon in possession of someone in Constantinople

which is identical with numbers 7 and 9.

Io. A gold coin of Levon-Hetoum, now in the Mekhitarist Museum

in Venice.

11. A gold coin of Levon in the Bibliothque Nationale in Paris.

"In a footnote on page 13 of Sibilian's book, Father Kalemkiarian men-

tions that he obtained a copy of the letter written by Father Philippe to

Serovpe M. Alishan, in which this coin is described with some detail. It is

obvious from this letter that it belonged to Levon II.

"The death of Djanig Amira occurred between 1850 and 1860.

*The firm of Rollin-Feuardent, dealers in coins and medals, ended its

activities in 1920's.

7o Coinage of Cilician Armenia

I2. Another one found identical with No. Io.

13. A gold coin which was offered for sale to the Bibliothque Na-

tionale but was not purchased by the latter because it was identical

with their piece No. 11.

Basmadjian in his book published in 1936, lists the thirteen coins

mentioned above, and adds three others known to him:

14. A gold coin of Levon I in Rollin's possession.

15. A gold coin of Levon I in the collection of N. Kalebjian.

16. A gold coin of Levon I in the collection of H. Habeshian.

No other gold coins have been reported since that date; with

the exception of a second gold coin of Gosdantin I in the Istan-

bul Museum which is identical with No. 2. It is interesting to note

that 5, 7 and 9 are identical, also 6, II and 13. Basmadjian does

not give a detailed description of his three pieces.

Recently, Garabetian" claimed that all the gold coins were for-

geries, with the exception of the Gosdantin piece. He does not give

reasons for this statement, but promises to return to that question at

a future date. To the best of the writer's knowledge, no further report

has been published on this subject.

During the course of preparation of the corpus on the coinage of this

period, the writer examined most of the important existing collections

and obtained rubbings of over Io,ooo specimens. Among these were ten

gold coins, consisting of four types as follows:

LEVON I

[Half Double Tram Type]

Obv. Ibh/7, foll?-ll/-/l/ All118

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Rev. Ill// '10R/RW, UUSAU/18

I. 4.80 gms. Bibliothque Nationale [No. 6 of list]

II. 5.30 gms. Bibliothque Nationale [No. II of list]

III. K. Baghdadlian, Cannes [No. 15 of list]

* K. J. Basmadjian, Numismatique gnrale de l'Armnie (Venice, 1936)

(In Armenian).

* B. Garabetian, Pazmaveb, Nos. 79, 1952, p. 166 (Venice, Italy) (In

Armenian).

The Gold Coins 71

LEVON I

[Two Lion Tram Type]

Obv. 1b.ht, /NIQUIR/l/ Allfl6

Rev. Will/P/17/lk/fu lll/S/N 0/1

IV. 6.3 gms. Bibliothque Nationale [No. 7 or 9 on list]

V. 6.25 gms. Vienna Mekhitarist Museum [No.7 or 9 on list]

VI. 7.ogms. Mme. N. Kapamadji, Paris [No. 7 or 9 on list]

7.ogms. Venice Mekhitarist Museum (?) [No. 5 on list]

LEVON I.-HETOUM I

[Tram Type]

Obv. lb/7, foll%llR/l/ 3UBX/13+

Rev. &b//7/l/ /NIQUR/7 <ll3/18

VII. 5.3 gms. Vienna Mekhitarist Museum [No. 12 of list]

VIII. Venice Mekhitarist Museum [No. 10 of list]

GOSDANTIN I

Obv. 1/7US!","kh", /3% &ll3/18

Rev. UU/18 RB/"), A PUQU/m

IX. 3.6 gms. Venice Mekhitarist Museum [No. 2 of list]

X. 3.65 gms. Istanbul Archeological Museum [Turkey]

It is thus seen that of the sixteen coins listed above, No. I was de-

stroyed in the fire, Nos. 2, 6, 7, 8, 9, Io, II, 12 and 15 are known to be

in the collections mentioned above. No. 5 was apparently in the Mekhi-

tarist Museum in Venice, but on a recent visit I was not able to find

it, nor does Garabetian" mention it in describing the collection of

this museum.

It is also possible that coin VI is one of the sixteen listed. The

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number lost or unreported is therefore five, and it may be that some

of these were duplications. The existence of coin X was discovered

only recently.

Although over 12,000 silver and copper coins of this period are

known to be in existence, there are few gold coins because these were

72 Coinage of Cilician Armenia

struck in very limited numbers, and only on special occasions.

Levon I, being the first and most powerful king, may have struck the

greatest number of gold coins. One can reasonably expect some day

to find gold coins of the regular Hetoum-Zabel tram variety. The

Levon I-Hetoum I gold coins were undoubtedly struck by Hetoum

(12221270). The loss of the unique gold coin of Levon II is indeed

unfortunate, and it is hoped that others will be discovered at some

future date. The existence of a gold coin of one of the sons of Levon II

indicates that the custom of striking gold coins continued at least

until 1289. The possibility of finding gold coins of the succeeding

rulers, Oshin and Levon III, should not be excluded.

It may be well to point out here that the Levon IHetoum I gold

piece has been erroneously attributed to Hetoum I-Levon II. This

error was first made by Kalemkiarian and repeated by Basmadjian

and Garabetian. The Levon side of the gold coin is identical with that

of a number of silver trams struck by Levon I. As a matter of fact,

there is an illustration of this tram in Sibilian (Pl. I, No. 11) as well

as of the gold Levon IHetoum I coin, although because of the poor

work on the part of the artist who prepared the drawings of this book,

the two do not appear identical.

Some of the reasons put forth in support of claims that the gold

pieces are forgeries are as follows:

I. The gold coins are not uniform in weight.

2. In the case of the silver trams, there is a free movement of

the die positions, whereas the die positions are rigid in the gold

coins.

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3. The authentic Gosdantin gold coin has a design different from the

silver pieces, whereas in all other gold coins, the design is similar

to the silver trams.

4. There are silver trams having a design similar to that of the gold

pieces, indicating that the forger copied the die for the gold coins

from these trams.

At first glance, these arguments may seem plausible, but the

counter arguments appear to be more valid.

1. The gold coins are not of uniform weight because they were struck

as tokens commemorating certain occasions. They were not in-

tended for circulation or trade.

2. The uniform position of the dies may be due to the greater care

The Gold Coins 73

taken in striking these small issues. As can be seen from the illus-

tration, however, the first six are tt, the seventh and eighth are ty,

while the Gosdantins are A and M.

3. It appears that the dies used for the gold coins were also used to

strike some silver coins. While it is true that there are no silver

trams having the Gosdantin gold design, it must be remembered

that very few silver trams are known to exist from this king who

ruled for less than a year, mostly being struck from different dies.

It may therefore be too much to expect to find a tram struck from

the gold coin die.

4. The fact that there are silver trams having designs identical with

those of gold coins can certainly be interpreted as evidence sup-

porting the authenticity of the gold coins.

It may be worth mentioning that in the past, those who studied

Armenian numismatics expressed no doubts regarding the authen-

ticity of the gold pieces. Langlois, Sibilian, Kalemkiarian, Alishan,

Schlumberger and Basmadjian never questioned it. Quite recently,

the Chief Abbot of the Mekhitarist Congregation in Vienna, Arch-

bishop M. Habozian, wrote to me that he had called in two experts

to examine the two gold pieces in their collection, both of whom

declared the coins to be genuine. At a recent meeting, Dr. Paul Balog

informed me that he had had the opportunity of examining the gold

coins at the Mekhitarist Museum in Venice, and that he considered

them to be genuine. The ten gold coins described in this paper were

carefully examined by the writer and all appear to be authentic. In

style and workmanship they resemble the genuine trams of this

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period.

In addition, it may be recalled that the records on some of these

gold coins date back to the beginning of the nineteenth century when

very few Roupenian coins were known to exist. It is most un-

likely that forgeries of this caliber would be made at a time when very

little was known about these coins and few people were particularly

interested in them.

A gold coin struck in the name of two kings would have imme-

diately aroused suspicion if it had been the work of a forger.

Although these considerations support the view that the gold coins

are genuine, they constitute circumstantial evidence rather than

proof of their authenticity.

74 Coinage of Cilician Armenia

The writer felt that if silver trams of indisputable authenticity

could be found which were struck with the same dies used for the

gold pieces, it could then be concluded that the latter were struck

during the same period and were genuine. The possibility that original

dies were found and used later for the gold coins was eliminated be-

cause it seems extremely unlikely. Of the thousands of dies used

during the Roupenian dynasty, none has come to light, and the

chances of a forger finding several in good condition six hundred years

later would appear to be very slight indeed.

As mentioned earlier, it is quite possible that a silver Gosdantin

coin identical with the gold piece [No. 8] will never be found because

of the extreme rarity of these coins. Of the other three types, it was

our good fortune to find trams from four out of the six dies used in

the gold pieces.

Gold coins I, II and III are all from the same die [Corpus No. 5]. We

have found two trams from the same die, one in the Bibliothque Nation-

ale (BN) and the other in the museum of the Venice Mekhitarians (VM).

We have not been successful in locating silver trams made from

the die of gold coins IV, V and VI.

Coins VII and VIII offer the strongest support to the authenticity

of the gold pieces. The Levon side is of a unique design and is presum-

ably from a die made especially for the gold issue (No. 6). It is readily

distinguishable from the usual tram types and we were able to find no

less than fifteen trams of this type, all from one die, that of the gold

piece. It is even more interesting to note that the fifteen trams had on

the reverse four varieties of the usual two lion-cross design used on

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the common trams of Levon I."

The reverse of the gold coin shows the common type of lion holding

the cross found on the reverse of the Hetoum-Zabel trams. Fortu-

nately, a single specimen struck from this die was found in the writer's

own collection (No. 7).

The existence of these authentic trams struck from the same die

as the gold coins proves beyond a reasonable doubt that these gold

coins are genuine.

* Many additional ones found in the Mersin hoard of Levon I trams in

the Istanbul Museum.

* P. Bedoukian, Handes Amsorya, LXII, 1958, pp. 381390 (Vienna,

Austria) (In Armenian).

The Gold Coins 75

FORGERIES

In the past few years, a number of new gold coins have appeared

on the market, all struck from the same die. These pieces, of which

at least eight are known to the author, are obvious forgeries. Their

average weight is only 2.5 grams, which is less than even that of the

silver trams, the design and workmanship are poor, and unlike those

of the regular silver coins. The writer was informed on several in-

stances that these were made recently by a jeweler in Antakya

(Turkey) and placed on the market. An illustration of this forgery is

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given corpus No. 775.

COINS ISSUED BY THE KINGS

THE COINAGE OF LEVON I

In studying the coinage of Levon I, one is confronted with a number

of interesting problems, such as the reason for the issuance of the

single lion types, and for the occurrence of so many obverse and re-

verse varieties. It is also at present impossible to arrange the many

different types of coins in a chronological order.

All of the silver coins, with the exception of the double trams and

a few rare coronation types, are of the two-lion design. Perhaps the

relatively rare series of double trams and their smaller denominations

were struck in Tarsus before the establishment of the mint in Sis. The

explanation for the change in the die to the two-lion design coins, and

for the scarcity of the double trams (single lion types) is not known.

The idea of issuing a coin having twice the usual value and weight

of the ordinary silver coins in circulation in the Mediterranean area

and Europe seems to have originated with Levon. It did not become

popular, probably because the people were used to the regular

Byzantine and Arab silver coins, and found the large coin too much

of a novelty. It is noteworthy, however, that Levon issued this type

of double tram along with half and quarter denominations having

approximately 5.5, 2.8, and 1.3 gram weight respectively. Since the

single lion design appears only on these coins and a few rare coro-

nation types, while the great majority of the remaining coronation

types have the two-lion design, it is reasonable to assume that the

single lion types were the first coins issued by the king. It appears,

although this point is by no means certain, that Levon was crowned

king in II96, but it was not until II99 that he was anointed in the

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presence of the head of the Armenian church, the Catholicos Abirad

and the Pope's legate, Conrad the Archbishop of Mainz. Possibly the

double trams were issued between 1196 and 1199, followed by the

coronation coins.

The double trams are rare. The corpus of this book lists only

96 double trams, over 130 half-double trams, and only three of the

76

Coins Issued by the Kings 77

quarter-double trams. Less than ten of these bear the full inscription of

Obv. lbf/T, Pll'll R/l/ Ul/'bull6, &ll3/18

Rev. Ill//.7/IA/Nill/fu IIIIS/NAT/8

while the majority have the abbreviated inscription of

Obv. Ibh/T, /*k/ Ul/'bullt, Allfl

Rev. Ill/P/17/nh/2,fu ll.JS/R/18

with a small number having intermediate inscriptions. It is note-

worthy that whereas the half-double trams bear the abbreviated in-

scription, the quarter-double trams, because of insufficient space,

have only

Obv. lb/i/1", /NIQ.

Rev. IIR/l/ All 5/18

There are several copper double trams in existence, all of which are

mentioned in the corpus. They have been examined by the writer and

appear to be genuine. Apparently a small number of these coins were

struck for circulation. There are, however, no copper coins of the half

and quarter tram type.

Schlumberger" describes a gold seal of Levon I, attached to a royal

charter probably issued in 1207, which is somewhat similar in design

to the double tram, although differing in the inscription.

Various field marks found on these coins are most likely marks of

the die-maker rather than marks indicating periods of issue, since the

same marks in each class appear on coins having different inscriptions.

Although the variations in the inscription are not considered in-

dicative of different dates of issue, they serve admirably as a method

of classification. In the corpus the most complete obverse inscriptions

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of each class are listed first, giving all the available variations of the

reverse in scriptions. This is followed by the next most complete

obverse inscription with its reverse variations, etc.

The coronation trams are unique in that they were struck only by

Levon I, possibly to commemorate the beginning of an Armenian

dynasty as well as the coronation itself. These coins show the anoint-

ment of the king in January, II99, and were most likely all struck

that year. On the obverse is seen the letter 8 which may be an ab-

breviation of 8hl/0/U, the Armenian for Jesus, or may simply be a

field mark. The coronation coins having a single lion on the reverse

"Schlumberger, Mlange d'Archologique Byzantine, p. 164:

78 Coinage of Cilician Armenia

represent the transition from the single lion to the double lion tram

which Levon later issued. It is interesting that the design of the cross

seen between the two lions is different in styling from the cross designs

of the common trams of Levon, and one might consider this a forma-

tive period before definite cross types became established.

No half trams of the coronation type are known to exist.

The common trams of Levon were struck during his entire reign

and probably for several years after his death until the coronation of

Hetoum I as king. During this entire period, there was an evolution

of design and type, but since none of the trams bears a date, it is

impossible to assign precise periods of issue.

The absence of a uniform inscription on the coins appears to be

due to the failure of the die maker to produce dies having a uniform

inscription. As a result, some of the coins have inscriptions which lack

letters at the end. It is noteworthy, however, that most of the coins

have the standard inscription with few missing letters, and these are

executed with greater care than the ones missing more letters. In

general, this is true of the majority of coins issued by the rulers of

this period.

Not having a definite sequence of issue, it was necessary to create an

artificial system of classification. Sibilian in his classic treatise points

out the main variations of Levon's trams based on the obverse in-

scription of the coins and on styling. He observes that in a hoard of

500 trams, there were almost fifteen main varieties, each exhibiting

further differences by minor variations in design and inscription.

Sibilian also points out that some of Levon's coins are artistic in

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design, others less artistic, and some, barbaric. He concludes that

there was a gradual deterioration in the artistic workmanship of

Levon's coins in the latter years of his reign.

Recently, Garabetian adopted a new system of classification based

on the cross design of the coins. He proposes that a new cross design

was used each year, and that each die maker adopted a definite in-

scription on the obverse side, varying the inscription on the reverse

for each month of the year. It should therefore be possible to establish

the month and year of issue of a given coin, as well as the die master

responsible for its design. Such asystem, however, would have demand-

* Sibilian, Classification of Roupenian Coins, p. 10.

* Garabetian, Pazmaveb 1952, p. 160.

Coins Issued by the Kings 79

ed a degree of exactitude unknown in those days. The main thesis

that a new cross design was chosen each year for all the coins seems

untenable for several reasons. We find a number of cross designs on

the coronation coins, yet it is not likely that there was any occasion

to strike coronation coins year after year and it is logical to assume

that the cross design was a mint mark used by the die-master.

Furthermore, certain coins, such as the ones with the inscription

Ibh/7, Pll'UR/l/ Allll8 have a unique characteristic design not

used with any other type of inscriptionobviously the work of one

die-master during a specific period. Although the reverse presents a

large number of different cross designs, it is improbable that coins

struck over a considerable period of time can so closely resemble

each other on the obverse. It seems more reasonable to assume that

coins with almost identical inscriptions, design and workmanship,

were made within a limited period of time, perhaps a year, in spite

of the many cross designs on a given type.

A critical examination of the trams of Levon and comparative

studies of combinations and permutations of different varieties sug-

gested a classification based on the obverse inscription. In the corpus

of Levon's coins, each type is listed under the inscription of the ob-

verse, and the variety of the type by the inscription on the

reverse.

Coins having the same inscription on the obverse but having

different designs and workmanship are not considered as belonging

to the same type and are listed separately since they were undoubtedly

a different issue. This is not a common occurrence.

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The obverse of the coins exhibits a uniformity which serves admi-

rably for their classification, but the existence of so many variations

of the same inscription on the reverse is difficult to explain. It may be

said that the various cross designs are the work of different die-

masters, but how does one account for the manifold inscriptions ac-

companying each cross design? Garabetian's suggestion that each

variation represents a month of the year cannot be readily accepted

since there are more than twelve varieties of reverse inscriptions. It

is not impossible that while the obverse was indicative of a specific

type issue, the cross designs on the reverse differentiated the die-

masters, who paid little attention to the completeness of the in-

Scription.

8O Coinage of Cilician Armenia

In examining over three-thousand trams of Levon I, one is struck

by certain peculiarities of design and legend. There appear to be

three main types of crosses, each with their numerous variations. It

is significant that two of these are associated with the artistic types

of coins while the third is invariably found in the semi-artistic or

barbaric style coins. These facts suggest that periodically there was

a change in the design of the coins, and quite likely, both styling and

workmanship deteriorated towards the end of the king's reign.

In the corpus of Levon I coins, the single lion coins appear first.

These are followed by the half trams. This was done in order to

facilitate the examination of these small coins. Actually, the half

trams are patterned after the trams and there are a number of types

in existence, the majority being the artistic type. It is curious that

while over three-thousand trams are listed in the corpus, the half

trams number less than twenty-five.

It is probable that the coins issued after the coronation series were

the trams bearing the inscription Ibh/T, Pll'M' lll/b, 4ll608. These

are the only trams having the word lll/'bu, reminiscent of the double

trams. Furthermore, the style of the cross on the reverse is somewhat

different in type and execution from the common crosses of the

regular trams.

Following these early issues of the special types, the corpus lists

a large number of coins, all of the artistic type. There seems to be no

particular significance to the spelling of the king's name, and the

coins having Ibh/T, Ibhu, Ib/T, or Pll'NIR/T, Pll'UR/l/ and <ll3/18,

<ll/18, Zll38 are very similar in styling and execution, indicating that

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the different spellings were acceptable at least for coinage purposes.

Of course, each spelling is placed in a different section in order to

follow the system of classification adopted. A relatively small number

of coins have abbreviated versions of the word &ll3/18, such as <ll3/7,

<ll3, 4/78, &ll, and these are placed in a different section in order to

follow a uniform classification system. Similarly, various spellings

such as <lll/U6, &ll3/18/1, &ll3ll/18 are all placed in different sections

and an index listing the various obverse inscriptions is to be found

at the end of the book.

Some coins depict a rather ornate king seated on the throne. These

coins are easily distinguished from others and it is interesting that

the reverse cross mark is always of the barbaric type. Similarly, the

Coins Issued by the Kings 8I

coins having a star instead of a cross in the inscription circle, con-

stitute a definite class, and all have a cross of the barbaric type.

There is also a very large class of badly executed coins which defi-

nitely are of the barbaric type and belong to the later issues.

Following these main types, the corpus lists errors, rarities, coins

in which the king is holding the fleur-de-lys in the right hand, and the

cross in the left, instead of vice-versa. Here again, some seem to be of

a certain type or issue but there are individual pieces which belong to

definite types mentioned elsewhere in the corpus, in which the die-

maker made a mistake and placed the cross in the wrong hand. These

constitute rarities.

An examination of the legend discloses a certain evolution of styling

and execution. In the earlier types listed, the letters are clear cut and

artistic in style. With the exception of a few coins, the semi-barbaric

and barbaric types have less carefully executed letters, and in all

cases the letter U is inverted to 9. In the later issues, one notices

inverted and half-finished letters indicative of the carelessness of the

die-maker.

While there is a definite deterioration in the styling and execution

of the coins toward the end of the king's reign, the weight and fineness

of his silver coins seems to have suffered little, if at all.

The copper coins of Levon (tanks) are generally large and fairly

uniform in weight. As in the case of the silver coins, it has been found

convenient to classify them according to the obverse inscription. The

main classes are distinguishable by the number of dots on the king's

crown. There seems to be some relationship between the crown design

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and the general styling of the coins. A further differentiation of classes

was made according to the design of the monarch's hair. We thus have

one class with five dots in the crown of the king, another with five

dots and a single curl in the hair, a third with five dots and two curls

in the hair, etc. This classification repeats itself with the crown having

six, seven or more dots.

It should be noted here again that in the absence of some definite

means of arranging the copper coins in chronological order, we have

chosen an arbitrary means of classification in order to make it pos-

sible to locate a single coin easily.

A more precise classification of both the silver and copper coins,

preferably based on their chronological order of issue, must await the

82 Coinage of Cilician Armenia

discovery of hoards. It is unfortunate that although several hoards of

Levon's trams have been reported in the past, there is no accurate

record of these hoards to make their study possible.

While the great majority of coins struck by Levon I consists of the

silver and copper coins mentioned above, there are two other series

which are of special numismatic interest.

When Levon captured Antioch in 1216 and appointed his great-

nephew Raymond-Roupen as the ruler of the city, he struck coins

commemorating the occasion. These coins, resembling the regular

coins of Antioch, are very rare. They are in Latin characters and

bear the inscription, LEO DEI GRATIA REX ARMENIOR, or its

variation. Four of these coins are listed in the corpus.

The gold coins of Levon I, along with other gold coins of this

period, were discussed at some length in the previous section.

THE COINAGE OF HETOUM I

The silver and copper coins issued during the long reign of Hetoum

do not have the large number of varieties of types found in Levon's

coinage, but they do show considerable originality in design and

styling. The most important differences occur in the design of Hetoum's

common trams, the limited issues of bilingual coins, and the two de-

nominations of copper coins, with their several distinct types.

On all the coins of the Roupenian rulers, the obverse shows the

king's image and name. In Hetoum's coinage, on the obverse Hetoum

and Zabel hold a cross with the inscription ill/'0'10R/ hku, U8 k in

its many variations. On the reverse there is a lion either holding a

cross or walking, with the cross above the lion, and the inscription

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&b//nhl/ /l/'llh/l/ All&/18. The side bearing the image of the king

and queen was called the obverse simply because the inscription lent

itself to the adopted system of classification.

The obverse showing the king and queen openly acknowledged the

fact that the queen was of royal lineage and that Hetoum was her

consort. It is noteworthy that although Zabel died in 1252, all of

Hetoum's silver coins bear the image of both the king and queen,

indicating that he continued to strike coins of this design until the

end of his reign in 1270.

The lack of proper records of the hoards of Levon's trams has made

it impossible to arrange the numerous types in chronological order.

Coins Issued by the Kings 83

Fortunately, however, the acquisition in 1958 of a substantial hoard

by the American Numismatic Society and the rubbings acquired of

another large hoard belonging to A. Poladian in Beirut, Lebanon,

have facilitated the arrangement of Hetoum's trams in the order of

issue of certain types." By comparing the two hoards, one of which

was buried during the middle of Hetoum's reign, and the other shortly

after the king's death, it was possible to arrive at the following order

of issue.

NUMBER OF COINS

A.N.s. HoARD | *

HOARD

Group I Obv. Cross with star

Rev. Lion holding cross 8 I2

Group II Obv. Cross with dot

Rev. Lion holding cross I2 9

Transition period of mixed dies I 2

Group III Obv. Cross with dot

Rev. Lion walking 46 II2

Group IV Obv. Plain cross

Rev. Lion walking 4O IO8

Group V Obv. Plain cross

Rev. Star under lion I6 -

Group VI Obv. Plain cross

Rev. Star under lion

No cross 7 -

Group VII Obv. Plain cross

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Rev. No star under lion

No cross 24 -

Last issue type Group VII with name Levon 2 -

Undeciphered 7 37

I63 28O

Here again, as in the case of Levon's trams, a gradual deterioration

in styling and workmanship is apparent, and the coins struck toward

the end of Hetoum's reign are indeed barbaric in style and poor in

workmanship when compared with the beautiful and carefully struck

* Bedoukian, ANS Museum Notes, VIII, pp. 145180, Pl. XXXIX.

6*

84 Coinage of Cilician Armenia

coins of the first issues. The silver content of all the coins, however,

is quite high, being of the order of 90 per cent, and the weight is

uniformly around 3 grams.

The half trams are similar to the trams and fall into various groups,

although they were not struck in great numbers. Only about fifty of

these are listed, as against nearly two thousand trams. The majority

of the half trams are of the artistic type and are listed in one group

in order to facilitate their study.

The corpus is arranged according to the completeness of the ob-

verse inscription in each group, with variations of the inscription of

the reverse. The obverse inscription types are listed in the index.

The existence of a number of trams with the name LEVON instead

of Hetoum is noteworthy. Most likely, these were struck shortly after

Hetoum's death but before the die makers had time to prepare new

designs for the coinage of the new king, Levon II.

The bilingual coins of Hetoum form a separate and distinct class.

They bear Armenian letters on one side, Arabic on the other, and

were struck during the reign of the Sultans of KonyaKaikobad and

Kaikhusraw (12361245) as a token of Hetoum's nominal acceptance

of their suzerainty." The small number of these coins and the obvious

care taken in their execution attest to the fact that they were struck

to commemorate and comply with certain agreements.

The Hetoum-Kaikobad coins were probably issued from 12281236,

and although they are well executed, they are less artistic than the

coins of Hetoum-Kaikhusraw (12371245). The Hetoum-Kaikobad

coins bear no date and were struck in Sis. The early issues of Hetoum-

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Kaikhusraw likewise are not dated and resemble somewhat in styling

the Hetoum-Kaikobad coins. A marked change in styling in the

direction of artistry took place in the year H. 637 and thereafter the

Arabic side bore a date along with the sultan's name and the in-

formation that it was struck in Sis.

An attempt to classify the Hetoum-Kaikobad coins in chronological

order by means of die sequences was unsuccessful because of in-

sufficient material available. On examination of these coins, especially

the dated Hetoum-Kaikhusraw coins, it became apparent that the

same field marks continue with succeeding years, indicating that

these field marks denote die-makers' marks rather than issues. In all

* Bedoukian, ANS Museum Notes, VII, pp. 219230, Pl. XXX.

Coins Issued by the Kings 85

the Hetoum-Kaikobad coins, the Armenian inscription is consistently

&b//nhl/ All?AIR/l/ All&/18 and this continues with the early issues of

Hetoum-Kaikhusraw. Subsequently, this type as well as <b/9/7/U"

Pll'UR/T &ll3/18 appeared each year. In only a few instances, possibly

because of an error on the part of the die-maker, is the full legend

lacking.

The bilingual half trams are quite rare. Less than a dozen are listed

in the corpus, as against 225 of the bilingual trams. They are all

placed together to facilitate examination.

The copper coins of Hetoum have a wider range of types than those

of Levon. The large ones, similar in size and weight to the tanks of

Levon, show on the obverse the king seated on a throne adorned with

lions, holding an orb or cross in the left hand and a staff shaped like

a lily in the right. The throne design was later simplified and became

a form of conventionalized lions, then merely two legs of a throne, and

finally, a single post on each side. The four types are readily distin-

guishable from each other.

The smaller copper coins, being about half the weight of the tanks

(NIt'), have been called kardez (RUPSh9), by contemporary writers."

There are three types: the equestrian, which shows the king on horse-

back, and is somewhat similar in design to the bilingual coins but

crudely executed, and two other types which are merely smaller

versions of the tanks.

In his discussion on the copper coinage of Hetoum, Sibilian comes

to a number of interesting conclusions. He notes that in the case of

the tanks, the obverse is more or less uniform, whereas the reverse

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has different types of crosses of which he lists some fourteen varieties

(the corpus lists additional ones). Sibilian further notes that the

styling of the lettering is identical with the bilingual coins of Hetoum-

Kaikobad. Also, the word /l/'NIR/l/ is never spelled /l/'NIR/T on the

tanks of Hetoum, nor on the bilingual coins of Hetoum-Kaikobad.

The similarity of the pecular shape of the letters 8 and / on these

two classes of coins is striking, and the indication is unmistakable

that they were the work of one die-maker. Sibilian also points out the

similarity of styling and field marks between the equestrian copper

coins and the Hetoum-Kaikobad silver trams. Again the word,

* Langlois, Cartulaire, pp. 154-161.

* Assises d'Antioche, p. 61.

86 Coinage of Cilician Armenia

takavor, is invariably written Pll'UR/l/". It may thus be concluded

that the large tanks and the equestrian kardez coins were the first

issues, and belong to the period of Hetoum-Kaikobad.

The kardez where the king is seated on a bench-like throneand

of these there are manybears a striking degree of similarity to the

Hetoum-Kaikhusraw coins. The styling of the letters is identical and

king is usually written as Pll%ll//7. The similarity and peculiarities

of the letters R, U", /7 on the two classes are striking.

It thus appears that the large tanks were first struck along with

the equestrian smaller coppers. These were followed by the small

copper coins where the king is seated on a bench-like throne, and

finally by the smaller coins which bear a design reminiscent of the

tanks. The corpus of the copper coins is arranged in this order.

THE COINAGE OF LEVON II

The coins of Levon II show a uniformity in style both in the silver

and copper coins.

On the silver coins, the obverse represents the king on horseback,

wearing a crown and holding a sceptre, cross or mace in his right hand.

The horse is always facing right, either galloping or walking. The

design is apparently evolved from the equestrian coins of Hetoum.

On the reverse there is a lion walking or standing in either direction,

facing front. Above the lion there is a cross with varying designs.

The coins of Levon II represent a period of transition from that of

the old trams of Levon IHetoum I, with their very high silvercontent

of around 90 per cent, weighing about 3 grams, to the takvorin type,

weighing about 2.5 grams and having a silver content of less than

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60 per cent.

This gradual debasement within a short period of eighteen years,

is obviously related to the political and economic conditions of the

country. The comparatively few trams of Levon II, weighing about

3 grams and having a silver content of about 90 per cent, were most

likely issued during the first year or two of his reign. Shortly there-

after, the country was ravaged by Baibars and it is probable that

Levon decided to debase the coinage to about 2.8 grams weight, and

about 80 per cent silver. The next group of coins, weighing around

2.6 grams, with a silver content of 6070 per cent, belonged to the

Coins Issued by the Kings 87

latter part of his reign after the Mongol-Armenian defeat at Homs and

the eventual payment of heavy annual tributes to Qaln.

Levon reigned for eighteen years and must have issued a very large

number of coins for use in his extensive national and international

commerce and for the huge tribute demanded by the Egyptians. It

is therefore puzzling that relatively few of his coins are in existence

today.

In the writer's opinion, it is possible that the constant debasement

of Levon's coins made it difficult to use them in commercial trans-

actionscoins struck at different periods varied considerably in real

value. These coins may eventually have been melted to strike tak-

vorins of more or less uniform weight.

Furthermore, Levon's successor, Hetoum II, did not issue silver

coins, and in the course of their fratricidal struggles, Hetoum's

brothers, Smpat and Gosdantin I, issued only a very small number of

silver coins, while there are no coins from Toros. Consequently, from

the time of the death of Levon II until the accession of Levon III to

the throne in 1301, a period of twelve years, the silver currency in use

was probably that of Levon II. These circumstances probably de-

pleted the supply of coins issued by Levon II.

The silver coins are classified according to their inscription and

styling. It is significant that in most of the heavier and high silver

content coins, the lion on the reverse is facing left, and with few

exceptions, the inscription reads, Levon King of all the Armenians,

Ib/", /NIQUR/l/ UU'bull3, All3/. Most of the poorer coins have the

lion facing right, and the inscription, in its various abbreviated forms,

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reads Levon King of the Armenians, lbh/T, Pll'UR/l/ All/18.

It is also to be noted that where the inscription contains the word

all, lll/'bullt, the king's name is spelled Leon Ib/Tu, whereas it is

always written as Levon (1bRff) on the other coins. This may of

course be due to an effort to have more space for the longer inscription.

Some of the high silver content coins exhibit considerable artistic

merit in their styling and execution. The low silver content coins are

somewhat poorly made, indicating the necessity of issuing large

numbers under pressure.

In the corpus the trams are arranged in the usual order, based on

the completeness of the inscription on the obverse, with the reverse

variations. Since the coins with the longer inscription and the lion

88 Coinage of Cilician Armenia

turned left are of a much higher silver content, they are listed first,

followed by coins of the transitional period, and finally by the coins

having a lower silver content and the lion turned right. As in the case

of the two previous monarchs, there is again a gradual deterioration

in styling and workmanship, and also a debasement in the weight and

silver content of the coinage.

It is curious that only two specimens of half trams have survived.

There is another one which is struck with a half tram die on the ob-

verse and a full tram die on the reverse. The remainder, numbering

about thirty, are half tram blanks struck with tram dies. The only

way of indicating their type in the corpus was by relating them to

the tram types.

Basmadjian mentions the existence of numerous half trams, 8mm.

in diameter, belonging to this monarch. These coins are not known to

the writer, nor are they mentioned in Sibilian's book.

The copper coins of Levon are about the same size, or slightly

smaller than the small coppers of Hetoum I. The lion is walking left

and is not facing as in the case of the silver coins. On the obverse, the

king's name is spelled either lb/7, or lbh/7, as on the silver coins. On

the reverse, the usual inscription is 6Publil / RUQUAR, h Uhl, but on

a small number of coins the word &llSlll is used instead of the usual

GPublil. The latter is the more vulgar term and means more nearly,

made, whereas the former is the correct term for struck. It is

also curious that the lion is sometimes on the obverse and sometimes

on the reverse of the coin.

The copper coins are badly struck and many of them had to be

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excluded from the corpus simply because it was impossible to decipher

the legend. As Sibilian has pointed out, the copper coins were struck

for internal trade and did not require the same degree of care in exe-

cution as the silver coins which were used in international trade and

for payment of indemnities. The latter, therefore, had to be of accept-

able quality.

The great majority of the copper coins of Levon II have one type

of cross on the reverse, whereas the copper coins of his two prede-

cessors exhibited many types of cross designs on the reverse. No large

copper coinstankswere struck by this monarch or by any of his

successors. In a few rare cases, the lion is walking right instead of left.

* Basmadjian, Num. Gnrale de l'Armnie, p. 158.

Coins Issued by the Kings 89

THE COINAGE OF HETOUM II

In spite of his long, intermittent reign, Hetoum did not issue silver

coins. There are a small number of billons from him, resembling the

Crusader billons in size and workmanship. He did, however, strike a

large number of copper coins. As mentioned previously, Hetoum pre-

ferred the life of the monastery and did not wish to be consecrated

king. This fact may serve as an explanation of the lack of silver coins

from this monarch.

The billons are only 15 mm. in diameter, weighing less than one

gram. Since there is insufficient space for a complete inscription, the

full wording, &b//nhl/ All'ilhm/ UU'bul3, Allm is broken into

&B/9/7/l/ /9/1%ll/s/l/ on the obverse, and lll/'bull#, &ll3/18 on the re-

verse, and the lettering is usually incomplete. On the obverse, the

head of the king is shown, wearing a crown, and on the reverse, a

cross with various field marks.

The copper coins are of two main types, and were probably struck

at different periods. In view of the fact that the copper coins gradually

decreased in weight with succeeding kings, it is likely that the slightly

heavier type was an earlier issue.

The heavier coins show on the obverse the king's head, crowned,

facing, and are rather poorly executed, with considerable variations

in the styling of the head. On the reverse, there is a decorated cross,

very much like the ones seen on the coins of the Latin kings of Con-

stantinople.

The other type of copper coin shows on the reverse the king seated

in oriental fashion, wearing a crown and holding a staff in the right

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hand. On the reverse is the Greek cross, with slight variations in design.

The copper coins of Hetoum II are possibly the most carelessly

executed coins of the Roupenian dynasty. The lettering is seldom

legible and quite often the die has been struck off center. The in-

scriptions, &b//mNU /l/QUR/l/ Allm and Chubul h RUQUAR, h Uhl/

are to be found on most of these coins, with the exception of a few

which have <b/0/1/\l/ /011%ll/-/1/ &ll3/78 on both sides, and some which

have omitted the word, <ll3/78.

Although Hetoum's brother, Toros, was entrusted with managing

the affairs of the land for over two years, Toros was not crowned king

and ruled simply as the king's representative. It is for this reason that

90 Coinage of Cilician Armenia

no coins were struck bearing the name of Toros. Of the three instances

where a coin of Toros is mentioned, the lettering of the coin mentioned

by Sestini, is so worn that it bears no resemblance to the word, Toros.

De Saulcy's" representation of a Toros coin is also of very uncertain

inscription. There remains the third specimen, which Langlois" says

he saw while travelling through Cilician Armenia, with the inscription

clearly legible as /x/l/'0U Pll'M/ All3/18 and on the reverse, publl

h RU'lll:Ru h Uh. In view of the fact that no coins of Toros have been

definitely identified, it must be assumed that Langlois may have been

mistaken in his reading of the inscription on the so-called P/1/0U

CO111.

THE COINAGE OF SMPAD

As mentioned earlier, while Hetoum and Toros were away visiting

their sister, the Empress Rita of Byzantium, Smpad took advantage

of their absence and declared himself King. In order to consolidate

his claim, he visited the Khan and obtained his consent. At the same

time, he issued silver and copper coins bearing his name.

The silver coins of Smpad are rare, and this led Sibilian to speculate

that they were melted at a later date in order to erase the memory of

the rebel king. The silver coins are reminiscent of the ones issued by

Levon I, perhaps in an obvious effort to declare the legitimacy of

his claim.

On the obverse, the king is seated on a throne decorated with lions

and is holding a cross with the right hand, a mace with the left. On

the reverse is the usual Levon I design of two lions rampant regardant

and the cross between them. The inscription is also similar to Levon's,

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with the exception of the use of the name Smpad.

The copper coins of Smpad are common and considerably smaller

than the coppers issued by previous monarchs. They are all of one

type with the exception of variations in the inscription. On the ob-

verse the king is on horseback walking right and holding a mace in

his right hand. On the reverse there is the usual Greek cross with

four lilies or doves in flight in the four corners.

* Sestini, Livorno, 1779, III, p. 147, Table III, No. 11.

* Saulcy, Num. de Croisade, p. 174, Pl. XIX, 7.

* Langlois, Num. de l'Armnie au moyen ge, p. 69, Pl. II, No. 12.

Coins Issued by the Kings 9I

THE COINAGE OF GOSDANTIN I

As Gosdantin reigned for less than a year, it is not surprising that

he struck only a limited number of coins, and these are extremely

rare. They are of great numismatic interest because of the beauty and

originality of their designs and the unusual inscriptions attesting to

the fact that Gosdantin was now the king. It is also interesting that

he struck two different types of gold coins. These are discussed in the

chapter on gold coins.

The silver coins of Gosdantin are also extremely rare, there being

only twelve in existence. On the obverse, the king is on horseback

holding a sword, with the inscription 'imuSU','khly, mu /\!'}/m 2/8

and its variations. On the reverse, the king is standing and holding

the cross with the left hand, the sword with the right, and the in-

scription reads: 'ill/'0'10R/f, U.8 k /l/MT (By the will of God he is

King), perhaps declaring that with the sword and cross he has become

king and is the lord of the city of Sis.

Gosdantin's copper coins are also very rare. On the obverse the

king is shown standing and holding the cross in his left hand, the

sword in his right, as on the silver coins, with a similar inscription.

On the reverse, there is again the usual Greek cross with the in-

scription & Publ NITI', Uhly 5.

THE COINAGE OF LEVON III

The relatively short reign of Levon III accounts for the compara-

tively small number of coins left by him, although they are by no

means SCarCe.

The silver coins are of one type, representing the king on horseback,

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facing and walking right, holding a staff in his right hand. Various

field marks, often consisting of letters, distinguish the different issues.

On the reverse there is the usuallion walking right but not facing, with

a cross above the lion. Numerous variations of the inscriptions l'bh/Tu

Pll'UR/l/ All/18 andhlll h RUQUIR, h Uhl are listed in the corpus.

The silver coins of Levon III exhibit marked deterioration, both in

weight and in silver contentcoins weighing 2.3 grams and having

less than 50 per cent silver are quite common. The styling is also

poorer than that of the earlier kings but the workmanship is fair and

definitely superior to that of later kings.

92 Coinage of Cilician Armenia

The copper coins also show a definite reduction in size, and although

the lettering indicates some care in the preparation of the dies, most

of the coins are so poorly struck that only rarely does one find a

copper coin properly struck and in a good state of preservation.

On the obverse the king is seated oriental fashion, crowned and

holding a staff in the right hand, a cross in the left hand, similar to

the copper coins of Hetoum II. On the reverse is a Greek cross with

a number of variations in design.

Again as with the copper coins of Hetoum II, in some cases the

inscription on both sides is Ibh/1, Pll'UR/l/ All&n, although it is

generally incomplete. In others, the reverse inscription is 6Publl P

*II'll R. h Uhl).

All of the silver coins of Levon III are takvorins, and slight varia-

tions in size should be attributed to the gradual debasement of the

coinage which continued to occur until the fall of the kingdom.

Basmadjian mentions half trams of Levon III. Nevertheless, no

half trams belonging to this king have come to our attention and it

is possible that Basmadjian may have had in mind some of the

smaller sized trams.

THE COINAGE OF OSHIN

Since Oshin reigned for over 12 years, it is not surprising to find

a large variety of coins of this period. A rare type of coin shows on

the obverse the king seated on a throne almost identical in design to

the coins of Levon I, except that it has a field mark which appears to

be a hand blessing the king, and another field mark like an E found

commonly on the coins of Levon III. On the reverse is a cross flanked

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by two lions similar to the coins of Levon I. Except for the name of

the king, the inscription is also similar to the coins of Levon I. As

Sibilian points out, these coins show great artistic care in their exe-

cution and since there are very few in existence, they were probably

struck in the first year or so as coronation coins, and possibly the

design was chosen to impress upon the people that he was the suc-

cessor of the great King Levon.

The remainder of the multitude of silver coins of Oshin are smaller

and of poorer design, and in appearance resemble those of his prede-

* Basmadjian, Num. Gnrale de l'Armnie, p. 168.

Coins Issued by the Kings 93

cessor Levon III. On the obverse, the king is on horseback, facing and

walking right. The field marks are mostly letters or combinations of

letters. The various designs obviously indicate different issues. On the

reverse, there is again the usual lion walking right with a cross in the

field. The inscription presents some novel features in that for the

first time, aside from the words hubll, Ghulll or hlbl., we come

across a new variation, namely Ghullo. This variation appears only

on the coins of Oshin, so that it is possible to ascribe any silver coin

to Oshin if it bears the word Ghull", even though the rest of the in-

scription, including the king's name, is not legible.

Although Sibilian indicates that there was a further decrease in the

size and silver titre of Oshin's coins as compared with those of

Levon III, metrological studies show that in general, the coinage of

Oshin was slightly superior to that of his predecessor, both in weight

and in silver content. This may have been the result of more stable

political conditions in the country during his reign.

As in the case of Levon III, no half trams of Oshin are known to

be in existence. Basmadjian mentions a report on a well-preserved

half tram of Oshin, and judging from the description, this was a

half tram of the coronation type. It is unfortunate that this single

specimen has been lost and no others have been discovered.

There are a number of takvorins of Oshin with an Arabic surcharge.

Since most of the coins having a surcharge belong to Levon IV, it is

quite possible that some of Oshin's coins fell into the hands of the

Arabs, along with the coins of Levon IV, and were surcharged for

circulation in Arab countries.

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The copper coins of Oshin are definitely of a different type from

the coppers of the previous kings. They are very small, weighing only

I.31.5 grams, and are thus easily distinguishable from the copper

coins of the preceding rulers. While the coppers of Levon I and the

larger coppers of Hetoum I are designated as 'NI'u' (tank), and the

succeeding smaller coppers as fll/'Sk8 (kardez), the copper coins be-

ginning with Oshin represent a third class known as p!" (pogh).

On the obverse of all the copper coins, the king is seated on a

throne holding a lily in one hand and a cross in the left hand, very

much as in the silver coins of Levon I. The inscription URht,

* Basmadjian, ibid., p. 171. Reference to an article by H. Habeshian in

the weekly Armenian Paper Azadamard, 1911, No. 34, p. 544.

94 Coinage of Cilician Armenia

Pll?llh/l/ All&/18 is usually incomplete. On the reverse, there is always

a Greek cross, often with various field marks. As in the case of the

common silver coins, we have the inscriptions & Publl, Ch'ubl,

Ghull etc. Because of their small size, few of the copper poghs of

Oshin have survived, and these usually in very poor condition.

THE COINAGE OF LEVON IV

The silver coins of Levon IV show considerable similarity to those

of his father, Oshin. The styling, poor workmanship, and type of

lettering are so much like the coins of Oshin that were it not for the

difference in the king's name, it would be difficult to distinguish one

from the other. Here again, on the obverse there are various com-

binations of letters which probably indicate different issues. Although

the coins of Levon IV are somewhat similar to the earlier Levon III,

the coins of these two kings can be readily distinguished as the former

are definitely smaller and also bear letters as field marks on the

obverse.

Metrological studies indicate that there was about a ten-per-cent

decrease in the weight of the coins from Oshin to Levon IV, with

probably little change in the silver content.

It appears that the dies were used for as long as possible since

there are very few coins on which the full writing is legible. On most

of the coins, only part of the letters are visible, but so long as the

field marks are clear, it is possible to classify them. The inscriptions

are fairly uniformon the obverse, Ibh/, /l/QUR/l/ All&m or

lbf/T, /ll'}llR/l/ All&n, and on the reverse, Ch'ubll h Rll'll Ru h Uhl),

the word Sis usually appearing in an abbreviated form.

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Because of his relatively long reign, Levon IV issued a large

number of coins. Approximately one-third of the coins examined by

the author were in such poor condition that they could not be placed

in the corpus. A considerable number of coins of Levon IV bear an

Arabic surcharge and could not be included because of the obliter-

ation of the field marks. These were probably part of the tribute paid

to the Egyptians.

The copper coins of Levon IV, called b/I'l (pogh) are about the

same size and type as those of Oshin, weighing around 1.3 to I.5 grams.

On the obverse, the king is seated on a throne or a divan, holding a

Coins Issued by the Kings 95

cross with the left hand and a mace with the right. With the ex-

ception of a few rare coppers of one type, all of these copper coins are

approximately 1718 mm. in diameter. On the reverse there is

always a Greek cross, usually plain, but at times, decorated.

The inscription, seldom complete, is lbf/7, foll'UR/l/ Alln on

the obverse, and on the reverse, publ (or Chubul) h RUQUAR), h Uhu.

THE COINAGE OF Gl Y LUSIGNAN

During his short reign of two years, Guy had little time to issue

coins in large numbers. Consequently, his silver coins are quite rare,

and there are only two copper coins in existence.

The silver coins are similar to those of Oshin or Levon IV. On the

obverse, the king is on horseback, facing and walking right, and

holding a mace in his right hand. In the field there is usually a circle

or a dot. The inscription generally reads 'ih Pll'UR/l/ All&/18. On the

reverse, the lion is walking right and above in the field there is the

usual cross. The inscription is as usual & Publl h RUQUAR), h Uhl, which

is seldom complete.

The copper coins of Guy are almost identical with those of Levon IV

and it would be impossible to distinguish them from each other were

it not for the king's name. On the obverse, the king is seated on a

throne holding a cross in one hand, and fleurs de lys in the other.

On the reverse, there is a cross, usually ornamented. The inscription

is similar to the one on the silver coins.

THE COINAGE OF GOSDANTIN III

Until quite recently, it was not possible to distinguish between the

coins of Gosdantin III and his successor, Gosdantin IV, since both

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the inscription and the appearance of the coins of these two kings

were similar. Sibilian, in his classic treatise, is very indefinite and un-

certain about the identification of the coins of these two kings and

ascribes only a few coins of considerable rarity to Gosdantin III who

ruled for nineteen years, and the balance to Gosdantin IV who ruled

for only eight years.

Metrological studies of the coins of these two kings showed that

they could be divided into two distinct classes, those having specific

* Bedoukian, ANS Museum Notes VI, pp. 193199 Pl. XX.

96 Coinage of Cilician Armenia

gravities of over 9.50 and those having specific gravities under 9.30.

Further examination of these two classes of coins indicated clearly

that the ones with lower specific gravity, being more debased coins,

belonged to the later king. Data obtained from a hoard and certain

historical facts substantiate this method of identification based on

specific gravity determinations.

The coins of Gosdantin III are rather poorly made, and their low

silver content often gives them a greyish appearance. The usual design

shows on the obverse the king on horseback, facing and walking right,

holding a mace with the right hand. On the reverse, a lion is walking

right with a cross in the field above the lion. The field marks serve to

distinguish the coins of Gosdantin III from those of Gosdantin IV.

In the former, on the obverse there are circles, dots, letters or an L

shaped sign, while the reverse usually has dots, at times letters, and

often no marks. In the case of Gosdantin IV, both the obverse and

the reverse have either L or S shaped signs. The coins of Gosdantin III

never have both an S on the obverse and an L or S on the

reverSe.

While the inscription on the obverse of the coins of Gosdantin III

is an abbreviation of 1/7USULT.hu, /9/1%ll/s/l/ &ll3/78 and the reverse

bears an abbreviated form of &publl h RUQUAR, h Uhl (or SU/U/Tu),

the reverse inscription of Gosdantin IV is much more uniform, being

&Publil (or Ghull, &publ) h RUQUAR, h Uhl), almost always complete,

though very badly executed.

The reverse inscription on some of the Gosdantin III coins to the

effect that they were struck in Tarsus (Armenian Darson) is of in-

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terest as it indicates that a mint existed in that city. Only on these

few coins do we find the inscription, Struck in the city of Tarsus.

The majority of the coins of this kingdom carry the inscription,

Struck in the city of Sis. The question therefore arises as to whether

the Tarsus mint existed previously and whether some of the coins of

the earlier kings were struck there even though they do not so state.

Aside from these debased silver coins, Gosdantin struck some

copper coins also, but, unfortunately, very few of these are in exist-

ence. In styling and appearance, these copper coins are very similar

to the coins of Oshin and Levon IV.

A copper coin of Gosdantin III struck in Tarsus is found in

* Sibilian, Classification of Roupenian Coins, p. 57.

Coins Issued by the Kings 97

the Hermitage museum. This specimen indicates that both silver and

copper coins were struck in the Tarsus mint. Recently, a second

specimen from the same die came into the author's possession.

THE COINAGE OF LEVON THE USURPER

As pointed out by Sibilian," and later by Garabetian," the coins

of Guy, Gosdantin and Levon the Usurper, because of their styling

and inscriptions, can be grouped under one period.

All of the silver coins are of one type, with the usual inscription

Ib"l/I'l All?-ll/-/7 <ll8/18, on the obverse and Ch'ublil / R.I'll Ru h Uhl),

on the reverse, with the customary variations and abbreviations. On

the obverse, the king is on horseback facing and walking right,

holding a mace in his right hand. On the reverse, there is a lion

walking right. The lion usually has hairy legs or a hairy mane, a

design characteristic of the lions of Guy and of Gosdantin III, but

not of Gosdantin IV.

A rare type of takvorin of Levon the Usurper has the inscription

Ib"l/7, All?-ll/-/7 <ll6/78 on both sides.

Metrological data show that while the coins of Levon IV weigh

around 2.32.45 grams, those of Levon the Usurper weigh 2.0 to

2.3 grams. It is significant that the coins of Guy and Gosdantin III

are in the range of 1.92.2 grams. One might comment that perhaps

usurpers took greater pains in the execution of their coins than did

legitimately instituted kings.

Sibilian describes a hoard of 120 coins found in 1874 between

Cilicia and Konya, consisting of:

II coins of Oshin

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36 coins of Levon IV

17 coins with the inscription lb"l/",

4 coins of Guy

47 coins of Gosdantin III

He comments that the coins with the inscription lb"l/Mu have a

circle and on careful examination and comparison with the coins of

Gosdantin III, it becomes apparent that they are the work of the

same die maker. The difference in appearance and styling of the

letters from those of Levon IV is discussed. Sibilian concludes that

these lb"l/ru coins must be contemporary of the Gosdantins. These

* Garabetian, Pazmaveb, 1952, p. 167.

98 Coinage of Cilician Armenia

were indeed remarkable observations and indicate the keenness of

Sibilian's mind. It was, however, impossible for Sibilian to accept the

theory of the rule of a king by the name of Levon between 1363-1365

because of the lack of sufficient historical evidence in his time.

Garabetian" ascribes all the coins with the inscription lb"l/T, to

Levon the Usurper.

This opinion has been substantiated by metrological data obtained

by the author. There seems to be little doubt that these coins can be

attributed to Levon who reigned for approximately two years.

While the copper coins of Gosdantin III continue the size and

design of those of his predecessors, Levon the Usurper did not issue

these small copper coins. Instead, he appears to have employed dies

similar to the ones used in the silver coinage. This is the first time

that silver coin type dies were used to strike copper coins, and this

practice continued during the reign of his successor, Gosdantin IV.

The copper coins can be distinguished from the silver coins not only

by their metallic content but also by the field marks. All of the copper

coins in existence have the letter P as a field mark.

Sibilian attributes these copper coins to Levon V Lusignan. Since

they bear no resemblance to the copper coins of this last king, and

are similar in appearance and styling to the coins of Levon the

Usurper and also his successor, there is no reason to ascribe them to

Levon V.

Sibilian has listed these copper coins as being silver. While it is

true that some of them have a greyish appearance possibly due to the

admixture of other metals with copper, scratching them with a knife

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and taking their specific gravity established the fact that they are

copper.

THE COINAGE OF GOSDANTIN IV

As mentioned previously, the coins of this king bear considerable

resemblance to those of Gosdantin III. It is now possible to definitely

identify both of these by their inscriptions and field marks.

It is rather surprising that a considerable number of the coins of

Gosdantin IV have survived. The kingdom was limited to a very

small area, but apparently fairly large numbers of coins were struck

in order to pay the tribute constantly demanded by the enemy. The

Coins Issued by the Kings 99

royal treasury was most likely in possession of considerable wealth,

and was able to buy peace temporarily by payment of tribute in

Armenian currency.

On the obverse of the coins, the king is as usual on horseback,

facing and walking right. In his right hand he holds a mace. On the

reverse, there is a lion walking right and a cross above the lion in the

field. The inscription on the obverse shows considerable variation in

the spelling of 'iml/SUVRP, All?AIR/l/ All&m but on the obverse it is

surprisingly uniform, being Ch'ublil (or Ch'ubl, Chull) h RUQUAR, h

Uhl), in complete form. Such complete inscriptions are seldom to be

found on the coins of Gosdantin III.

Perhaps the simplest way of distinguishing the coins of the two

kings is to examine the field marks. Those of Gosdantin IV have an L

or S mark on both the obverse and reverse of the coins. On the ob-

verse the mark is usually under the king's horse and on the reverse,

under the lion's feet.

The styling and workmanship of the coins are quite poor. Because

of their low silver contentless than half silverthe coins are usually

greyish in appearance.

Gosdantin IV followed the practice of Levon the Usurper in

striking copper coins with dies similar to the type used for silver coins,

with the field mark P. Most of the copper coins are poor specimens

and it is quite likely that because of their appearance few have been

saved or collected.

The copper coins without the field mark / resemble the silver

takvorins so closely in design and styling that there is little doubt

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that both belong to the same monarch.

THE COINAGE OF LEVON V LUSIGNAN

Leo Lusignan entered Cilicia at Gorigos on April 2, 1374, reached

Sis on July 26, 1374, was crowned king on September 14, 1374, and

surrendered his kingdom on April 16, 1375.

It will be seen from this that his total stay in Sis was less than nine

17 Dardel (p. 147) mentions that when Levon V surrendered, the royal

treasury contained precious stones and two crowns valued at half a million

gold tahegans. This report, possibly exaggerated, indicates that the royal

treasury was not empty.

IOO Coinage of Cilician Armenia

months, and he was king for only seven months. It is interesting that

while Dardel" mentions that Levon ruled for seven months, two

Armenian historians state that he reigned for eleven monthspos-

sibly considering him as the lawful ruler from the day of his entry

into Cilicia.

It is not to be expected that in this brief period of time Levon had

much opportunity to design and strike coins. He undoubtedly did

issue some coins for use in commercial transactions as he had to pay

tribute to the enemy with the coins remaining in the royal treasury.

Only about thirty-five coins of Levon V are known, and of these,

ten are silver and were often called billons. The billons weigh less

than a gram, and the copper coins about one gram, making them the

smallest coins struck during the entire history of the kingdom.

The surviving specimens indicate that a variety of types were

struck. Undoubtedly, their small size has contributed to their dis-

appearance.

It is curious that on the billons we not only have the usual in-

scription lbf/", Pll'llR/l/ All&m, but also lbf/T, Pll'UR/l/"

'ill/'07//h/ fu and lh/T, /9/1%llR/l/"ll/'bull&i, <ll3. The title,

Levon, King of all the Armenians, seems hardly appropriate for

one who ruled a small town and its environs for such a short period.

The title King of all the Armenians appears only on the coins of

Levon I and Levon II.

The design on the obverse of the billons represents the king's head,

somewhat reminiscent of Hetoum's billons, and on the reverse there

is the usual Greek cross with its variations.

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The copper coins have on the obverse a lion, which as Sibilian has

pointed out, resembles the lion of Cyprus rather than the Armenian

lion on earlier coins. The obverse has the usual inscription Ibh/),

Pll'NIR/l/ &ll3/), the reverse Ch'ubll h Rll'll Ru Uhl) or lll/'bullt,

<ll3/78. Possibly, some of the dies used for the billon coins were also

employed in striking the reverse of the copper coins.

* Dardel, p. 707.

* Rec. Croisades, Documents Armniens, Vol. 1, p. 685. See also Bas-

madjian, Leo V Lusignan, p. 52.

* Sibilian, Classification of Roupenian Coins, p. 71.

FORGERIES

Surprisingly few instances of forgeries of Roupenian coins have

been reported in the past. The lack of information about these coins,

coupled with a limited demand, probably made forgeries financially

unattractive.

One of the earliest known forgeries is a coin of Levon I which bears

a number of characters on the reverse indicating a date. Although

none of the Roupenian coins showed dates, the possibility that these

letters represented a date was the subject of considerable speculation

by early writers. There are three specimens of this forgery,

all from the same mold, although due to difficulties in casting, they

appear somewhat different on first glance. Sibilian pointed out that

these coins were cast and not struck, and were in appearance obvious

forgeries.

Another forgery of Levon I is a copper coin which the editor of

Sibilian's book represents as a different type of coin. This coin, of

which there are three specimens in the Mehkitarian Museums of

Vienna and Venice, is so different from all the other copper coins that

it is obviously a forgery struck with a very crudely made die. There

are two varieties of this curious coin.

Because of the increased interest in Armenian coins, a large number

of forgeries of Levon I trams have recently appeared on the market.

These have apparently been struck with a die and then flattened

between rollers to give the coin a very flat surface. Their general

appearance, the lack of height in the letters, etc., make the identi-

fication of these forgeries a simple matter.

Of more serious concern to the public are forgeries of gold coins

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which have been offered for sale in the past few years. A jeweller in

Antakya, Turkey, has apparently made a die of a Levon I type of

* Cappelletti, p. 180.

* Kraft, Plate.

* Langlois, Num, de l'Armnie au moyen ge, p. 43.

4 Sibilian, Classification of Roupenian coins, p. II.

IOI

IO2 Coinage of Cilician Armenia

coin, and has been striking gold coins and some silver coins with it.

Eight gold and two silver coins struck with this die have come to the

attention of the writer who now has one of each in his possession. The

workmanship of this die is good but to the trained eye the styling is

unlike that of the Roupenian coins. The obverse is well done, although

the king is slightly off center and to the right. The reverse is much

poorerthe lions lack the naturalness of the genuine coins and the

inscription is wholly different from the common types. In addition,

while the gold coins of Levon I weigh between 5.5 and 6.5 grams, the

weight of the forgeries is around 2.5 grams, thus being less than that

of the silver coins. A close examination of some of these coins revealed

signs of filing of the high points of the letters in the legend.

It is interesting that all of these forgeries are of Levon I coins. The

explanation may lie in the fact that more is known about the coins

of this popular king than about those of the succeeding rulers.

One might add that it is rather difficult to pass forgeries of Rou-

penian coins as genuine, if for no other reason than the fact that the

appearance of several coins from the same dies would immediately

arouse suspicion. In a collection not forming part of a hoard, the

chances of finding two coins from the same dies are very small indeed.

In the writer's collection of several hundred Hetoum-Zabel trams,

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there is only one instance of two coins struck from the same dies.

A SURVEY OF REPORTED

COLLECTIONS OF ROUPENIAN COINS

It is difficult to keep abreast of collections not in public institutions,

as private collections are not well reported and are very often dis-

persed without a permanent record.

When writing his treatise, Brosset' studied about sixty coins in

Russian and French collections. He specifically mentioned the

following:

Muse asiatique de l'Acadmie et l'Institut asiatique du departe-

ment des affaires trangres, a St. Ptersbourg.

Cabinet des mdailles, Paris

Collection of Duc de Blacas, Paris

Collection of Mr. Reichel in St. Petersbourg

The plates in Brosset's publication were from the Russian col-

lections.

Shortly thereafter, Kraft published a very interesting account of

the coins found in Vienna. These included:

29 coins in Mnz- und Antiken Kabinette, Vienna

23 coins belonging to Father Timoni

7 coins found in the Mekhitarist Museum in Vienna

Some ten years later, in 1850, Langlois" gave a more extensive list

of collections:

Cabinet des Mdailles de la Bibliothque Nationale

Collection Marquis de Lagoy, Aix

Duc de Blacas

Baron Chaudruc de Crazannes of Castel Sarrazin

Mekhitarian collection, Venice

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Mekhitarian collection, Vienna

* Brosset, Monographie des Monnaies Armniennes, p. 45.

* Kraft, pp. 1-29.

* Father Timoni's collection is now in the Vienna Mekhitarian collection.

See Sibilian, p. XVI.

* Langlois, Revue Archologique, 1850, p. 268.

IO3

I04 Coinage of Cilician Armenia

The Royal Museum in Vienna

The Royal Museum in Berlin

The British Museum

Hermitage Museum in St. Petersbourg

Reichel Collection in St. Petersbourg

Lord Ainsley's collection in Constantinople

The collection of Borrel in Smyrna (Izmir)

Langlois comments that the Russian collections are very rich.

Writing in 1877, Sibilian" stated that he had examined the following

collections:

Mekhitarian collection in Vienna (700 pieces)

Mekhitarian collection in Venice

Royal Museum in Vienna

Royal Museum in Berlin

Museum of St. Petersbourg

Museum of Florence

Collection of the Duc de Blacas

A private collection in Constantinople"

Sibilian adds that the number of Roupenian coins which he ex-

amined reached three thousand, the greater portion of which ap-

parently belonged to the Mekhitarist Museum in Vienna and the

private collection in Constantinople.

Father Kalemkiarian" who edited Sibilian's book and made

numerous additions to it, mentioned the following collections ex-

isting in 1892:

Mekhitarian collection in Vienna

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Mekhitarian collection in Venice

Royal Museum in Vienna

Royal Museum in Berlin

Musee des Mdailles de la Bibliothque Nationale in Paris

Museum of the Duke of Gotha

* Sibilian, Classification of Roupenian Coins, p. XVI.

* For some reason, throughout Sibilian's book, the noted numismatist is

mentioned without giving his name. The person referred to was Serovpe M.

Alishan, the brother of the noted author of the monumental work, Sissouan,

Cilician Armenia. He was apparently a well-known collector, and judging

from the remarks made by Sibilian, must have had a collection numbering

in the hundreds.

* See Sibilian, Classification of Roupenian Coins, p. 6.

Collections of Roupenian Coins IO5

British Museum

Asiatic Museum in St. Petersbourg

Museum of Echmiadsin in Armenia

Museum of the Armenian Monastery in Jerusalem

Schlumberger collection*

The collection of an Armenian numismatist"

The first and the last two were apparently the most important

collections known.

The next list of collections was mentioned by Basmadjian in 1936,

consisting of the following:

Armenian library in Constantinople

Collection of Adrbed in Leninaken (Armenia)

Collection of A. Pachajian in Paris"

Collection of Hovhannesian in Paris"

Berlin State Museum

British Museum

Collection of Kalebjian Brothers in Paris

State Museum in Cairo

Muse des Mdailles de la Bibliothque Nationale in Paris

State Museum in Erivan, Armenia

Museum of the Armenian Monastery in Jerusalem

Collection of M. Mooradian 18

Museum of Echmiadsin in Armenia

Collection of J. Matossian in Cairo"

Injoujian Brothers collection in Paris

The private collection of the King of Italy

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Asiatic Museum in Leningrad

Hermitage Museum in Leningrad

Collection of G. H. Basmadjian in Paris"

Museum of Constantinople (Istanbul)

Museum of Kiev

Kremlin Museum (Moscow)

Collection of H. Habeshian in Paris17

* The important Schlumberger collection is now in the Muse des Mdailles

de la Bibliothque Nationale.

* Basmadjian, Num. Gnrale de l'Armnie, p. 24.

10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 19, 20 As far as can be ascertained, none of these col-

lections is now in existence.

IO6 Coinage of Cilician Armenia

Collection of M. Eretzian in Aleppo, Syria"

Collection of Mutafoff in Paris 19

Collection of Der Ghazarian in Aleppo, Syria

Collection of the Catholicos Sahag of Sis, now in Lebanon

Mekhitarist Museum in Vienna

Mekhitarist Museum in Venice

Vienna Museum

Kelekian collection in Paris

Since 1936, there has been little change in the collections of public

institutions, but a number of very important private collections have

been acquired. The corpus of this book is based on the following col-

lections, in decreasing order of specimens listed.

Mekhitarist Museum in Vienna

The author's collection in New York

A. Donabedian collection in Beirut, Lebanon

Mardikian Museum in Beirut, Lebanon

Mekhitarist Museum in Venice

Musee des Mdailles de la Bibliothque Nationale in Paris

The Archeological Museum in Istanbul

A. Poladian collection in Beirut, Lebanon

H. Kurdian collection in Wichita, Kansas

The American Numismatic Society's collection in New York

K. Kalajian collection in New York

A. Achdjian collection in Paris

British Museum

Mme. N. Kapamadji's collection in Paris

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K. Baghdadlian collection in Cannes, France

Hermitage Museum in Leningrad

Asiatic Museum in Leningrad

Part of the Erivan State Museum collection in Armenia

J. Guevrekian collection in New York

The collection of Prof. A. A. Ebeyan, Beirut, Lebanon

*This collection is now in the State Museum of Armenia (Erivan). See

Garabetian, Pazmaveb, 1952, p. 156.

* This exceedingly important collection of the famous antique dealer,

Kelekian Khan, was given to the writer for a nominal sum by his son,

Mr. D. Kelekian. I wish to take this opportunity to thank Mr. Kelekian

for his generosity in encouraging my study of the coinage of this period.

Collections of Roupenian Coins IO7

In addition to the above-mentioned collections, the writer has had

the opportunity of examining the collections or rubbings of the

following:

Ashmolean collection in Oxford, England

Nicholas Jamgochian Collection, Los Angeles, California

K. Khantamour collection in Hollywood, California

C. Tarzian collection in Union City, New Jersey

Armenian Patriarchate collection in Jerusalem

H. Hazarian collection in New York

L. Keshishian collection in New York

T. Amirian collection in Boston, Mass.

The following collections are known to exist but were not available

for examination. They are therefore not included in the corpus.

An important private collection in Damascus, Syria

Part of the coins in the State Museum of Erivan, Armenia

Kunsthistorisches Museum in Vienna

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Part of the A. Poladian collection in Beirut, Lebanon

METROLOGY

The Roupenian dynasty started with an ambitious system of

coinage in both copper and silver, the latter being of three denomina-

tions: double trams (5.5 gms.), trams (2.9 gms.), and half trams

(1.5 gms.). This system apparently proved impractical. The double

trams were dropped first, and eventually, as the coinage deteriorated,

the half trams were also abandoned.

The trams thus became the main silver currency of this dynasty,

and their gradual debasement is graphically presented in Graph I. It

will be seen that a stable coinage existed during the period of Levon I

and Hetoum-Zabel. While these rulers were only two of the fourteen

monarchs who issued coins, their reign covered a period of seventy-

four years (II961270), as against a total of one hundred and seventy-

nine years (11961375), the duration of the Roupenian dynasty as a

kingdom. Moreover, as it was the most prosperous period of the

kingdom, the coins are not only of uniform weight but also have a

uniformly high silver content. Of the 7886 silver coins mentioned in

the corpus, some 5925 belong to these two rulers.

It is seen that the silver coins of Levon I and Hetoum-Zabel were

nearly 3.ograms in weight and contained 90 per cent silver. During

the reign of Levon II, there was a decline to about 2.6 grams and

70 per cent silver. The rebel kings, Smpad and Gosdantin I, appar-

ently raised the standards appreciably, but since they struck only a

small number of coins, this constituted but a feeble attempt to

maintain the former standards. Thereafter, the coins gradually de-

creased in weight from 2.5 grams to 2.0 grams, and the silver content

from 5060 per cent to less than 40 per cent during the reign of

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Gosdantin IV.

A somewhat similar situation exists in the copper coinage. The

large tanks of Levon I and Hetoum I (7.2 grams) soon gave way to

the smaller kardez of Hetoum I, Levon II (4.5 grams), followed by

another decline in weight (3.5 grams) during the period of Hetoum II.

Thereafter, the copper coinage was further reduced in size to poghs

Io8

Metrology IO9

(about 2.0 grams) and continued declining until towards the end of

the dynasty, the weight was I gram or less.

The determination of the silver content of the trams by taking

their specific gravity is at best approximate and admittedly subject

to error, but it does give a satisfactory overall picture. In making these

determinations, the obviously corroded specimens or those subjected

to fire, etc., were not used, and it is probable that a graph based on

actual chemical analysis would result in a similar curve. The error is

undoubtedly greater in the later coins because, judging from their

appearance, they contain metals other than silver and copper. It is

important to keep this in mind since the method used in assigning

the silver content was on the assumption that the coins were made

entirely of a mixture of silver and copper.

With few exceptions, the coins used in metrological studies were

from the author's own collection. As this collection is a rather large

one (over 1300 pieces) gathered over a period of years, it represents

the average condition of the coinage of the period under consideration.

NO. OF WEIGHT NO. OF SILVER CONTENT

TYPE OF COIN SPECI- HIGH LOW AVER. SPECI- HIGH LOW AVER.

MENS MENS

LEVON I

Double trams 5 5.55 5.56 5.46 5 98 84 95

Half double tram I4 2.88 2.45 2.69 9 93 83 89

Half trams 5 I.32 I.06 I.25 2 98 86 92

Coronation 5 2.88 2.66 2.8o 4 98 83 89

L. A. lll/'bu <. 9 2.91 2.54 2.84 3 94 81 89

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1. *. Alln 18 3.20 2.52 2.98 5 94 79 87

L. A. &ll38 4 3.00 2.53 2.83 I 88 85

Lhl, /9. 3. 8 3.03 2.85 2.96 4 96 83 90

1. ^ll?IIR/l/ 4. 9 3.04 2.46 2.76 3 95 82 90

I./NI'll R/T 3. 25 3.I7 2.42 2.82 Io 96 75 87

L. A. Alll/U8 9 3.05 2.79 2.91 I 88 88

1. foe. <ll/78/7 4 2.93 2.78 2.85 3 90 82 87

1. ^. 4. (Foot turned) 5 3.02 2.87 2.96 2 87 81 84

L. f. 4. (Ornate) Io 3.15 2.56 2.99 3 96 84 90

1. ^. <. 36. 23 3. IO 2.55 2.86 Io 93 83 88

L. f. 4. (Barbaric) 23 3.0I 2.56 2.90 9 92 81 87

1. P. &. A I4 3. IO 2.63 2.89 9 89 83 85

* Caley, Analytical Chemistry, 1952, p. 676.

IIO Coinage of Cilician Armenia

NO. OF WEIGHT NO. OF SILVER CONTENT

TYPE OF COIN SPECI- HIGH LOW AVER. SPECI- HIGH LOW AVER.

MENS MENS

Copper Coins (Tanks)

1. ^. 4. (5 dots) 8 8.8 6.7 7.4

1. ^. 4. (6 dots) 3 7.5 6.3 7.0

1. ^. 4. (6 dots+ 6 8.6 6.6 7.6

I curl)

HETOUM-ZABEL

Trams

Bilingual Io 3.00 2.74 2.84 3 94 90 QI

Half trams 6 I.50 I.40 I.46 2 93 87 90

Lion holding cross >k 46 3.Io 2.83 2.96 2O 95 90 92

Lion holding cross 34 3.15 2.82 2.95 3 92 88 90

Lion walking-cross 67 3.30 2.82 2.96 17 98 89 92

Lion walking-cross 50 3.20 2.80 2.94 2I 94 86 91

Lion with cross

and star I5 3.04 2.80 2.91 3 84 82 83

Lion with no cross

with star 9 3.08 2.80 2.94 I 90 90

Lion with no cross,

no Star 17 3.04 2.8o 2.88 2 90 86 88

Copper coins (Tanks)

Throne, lions adorned 14 8.6 5.2 7.2

Throne, convention-

alized lions I4 8.9 5.0 7.0

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Throne, two legs

on each side 9 9.7 7.0 7.6

Throne, two posts 5 8.3 5.7 6.5

Kardez

Equestrian I2 6.0 3.4 4.6

Throne adorned 7 5.5 3.6 4.5

King seated 25 5.0 3.5 4.3

LEVON II

New Trams

Half trams

Lion turned left 3 I.45 I.4I I.43 2 84 83 84

Half trams

Lion turned right 3 I.33 I.29 I.30 2 63 50 57

* Broken or excessively worn specimens were omitted and only those

weighing 2.80 grams or over were listed.

Metrology

III

TYPE OF COIN

Lion left

1. *. Ul/'bu <ll/7

Lion left

1. P. lll/'bu <ll

Lion left

1. ^. lll/'bu <ll

Lion right

1./0. <ll6h/18

Lion right

I./. All&R/

Lion right

1. ^. <ll3U8

Lion right

L. A. All&/7

Lion right

L. />. <ll3U

Kardez

Obverse:

Reverse:

Obverse:

Reverse:

lion

CrOSS

CrOSS

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lion

Billon

Kardez

King's head

King seated

Takvorins

Poghs

Takvorins

Poghs

Takvorins

Poghs

NO. OF WEIGHT

SPECI- HIGH LOW AVER.

MENS

9 2.93 2.67 2.85

6 2.87 2.4I 2.60

5 2.80 2.34 2.67

2 2.43 2.35 2.39

2 2.88 2.50 2.69

3 2.55 2.50 2.53

3 2.76 2.42 2.59

3 2.68 2.00 2.42

4 4.9 3.5 4.I

5 6.5 3.2 5.0

HETOUM II

6 o.75 o.6o o.66

I3 5.2 2.7 4.0

I3 3.8 2.0 2.9

SMPAD

5 2.88 2.50 2.67

I5 2.3 I.5 2.0

GOSDANTIN I

3 3.O 2.6 2.8

6 2.7 I.9 2.4

LEVON III

7 2.57 2.20 2.30

IO 5.7 2.4 3.3

NO. OF SILVER CONTENT

SPECI- HIGH LOW AVER.

MENS

6 90

5 79

4 75

II2

Coinage of Cilician Armenia

TYPE OF COIN

Takvorins

Poghs

Takvorins

Poghs

Takvorins

Poghs

Takvorins

Poghs

Takvorins

Poghs

Takvorins

Poghs

Takvorins

Poghs

NO. OF

SPECI- HIGH LOW AVER.

MENS

25

LEVON THE USURPER

I3

WEIGHT

OSHIN*

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2.75 2.26 2.49

I.55 I.I5 I.4

LEVON IV4

2.60 2.26 2.36

2.I I.2 I.47

GUY

2.34 I.94 2.07

I.2O I.20 I.20

GOSDANTIN III

2.I.9 I.75 2.04

I.35 I.25 I.30

2.4I 2.00 2.20

I.90 I.I5 I.45

GOSDANTIN IV

2.45 I.87 2.15

2.25 I.40 I.85

LEVON V

O.75 0.55 0.70

I.05 O.65 O.86

N.O OF SILVER CONTENT

SPECI- HIGH LOW AVER.

MENS

I2 65 52 62

I3 65 53 59

I7 63 41 51

Less than 40% (Specific

gravity 9.I to 9.3)

* Only those weighing 2.25 grams or over were taken.

* Only those weighing 2.25 grams or over were taken.

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GRAPH I

Silver

--------- Copper

#$

Number of Silver and Copper Coins

GRAPH II

---|"

-----|y

|-*- -oNwl

-*--)-

-:#>$-C|

---

| O- Q./-!

--*>

#--- )}!

|"-*}|

-DQs N.

#-/- |-/ )

-*-

=#y-o|mits|

--\\li

|?OOW

-VJ-and-

:OO-r

-> *pe

up

P-|-ate

ic

oJind

bJCi

X-&

8070

60

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---

Weight and Silver Content of Trams

Circles indicate upper and lower limits.

I-

54

Weight of Copper Coins

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GRAPH III

O\

|A

..)

$/|\

-"

SOME STATISTICS

In the preparation of this work, the author depended for the most part on actual rubbings made of the coins

rather than on published material which, unfortunately, is often unreliable.

In the following pages, tabulated analyses are given of the coinage of each ruler and the specimens found in

various collections. A summarized version of these tables is also given for the entire corpus.

WM PB AD MM VM BN PH HK AN KK AA BM NK KB MS8 IS9

LEVON I

Antioch billon I I I I 4

Double trams 18 7 I 3 12 12" 3 6 2 I 3I 98

Half double tr. 24 20 2 12 II 2I 3 4 I 2 I 32 I I34

Quart. double tr. I I I 3

Half trams 4 5 I 2 3 3 I I I 2I

Coronation trams 73 5 6' 4 11 6 I 3 37 I 67 6 8 I33

I. All?/l/ ill/'b', 4. 20 II 5 2 6 I I 3 I 4 I I 3 4 49 II2

1. O. All&/18 90 40 16 19 23 I9 7 22 5 3 3 2 5 18 344 619

1. P. &ll38 II 6 3 2 2 4 I 2 I I I I I I5 5I

lbhu /9. 4. I5 I2 2 3 5 4 I I I I 2 I 2 24 74

l. A. All/18 I25 33 2 7 23 2 23 6 2 2 2 7 I 2 23I 468

l. A. Allll/8 17 9 6 5 II 3 38 89

1. P. &ll/18/7 etc. I2 7 2 3 2 I 36 63

* Includes two copper specimens. "Includes one copper specimen. Includes trams with one lion.

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8 Includes ER, AM, HE, EB and JG collections. * Includes IS and IS-H (Hoard of 1600 Levon I trams).

WM PB AD MM VM BN PH HK AN KK AA BM NK KB MS

1b/7, p. 4II/78/7 etc. 8

1. P. &. (Foot turned) 35

l. P. &. (Ornate) 24

l. A. &. 36. 5I

l. P. &. J. 34

1. P. &. (Non-artistic) 64

1. P. &. (Dist-design) 21

1. ^. <ll3/7 2I

l. />. <ll? I6

1. P. 4/18 17

l. P. &ll" or <ll IO

Miscellaneous I3

Lily in right hand I8

Errors and oddities I4

Undeciphered 74

ToTAL 830

Five dots on crown 24

Six dots on crown 23

Seven or eight dots 6

323

II

5 36

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74 I54 306

LEVON I

I3

I2I

3 II I 2

2III

9 25 8 3

25I

I32

522

82I

2I

III

I3

2 I5 9 3

92 97 90 26 37

LEvoN ICopper Tanks

545

6 2 Io

I3

7I3

8III

2I

I8

25

I8 I28

53

3 4.

IS

2I

Five dots, one curl I

Six dots, one curl 30

Five dots, two curls 14

Six or seven dots

Bilingual Kaikobad 2810

Bilingual Kaikhusrew 5810

Half trams 17

Lion holding cross

with star 26

Lion holding cross

with dot 27

Lion walking, cross

with dot I32

and two curls 4

Undeciphered 4I

TOTAL I43

WM

10 Includes half-trams.

"Unfortunately the rubbings of VM and KB trams were accidentally mixed and consequentely all placed under VM.

I2

49

PB

36

62

I4

37

AD

II

26

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62

6 9 12 4 3

2345

I9 8 I3 20 4

37 38 46 32 II

MM VM10 BN PH HK AN

HETOUM-ZABEL

4 12" 5 3

6 22 20 I 8

338II

2I 6 3 I2 I 9

I8 4 8 I4 7 I4

26 I9 23 III 9 40

KK

II

AA

17

BM

I3

3 29

NK KB

I2

MS

30

39

45

IS

#.

PB AD MM VM BN

45

I5

17

WM

Lion walking, plain

CrOSS 62

Star under lion

with cross 7

Star under lion

InO CrOSS 6

Lion with no star

InO CrOSS 4

Misc. rarities I

Undeciphered 2O

TOTAL 388

Throne adorned with

lions (tank)

Throne with conven-

tionalized lions

Throne of four legs,

no star on obverse

Throne on two posts

28

69

40

17

255

I2

I6

II

86

I2

2I

IO

89

17

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17

PH HK AN

HETOUM-ZABEL

Io 17 II2

II

4 I6 Io

8I IO6 260

IO 34

I6

IO

27

38 163

HETOUM ICopper

992

17 25

I4 6

II

92

II 3

2I

KK AA BM NK KB MS

37

45

30

17 I9

King on horseback

(kardez) 28

Throne adorned with

lions (kardez) I6

King seated (kardez) 29

Undeciphered 47

TOTAL 274

Hetoum-Levon II I

Half trams 5

Lion turned left 28

Lion turned right 35

Undeciphered 5

TOTAL 74

Kardez 22

Undeciphered I2

TOTAL 34

Billon 6

I8

IO

32

39

I50

I6

2O

43

IO

22

2I

49

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I2

I23

2O

27

22

66

24

IO

39

I5

7o

17

22

43

LEVON IISilver

LEvoN IICopper

I5

IO

HETOUM IIBillon

I2

WM PB AD MM VM BN

King's head 35

King seated 47

Undeciphered

King's head I6

Undeciphered

King seated I3

TOTAL III

Trams 6

Kardez 4

Levon I type I

Trams 7

TOTAL 8

I5

I6

I3

50

I6

I2

I5

I4

57

I3

HETOUM IICopper

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I88

I65

2 3 IO

3I

4 20 24

GOSDANTIN ISilver

GosDANTIN 1Copper

SMPADSilver

PH HK AN KK AA BM NK KB MS

IS

IO4

I05

67

322

IO

2I

32

4I

Kardez

Undeciphered

TOTAL

Takvorins

Takvorins

Undeciphered

TOTAL

Kardez

Undeciphered

TOTAL

Coronation coin

Takvorins

Takvorins

Undeciphered

29

I2

4I

63

69

43

I5

2I

24

45

2O

I3

26

5I

I3

17

27

I2

I3

I4

I3

27

17

22

22

45

IO

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I3

SMPAD-Copper

95

I3 6

22 II

LEVON IIISilver

I2 I3

I2 I4

LEvoN IIICopper

8I

83

OSHINSilver

I8 3

II

II

II

I2

Takvorins with

Arabic surcharge

TOTAL

Poghs

PoghsUndec.

TOTAL

Takvorins

Takvorins

Undeciphered

Takvorins

Arabic surcharge

Arabic surcharge

King's name not

legible

TOTAL

WM PB AD MM VM BN

46

I6

22

45

55

65

50

17

I2

89

IO

I9

27

23

I8

2I

89

40

I9

IO

24

93

2I 4

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IO

OSHINCopper

LEVON IVSilver

I2

2O

PH HK AN

KK AA BM NK KB

MS

II

IO

I4

* It is assumed that most of the coins in this column are Levon IV. Some, undoubtedly belong to Oshin.

IS

I3

I9 295

37

Poghs

Poghs

Undeciphered

TOTAL

Takvorins

Poghs

Takvorins

Takvorins Undec.

TOTAL

Poghs

34

23

86

II

I2

24

33

I5

I4

22

17

I2

29

LEvoN IVCopper

GUYSilver

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I2

GUYCopper

GOSDANTIN IIISilver

262

353

5 II 5

GoSDANTIN IIICopper

IO

I3

80

IOI

46

I4I

86

227

2I

Takvorins

Takvorins undec.

TOTAL

Poghs

Takvorins

Takvorins undec.

TOTAL

Poghs

Billon

Poghs

WM

26

27

46

54

25

PB AD MM

I3

I5

39

2O

59

IO

26

52

78

I2

23

3I

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VM BN PH HK AN KK

LEVON THE USURPERSilver

6I

8I

25

LEvoN THE USURPERCopper

GoSDANTIN IVSilver

I2 I

6I

I8 2

GOSDANTIN IVCopper

LEVON VBillon

LEVON V-Copper

AA BM NK KB

II2

II2

I2

I3

MS

IS

75

I8

93

I4

I47

I27

LEVON I.

Silver

Copper

HETOUM-ZABEL

HETOUM. I.

LEVON II.

HETOUM II.

GOSDANTIN I.

SMPAD

LEVON III.

OSHIN.

LEVON IV.

GUY.

Silver

Copper

Silver

Copper

Billon

Copper

Silver

Copper

Silver

Copper

Silver

Copper

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Silver

Copper

Silver

Copper

Silver

Copper

WM

830

I43

388

274

74

34

III

4.

4I

69

58

46

22

55

4I

323

49

255

I50

43

22

50

45

24

26

65

I4

WM PB AD MM VM BN PH HK AN KK AA BM NK KB MS IS

GOSDANTIN III.

Silver 86 33 22 29 5 II 5 I 7 7 8 I3 227

Copper II 6 I I I I 2I

LEVON THE USURPER

Silver 27 15 Io 12 8 I 2 5 I I 2 5 4 93

Copper 5 3 2 3 I I4

GOSDANTIN IV.

Silver 54 59 78 31 2 18 2 6 I 3 IO IO 274

Copper 25 8 6 I 2 3 45

LEVON V. Billon 7 3 2 I I I4

Copper 6 5 4 1 I I I I9

Silver 1662 924 451 536 462 317 357 154 222 III 89 80 87 36 41o 1988 7886

Copper 777 399 37I 16I 128 20I 2 175 40 41 38 47 17 54 95 21 2567

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TOTAL 2439 1323 822 697 590 518 359 329 262 I52 I27 I27 IO4 9o 505 2009 IO453

Statistics

I25

The corpus, therefore, exclusive of counting errors, contains the fol-

lowing:

UNKNOWN RULER . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . I

PRINCE TOROS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3

PRINCE GOSDANTIN (?) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . I

PRINCE LEVON II . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . O

GOLD PIECES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . IO

LEVON I . . . . . . . . . . Silver . . . . . . . . . . 4089

Copper . . . . . . . . . 470

HETOUM-ZABEL . . . . Silver . . . . . . . . . . 1836

Copper . . . . . . . . . 977

LEVON II . . . . . . . . . Silver . . . . . . . . . . 324

Copper . . . . . . . . . I50

HETOUM II . . . . . . . . Billon . . . . . . . . . 17

Copper . . . . . . . . . 32O

SMPAD . . . . . . . . . . . Silver . . . . . . . . . . 4I

Copper . . . . . . . . . 2O4

GOSDANTIN I . . . . . . Silver . . . . . . . . . . IO

Copper . . . . . . . . . 2I

LEVON III . . . . . . . . . Silver . . . . . . . . . . 222

Copper . . . . . . . . . I49

OSHIN . . . . . . . . . . . . Silver . . . . . . . . . . 295

Copper . . . . . . . . . 72

LEVON IV . . . . . . . . . Silver . . . . . . . . . . 399

Copper . . . . . . . . . IOI

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GUY . . . . . . . . . . . . . Silver . . . . . . . . . . 46

Copper . . . . . . . . . 2

GOSDANTIN III . . . . . Silver . . . . . . . . . . 277

Copper . . . . . . . . . 2I

LEVON THE USURPER Silver . . . . . . . . . . 93

Copper . . . . . . . . . I4

GOSDANTIN IV . . . . . Silver . . . . . . . . . . 274

Copper . . . . . . . . . 45

LEVON V . . . . . . . . . . Billon . . . . . . . . . I4

Copper . . . . . . . . . I9

FORGERIES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . - - - - - I2

POST ROUPENIAN (?) . . . . . . . . . . - - - - - I3

TOTAL IO,503

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THE CORPUS

ARRANGEMENT OF THE CORPUS

The corpus is arranged in a chronological order of rulers.

The coins of each ruler are given in the order of completeness of the

inscription on the obverse. Under each obverse inscription, the re-

verse inscriptions are listed beginning with the most complete legend

and ending with the least complete one. Various types of coins issued

by the same ruler but having the same obverse inscription are listed

under different headings. An index of legends appears at the end of

the corpus.

Wherever possible, the weight (in grams) and the percentage silver

content of the coin are given, along with the location of that specimen.

The number following the citation indicates the number of coins of

that type in a particular collection. Thus, 2.9 (88%), PB; WM (9),

specifies that the type of coin in question weighs 2.9 grams, has a

silver content of 88%, and is in PB collection; also, that 9 specimens

of that type of coin are in WM collection. The citations are explained

in the bibliography section.

The * mark indicates that the specimen is illustrated. The location

of the specimen is also indicated by * mark preceding the citation.

The corpus is numbered consecutively, each type variation being

given a different number. Those of the same variety, though not

necessarily from the same die, are given a single number.

Since there was no fixed die position in striking the coins of this

period, the die positions have been omitted.

Listing of the diameters has also been omitted since there were

often considerable variations in each type and the specimens were

not always perfectly circular. A sufficient number of coins are illus-

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trated, however, to indicate the size and shape of most types.

Practically all of the photographs were taken from aluminum paper

impressions. At first glance they appear to lack contrast, but on

examination with a magnifying glass will show much of the detail of

the coin.

I28

PRINCES

*1 Attributed to Toros II (11451169).

Obv. II////Jhl(?) /m/mu

Rev. Undeciphered

*PB(1).

Ia UNKNOWN PRINCE."

Legend Undeciphered

BN(1).

*2 UNKNowN PRINCE. Attributed to an early Roupenian prince,

possibly Gosdantin I (Io95Io99) or Toros I (Io991129).

Obv. ///////ull&#/////

Rev. /////7/'4LIRR///

*VM(1).

*3 TOROS I (Io99II29) or TOROS II (II451169).

Obv. ////iuh 5 /k/.

Rev. Various marks and characters.

*WM(1); PB(1) (Legend clockwise)

PRINCE LEvoN II. (11871199)

[Later King Levon I]

*4 Obv. Ib'l/T, Ull/\ll 118

Rev. 0/"kh USb.bl.ukh

* Morgan, History of the Armenian People, p. 193. Although this coin is

placed among the Armenian coins in the Cabinet des Mdailles, it is im-

possible to assign it definitely to this period.

* Alishan, Sissouan, p. 378. This appears to be a genuine coin and bears

some resemblance in styling to the early Crusader coins. The condition of

the coin does not permit a reading of the inscription.

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*Although listed as a coin in various numismatic books, this is a rather

thick specimen and bears little resemblance to the coins of this period. It

may be a medal rather than a coin struck for circulation. A second specimen,

apparently a coin, was recently seen by Prof. A. Donabedian in Beirut.

* The existence of so many specimens indicates clearly that Levon had

9 I29

I30 Coinage of Cilician Armenia

WM [Vienna Mekhitarian Museum]

VM [Venice Mekhitarian Museum]

*AD [A. Donabedian Collection, Beirut, Lebanon]

. MM [Mardikian Museum, Beirut, Lebanon]

NL [Bibliothque Nubar, Paris]

. BN [Bibliothque Nationale, Paris]

BN [Bibliothque Nationale, Paris]

ER [State Historical Museum, Erivan, Armenia]

PB [P. Bedoukian, New York]

. DG [Formerly in possession of Dr. Der Ghazarian

of Aleppo, Syria, now lost]"

GOLD COINS2

LEVON I

*5 Obv. Lhm, Pll'UR/l/ All&/18

Rev. Will//.T.M.R/0/#, Ill/SRU/18

*BN(2); KB(1).

*6 Obv. l.b.ht, /ll'NIR/l/ All&/18

Rev. Ill//.7/mk/fu lll/S/ho/)

WM(1); *BN(1); NK(1); VM(1)(?).

*7 LEVON I HETOUM I

Obv. lb/), foll?-ll/-/l/ All24 / 8+

Rev. &b/9/TRU /NI'llh/7 <ll3/78

WM(1); *VM(1).

*8 GOSDANTIN I

Obv. 'i/US/","kh", /7% &ll3/18

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Rev. UU/18 RB/"", l. AlI'll/m

*VM(1); IS(1).

established a mint or made use of the existing mint before his coronation.

All of the coins examined were quite worn but a careful examination

revealed that they were struck with more than one die.

1 Garabetian, Pazmaveb, July-Sept. 1952, p. 156.

* For a discussion of the gold coins, see p. 68.

Levon I I3L

LEVON I

[Crusader Type Coins Struck in Antioch]

9 Obv. LEO DEI GRATIA1

Rev. REX ARMENIOR

*IO Obv. LEO DEI GRATIA

Rev. REX ARMENOR

*WM(1).

*II Obv. LEO DEI//////

Rev. REX. ARMENOR

*MM(1).

I2 Obv. LEO REX2

Rev. ARMENOR

BN(1).

DOUBLE TRAMS

Lh/Tu /NIQUIR/l/ III/'bullt, All 5/18

*13 ill/010R/bill/full USmR/18 Rev. No field mark.

5.48, (84%), *PB, PB(1); ER(1); VM(1); WM(1); MM(1).

*14 ill/I'lmk/bluff, UUSmR/18 Rev. Field mark h, to

left of lion.

*VM(1); KB(1); BN(1).

*15 ill/I'lmh/bluff, UUSmRwn Rev. Field mark C to

left of lion.

*VM(1).

*163 ill// '10R/ bluff, UUS/IRWI18 Rev. Lion facing right

and field mark /h to

right of lion.

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*BN(1).

1 Schlumberger, Revue Archologique, N. S. 16, 3oe. p. 345349, 1875,.

mentions this coin, but its present whereabouts is unknown to me.

* Apparently, this is the coin described as a second variety in Basmadjian,

. I48.

lion facing right is most likely an error on the part of the die-maker

It is noteworthy that the lion facing right is also found in the half double

trams of which four are listed: Nos. 66 and 67.

9*

I32 Coinage of Cilician Armenia

*17 ill/I'lmk/bf, LusmRwm3 Rev. Field mark A to

left of lion's tail.

PB(1); *NK(1).

18 ill// ?/mh/bf, LIUS/Thir/18 Rev. Cinquefoil to left

of tail.

ER(1).

*19 ill/m/mk/ft uusmRwns Rev. No field mark.

5.55, *KK; WM(2); ER(1); BN(1).

lbf/7, p.7/ Ill/'bull3, Alln

20 'ill// '1/1/./bf, LIUS/IRT/18 Rev. Dot under lion.

Obv. Dot under fleur

de lys.

VM(2).

*21 ill//7/1/./b/#, III/S/\hb/18 Rev. Cinquefoil over

lion.

*AN(1).

22 ill//11/mh/bf, lll/S/IRU/18 Rev. No field mark.

ER(1); HE (1).

*23 Ill/010R/f, UUSmR/18 Rev. Cinquefoil to left

of lion.

5.44, (98%); 5:55, (98%), *PB; 5.40; 5.50, KK;

WM(5); VM(2); AN(2); BM(1); ER(9); MM(1); BN(2);

HE(I).

24 Ill/010R/f, UUSmRwm3 Rev. No field mark.

5.36, (98%), PB; WM(1); NK(1); BN(3); ER(2).

*25 ill/I'lmk/f, UUSmRw/18 Rev. Cinquefoil to left

lion.

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of lion and ,, above

5.47, (98%), PB; 5.25, *KK; WM(3); ER(6); VM(1);

BN(2); EB(1).

Levon I I33

26 ill/'0'10R/ fu ll.US/IRU/18 Rev. Cinquefoil to right

of cross.

ER(1).

*27 ill/I'lmk/f, III/SmR/18 Rev. Cinquefoil to left

of lion and dot over

and under lion.

4.65; 5.35, KK; *WM(2); VM(2); ER(4); BN(1); EB(1);

PB(1).

*28 ill/'07/1///#, IUS/IR//18 Rev. Half moon to left

of lion and dot to right

of lion's tail.

ER(1); *BM(1).

29 ill/I'l/R/F, UUSmRw/18 Rev. Half moon to left

of lion and dot to left

of front paw.

WM(1).

3o ill/'0'10//ft, UUSmR/18 Rev. Dot under lion's

tail.

WM(1); VM(1).

31 ill/'0'10R/f, UUSmRw/18 Rev. Cinquefoil under

lion's tail and three

dots under lion.

VM(1).

32 ill/I'lmk/fu UUSmRw/18 Rev. Cinquefoil to left

of lion and dot above

lion.

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AD(1).

33 ill/I'lmk/f, UUSmRwn Rev. Cinquefoil to left

of lion.

lbf/11, foll'UR/l/ 3UB/78

*34 ill/I'mh/bft, UUSilkw/18 Rev. Cinquefoil over

lion.

*ER(1).

I34 Coinage of Cilician Armenia

*35 ill/I'lmk/fu III/SmRw/18 Rev. Dot to right of lion.

*MM(1).

DOUBLE TRAMS OF COPPER"

lbf/iu (''}/ lll/'bull3, All#08

36 ill/I'lmk/ft III/SmRwn& Similar to 23.

WM(2).

37 ill/I'lmk/fu IIUSmR/18 Similar to 27.

BN(1).

HALF DOUBLE TRAMS

lbf/T, /NIQUIR/l/ All&/18 b

*38 ill/I'lmk/fu IIUSmRw/18 Rev. Cinquefoil to left

of lion and dot under

tail.

*VM(1).

39 ill/I'mh/f, Ill/S//w/18 Rev. h. to left of lion

and dot to left of tail.

ER(1); BN(1).

lbf/11, foll'UR/l/ 3U.8/78 /

4o ill/010R/fu III/SmRw/18 Rev. Field marks as in

49.

2.80, KK; ER(2); AN(1); MM(1).

41 Ill/'07/1///#, III/S/10/18 Rev. Field marks as in

49.

VM(1).

* The existence of these copper double trams is puzzling especially in view

of the fact that no coppers of half double trams have been discovered so

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far. They may be forgeries although they appeared to be struck with a die

similar to the silver coins. These are the only copper coins of Levon I

struck with a die used for silver coins. There is however a single specimen

of a copper coin of Hetoum-Zabel coin (No. 1421) and a copper coin of

Oshin (No. 1936) struck with silver coin dies.

Levon I I35

42 ill/07/1/.hfu IIUSAw/18 Rev. Field marks as in

49. Note error in legend.

ER(1).

Ibh/TL /NIQUIR/l/ Allm

*43 "ill/I'l/lh/bluff, UUS/IRWIl Rev. No field mark.

*WM(2); VM(2); ER(1); BM(1); BN(2).

*44 Ill/I'lmk/fu UUSmRw/18 Rev. No field mark.

2.75; 2.45; 2.70, (83%); 2.77, (89%); 2.73, *PB; PB(3);

WM(5); ER(8); AN(2); VM(1); MM(4); BN(8); IS(1).

45 ill/'0'10R/ fu lll/S/IRufl Rev. Cinquefoil to left

of lion.

2.58, (91%), PB; ER(1); BN(1).

46 ill/I'l/R^f, UUS/IRWIl Rev. Field marks as

in 38.

VM(1).

47 'ill/'07/1//f, UUSmRw/18 Rev. h. to left of lion.

WM(2); ER(1); VM(1); AD(1); MM(1).

48 ill/I'lmk/f, UUSmRwns Rev. Il to left of lion.

AD(1).

*49 ill/'0'10R/ft, UUSmRw/18 Rev. h. to left of lion

and dot above lion.

2.65, KK; PB(1); ER(4); *WM(3); BM(1); MM(2);

BN(2); HE(1).

50 ill/'0'10A/f, UUSmRwn& Rev. Dot to left of lion.

ER(1).

51 ill/I'lmk/ft, UUSmRw/18 Rev. Cinquefoil to

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left of lion and dot

under tail.

ER(1).

136

Coinage of Cilician Armenia

52

53

54

55

56

57

58

59

*60

6I

*62

63

till// '10R/ fu ll.JSUR/18

2.90, PB.

ill/I'l/l/r/fu IIUS/10//18

WM(1).

"ill// ?///0ft, UUSAF/18

Rev. Field mark as

in 49.

Rev. Field markasin.62.

Rev. Field markasin.62.

2.79, (90%); 2.72, (93%); 2.60, (88%); 2.66; 2.63,

PB; WM(5); ER(2); MM(2); BN(3).

'ill/'0"/"R/>Ru II.USA" (18

Rev. Fieldmarkasin 62.

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2.77, (89%), PB; WM(4); ER(3); VM(1); NK(1); BN(2).

till//.T.M.R/9/#, IUSAF/18

WM(1).

'ill/P/11/1///#, Ill/S/10/l

WM(1); PB(1); ER(1).

Ill//11/1/0/if', LIUS/.7/)

ER(2).

"ill//.7////#, IUST/18

WM(1); VM(1).

'ill/'0'10///#, IUST/18

*BN(1).

till/I'l/R//#, IUSR/18

VM(1).

"ill/P/11/1///#, IUSR/18

*MM(2).

'ill/I'l/l/r/fu UUS/18

2.88, (90%), PB; ER(1).

Rev. as above but

till/MIT/IR/\,.

Rev. No field mark.

Rev. No field mark.

Rev. Field mark as

in 49.

Rev. ff to left of lion

and dot above lion.

Rev. Field marks as

in 49.

Rev. h. to left of lion.

Rev. Field mark as

in 49.

Levon I I37

64 ill/I'l/IR/f, IIUSRU/18 Rev. Field marks as

in 62.

VM(1).

*65 ill/I'lmk/bft.(?) UUSmirn Rev. No field mark.

*BN(1).

66 ill/MIT/IR//#, IUSmh/18 Rev. Lion turned right.

Lion and field mark

mirror image of 49.

2.66, (84%), PB; 2.55, KK.

*67 ill/'0'10R/f, UUSmRm Rev. As above but with-

out dot over lion.

*AA(1); BN(I).

HALF TRAMS

Quarter Double Trams."

*68 Obv. lb/i/1", foll?. Rev. No field marks.

Rev. Ilh/l/ 3UB/78

1.27, (92%), PB; ER(1); *BM(1).

Regular Half Trams

Ibh/T, PUQUR/l/ 3U8/18 H

69 urinnleft uusman #-

HE(1).

* Sibilian, p. 78, shows a drawing of a quarter double tram which Schlum-

berger had copied from a specimen in Markar Alishan's collection. The

whereabouts of this coin is not known at present. A single specimen was

found in the Daphne hoard and the author's coin came from the Kelekian

collection. Judging from Sibilian's drawing, the author's coin may be the

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Markar Alishan specimen. The origin of the British Museum's specimen

is not known.

138 Coinage of Cilician Armenia

lbf/", /NI'llh/l/ 3UBll h

*70 upmakes, uusnRun #-

*VM(1).

Ibh/Tu /NIQUIR/l/ All3/18

*71 upmaleft uusmund -H.

1.32, (98%); 1.30, PB; 1.30, KK; *WM(1); VM(1);

AD(1); MM(1).

'72 unmaleft uusman #H

*WM(1).

lbf/T, 0ll'll R/T &ll3/18

'73 unmalest uusmans '+

1.06, (86%), PB, PB(1); *WM(2); VM(1); BN(3).

74 ill/010R/ft, UUSmirn ++

MM(1).

Ibh/T, /NI'll R/T &ll36

75 ill/I'lmk/fu UUSORT/ #+

*KB(1).

Ibh/7t, All?-ll/-/7 <ll31

*76 ill/I'lmk/f, UUS (++- Rev. Lions and cross

inverted as in 32I.

1.25, *PB.

* It is interesting that this errorinverted cross and lionsoccurs on a

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number of trams: Nos. 673680.

Levon I I39

CORONATION TRAMS

Single lion type

lh/77, (NIQUIR/l/ Alln

76al ill/'07/h/ft US # 0.1%m

WM-H (1).

*77 ill/'07/h/fu III/SIN008

*AD(1).

77a ill/I'l/lh/ft, UUSm/

WM-H (3).

77b turninh/f, uUSmun(?)

WM-H (1).

77c ill/I'lmk/fu UUSn

WM-H (3).

Ibh/T, /NI'll R/T &ll3/18

*78 ill/I'lmk/f, UUS

2.75, KK; *VM(1); BM(1); NK(1).

Ibh/7, foll?-ll/-/7 <ll3/7

78a ill/'0"/IR/f, UUSn

HM-H(2)

*79 ill/I'l/ih/fi, UUS/

2.88, (83%), *PB.

8o ill//.7/IA/f, Ill/S

WM(1); AD(1).

Ibh/7, foll?-IIR/7 <ll#

81 ill//11/1///#, IUS

WM(1); WM-H(I).

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1 All the coronation trams in the Vienna Mekhitarian Museum marked

WM-H appear to be part of a hoard.

I40 Coinage of Cilician Armenia

Two lion type"

lbf/T, foll'UR/l/ 3UB/18 H

[Letters in obverse field]*:

82 upinnhof, uUSI (Su) (-|- Obv. As in 84.

MM(1).

lbf/TL /NIQUIR/l/ 3U8/18/

*83 lupinnhof, uus (Su) ()----.

*WM(1).

*84 turninhof, uus (8L) (-|-

*VM(1).

Ibh/), foll'llh/l/ All/18

*85 upninhof, uus (8x) [H+-:

*WM(1).

86 Tupinnhof, uus (83)] (+-

EB(1).

Ibh/T, foll'UR/T &ll&/

87 lu//11/k/fu UUI (8) (H

WM(2).

Ibh/", /ll'}llh/l/ Allfl 1

[No letters in obverse field]:

*88 ill//.7/mh/ft, UUS/ (-F:

2.85, (98%), PB, *AD(1); HE(1); WM-H(I); HE(1).

* The crosses on the reverse of the coronation coins representing a number

of varieties, are quite distinct and different from the crosses found on the

ordinary trams of Levon I.

* One might assume that the letters 8 and l stand for 8PU/lhU (Jesus)

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and UUS/IRllo (God).

Levon I I4I

Ibh/TL /NIQUIR/l/ All/18

*89 upmni/f, uusmkoms (----.

*WM(1); BN(1).

*90 upmanpf, uusnRwns (---.

NK(1); *VM(1); WM(1); MM(1).

91 Rupmml/ft uusmnon (----. Obv. As in 104.

WM(1); WM-H(2).

*92 lupinnhof, uusmkum (F:

*WM(2).

93 lipinnhof, uusmnon (t+-: Obv. As in 111.

MM(1); IS(1).

94 ill/I'lmk/ft, UUSmR. (H. Obv. As in 89.

WM(1).

94a ill/I'lnhof, UUSmR (-|-: Obv. As in 96.

MM(1).

95 turn"mh/f, uusmrit (-|--. Obv. As in 90.

BM(1).

*96 upmanoff, uusman ( : .

*NK(1).

96a ill/I'mh/f, uusmko (---. Obv. As in 104.

HE(1).

97 lipinnhof, uusmao (-F: Obv. As in 96.

BM(1).

97a turninhof, uusmrit (----. Obv. As in 111.

WM-H(I).

98 ill/I'l/R/ft, UUSml (----. Obv. As in 96.

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NK(1); AD(1).

I42 Coinage of Cilician Armenia

99 ill/I'l/ih/ft, UUSml (---. Obv. As in 90.

WM(1).

99a ill/I'l/R/ft, UUSm' (---. Obv. As in 104.

WM-H(I).

Ioo ill//17/nh/2,fu IIUS/ (-K & Obv. As in 96.

WM(1).

IoI ill//.7/mh/FL IIUS/) |-|-: Obv. As in 89.

NK(1); AN(1).

Io2 ill// ?/l/r/ fu ll.JS/) (-|-: Obv. As in 111.

BN(1).

103 ill/'0'10R/F, UUS/ (H. Obv. As in 90.

WM(1).

*104 ill/I'lmk/fu UUS/ (-F-4

*AN(I); HE(1); WM-H(I).

Io5 Ill/'0'10R/ft, UUS/ (---. Obv. As in 89.

WM(1).

Io6 ill//17/nh/2,fu III/S/ (----. Obv. As in 89.

AA(1)

Io6a ill/P/11/1/.//#, Ill/S/. (----. Obv. As in 111.

WM-H(1).

107 ill/I'lmk/f, UUS (-F : Obv. As in 90.

WM(1).

Io8 ill//.7/mh/ fu ll.JS (----. Obv. As in 90.

WM(2).

Io9 ill/'07/h/fu Uus (++-: Obv. As in 90.

WM(1).

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IIo ill//.7/k/) fu ll.US (-|- Obv. As in 104.

WM(1); VM(1); IS(1); WM-H(2); JG(2).

Levon I I43

*III ill/P/11/mk/ft, UUS (-|-:

2.86, (90%); 2.66, (83%); 2.72, PB; 2.95, KK(1);

*NK(1); WM(6); VM(2); HK(1); AD(1); BN(1);

WM-H(2).

II2 ill/'07/1//ft, LIUS (----. Obv. As in 89.

BN(I).

Ibh/1%, All?UR/T &ll3/18

*113 ill/I'l/R/NIR, UUSmR (-|--

*WM(1).

*114 ill/I'lmk/f, UUS/ (-F:

*NK(1); BM(1).

115 ill/I'l/ih/ft, UUS (----. Obv. As in 114.

WM(1); VM(1); BM(1); WM-H(3).

II6 ill/010R/ fu ULS (---. Obv. As in 111.

WM(2); AN(1).

II6a ill/'0'10R/ full US ( ... Obv. As in 111.

WM-H(2).

II6b ill/I'l/mk/fu IIU |--|--: Obv. As in 114.

WM-M(1).

Ibh/TL /NIQUR/m &ll3/.

117 Ill/'0'10R/ft, UUS/ (----. Obv. As in 118.

VM(1).

*II8 fill//.7/IA/ft, UUS (----.

*WM(1); BM(1); BN(2).

II8a ill/'0'1/lh/ fu lll/S |--|--. Obv. Three ray light

descending.

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HE(1).

I44 Coinage of Cilician Armenia

Ibh/]", /NIQUIR/T &ll/18

119 turm"/"pf, uusmrit (----. Obv. As in 120.

VM(1).

119a turninhof, uusmi, (---. Obv. Similar to 88.

WM-H(1).

*120 ill/-/17/lk/fu III/S/m/, (----.

*VM(1).

121 ill/I'l/R/fu III/S/NA #H-: Obv. As in 120.

3.00, KK.

lbf/17, All'll R/T &ll#

*I22 ill/P/I'l/mh/fu ULS (-F:

*WM(1); VM(1); WM-H(I).

122a ill// '10R/>Ru lll) (-|-:

2.88, PB(1).

TRAMS

lbf/11, foll?/7 Ul/'b'l Allm

123 ill/I'l/R/F, UUSmRwm3 ++ Short cross.

2.54; 2.91; 2.67, PB, PB(1); IS-H(I).

124 urnaleft uusmong 4-H -

KK(1); VM(I); IS-H(2).

*125 unmaleft uusmans '+-

2.90, PB; 2.75, *KK; WM(6); IS-H(3); IS(3); JG(1).

126 ill/'07/1/2/2/#, Ill/S/NAT/18 #

WM(5); AD(2); KB(1); HK(1); ER(1); HE(1); IS(3).

127 upmanoff, uusnfirms ##-

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AD(1).

Levon I I45

fo

128 Wurmanef, uusmong #.

MM(1); IS-H(1).

128a urinnleft uusmona 4H

IS-W(4); IS(1).

128b Wurmneft uusmund 4-F

AM(1).

120 urinnleft uusovna (4

2.83: 2.91, (81%), PB, PB(1); 2.60, KK; AA(1);

IS-H(4); IS(1).

130 urinnleft uusmong '-'-

WM(1).

130a urinnleft uusmund 4+

IS(1).

I 3ob 'ill/'07/mk/?ft, UUS/ht/13 ++-

IS(1).

131 Wirinnleft uusman #H

2.90, (93%), PB; WM(1); IS-H(2).

132 unmaleft uusman #H

VM(1); AD(1); BM(1).

132a 'ill//.7/mh//, LIUS/NAT/, #+

IS(1).

132b urmanent uusman #-F.

IS-H(I).

132c urmanef, uusman ##

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IS-H(I).

132d urinnleft uusmnon ##

IS-H(I).

I46 Coinage of Cilician Armenia

133 ill/I'l/R/F, UUS/10/18 *H.

3.00, (94%), PB, HK(1); IS(1).

*134 upmmleft uusmine ##

*AD(1); WM(1); AN(1); BN(1); IS-H(I); IS(1).

135 ill/I'l/R/F, UDS/W/18 #+

2.85, KK; IS-H(2); IS(1).

136 ill/I'l/R/f, UUS/ho/1 ++ Short cross.

2.75, KK; PH(1).

137 upmaleft uusman ##

WM(1); VM(1); KB(1); IS-H(I); IS(1).

137a upmaleft uuskune 4+-

IS-H(I).

138 urmanent uusman #H

2.83, PB, IS(1).

138a urnaleft uusmin '+-

IS-H(I).

Ibh/T, Oll?/m lll/'b', 'll/)

139 ill/I'lmk/fu UUSmR/18 #+ Short cross.

VM(1).

140 upmaleft uusmund 4-H.

VM(1).

*141 urmaleft uusmund 4H

*WM(1); VM(1).

141a upmmleft uusmong 4-H.

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IS(1).

Levon I I47

142 upmakes, usions & H Short cross.

AD(1); IS-H(1).

lbf/T, /NIQ/m lll/'b', 'll8

*143 urmaheft uusmond #H

*WM(3); IS-H(I); IS(1).

144 'ill/'0'1/MR/F, UUS/IRWI13

MM(1).

144a ill/I'llmh/fu IIUSnRT/18

IS(2).

WM(1); MM(1).

146 ill/I'l/mk/f, UUSINE/

HK(1).

146a ill/'0"/"R/F, UUS/ht/1

IS(1).

W#

##

145 'ill/I'l/R//#, IUS/Rm #+ Short cross.

W#

#+

lbf/", /NIQUIR/l/ All3/18 h"

[Non-artisticwith footstool]

147 'urmanoff, uusmans (++--

2.95; 2.88, (80%), PB; WM(2); MM(1); IS-H(8); IS(2).

*148 urinnleft uusmans (++-

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*VM(1).

149 turninhof, uusmagne (++--

WM(1).

* The letter k often appears as /.

* In practically all non-artistic coins the letter 7 is inverted and appears

like an inverted 8.

re"

I48 Coinage of Cilician Armenia

149a 'll/I'mhof, uUSmh908 (++-

IS-H(I).

149b lupirinhof), UusnRS/6 (++-

IS-H(I).

149c ill/I'lmk/fu Uusimhn (++-: Obv. Sometimes 3 dots

under fleur de lys.

IS-H(4).

150 lupinnipf, uusmism (++-:

WM(1).

151 turninhof, uusmi,90 (++--.

AN(I); MM(1).

152 turm"/"pf, uusmi,80 (++-:

2.63; 2.79, (83%); 2.75, PB; MM(1); IS-H(I).

153 ill/I'mh/fu UusnR80 (++-:

3.Io, PB.

154 lupinnhof, uusmham (++-

2.83, (84%), PB, HK(1); IS-H(I).

155 upmakoff, uusmism (++-

MM(2).

156 upman/fu uusmham (++-

PB(1); IS-H(I).

156a turninhof, uusmi,8m (++-.

IS-H(I).

157 upinnipfit uusmans (++-

KK(1).

158 ill/P/17/1//ft, UUSORS (++- Obv. Three dots under

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CIOSS.

2.91, (89%); 2.89, (83%), PB; PH(I).

Levon I I49

159 "ll"/"10//ft, UUSmR8 (++- Obv. Three dots under

cross or fleur de lys.

VM(1); KB(1).

160 ill/mmhof, uusmns (++-

WM(1).

160a ilirminhof, uusmns (++-:

IS-H(I).

16ob Wurmaheft uusmns (++-:

IS-H(3).

160c turmhoff, uusme (++-:

IS-H(1).

Ibh/r, All'UR/l/ 3U806 1

[Non-artisticno footstool]

161 Wirmneft uusmagne (++--

WM(3); VM(2); IS-H(7).

162 'ill/'07/1///#, IUS/kg/18 (++- Obv. Three dots to right

of fleur de lys.

2.92, (86%), PB, IS-H(I).

163 Wirmnest uusmans (++-

WM(1); IS-H(2).

164 "ll"/"Pft uusmi,608 (++- obv}Three dots under

fleur (de lys.

VM(1).

165 Surmineft uusmagne (++-

WM(1); IS-H(1).

165a Wurmanef, uusmagne (++-:

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IS-H(1).

* Sometimes the footstool is barely visible.

I50 Coinage of Cilician Armenia

165b lupinnipf, uusmagn (++-:

IS-H(2).

165c lupinnhof, uUSmh908 (++-:

IS-H(2); IS(1).

166 Wurman/fu UusnR80 (++-: Obv. Sometimes dot to

left of cross.

2.93, (83%), PB; VM(2); IS-H(2); IS(1).

167 upmanof, uusnR80 (++-

WM(1); IS(1).

168 upmnhof, uusmism (++-

WM(2); VM(1).

169 lupinnhof, uusmh90 (++-

VM(1).

17o upmah/f, UUSmR80 (++-

VM(1).

*171 upmnhof, uusmism (++- Obv. Three dots to right

of fleur de lys.

2.81, (83%), *PB.

171a turninhof, uUSmh90 (++-:

IS-H(4).

171b lupinnhof, uUSmh90 (++-

IS(1).

*172 Murmaheft uusm" (#-

*AA(1); IS-H(I).

173 ill/I'lmk/fu UUS/19 (++-

WM(1); IS-H(I).

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174 ill/I'l/R/ft, UUS/19 (++-

VM(1); WM(1).

Levon I I5I

175 'ill// '10R/ F. LUS/19 (++---

2.86, PB, WM(1); IS-H(I).

175a ill/'07/0R/?fu UIUS/19 (++-i

IS-H(I); IS(1).

175b ill//11/mk/fu IIUS/19 (++-:

IS-H(I).

Ibh/1, Pll'UR/l/ 3UB/18 H

[Ornate obverse]

*176 ill/I'l/R/RW, UUSmh908

PB(2); *BM(1).

176a ill"/"mhof, uUSmin (++-

IS-H(I).

177 ill/mmhof, uusmham (++-

VM(1); IS-H(I).

178 unmanoff, uusman (++--

WM(1).

179 ill/'07.0R/ft IIUS/RAgn (++-

PB(1).

lbf/1, Pll'NIR/l/ All3/18 H

[Star instead of cross in the inscription circle]

180 ill/mmhouf, uusmans (.---

WM(1); IS-H(2); IS(1).

181 ill/m/mk/ft uusmisms (#. Obv. 1 for k

WM(1); IS-H(1).

*182 ill/010R/ft uusmh908 (++-

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*VM(1), WM(1); MM(1); IS-H(I); IS(1).

I52 Coinage of Cilician Armenia

183 ill/mmhof, UUSmlign (#:

WM(1)(?).

184 ill/I'lmk/f, ul/Smh908 (-F-

BN(1).

185 'ill/I'lmk/f, UUSmR80 *(++- Obv. 1 for k

PB(1); WM(1); VM(1); AD(1); IS-H(2).

186 ill/I'lmk/f, ul/SmR80 *(++-

3.10, PB; WM(2); IS-H(I).

187 lupirinhof, uusmhn -(+-

WM(1); BN(1); AD(1); IS-H(I).

lbf/7, foll%llh/7/ &llfl "

(Artistic style)

187a Wurmanent uusmond (-|--

IS-H(1).

187b urmanef, uusman #H

IS-H(2).

187c hurmaheft uusm" &H

IS-H(I).

187d urmanef, uusa" (#-

IS(1).

Ibh/1%, All?AIR/7 &ll/18 /

188 ill// '10R/ Fu ll.USmh/18 #+

WM(2).

188a burmanef, uusmnon' '+

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IS(2); IS-H(4).

Levon I I53

188b urmnest uus" &H

IS-H(1).

*189 urinnleft uusmn, '--

*WM(4); VM(2); KB(1); IS-H(5).

Ibh, All'UR/l/ All&ng 1

(Artistic style)

199 urmanent uusmona 4H

WM(2).

1998 Wirmnest uusman #E

IS(1).

190b Wirmneft uusm', '+

IS(2).

1bR, All?AIR/l/ zu08 H

*191 urmanef, uusmong (#--

*WM(1).

lbf/7, foll%llh/l/ All&III/6

[Distinctive designno footstool]

*192 hurmaheft uusmnon (++-:

2.94, PB, *WM(I); MM(1); IS-H(3); IS(2).

193 urm"/"ft unsmo (1H:

WM(2). -

194 Wirm"/"ft unsmo (1H

3.05, PB; WM(1); AD(1); MM(1); IS-H(I).

194a Wirmneft unsaku (4-H -.

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IS-H(1).

I54 Coinage of Cilician Armenia

194b Ill/'0'10R/f, UUS/10 (++-:

IS(2).

lbf/17, Pll?-ll/-/7 <ll#UU81

[Distinctive designwith footstool]

195 lupinnhof, uusnRm.: (++-: Rev. Non artistic.

WM(1); IS-H(I).

*196 upmnipf, uusmnon (++:

WM(2); PH(I); *AD(1).

196a lupinnhof, uusnRun (++-:

IS-H(3).

197 upmnhof, uusmn, ... (++:

2.95, PB.

198 ill/I'lmk/f, UUSmR. (++:

2.86; 2.85, PB; AD(1); WM(1); IS(2); IS-H(2); HE(1).

199 upinnhof, uusm" (4-#-:

WM(1).

200 turninhof, uusnRW (4-H.:

NK(1); MM(1); IS(1); S-H(I).

201 upmml/fu unsm" -: (++-:

2.95, PB; WM(2); IS-H(3).

201a upmnhof, unsmit5 (++-:

IS-H(2).

201b lupinnhof, unsmit (++-:

IS-H(2).

202 'ill/P/11/mh/*f, II/SR. (++-:

2.79, PB; WM(1); NK(1); IS-H(I).

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* All of the crosses seem to have a in the middle, whenever uncertain it

was omitted.

Levon I I55

lbh/7, All?ll R/T &ll{}ll/8

[Two dots on obverse]

203 upinnheft uusnRuns (++-- Rev. Non artistic.

MM(1); IS-H(3).

204 Wurmahof, uusmann (++-:

WM(1).

*205 upmanoff, uusmin (++-:

2.87, (88%), PB, *WM(2); AD(3); MM(1); IS-H(4).

205a Surman/ft uusa" -: (++-:

IS-H(1).

205b lupinnhof, uusa" ("H.:

IS-H(3); IS(1); JG(1).

206 Wurmaneft uusm" (1+-.

WM(2).

206a lipinnhof, unsmit (++-:

HE(1).

206b 'lipinnhof, uusm (4#-:

IS-H(I).

207 ill//.7/IA/f, L.J.Sm. (++-:

2.95, PB.

lbh/7, pl!'}llh/l/ Allm/]

207a Wurmanent uusmund 4-H -

IS-H(I).

*20s urinnleft uusmund 4-F

PB(1); *WM(2); VM(1).

208a ill/'07/1/.//#t, UUS/h/13

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IS(1); IS-H(3).

I56 Coinage of Cilician Armenia

209 upinnipf, uusman #H

WM(1); VM(1).

210 upmakes, uusman #H

2.93, (90%), PB, HK(1); MM(1); IS-H(2).

211 upinnheft uusa" (#-

WM(1); MM(1); IS(1); IS-H(1).

212 upmanef, uusm, '+

PB(1); KK(1); WM(1); IS-H(1).

212a unmaleft uusm &#-

IS-H(1).

Ibh/, /NIQUR/T &ll/18/

212b urmanef, uusm" (#-

IS-H(1).

212c upmakes, uusm, '+-

IS-H(2).

212d upmmleft uusm, #E

IS-H(7).

Ibh/", /\I'll R/T &ll/18/1

213 upmanoff, uusmons & H.

WM(1).

*214 upmakes, uusm", "-H

2.84; 2.78, (82%), PB, *WM(4); IS-H(7).

214a upinnheft uusm (1H:

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IS-H(I).

Levon I I57

2I4b ill// '10R/ fu IIUS/

IS-H(6).

lbf/7, /ll'}ll//m &llll/18

215 lirman/ft uusmnon (++-:

HK(1).

*216 Wrmhoff, uusmn; (4H:

2.74, PB, *VM(1); IS(1).

216a Wurmanent uusman (H

IS-H(I).

217 Wurmahpf, uusmn; (4H:

MM(1).

218 urman/ft unsaku (4H:

WM(1).

219 ill/'07/1//ft, II/S/mlity

WM(1); IS-H(1).

220 ill/'07/1///#, IUSU/ #+-

2.95, PB.

lbh/7), /NI'llh/l/ &ll3/8L.

"221 ill/mmhoff, uusmi, (++-(?)

*WM(1).

lbh/7, /ll%llh/l/ All3/1/18

221a turninheft uusmin (++-:

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IS-H(I).

I58 Coinage of Cilician Armenia

Ibh/1%, All QWIR/l/ Allfl

[Artistic style]

221b urmanefluusmune 16+

IS-H(I).

*222 upmaleft uusmong '-H-

2.85; 2.90, (87%); 2.64, PB, PB(5); KK(1); AD(3);

NK(1); KB(2); BM(1); PH(4); HK(8); *WM(17);

MM(1); BN(3); IS(1); EB(3); IS-H(32).

223 upmaleft uusmong {

KK(1); WM(1).

224 upmakes uusmund 4-H.

3.10; 2.95, PB, AA(1); WM(1); KK(1); IS-H(3).

225 unmaleft uusmune 4+

2.99, (94%); 3.00, (98%); 2.94, PB; WM(5); AD(2);

KB(1); PH(I); MM(2); IS(1); IS-H(16).

226 unmaleft uusmune 4-H -

2.95, PB; WM(8); VM(3); AD(1); HK(1); MM(1); PB(1).

IS-H(II).

227 unmaleft uusmong 4-H -

WM(1); AA(1); AD(2); MM(1); IS(1); IS-H(6).

228 unmaleft uusmans '+-

2.92, PB; WM(5); BM(1); AA(1); AD(1); BN(1); IS-H(4).

229 urinnleft uusmong #

WM(2); HK(1); VM(1); IS(2); IS-H(4).

230 upmakes, uusmiums ##.

AN(1).

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231 ill/I'l/mh/f, UUS/IR//18

KB(1); HK(1).

Levon I I59

232 unmaleft uusmund 4-F

BN(I).

232a unmaleft uusmong '+-

IS-H(I).

232b urinnleft uusmond 4-H -

IS-H(2).

233 unmaleft uusmong '+

3.05, PB, PB(1); AD(1); WM(4); AN(1); VM(1);

PH(I); MM(1); BN(3); ER(1); IS(5); IS-H(8); JG(5).

234 upinnleft uusmong 4-#

2.83, (80%); 3.20, PB; WM(1); AD(1); MM(2); BN(1);

IS(1); IS-H(3).

235 ill/010R//#, IIUSINE/18 ++-

AD(1); IS-H(3).

235a upmanoff, uusmans 4H

IS-H(3).

235b ill/010R/8R, UUSORT/11 ++-

IS-H(2).

235c upmakes, uusmnon & H.

IS-H(I).

236 unmaleft uusman #-H

2.90; 2.40, PB, PB(2); VM(5); WM(4); HK(3); AD(3);

AN(1); MM(2); BN(6); IS(2); IS-H(21).

237 unmaleft uusman #-

WM(4); PH(1); IS-H(4).

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238 ill/I'lmk/f, UUSmRm #-

PB(1); HK(1).

I60 Coinage of Cilician Armenia

239 ill/mT/mk/fu uUSmhn ++-

3.Io, PB; MM(1); IS(1); IS-H(2).

240 upinnhof, uusman #H

ER(1); IS-H(4).

24oa upmaleft uusmum #-->

IS-H(4); JG(1).

240b urmanef, uusman ##

IS-H(1).

249c upmanes, uusman #H ''," " " "

IS-H(I). CrOSS.

241 upmanef, uusman #H

2.87, (79%), PB; WM(9); VM(2); AD(1); MM(1); ER(2);

IS(4); IS-H(12).

242 upmanpf, uusman #H

WM(1); IS-H(I).

243 upmanoff, uusmine #H

2.89, (83%), PB; MM(1); IS(3).

243a upmanof, uusmans '+

IS-H(2).

243b upmmleft uusmrs -#-

IS(1).

243c upmakes, uusmine #-H.

IS-H(I).

244 upmales, uusm" &H-

3.05, PB; WM(10); HK(4); VM(1); AN; KK(1): MM.(3);

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BN(1); IS(3); IS-H(12).

Levon I I6I

244a Wurmanef, uusm" #-H-

IS(1).

245 upmanef, uusmn; "+

WM(1); *VM(1); IS-H(1).

246 upmaleft uusmn, '+

WM(1); IS-H(5); HE(1).

247 'ill/I'lmk/fu II/SmR.

ER(1).

248 ill/m/mk/f, unsmit,

PB(1).

249 ill/I'mh/f, UUSmirn

HK(1); IS-H(1).

250 ill/I'lmk/f, UUSmirn

WM(I); BM(1); IS-H(2).

251 ill/I'lmk/f, UUSmh ++-

3.1o, PB; WM(2); IS(1); IS-H(4).

252 turninh/fu UUSnk #+

VM(1); NK(1), WM(1); BN(2); IS(1); IS-H(I).

253 ill/I'lmk/f, UUSmh

WM(1).

254 ill/I'l/ih/fu UUSUl

VM(1).

255 Ill/m/mk/f, uUSIrv

WM(1); VM(1); MM(1); IS-H(I).

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255a ill/I'l/ih/f, UUSmw

IS-H(1).

I i.

I62 Coinage of Cilician Armenia

*256 up/ 10R/F, UUSn {-|- on very small 6.

*VM(3); WM(1); IS-H(22); JG(1).

257 turm"/R/f, UUSU #H

PB(1).

257a turn"mh/f, UUS/ ++

IS-H(3).

258 ill/I'lmk/fu IIIS ++

WM(2); VM(2); IS-H(13).

258a ill/I'l/R/F, UUI {-|--

IS-H(1).

258b ill/I'l/R/F, UU #-

IS-H(3).

lbf/ft, All?AIR/l/ All&m

[King's crown entirely within circle]

*259 upmnh.of, uusmRom ++-

PB(1); *WM(1); IS-H(2).

260 upmanes, uusmong #-H-

2.95, PB, PB(1); WM(3).

26, upmmlet uusmune 4-H -

WM(1); AN(1); KB(1); IS(1); IS-H(I).

262 upmanes, uusman #-

VM(1); BN(1).

263 upmmleft uusm', '+-

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WM(1).

Levon I I63

lbf/ft, All?/IR/l/ All3/18

[Cross entirely within circle]

264 upmnhof, uusmkum (H-:

3.1, PB, HK(1); IS-H(4).

265 lupinnhof, uusm" ("H.:

3.05, PB; MM(1); IS-H(7).

*266 ill// '10A/0ft, IILSU/ (++-:

2.90, *PB; IS(1); IS-H(I).

lbf/7, foll?-ll/-/l/ Allfl

[Rev. Coronation type cross]

266a ill// 'l/lh/?ft, UUS/mhf, [-i-

JG(2).

266b turninhof, uusmum (-|--

IS(1).

266c ill/m/mk/fu uUSINW (-|-

IS(1).

266d ill/010R/ft uusmi, (-i-

IS(1).

Ibh/T, /NIQUIR/l/ &ll3/18

[King's left foot turned outward]"

[Reverse non-artistic]

*267 lupinnhof, uusmagne (++-

2.99, (87%), PB; *WM(1); MM(1); IS-H(5).

268 turmm/0.6% uusmagne (++-

WM(1); MM(1).

1 It is noteworthy that while the obverse represents a distinctive and

11*

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characteristic design, the reverse shows several varieties.

I64 Coinage of Cilician Armenia

269 lupinnhof, UusnR808 (++-:

2.90, PB; WM(1); IS-H(2).

270 tupink/fu UUSmR808 (++-:

WM(2); IS-H(1).

271 upmannpfu uusmi,808 (++-

2.87, (81%), PB.

272 lupinnipf, uusmi,60 (++-

WM(2).

273 upmnipf, uusmism (++-

WM(1); VM(1).

274 ill/I'lmk/fu UUSm80 (++-

PB(1).

lbf/T, INIQUR/l/ Allm

[King's left foot turned outward]

[Rev. artistic]

*275 upinnhof, unsmium (++-:

2.95, *PB; WM(2); AD(1); MM(1); IS-H(2); JG(1).

*276 turn"mh/fu UUSmRw (++-:

2.95, PB; *WM(4); VM(2); IS-H(3).

277 upmanoff, uusmin (3-H:

2.83, PB; IS-H(I).

278 upninhof, unsmit5 (++-

3.02, PB; MM(1).

279 ill/I'lmk/f, UUSmir (++-:

PB(1).

280 ill//11/mh/?fu lll/S/10. (++-

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WM(1).

Levon I I65

*281 ill//17/nh/-fi, UUS/IR (++-:

*WM(2); MM(1); IS-H(2).

282 upmmhoff, uUSRTG) (++-:

WM(1).

*283 ill//11/mh/ft, Ilmilo (++-:

*NK(1).

283a ill/'0'10R/ft, UUSR (++-:

IS-H(I).

lbf/", "l'UR/l/ Alln

[Ornate designwith footstool]

*284 turninhof, uusmi,808 (++-

*WM(6); VM(2); NK(1); HK(1); MM(2); IS-H(2).

285 'ill/I'l/R/ft, UUSmR908 (++-

PB(1); WM(1); AA(1).

286 Tupinnhof, uusmagn (++-

3.02, PB; IS-H(2).

287 lupirinhof, uusmagne (++-

3.05; 2.93 (90%); 2.56; 2.98, (96%), PB; WM(2); IS(1);

IS-H(6).

288 ill/m/mk/fu Uusimh908 (++-

WM(1); IS-H(4).

288a ill/MIT/IR//#, Ill/S/IR8/18 (++-

IS-H(7); AM(I); JG(1).

/ Rev. Artistic cross.

288b wn" UIUS/IR//71 ++-)

-H(2).

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289 turninhof, uusmham (++-

3.15, PB, PB(1); VM(1); NK(1); AD(1); AA(1); VM(2);

MM(1); IS-H(4).

I66 Coinage of Cilician Armenia

290 ill/mmhof, uusmham (++-

3.11, (84%), PB, PB(1); KK(1); WM(1); NK(1);

PH(I); MM(1); IS-H(3).

291 ill/mmhof, uusmnan (++-.

WM(1).

292 'urman/ft uusmnan (++--.

VM(1).

293 lipinnhof, uusmnan (++-

WM(1).

294 ill/'0'10R/8R, UUSINE/ #+, Rev. Artistic cross.

2.95, PB.

lbf/T, /NIQUIR/l/ 3116/18

[Ornate designno footstool]

*295 turmhoff, uusmi,808 (++-

*WM(2); MM(1); IS-H(2).

296 up/rinhof, uusmagne (++--

WM(3); VM(1); HK(1); IS-H(5).

297 flipinnhof, uusmagn (++-

WM(1).

298 Turmahoff, uusmagne (++-

WM(1).

299 turninhof, uusman (++-

MM(1); IS-H(I).

300 turmmhoff, uusmism (++---

3.05; 3.05, PB; WM(2); AD(1); IS-H(4).

3ooa ill/I'lmk/fu UusnR80 (++-:

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IS-H(1).

Levon I 167

lbf/T, /NIQUIR/l/ All&/18

[Star instead of cross in inscription circle]

301 turmhoff, uusmlign (+-

or ill//11/mh/?fu, UUS/IRT/18

2.90, PB, PB(1); WM(3); MM(1); BN(1); IS(1); IS-H(9).

302 ill/I'lmk/fu II/IS/IRU/18 *(+-

2.96, (87%), PB; AD(1); IS-H(2).

*303 ill/I'lmk/f, UUSmR/18 *(++- Obv. Sometimes star to

or 'ill//.7/mh/fu III/S/Th908 left of cross.

3.04, (93%); 2.88, (93%), PB, PB(3); *VM(5); WM(3);

AD(3); KB(1); MM(1); BN(3); IS(2); IS-H(15).

304 qu/n^n//f, uusmRom (H-.

or ill/I'l/Th/9R, IIJS/TR908

2.86, (89%); 2.82, (88%), PB, PB(1); WM(3); BM(1);

AD(1); IS(2); IS-H(5); JG(1).

305 upfrink/f, uUSmRms *(++-

or ill//.7/mh/fi, UUS/Th9/18

WM(2); VM(1); AN(1); IS(1); IS-H(I).

306 ill/m/mk/ft uusmRwns "(t+-

or 'ill/07/h/ fu ll.US/TR908

WM(2).

307 Iufn"mh/f, uusmRom (+-

or ill//h10//f, UUS/IR9/18

WM(1); MM(1).

308 ill/I'lmh/f, UUSmR/13 *(#-

or ill/I'l/Th/f, LIUS/IR9/18

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MM(1); IS-H(2).

309 upmnipf, uusmRwn *(-F-

or 'ill// '10A/ft, UUSOR8/1

3.oo; 2.54; 2.70, PB, PB(3); KK(1); VM(1); WM(1);

BN(1).

I68 Coinage of Cilician Armenia

31o ill/I'lmk/f, uusnRwn *(++-

or 'ill//.7///fu III/S/IRSI)

PB(1); WM(13); VM(1); HK(1); MM(1); BN(1);

IS-H(15); HE(2); EB(2).

311 ill/I'lmk/f, UUSnRm *(+- Rev. Sometimes dot

On 'i

3.05; 3.oo, (85%); 2.85, PB; WM(3); MM(1); IS-H(3).

*312 ill/'0"/h/f, UUSmRm *(s-H-. Rev. Sometimes dot

or 'ill/P/I'l/lh/ fu ll.US/Th9/1 On 'i

2.85, (83%); 2.96, (88%), PB; *WM(5); AA(1); MM(2).

IS-H(8).

313 ill/I'lmk/ft, UUSmRm *(H-.

or 'ill/P/17/l/r/fu lll/S/IR8/)

2.95; 3.10; 2.86, (90%), PB; WM(1); KK(1); IS(2);

IS-H(18).

314 Ill/'0'10R/ft, UUSmRwn *(H-

or 'ill/-/17/l/r/fu IIIIS/IRS/

AA(1); BN(I); HE(1).

314a ill/'0'10R/fu UVS/IR/ >{++-

IS-H(I).

314b lup/rink/fu uusnRwn *(#-

IS(1).

Ibh/7, foll?-ll/-/l/ 3UB/78

[No footstool]

315 ill/I'lmk/f, UUSmR808 (#

WM(1); IS-H(I).

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316 ill/010R/f, uUSmRom (++---

or 'ill/'0'10R/ fu ll.JS/IR8/18

2.55, PB; AD(1); IS-H(2).

Levon I 169

317 Ill/010R/f, UUSmRn "(t+-

or 'ill/'0'10R/RW, IIIIS/]h9/13

WM(3); MM(1).

318 ill/07/1//f, uusmRwns (++-

or 'ill/'0'l/lh/9/#, IUS/Th9/13

2.59, PB; NK(1); IS-H(I); JG(1).

3.18a ill/'0'0//f, UUSmRn "(++-

IS-H(4).

*319 ill/'0'0N/f, UUSmhn -(+.

3.10, *PB; IS-H(2).

319a ill/07/1//f, UUSnh90 *(s--

IS-H(2).

320 ill/'0'10R/fu IIUSURI/ *(*

2.84, PB.

lbf/it, foll?IIR/l/ 3UB/781

*321 ill/I'lmk/ft uusmnon (++-" Rev. Inscription

upside-down.

Obv. Different dies.

2.80, *PB; WM(1); MM(1).

321a ill"/"mk/ft uusnRon (++-- * Rev. Inscription

upside-down.

Obv. Different dies.

IS(2); IS-H(I).

lbh/l', All?AIR/l/ Allm

[With footstoolnon-artistic]

*322 turninhof, uusmans k (++--

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*WM(2); VM(2); PH(I); MM(1).

* See other examples in Nos. 67368oc.

170 Coinage of Cilician Armenia

*323 upmml/ft uusmagn (++-

2.94, PB; *WM(2); VM(1); AD(1); PH(I); MM(1).

IS-H(4); JG(1).

324 turninhof, UUSmh908 (++--. Obv. Sometimes with

dots.

PB(1); WM(4); PH(3); AD(1); KB(1); HK(1); MM(3).

IS-H(Io).

325 upmanpf, uusmagne (++-->

2.95, PB; AN(1).

326 turmhoff, uUSmin (++-

2.95, 2.77, PB, PB(1); PH(I); IS-H(4).

327 turmmhoff, uusmi,908 (++-

BM(1); VM(1); IS-H(2).

*328 ill/m/mk/fu UusnR808 (++- Obv. Three dots to right

of fleur de lys.

WM(2); *VM(1); AD(1); IS-H(3); JG(1).

329 lipinnhof, uusm/Sm3 (++---

3.01, (81%), PB; VM(5); WM(2); MM(2); IS-H(7).

330 upmakes, uusmagne (++---

WM(1); NK(1); AD(1); IS-H(1).

331 ill/m/mk/fu UUSmR808 (++-

3.oo, PB; WM(1); BN(I); IS-H(2).

332 Illfirinhof, uusmagn (++-

VM(1); BN(1).

333 ill/m/mk/fu uusmagne (++---

2.95, PB.

of one.

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334 ill/mmhof, UUSmh908 (++--- Obv. Star under cross

MM(2); IS-H(I).

Levon I 171

335 ill/m/h/ft uusmR808 (++- Obv. Three dots to right

of fleur de lys.

MM(1); IS-H(I).

336 turmmhoff, uusmagne (++-

BN(1); IS-H(I); EB(1).

336a lupinnhof, uusmagne (++-:

IS-H(2).

336b ill/m/mk/fu Uushmgm (H-# Rev. Two dots with

IS-H(I). CrOSS.

337 ill/I'mh/fu UusnR80 (++-:

2.90; 2.93, (92%); 2.93, PB; WM(2); VM(1); PH(I).

8).

338 'll/m/mk/ft uusmh90 (++-#

2.94, (89%); 2.83, PB; WM(1); PH(2)

*339 ill/'0'10R/fu IIUSmR90 (++--- Obv. Some with four

dots under fleur de lys.

2.78, (85%), PB; *WM(4); VM(2); IS-H(7); HE(1).

34o ill/m/mk/fu uusmR80 (++-:

WM(2); VM(1); HK(1); PH(I).

341 ill//17/7R/>R. U.JS/m/g/n (++- Obv. Three dots under

fleur de lys.

2.85, PB; WM(1); VM(2); PH(I); IS-H(3).

342 lipinnhof, uusman (++-

PB(1); VM(1); AN(1).

343 ill/m/mk/fu Uusimh90 (++-

PB(1); WM(1); VM(1); MM(1); IS-H(2).

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344 upmahof, uusman (++-

2.91, PB; VM(1); HK(1); MM(1); IS-H(6).

345 upman/fu uusmnen (++-

VM(1).

172 Coinage of Cilician Armenia

346 ill/I'lmk/ft, UUSmR80 (++--. Obv. Three dots under

fleur de lys.

WM(1).

347 turninhof, uusnR80 (++-->

VM(1); IS-H(3).

348 upninhof, uusmh90 (++-

HK(1); BN(1).

349 upmnhof, uusmism (--.

MM(1).

350 lupinnhof, uusman (++-

MM(1).

351 upmnipf, uusmh90 (++-

BN(1).

352 upmnhof, uusmnan (++--.

BN(1).

353 upmanhof, uusmism (++-

BN(1).

354 upmannpfu uusmism (++-

PB(1); IS-H(I).

354a Wurmahpf, uusmism (++- Obv. Star to left

of cross.

IS-H(I).

355 turm"/"pf, UUSmh9 (++-.

VM(2); WM(1); PH(I); AD(1); MM(1); IS-H(5); IS(1).

356 ill/I'l/R/f, UUSmh9 (++- Obv. Three dots under

fleur de lys.

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WM(1); VM(1); IS-H(2).

357 ill/I'l/R/F, UUSmR8 (++-

VM(2).

Levon I

358 ill/*/17/l/, /oft, UlJS/h?

VM(3); IS-H(2).

359 'il/f/17/l/, /oft, UllJSmh?

VM(2); MM(1).

36o 'il////'10hp-fi, lllJS//ng

VM(1); MM(1).

36I ill/''/''l/lhp-fi, llJS/hg

PB(1); IS-H(2).

36Ia 'nll///"M/h/of, UllJS/hg

IS-H(1).

362 'il/f/17/lh/of, ll, SU/g

MM(1).

363 'il/f/17/l/, /oft, UllJS/m3/)

PH(1).

364 ill/P/10///n/of, UllJS/19

WM(2).

365 'il/f/17/l/, /of, UlJS/ng

VM(2).

365a 'il//*/17//h/of, UllJS/79

IS-H(1).

365b ill///l///pfl, llJS/19

IS-H(2).

366 illfirmMpf,uusene (?)

(+++--

(++--:

(++--

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(+++-

(++-:

(++--

(+++-

(+++-

(++-

I73

Obv. Three dots under

fleur de lys and to

right of cross.

Obv. Three dots under

fleur de lys.

Obv. Dots under fleur

de lys.

Obv. Dots under fleur

de lys.

Obv. Dots under fleur

de lys.

Obv. Dots under fleur

de lys.

WM(1).

I74 Coinage of Cilician Armenia

367 ill/I'l/R/ft, UUS/9 (++- Obv. Dots under fleur

de lys.

WM(2); MM(2).

368 ill/I'l/R/RW, UUS9 (++-

MM(1).

369 ill/'0'10R/ft, UUS9 (++-

PB(1); IS-H(5); IS(1).

Ibh/1%, All?AIR/l/ Allm

[Semi or non-artistic]

[No footstool]

*370 "upmmleft uusmans (++--

*VM(1); PH(I); IS(1).

371 ill/'0'10R/8R, UUSmh908 H (++- Obv. Three dots to right

of fleur de lys.

WM(1); VM(1).

372 rupinhof, uusnR908 K (++-: Obv. Three dots above

fleur de lys.

WM(1).

372a turninhof, uusmi,908k (++-

IS-H(I).

373 "ill/I'l/mh/ft, UUSmh908 (++-. Obv. Dots above cross

and fleur de lys.

WM(1); MM(1); IS-H(3).

374 turninhof, uusnR808 (++--- Obv. Sometimes with

three dots.

WM(1); VM(1); KB(1); IS-H(10).

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*375 'll/I'lmk/fu UusnR808 (++- Obv. Sometimes with

three dots.

*KK(1); PH(2); MM(1); IS-H(3).

Levon. I I75

376 hurmannr, uusmngne (---

KK(1); PH(1); VM(1); IS-H(5).

377 burminner, uusmngne (--

PH(1); IS-H(2).

378 hurmannr. uusmngne (--

3.oo, PB; IS-H(1).

379 ufnunhef, uUSnngne (-H Obv. Three dots under

fleur de lys.

VM(1); IS-H(3).

38o tilff"nhf, lUSnh9m8 (-H- Obv. Three dots under

fleur de lys.

VM(1); IS(1); IS-H(5).

38oa burmninnr, uusmngne (--:

IS-H(7).

38ob hurmannpf, uUSnngne (-

IS-H(2).

381 hurmann ef, uusnhgn (-- Obv. Three dots under

fleur de lys.

2.96, (88 %), PB; WM(7); VM(1); HK(1); PH(1);

IS-H(6).

382 hunnhef, uusnhgn (-H- Small 8.

2.90; 2.92, (89%), PB; PH(3); AD(1); HK(1); MM(1).

IS-H(5).

383 burminner, uusmngn (---

284, (83 %), PB; PB(1); WM(2).

384 burmannr, uusmngm (-H-

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WM(1); VM(1).

385 burmanner, uusningn (--

2.90, PB; WM(1); PH(1); HK(1); IS-H(14).

176 Coinage of Cilician Armenia

386 up/70hpf, UUSmit5m (H----. Obv. Three dots above

fleur de lys and some-

times to right of cross.

WM(4); MM(1); IS-H(6).

387 ill//.7///ft, UUSmh90 (++- Obv. Three dots under

fleur de lys.

WM(2); VM(1); MM(1); IS-H(2).

388 ill/I'lmk/ft, UUSmR90 (++--- Obv. With or without

dots.

WM(1); VM(1); AD(1); IS-H(4).

389 ill/I'lmk/f, UUSmh90 (++- Obv. With or without

dots.

VM(2); WM(1); BN(2); IS-H(2).

390 upmnipf, uusnign (++-:

VM(1); IS-H(I).

391 upninhof, uusmagn (++-

VM(1).

392 upmnhof, uusmham (++-

2.90, (91%), PB, IS(3).

393 ill/I'lmk/ft, UUSmh90 (++-

HK(1); IS-H(6).

393a ill/I'lmk/fu UusnR80 (++-

IS-H(5).

393b lupinnipf, uusmnn (++-:

IS(1); IS-H(I).

393c ill/m/mk/fu Uusimh90 (++-

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IS-H(1).

394 'ill/'0'10R/8R, UUSmh9 (++-

WM(4); VM(5); PH(I); IS-H(7).

Levon I 177

395 ill/mmheft uusmns (++-

WM(2); VM(1); IS-H(2).

396 turninhof, uusmns (++-

VM(2); IS-H(4).

396a ill/m/mk/ft uusmR8 (++-

IS-H(3).

396b turmmhoff, uusmns (++---

IS-H(I).

396c turm"/Reft uusmns (++-

IS-H(I).

397 "ill/'0'10R/RW, UUS/19 (++- Obv. Three dots above

or to right of fleur de

lys.

KK(1); PH(I).

398 ill/I'l/R/ft, UUSm9 (++- Obv. Three dots above

fleur de lys.

WM(1); IS(1); IS-H(5).

399 ill/'0'10R/RW, UUS/19 (++-

VM(1).

399a 'ill/'0'10R//#, IUS/19 (++-:

IS-H(2).

399b lupirinhof, uusme (++--.

IS-H(3).

399c turm"/"ft uusme (++-

IS-H(2).

399d turm"/"ft uusms (++-:

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IS-H(2).

399e ill/mmhoff, uusms (++-

IS-H(I).

178 Coinage of Cilician Armenia

4oo ill/'0'10R/f, UUS/19 (++- Obv. 4/78/78.

2.56, (83%), PB.

401 ill/'0'10R/ft, UUSml (+

WM(1).

402 ill/I'l/R/F, UUS$ (++- Obv. Three dots under

fleur de lys.

MM(1).

Ibh/I'l /NI'll R/T &ll#/18

[Artisticwith footstool]

402a turninhof, UUSmRwn #H-

IS-H(3).

403 ill/I'lmk/fu UUS/ht/13

AD(1).

404 ill/I'lmk/ft, UUSmRwn

IS-H(I).

404a ill/I'lmk/fu UUS/Nm

MM(1); IS-H(7).

404b Ill/'0'10R/F, UUS/Rwn

IS-H(I).

404c Ill/'0'10R/fu UUS/Rwn

IS-H(I).

*405 ill/I'l/R/F, UUSmRU

*VM(1); MM(1).

405a ill/I'l/R/F, UUSmR

IS-H(4).

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405b ill//11/1//ft, UUS/IRU

IS-H(1).

Levon I I79

405c ill/010R/ft, UUSmir #--

IS-H(3).

405d urmanes, uusm {-|--

IS-H(2).

405e upmaleft uusm! :---

IS-H(I).

406 ill/'0'10R/F, UUSI) 4H

WM(1); IS-H(7).

406a ill//.7/k/f, IUS/ #+

IS-H(3).

406b ill/010R/f, UUS ++

IS-H(2).

Ibh/7, foll?-ll/-/7 <ll#/18

[No footstoolartistic]

407 upmanef, uusa" ++-

HK(1); IS-H(2).

4oza urmanent uusm" (#--

IS-H(3).

*408 Murmaleft uusm", "---,

*WM(3); VM(2); IS-H(I).

498a Wurmaheft uusmn, '+

IS-H(2).

408b upinnleft uusm', '+

IS-H(I).

409 ill/'0'10R/f, UUSml ++-

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WM(1); VM(1).

I8O Coinage of Cilician Armenia

41o ill/'0'10R/f, UUSm/

HK(1).

41oa ill/I'lmk/fu IIUSmR

IS-H(8).

41ob ill/I'lmk/ft, UUSnk

IS-H(4).

41oc ill/'0'10R/ft Ul/Snk

IS-H(I).

41od ill/I'l/mk/fu III/S/T"

IS-H(3).

41oe ill/'0'10R/F, UUSmir

IS-H(2).

411 ill/'0'.0//ft, UUS/

WM(2); HK(1); VM(1); IS-H(1).

4IIa Ill/I'l/IR/F, UUS ++-

IS-H(I).

lbf/T, AlI'll R/T &llm

[With footstool and artistic cross within circle]

*412 upmanoff, uusmko (1+-:

2.95, PB; VM(2); *WM(1); AA(1); MM(1); IS-H(2);

HE(1).

413 ill/'0'10R/8R, IUS/ht, (-F

WM(1).

414 Ill/'0'10R/8R, UUSUR (++-:

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WM(1); HK(1).

415 ill/I'l/mk/fu Ul/S/NA (#s

WM(1).

Levon I I8I

lbh/7, foll%UR/7 <ll3/18

[With footstool and non-artistic]

416 Tupinnhof, uUSmN808 (++-:

VM(1).

416a 'll/m/in/fluusnR808k (++-

IS-H(I).

417 lipinnhof, uusmagn (++-

2.92, (84%); PB; VM(3); IS-H(1).

418 upmnhof, uusmagne (++-:

2.79, (92%), PB; VM(1); MM(1); IS-H(3).

419 turm"/"pf, uusmh908 (++-

HK(1).

420 upfrinhof, uUSmh908 (++- Obv. Dots under fleur

de lys.

MM(1).

420a Supmnhof, uusmh908 (++-:

IS-H(I).

42ob turninhof, uusmagne (++-:

IS-H(I).

420c lupinnhof, uusmagn (++-

IS-H(I).

421 upninhof, UUSmh90 (++---

2.59, (87%), PB.

422 urmaneft uusnign (++-- Obv. Sometimes three

dots under fleur de lys.

KK(1); WM(2); VM(1); ER(1); IS-H(7).

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*423 upmanpf, uusman (++-

WM(1); *VM(1); IS-H(4).

I82 Coinage of Cilician Armenia

423a Surman/fu uusman (++-:

IS(1); IS-H(I).

424 lupinnhof, uusmR8 (++-

VM(2); IS-H(2).

425 'lipinnipf, uusmi,9 (++-

VM(2); IS-H(I).

426 Ill/010R/ft, UUSmh9 (++-?

VM(1); IS-H(5).

427 turmmhoff, uusmns (++- Obv. Three dots under

fleur de lys.

VM(1).

Ibh/", /NIQUR/T &ll3/181

[No footstool and non-artistic]

428 turmmhoff, uUSmit505 k (++---

VM(1).

429 upmnhof, uUSmlems (++--.

2.94, (80%), PB; PH(I); WM(1); IS-H(I).

430 upmnipf, uusm/808 (++-

WM(1); PH(I).

431 turmhof, uUSm/808 (++- Obv. Three dots under

fleur de lys.

VM(1); IS-H(I).

431a upmnipf, uusm/808 (++-:

IS-H(2).

431b lupinnhof, uusnigms (++-

IS-H(1).

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* Sometimes the dot at the end of the cross is very faint.

Levon I

I83

432 upinnhof, uusmham (++-

VM(1); IS-H(2).

433 turmmhoff, uusmham (++-

WM(2); MM(1); IS-H(9).

434 turninhof, UUSmh90 (++-

MM(1); IS-H(2).

434a Wurmahpf, uUSmh90 (++-

IS-H(4).

434b lupinnhof, uusm/gm (++-:

IS-H(I).

434c ill/I'lmk/fu Uusimham (++-.

IS-H(I).

434d up"/"Aff, uusnRm (++-

IS-H(I).

435 ill/I'l/R/RW, UUSm/? (++-

VM(1); IS-H(4).

436 ill/'0'10R/F, UUSm/9 (++-

VM(1); IS-H(I).

437 ill/I'l/lh/fu IIIIS/1/9 (++-

VM(1); IS-H(I).

*438 ill/'07/1///#, IUS/19 (++-:

*WM(1).

439 ill/I'l/mk/fu UUS/19 (++-:

WM(1).

440 ill/I'l/R/F, UUS/19 (++-

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WM(1); IS-H(1).

440a ilirmineft uusms (++-

IS-H(1).

Obv. Three dots under

fleur de lys.

Obv. Three dots under

fleur de lys.

I84 Coinage of Cilician Armenia

44ob urmanef, uusm #H

IS-H(I).

Ibh/", /9/1%llh/m &ll3/18

[Distinctive designno dot on l]

441 lupinnhof, uusnRun (++-:

WM(1).

*442 ill/I'l/R/8R, UUSmR. (++-:

2.60, (77%), PB, *AD(1); WM(1); IS(1); IS-H(1).

443 turmhoff, uusmnu (*H.:

2.58, PB; MM(1).

444 Ill/'0'10R/8R, UUSORT (++-:

AD(1).

444a Wrm/liff, uusmu (*H.

IS-H(I).

445 ill/'07/1//ft, UUS/10 (++-:

2.95, PB.

445a turninhof, usnubi (++-:

IS-H(I).

445b lupinnhof, usnub (++-:

IS-H(2).

Ibh/7), All?-ll/-/7 <ll#/18

[Dot on l]

*446 upinnhoff, uusm" ("H.:

WM(2); *HK(1); VM(2); IS-H(5).

* The artistic cross on the reverse may indicate transition from one type

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to another.

Levon I I85

447 turninhof, uusmn; (4-H..

WM(1).

448 ill/I'l/mh/*F, UUS/\r (++-:

WM(1); BN(1).

IRR/T, /NIQUIR/m &ll3/151

[Inverted bdot on l]

*449 upmanof, uusa" ("+:

*WM(4); VM(1); IS-H(2); IS(1).

450 lupinnhof, uusmu (++-:

3.10, PB.

451 ill/I'l/R/ft, UUSmir (++-:

2.95, PB; VM(1); IS-H(1).

*452 ill/I'l/R/RW, U.8/Uw (++-:

*WM(2); MM(1); IS-H(2).

453 turmmhoff, usnub (H:

WM(1); MM(1).

IRR/T, 6/1%llh/m &ll6/18

[Inverted bdot on lno footstool]

454 Ill/'0'10R/ft IIUS/IR908 (++--.

WM(2); IS-H(1).

*455 turninhof, uusmagne (++-:

WM(1); *HK(1).

lbh//, /NI'll//7 <ll6/18

456 ill/'0'10R/ft, UUSmRm (H-

or 'ill//.7//h/ fu UUS/IR8/1

AD(1); WM(1); IS-H(1).

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* It is often impossible to tell whether there is a dot in the middle of the

CroSS Or not.

I86 Coinage of Cilician Armenia

457 upmml, of, uusmRon *(#-

or ill//.T.M.R/9R, Ill/S/lh90

3.05, PB; WM(1); IS-H(I); JG(1).

458 upn"mh/f, uUSnRon "(H-.

or ill/I'l/Th/fu lll/S/Th90

2.7o, (83%), PB; WM(3); IS-H(4); AM(1).

Ibh/Tu /NIQUR/l/ 3U/18

[Obverse and reverse artistic]

459 turninh/f, UUSmRwfl

WM(2); IS-H(1).

459a turninhof, UUS/Rm t-F-

IS-H(1).

460 upmanof, uusman #E

WM(5); VM(1); PH(I); IS-H(7).

461 upmakes, uusman #H

WM(3); IS-H(2).

462 upmanpf, uusmn, '+

WM(3).

463 upmmleft uusm" ++-

2.46, (92%); 3.09; 2.66; 2.74, PB; VM(I); PH(3).

464 upmanpf, uusm" {-|--

2.81, (82%), PB.

464a Wurmmlet uusm" (#-

IS-H(4).

*65 upmmleft uusm", "--

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3.04, PB; WM(15); PH(4); "AA(1); VM(1); AD(1).

IS-H(28); HE(1).

Levon I 187

466 Wurmanef, uusmn, '+-

2.77; 2.60, (95%); 2.72, PB; WM(1).

467 unmaleft uusm", "---,

BN(1).

467a urinnleft uusa", "--

IS-H(4).

468 ill/010R/f, UUSmR ++--

WM(1); VM(I); IS-H(3).

468a urmanent uusmn "+

IS-H(5).

469 ill/I'lmk/ft, UUSmir #+ ?)

WM(1).

469a ill/I'l/R^f, UUSmir ++-

IS-H(2).

47o ill/'0'10R/8R, UUS/ #+

WM(1); VM(1); BN(1); IS-H(I).

47oa ill/'0'10R/fu III/SI) ++-

IS-H(2).

lbf/I', 'll'UR/l/ All/18

[No footstoolartistic style]

47ob upmakes, uusman #-H-

IS-H(4).

470c urinnleft uusmn; "+

IS-H(5).

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471 ill/I'lmk/ft, UUSmRw #-F

PH(I); MM(1); IS-H(4).

I88 Coinage of Cilician Armenia

472 wn": " *H-

I}.

472a Wurmanef, uusa" (#-

IS-H(I).

*473 ill/I'lmk/f, UUSmR

PH(I); *NK(1); IS-H(I).

473a upinnheft uusmi, 6F

IS-H(I).

474 ill/'0'10R/fu III/Smtr #-F-

WM(1).

475 ill/I'l/mk/f, UUS #+

WM(1).

Ibh/77, foll%llh/7/ All/18

[Non-artisticno footstool]

*476 ill//.7/k/f, UUSmR908 (++-

*WM(1); PH(I); MM(1); IS-H(5).

477 upmnhof, uusmagne (++-

AD(1); IS-H(2).

477a upmanoff, uusmagne (++-

IS-H(2).

478 upmanef, uusman (++--

WM(1); IS-H(3).

479 lupinnhof, uusmi,60 (++-

WM(1).

479a ill/I'lmk/fu UusnR9" (++-

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IS-H(I).

Levon I 189

480 Ill/I'l/R/RW, UUSmh9 (++-

VM(1).

481 upmnhof, uusmh9 (++-

HK(1).

481a upmanpf, uusng (++-

IS(1).

lbf/T, /NIQUIR/l/ All/18

[Star instead of cross in inscription circle]

481b ill/I'l/R/F, UUSmR908 (H-.

IS(1); IS-H(I).

*482 urninhof, uusnR80 (-|--.

*PB(1); WM(1).

482a 'll/'0'10"/fu UusnR80 (-K-

IS(1); HE(1).

482b ill/010R/f, uusmR80 (-F-

IS-H(I).

lbf/T, /NI'll R/T &ll/181

[Obverse semi-artisticreverse artistic]

483 turmanef, uusmune 8H

2.92, (84%), PB; VM(1); AA(1); PH(I); WM(1); IS-H(2).

484 Wirmneft uusmond (++-

2.42, PB; PH(I); IS-H(7).

*485 upinnheft uushion 4-H.

2.83, 3.17, (96%), PB; WM(4); *NK(1); BM(1); HK(1);

KK; VM(2); IS-H(4).

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485a unmaleft uushion #-

IS-H(I).

1 In some cases it is <ll/18.

I90 Coinage of Cilician Armenia

486 upmaleft uusm" #H

WM(1).

486a upmmleft uusm" &H

2.91, (94%), PB; KK(1); WM(1); NK(1); PH(I);

IS-H(4).

486b wn": " #+

487 upmakes, uusmn, '+-

2.77, (91%); 2.88, PB; NK(1); IS-H(5).

488 upmakes, uusm" (#-

2.89, 293, PB; WM(7); VM(1); PH(2); IS-H(8).

489 ill/I'l/R/ft, UUSmR. ++-

WM(1); PH(I); IS-H(I).

400 urinnleft uusm" &H

2.75, PB.

|- Y .

491 urmaneft uusm" &H

WM(3).

492 ill/I'l/h/f, UUSm/ #-

2.87, (91%), PB; WM(3); MM(1); IS-H(II).

493 Ill/'0'10R/f, UUSm/ ++-

WM(2); IS-H(I).

494 ill/'0'10R/f, UUSm/ #+

VM(1).

495 'ill/'0'10h/f, UUSm/ #+

3.06, PB; WM(2); PH(I); IS-H(3).

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496 ill/'0'10h/f, UUS/10

2.76, (91%), PB, PH(I); IS-H(2).

Levon I I9I

497 Ill/'0'10R/f, UUSmir ++-

WM(3); VM(3); IS-H(6).

498 ill/I'lmk/ft, UUSmir #-:

2.86, PB; VM(1); WM(1); IS-H(5).

499 unmaleft uusm, 4+-

KB(1).

500 urmanef, uusm, '+

VM(1).

501 ill/'0'10R/F, UUSmir #+

VM(2).

502 ill/I'l/mk/fu III/Sm #+-

2.76, PB; WM(7); VM(1); IS-H(6).

503 ill/I'lmk/fu III/SI) #+-

2.36; 2.87; 2.47, PB; WM(4); NK(2); IS-H(5).

504 Ill/'0'10R/F, UUS/ ++

WM(2); PH(I).

505 ill/I'lmk/fu UUSn *H.

WM(4); VM(I); IS-H(2).

505a ill/I'lmk/full/Sn ++

IS-H(2).

Ibh/TL /NIQUIR/T &ll/18

[No footstoolreverse artistic]

507 upmakes, uusmong '-H-

WM(1).

508 burmanef, uusmans '+'

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WM(2).

I92 Coinage of Cilician Armenia

509 ill/'0'10R/F, UUS/Rm

WM(1).

51o ill/I'l/mh//, LIUS/IR//

WM(1).

5II ill/'07/0R/RW IIUS/ht/

WM(1).

512 ill/'0'10R//#, IUS/NAF'

WM(1); IS-H(4).

513 ill/'0'10N/F, UIUS/IRV

2.92, PB.

514 ill/010R/8R, UUS/R7.

WM(2); IS-H(2).

515 ill/'0"/"R/8R, UUSmhtr

WM(2).

516 ill/'0'10R/8R, UIUS/10.

WM(4); PH(I); IS-H(I).

*517 ill/I'lmk/f, UUSmir #+

WM(2); *HK(1); IS-H(2).

517a urmaleft uusm, '+

IS-H(I).

518 ill// ?/ R/RW, III/SI) #+

WM(1); VM(1); IS-H(3).

519 ill/'07/h/fi III/Sn *H-

PH(2).

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520 ill/I'l/R/RW, UUS/ /

WM(1); IS-H(I).

Levon I I93

521 ill/'0'10R/F, UDS #+

HK(1); IS-H(3).

521a ill/'0'10R/8R, UUS #+

IS-H(2).

lbf/77, foll?-ll/-/7 <ll/18

[Obverse and reverse non-artistic]

522 turmhoff, uusmagne (++-:

WM(3); MM(2); IS-H(I).

*523 turninhof, uusmagne (++-:

WM(1); *BM(1); IS-H(5).

524 Illfirinhof, uusmn008 (++-i.

WM(1).

525 'lipinnhof, uusmagne (++--.

2.91, (78%); 2.83, (87%), PB, WM(2); NK(1); PH(I);

IS-H(4).

526 ill/I'lmk/fi, UUSmh908 (++- Obv. Three dots to

right of fleur de lys.

VM(1).

527 Ill/m/mk/fu Uusimh908 (++-

WM(1).

528 upninkoff, uusmnon (++-

WM(2); MM(1)?.

529 ill/'0'10R/f, UUSmR8 (++-:

HK(1); IS-H(2).

53o ill//.7/k/f, III/S/19 (++-

2.93, (87%); 2.73; 2.97, PB; WM(6); VM(2); PH(I);

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IS-H(4).

531 ill/'0'10//ft, UUS/19 (++-:

WM(1).

I94 Coinage of Cilician Armenia

532 ill/I'l/lh/ft, UUS/19 (++-:

WM(1).

533 ill/'0'10R/F, UUS/19 (++-:

MM(1).

lbh/T, 6/1%llh/m &ll/18

[No footstoolnon-artistic]

534 turninhof, uusmagne (++-:

WM(1); IS-H(3).

534a lupinnipf, uusmagne (++-

IS-H(2).

534b Ill/mmhof, uUSmh908 (++-

IS-H(I).

535 upmni/ft uusmagn (++-

WM(1); IS-H(I).

535a turmm/06, uusmnen (++-

IS(1); IS-H(4).

535b lupinnhof, uusmnan (++-:

IS-H(I).

*536 Ill/'0'10R/RW, UUSOR8 (++---

*WM(2); HK(1).

536a Wurman/fu uusmns (++-

IS-H(3).

536b lupinnhof, uusung (++-

IS-H(I).

537 ill/'07/1//ft, UUS/19 (++-

2.78, (75%), PB.

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538 ill/I'l/R/F, UUS/19 (++-

WM(1); IS-H(3).

Levon I I95

539 ill/'07/k/f, UUS/19 (++-

IS-H(I).

539a ill// ?/ R/2 ft, UUSS/ (++-

IS-H(I).

lbh/1, foll'UR/m &II/6

[Star in inscription circle]

540 ill/'0'10N/ft uusmRms (+-

or 'ill/?/77/7R/0/#, III/S/IR/13

WM(2); IS-H(I).

541 ill/'07///ft, UUSmRwn *(H-

or 'ill/'07/1///#, IUS/NAS/)

WM(1); IS-H(I).

*542 ill/'0'10R/ fu IIUSmh9 *(++-

HK(1); *MM(1).

lbf/T, All?AIR/l/ All 88

[Artistic style]

543 upmaleft uusmong #-

PB(1).

544 'ill/'07/1/2/9/#, IIDS/IRV/"3 #+

2.90: 2.90, PB, PB(1); WM(2); AA(1); PH(I); HK(1);

IS-H(3); JG(1).

*545 'ill//.7/7A/ft, III/S/TRm #+

*WM(1).

546 urinnleft uusmund 4-F

KK(1); AD(1); HK(1); WM(4); VM(1); KB(1); MM(1);

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BN(1); IS-H(3).

13

196 Coinage of Cilician Armenia

547 upmanpf, uusman #H

WM(3); AN(1); IS-H(2).

548 upnink/fu UUSmRwn #H

AD(1); IS(1).

519 upmanpf, uusman #-H-

2.53, PB; VM(1); MM(1); BN(3); IS(1); IS-H(2).

550 wn": " ++-

I).

551 upninkoff, UUSmun ++-

3.oo, (88%), PB; WM(1).

551a upmakes, uusman #-H-

IS(1); IS-H(2).

Ibh, All'UR/l/ Allfl

[Artistic style]

*552 upinnipf, uusnRome 4-H -

2.95; 3.01, (92%); 2.96, (96%) PB, PB(1); "WM(4),

VM(I); AN(I); HK(1); PH(I); AA(1); KK(1); HE(1):

EB(1); IS(1); IS-H(6).

553 wn" *H.

I).

554 upmakes, uusmund 4-H.

WM(1);MM(1); IS-H(I).

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555 rupink/f, UUSmRom ++-

3.01, (90%), PB.

556 upmakes, uusmund 4-H.

MM(1).

Levon I I97

557 ill/'0"/"R/>ft, UUS/ht/13 ++-

PB(1); WM(4); VM(3); BN(1); IS(2); IS-H(2).

557a urinnleft uusman, 4-H - Rev. Dot to left of cross.

IS-H(I).

558 ill/'0'10R/fu UUS/Thr/) #+

2.95; 2.93; 3.03, PB, PB(1); WM(2); AD(1); IS-H(3).

559 unmaleft uusmum 4H

MM(1); IS-H(I).

560 unmaleft uusman #H

2.85 (83%), PB, PB(1); WM(2); AA(1); BN(2); IS(1);

IS-

(2).

561 ill/'07/h/ fu IIUS/\rm

WM(2); NK(1); AD(1); IS(1); IS-H(3).

562 wn": :* ++-

I).

563 wn": : #+

I).

lb/7, foll%llA/l/ All&/18

564 ill/'0'10R/>f IIDS/IR (++-

WM(1).

*565 'ill//.7/"R/0/#, IUS/ (+

2.76, (88%), PB, PH(I).

566 turmhof, uusmann (++-

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MM(1).

198 Coinage of Cilician Armenia

Ib/), /NIQUR/T &ll3/18/n

567 turm"/R/f, UUSmR. #+:

WM(2); IS-H(I).

sk

568 ill/I'lmk/f, UUSmir ++-

2.84, (88%), *PB; WM(5); MM(1).

Ibn, bu'ukm/ <u&#m +1)

569 upmanpf, uusmagne (++-

MM(1).

569a turninhof, uusmagms (++-

IS-H(2).

57o ill/mT/mk/f, UUSmR80 (++-

WM(2); MM(2); IS-H(1).

571 upmanpf, uusmism (++-

VM(2).

571a upmnhof, uusman (++-

IS-H(6).

571b lupinnhof, uus908 (++-

IS-H(3).

571c ill/I'lmk/f, UUSm? (++-

IS(1).

*572 upm/h/ft, UUS$n (++-

*WM(5); VM(1); IS-H(4).

573 ill/I'lmk/f, UUSm #--

AD(1).

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1 The gold coins of Levon-Hetoum are of this type.

Levon I I99

573a ill/I'l/mk/ft, UUS9 (++---

IS-H(2).

573b ill/I'l/lk/fu IIUS (++-

IS-H(I).

lbf/T, All?-ll/-/l/ Alln

[Artistic]

573c ill// ?/h/f, UUSmR (-|--

IS-H(I).

574 ill/010R/8R, UUSmR

HK(1); IS-H(I).

574a ill/'0'10R/fu III/Smir

IS(2); IS-H(4).

574b Ill/'0'10R/f, UUSmir {-|--

IS-H(1).

575 Ill/I'l/ih/fi, UUSn #H

AD(1); IS-H(3).

*576 ill/I'l/R/F, UUS ++

*WM(2); VM(1); IS-H(9).

lbf/TL /NIQUR/l/ All&n

[Non-artistic]

577 upmnhof, uusmagne (++-:

VM(1); BN(1).

578 upfrinhof, uUSmh90 (++- Obv. Ornate design.

MM(1).

579 lupinnhof, uusm/gm (++-

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2.70, PB.

2OO Coinage of Cilician Armenia

580 upmanpf, uusman (++-

VM(1).

581 ill/010R/f, UUS/90 (++-:

KB(1).

582 ill//10/mN/ft, UUSmh9 (++-- Obv. Three dots under

fleur de lys.

MM(1).

*583 upmml,0ft uusmR8 (++- Obv. Three dots under

CrOSS.

*VM(1); HK(1).

Ibh/]", /NIQUIR/l/ 3UB/

[Dot on l]

583a upmanoff, uusmnon (++-:

IS-H(I).

584 upmakes, uusmn; (++-:

VM(1); HK(1); IS-H(3).

584a Wurmahoff, unsmit (++-

IS-H(3).

585 'ill/I'l/lh/f, UUSITU (++-:

WM(1).

lbf/it. All?AIR/l/ All&n

[Right foot turned outward]

*586 ill/I'lmk/fu UUSnty (++-:

(Inverted S)

*NK(1).

586a turninhof, uusmi, (++-:

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IS-H(I).

Levon I 2OI

586b ill/I'mh/f u8mush(?) (++-:

IS-H(I).

Ibh/T, All?AIR/7 &ll3/.

587 ill/I'l/lh/ft, UUSmhtr

WM(1); PH(1).

588 ill/I'l/R/f, Ill/Snk #+

PH(I).

589 ill/I'lmk/f, UUSU/ #+

VM(1).

590 ill/'0'10R/f, UUS/ *H-

WM(1).

*591 ill/I'l/R/F, UUS/ #-

*WM(2); IS-H(3).

592 ill/I'l/R/F, UUS

WM(1); IS-H(7).

lbf/7, foll%llh/m &ll3/7

[Artisticno footstool]

*593 ill/I'lmk/ft, UUSmR.

2.86, (82%), *PB.

594 urinnleft uusm", "-H

WM(1).

595 ill/I'l/R/F, UUSmRw #+.

PH(I).

596 ill/I'lmk/ft, UUSmR *H.

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3.02, (83%), PB; WM(2); VM(1); IS-H(9).

2O2 Coinage of Cilician Armenia

597 ill/I'lmk/fu UUSnk *H-

WM(3); VM(3).

598 ill/I'lmk/f, UUSmR s

WM(3); VM(2); IS-H(I).

599 ill/I'l/R/RW III/Smir #+-

WM(4).

6oo ill/'0'10N//#, Ill/S/10. #+:

WM(1); IS-H(9).

60I 'ill//.7/mh/?f, lll/S/ ++-

WM(1); IS-H(I).

lbf/T, foll'UR/n 4llm

[Non-artisticno footstool]

602 turm"mk/ft uusmR808 (++-:

MM(1).

602a up/70//ft uusmi,80 (++--.

IS-H(I).

602b lupinnhof, uushman (++-:

IS-H(I).

lbf/T, 0\ll \llh/l/ Alln

[Obv. Somewhat ornaterev. non-artisticno footstool]

*603 ill/mT/mk/f, UUSmh9m/ (++- Obv. Three dots under

fleur de lys. Ornate

design.

*VM(1); NK(1).

603a turninhof, uusmagni (++-

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IS-H(I).

Levon I

203

603b upmanof, uusmnant (++-

IS-H(3).

604 turninhof, UUSmh90 (++-

VM(1); IS-H(I).

604a Wurman/fu uusmnan (++-

IS-H(I).

604b upmanoff, uusmham (++-

IS-H(I).

605 ill/'07/mh/?f UUSORS (++-

VM(2); WM(1).

606 upmnhof, uusang (++-

VM(1).

Ibh/7t, foll%UR/l/ All?:

Obv. Three dots under

fleur de lys.

Obv. Three dots under

fleur de lys.

Obv. Three dots under

fleur de lys.

[Dot on lleft foot turned outward]

606a turninhof, uusmu (43:

(Inverted S)

IS-H(4).

*607 Ill/'0'10R/F, UUSOR (++-:

*WM(1); AD(1).

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608 ill//.7/k/./#, IUSITT (++-:

MM(1); JG(1).

609 ill/I'l/h/f USmir (4-#:

(Inverted S) -

2.80, (78%), PB; WM(1).

610 urmanef, uusm"?) (++-:

WM(2).

2O4 Coinage of Cilician Armenia

Ibh/T, foll'llh/l/ All&

[Left foot turned outward)

61oa turmmhof, uusmR808 (++-:

IS-H(I).

61ob turm"mh"ft uusmh9 (++-:

IS-H(3).

611 ill/'0'10R/*f, UUS/ (++-:

WM(1).

Ibh/T, foll'll R/T &ll3

[With footstool and artistic]

612 upmakes, uusnRun #H

HK(1); VM(1).

*613 ill/I'mh/ft, UUSIR ++-

*WM(1).

614 Ill/010R/F, UUS/ #+

VM(1); IS(1); IS-H(6).

615 Ill// '10R/F, UUS *H

HK(1); IS-H(3).

Ibh/r, 0.1%ll//m &ll61)

[Non-artistic]

615a turninhof, uusmans (++-

IS-H(2).

616 upinnhoff, uusmham (++-

KK(1); WM(1); VM(2); IS(1); IS-H(7).

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* The letter 8 in <ll3 is often very small and simplified into a line.

Levon I 205

617 ill//.7/mk/f, UUSmh9 (++-

VM(1).

618 ill/-/17/nh/2,fu IIDS/IR: (+

WM(1).

*619 ill/'0"mk/f, ul/Sm/ (#>

*WM(2).

62o ill//.7/mk/fu ll.JS// (-|--

WM(1); VM(1).

621 ill/'0'1/lh/9/#, Ill/S/) (+

WM(2); VM(1); IS(1).

622 ill/'07/1//ft, US/ (+

PB(1); WM(1); PH(5).

623 ill/I'l/lh/ft, UUS (+

2.83, (85%), PB; MM(1).

lbf/TL /NI'llh/m 2/8

[No footstool and artistic cross in circle]

624 upman/fu unsmium (++-:

KK(1); IS-H(4).

625 upfrinhof, unsmium (++-

MM(1); IS-H(2).

626 upmanoff, uusmn; (4-H.:

WM(3); MM(1); IS-H(6).

*627 upmnipf, unsmit (++-

*WM(1); IS-H(2).

628 turman/fu uusuku (++-:

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WM(2).

2O6 Coinage of Cilician Armenia

lbf/I'l, foll?-ll/-/l/ All

[No footstool and non-artistic]

*629 upmnhof, uusmisms k (++- Obv. Three dots under

fleur de lys.

*WM(1).

630 ill/'0'10R/f, UUSm/ (++- Obv. Three dots under

fleur de lys.

VM(1).

Ibk, Pll'IR/n 4081)

631 upmakes, uusm" (#--

PB(1); WM(2); VM(1); PH(I); MM(1); IS-H(13).

632 ill/'07/1//ft, UUSm/ ++-

2.66, (84%); 2.38, PB; WM(5); PH(2); VM(1).

633 ill/I'lmk/fu UUSm/ ++-

MM(1); IS(1); IS-H(6).

633a burmanef, uusn {-H-

IS-H(5).

*634 ill/I'l/R/f, UUSmir #-

2.83, (92%); 2.84, PB; *WM(10); VM(4); PH(I);

AN(1); MM(1); IS-H(23).

635 'ill/I'l/R/8R, UUSmir ++-

PH(2).

635a urmanef, uusm, (-|--

IS-H(2).

636 ill// '10R/f, UUS/ #-

2.90, 2.92, PB, HK(2); PH(2); NK(1); IS(1); IS-H(5).

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1 In some cases it is 4/78.

Levon I 2O7

636a ill/010R/F, UUS/ #+

IS-H(1).

Ibh/TL /NI'llh/l/ &II/)

*637 ill/'0'10R/ft, UUSmR8 (++- Obv. Three dots under

*VM(1). fleur de lys.

Ibh/T, /NIQUIR/m &ll/)

638 upman/fu uusmns (++-:

WM(1).

*639 ill/I'l/R/ft, UUS/19 (++-

*VM(1).

640 hl/'0'10R/8R, UUS/19 (++-:

PH(I); IS-H(I).

Ibh/T, /NIQUIR/n 4ll/

[With footstool and artistic cross]

*641 ill/I'l/R/ft, UUS/ ++

*WM(1).

Lh/7, foll%ll//7 &ll/

[With footstool and non-artistic cross]

642 upman/fu uusmagn (++-

WM(1); IS-H(2).

Ibh/Tu /NIQUIR/l/ All

[With footstool]

*643 ill/010R/ft, UUSmR9 (++-(?)

*VM(1).

644 ill/I'l/ih/fi, UUS/9 (++-

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WM(1).

208 Coinage of Cilician Armenia

lbf/", /NIQUIR/T &II

[With footstool and artistic]

645 Ill/010R/f, UUS/ #-F-

WM(2); IS-H(3).

*646 ill/I'lmk/f, UUS #-F-

*WM(1); IS(1); 1S-H(5).

Ibh/", foll'UR/T &ll

[No footstoolartistic cross]

647 ill/I'lmk/f, UUSn #+

ER(2); IS-H(6).

*648 ill/I'lmk/ft, UUS #+

*WM(2); VM(1); HK(3); IS-H(6).

Ibh/", /NIQUR/T All

[With footstoolnon-artistic cross]

649 ill/I'l/ih/fi, UUS/190 (++-

2.76, (82%), PB, IS(1); IS-H(I).

Ibh/11, All?AIR/T &ll

[No footstoolnon-artistic cross]

649a turninhof, uusmi,808 (++-

IS(1).

*650 turmmroft, uusnR80 (++-

*WM(1); VM(1); IS-H(4).

651 ill/I'lmk/ft, UUSmh9 (++-

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HK(1); IS-H(5).

Levon I 209

652 ill/P/17/lh//, UUS/19 (++-

VM(1); MM(1); IS-H(3).

Ibh/T, /NIQUIR/m 2/

[No footstool and artistic cross]

*653 ill//.7/k/f, UUS/ #+-

*WM(1); IS-H(6).

654 ill//70//ft, UUS #-F-

MM(1); IS-H(2).

lh/7, foll?-ll/l/ 3UB/18

*655 'ill//.7/k/fu UUS/IR #+

*WM(2).

656 ill/'07/1//ft, UUS/ (+

WM(1).

Ibh/7, foll'U/l/ All 5/78

[No footstoolnon artistic]

656a turninhof, uusmnan (++-

IS-H(2).

656b lupinnhof, uusmag (++-

IS-H(I).

lk, ll%ll/l/ Allm

*657 upmaleft uusmund 4-F

PB(1); VM.(3); *WM(2); HK(1); MM(1); IS-H(2).

657a urmanent uusmune 6F

IS-H(I); IS(1).

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14

2IO Coinage of Cilician Armenia

657b ill/01/nh/f, UUSmRm ++ Rev. Dot to left Of

CrOSS

IS-H(I).

657c upmaleft uusman #-

(IS(1); IS-H(I).

Ibh/7, foll?-ll/-ll/l <ll#

658 Ill/'0"/h/ft, UUSmir #H

PH(I); IS-H(I).

*659 ill/010R/f, UUSm/ #-

*PB(1); IS-H(2).

lbh/", /NIQ/l/ All3/18

660 upmml,0ft uusmham (++- Obv. Three dots under

fleur de lys. Two dots

under cross.

VM(2); IS(1).

*661 upninhof, uusmns (++- Obv. Three dots under

fleur de lys. Two dots

under cross.

3.06, (89%); 2.85, (88%), *PB, PB(1); VM(1).

Lily in Right Hand

Ibh/T, All?-ll/-/l/ All#08

[King's left foot turned outwardno footstool]

*662 upmannpf, uusmagne (++-:

WM(1); *PB(1); IS-H(I).

662a up/ri/npf, uusmi,808 (++-

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WM(1); MM(1).

Levon I 2II

662b Turninhof, uusmagn (++-

IS(1); IS-H(2).

662c lupinnhof, uusman (++-:

WM(1); VM(1).

662d Tupmnhof, uusman (++-

JG(1).

662e upmanpf, uusng (4-# ?

WM(1).

Ibh/TL /NIQUIR/l/ All 3/18

[Dot on l]

[King's left foot turned outwardwith footstool]

662f upmanoff, uusm" (1+:

2.83, PB.

lbf/1%, 0.1%llh/m &ll3/18

[King's left foot turned outwardwith footstool]

*663 upmnhof, uusmn; (4H:

*WM(1).

Ib/TL All?AIR/l/ All&/18

663a Surmah/ft uusmagne (++-

IS-H(I).

664 turninhof, uusmnon (++-:

KK(1); WM(1).

664a ill/I'lmk/fu UusnR80 (-F.

IS-H(2).

*665 upmml/ft uusmit (++-:

2.90; 2.95; 2.90, (90%), *PB; PH(1); IS-H(2).

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I4

2I2 Coinage of Cilician Armenia

665a hurmanoff, unsmo 4+

IS-H(I).

665b ill/'0'10R/8R, II/SRU. ' ++-

IS-H(I).

lbh/T, 0\ll \llh/l/ All&I)

[King's left foot turned outwardno footstool]

665c ill/I'lmk/fu UUSmir (++-:

(Inverted S)

IS-H(I).

665d ill/I'l/mk/f U.8/NISR (++-:

IS-H(2).

lb/7, foll?-ll/-/7 <ll3/1

*666 'll/010R/f, ul/SnR808 (+-(?)

*WM(1).

666a Olipinnhof, uUSmh908 (++-

IS-H(2).

666b upmakes, uusa" (#-

IS-H(I).

667 ill/I'l/R^f, UUSUR, ++

3.05, PB; WM(2); IS-H(I).

Ibhm, bu'uhm &u:8.6%

*668 upmnipf, uusm" (4-H.;

*WM(1).

669 ill/mT/m/s/fu unut, (++-:

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WM(3); AN(1); AD(2); IS-H(2).

Levon I 2I3

670 upman/fu unusu (++-:

WM(1).

Ibh/), /\ll \ll R/T &ll&/1.

*671 ill/I'lmh/f, Ilmuw (++-:

*WM(2).

Ibh/I'l, foll%ll-R/R/2 &ll-

*672 upmnhof, uusmu (++-:

3.05, *PB; WM(2); IS-H(1).

Errors, Oddities, Etc.

[Non-artistic style]

673 Obv. Ibh/, /NIQUR/l/ 3U8/18 H Rev. Inscription

Rev. Will//.7/mk/fu IIDS/Th908 :H) upside down.

HK(1).

*674 Obv. Ibh/, /NIQUR/l/ All&nd 5 Rev. Inscription

Rev. Will//.7/mk/fu IIUS/Th9/18 -#4) upside down.

*WM(1).

674a Obv. Ibh/, /l/'NIR/l/ All3/18 H Rev. Inscription

Rev. Will/"/"Mih/?fu IIUS/Th9/18 ++) upside down.

IS-H(1).

675 Obv. Ibh/T, AI'llR/l/ All/18 Rev. Inscription

Rev. Tupinoff,(?) uusmkung k ---!) upside down.

VM(1).

675a Obv. Ibh/T, PUQUR/l/ 4113/18 Rev. Inscription

Rev. Will/P/I'l/lh/?fu lll/S/Th9/] -#4) upside down.

IS-H(2).

675b Obv. Ibh/T, 0.1%llR/l/ All&/18 Rev. Inscription

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Rev. Will/'07/1///#, Ill/S/IRG/7 -H) upside down.

IS-H(1).

2I4 Coinage of Cilician Armenia

675c Obv. Ibh/1, Pll'MIR/T &llm Rev. Inscription

Rev. Will/I'l/mh/fu III/S/IR// --H) upside down.

IS-H(4).

*676 Obv. Ibh/1, Pll'Ujim All308 Obv. Two, with three dots

Rev. Will/'0'1/l/i/ fu ll.US/IRT 4) underfleur delys.

Rev. Inscription upside

down.

HK(1); *VM(2); IS-H(4).

*677 Obv. Ibh/", "I'llh/l/ All/18 Rev. Inscription

Rev. Will/P/17/l/r/fu III/S/IRG/18 --H) upside down.

WM(1); *VM(1); IS-H(9).

*678 Obv. Ibh/T, PUQUR/T &ll/18 Rev. Inscription

Rev. Ill/'07/IAPF, UUSOR/1 -*H)" upside down.

*WM(1).

678a Obv. Ibhm, Pll'Uhm/ Alln Rev. Inscription

Rev. Will/MIT/IR/2 ft, UUSOR8 -*H)* upside down.

IS-H(I).

679 Obv. Iblin, Pll'NIMT All&n: Rev. Inscription

Rev. Ill/P/17/l/r/fu UUSORT/) -H) upside down.

WM(1).

68o Obv. lbf/", /NIQUIR/l/ All3/18 Rev. Inscription

Rev. Ill// ?/ R/RW, U.J.Smh/) -*H)* upside down.

BN(1); IS-H(I).

68oa Obv. Ibh/T, Pll'UR/T &ll3/18 Rev. Inscription

Rev. Ill/P/I'l/mh/?fu ll.US/lh9/ H)* upside down.

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HE(1).

Levon I 2I5

*681. Obv. l.bh/", /NIQUIR/l/ All3/18

Rev. II/'07/]h/?ft, UUS/IR//18 (++-:

PB(2); *WM(2); IS-H(2).

682 Obv. lbf/iu, /ll'llh/m &ll#/ (++-:

Rev. 'ill/'0'10R/9/#, Ill/S//

WM(1); HK(1).

*683 Obv. bh/ru/, /NIQUIR/l/ All3/18

Rev. Wurmahoulf unname k (++-

*WM(1); IS-H(2).

683a Obv. bh/Tuh /l/QUIR/l/ 3UB/m3

Rev. 'ill/'/'l/R/8R, UIUS/Aff/13 (++-

IS-H(3).

683b Obv. bh/TL/ /NIQUIR/l/ All/18

Rev. Wurman/fuusnRome 5 (++-

IS-H(I).

683c Obv. bh/luh Pll'llh/l/ 3UB/18

Rev. 'ill///l/lh/fu IIUS/IRT/) (++-

IS-H(I).

684 Obv. Ibh/", /NIQUR/l/ All

Rev. 'ill/'07/1//NIIR II/mh908 || (++-

WM(1).

685. Obv. Lh/, /NIL'll//m &II/18

Rev. 'ill/P/I'l/IR//#, Ill/S/R& (++-

WM(1).

*686 Obv. Ibh/T, Pu'ukm/ All&ng 4

Rev. 'llR/I'l/lh/?fu lll/S/Th9/18 (++---

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*WM(1); IS-H(2).

2I6 Coinage of Cilician Armenia

687 Obv. Lhm, Pll'UR/l/ All&nd

Rev. Wilf' ('10R/ fu ll.JS/IR8/18 H (++--.

WM(1); IS-H(I).

687a Obv. Ibh/T, Pll'UR/l/ Allm

Rev. Wilf/I'l/mh/0/#, IUS/19

IS-H(I).

688 Obv. lbf/TL /NI'llh/l/ All&/18

Rev. Will/'0"/"R/RII, USAF/

VM(1).

689 Obv. Iblin, All'UR/l/ All&nd

Rev. 'ill/'0'10R/NIFL lll/Sm/

PB(1).

690 Obv. Lhm, Pll'NIR/T &ll608

Rev. Will/P/17/lh/?ft, lll/S/199/18

2.83, PB.

691. Obv. Ibh/T, PUQUR/l/ All&nd (

Rev. Will/'07/1/2/#, I, IIUS/IRI, H-

WM(1).

692 Obv. Ibh/r, Pll'UR/l/ All&mU

Rev. Ill/'0"/"R/9tl|URL II& #+-

MM(1).

693 obv. thm, pu'unnr zunivi K-H

Rev. Will/I'l/l///#, IUSm/ Rev. Crowns on both lions

heads.

WM(1).

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694 Obv. Ibh/T, PUQUR/l/ 3U8ll6

Rev. Ill/P/I'l/lh/. . . . ++-

PB(1).

694a. Obv. Ibh/", /l/'NIR/l/ All/18

Rev. Will//.7/]h//, LIUSM.88/18 (++-

IS(1).

Levon I 217

694b Obv. Ibh/T, AII'll R/T &II6/18

Rev. 'ill//.7/k/./ft, III/S/ (++-

IS-H(I).

COPPER COINS TANKS

lbh/7, foll%llA/l/ All&R/78

[Two dots on crown]

695 clubul P Tutu', butu +++

PB(1).

lbh/7, foll%llh/l/ All&h/18

[Five dots on crown]

*696 Blulu. I funusu pupu +++

*WM(1).

*697 onwill b2utu', pupu +++

*KB(1); EB(1).

698 Ch'ublil / NITU%, h Uhly +++

BN(1).

"600 BPubul P fulllful up +++

*WM(1).

700 BPubul b Qutuqu b up +++

KB(1).

lh/T, /NI'llh/l/ All&R/18

[Five dots on crown and single curl]

701 & Publl h RUQUAU h Uhl/ +H:-

MM(1); BN(1).

X-

702 & Publl h RUQURU h Uh +++

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MM(1); BN(2).

2I8 Coinage of Cilician Armenia

lbh/T, foll'NIR/l/ All&R/18

[Five dots on crown and two curls]

x:

*703 clubl p funusu pupu +++||

PB(1); KK(1); WM(5); *VM(1); KB(1); HK(2);

AD(1); BN(1); HE(1).

X:

704 & Publl h : J U hl/ +++||

7.2, -

705 publil / fu'll RU h Uh ++#||

KB(1); AD(1).

Ibh/T, /NIQUIR/l/ Allh/18

[Six dots on crown]

706 Chubul h fu'll RU p UPU +++

PB(1); WM(5); AD(2); BN(1).

*707 chubu p qu'u', pupu +++

*WM(1); EB(1).

708 clubill b Qutuqu pupu +++

WM(1); BN(1).

*709 clubl p?ulu', pupu +++

WM(4); VM(2); BM(1); KB(1); *AD(2); MM(1); HE(1).

710 clubl I fuTufu b up +++

WM(3); VM(1); BM(1); AA(1); JG(1).

7II Ch'ubll h : h up ++:-

I}.

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712 CFLll h QUT II'', p UU +++

7.1, PB; EB(1).

Levon I 2I9

x-

*713 Chubill h QUT II'', h UU +++

*WM(1).

714. publl h QUTII'', h U +++

WM(1).

Ibh/7, foll?-ll/-/l/ Allh/18

[Six dots on crown and single curl]

*715 clubul h fuTufu pupu ++:-

7.4, *PB; MM(1).

X-

716 &publil h Ru'll RU h Uhl, +++

6.5, PB; WM(4); HK(2); BM(1); AN(1).

t.

717 Chbul h RUQUER UPU +++

WM(1).

*718 Chubul h fulllfu h Up +++

83; 8.6; 6.6, PB, PB(2); KK; WM(9); AN(2); VM(2);

HK(2); KB(2); AA(1); AD(1); BM(1); MM(2); *BN(5);

EB(1).

719 clubull fuTufu p up +++

8.1, PB, KB(1).

lbf/n), /ll'}llR/l/ Allh/18

[Seven dots on crown]

720 clubl p?uTu% pupu +++

WM(1); BN(I); JG(1).

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721 clubul b Qutu', pupu +++

WM(1); VM(1).

22O Coinage of Cilician Armenia

lbf/T, foll'UR/l/ 3UBR/18

[Seven dots on crown and single curl]

*722 clubul h funusu pupu +++

*MM(1).

723 Chubul P Ru'll RU h Uh +++

MM(2).

Ibh/T, /ll'}llh/l/ Allh/18

[Eight dots on crown]

*724 &publil h Qu'll!?", h Uhl, +++

*BM(1); WM(1).

725 clubul b Qutu% upu +++

HK(1); WM(1).

lbh/", /NIQUIR/l/ Allm

[Five dots on crown]

*726 clubul b Qutu', pupu +++

*WM(1).

Ibh/T, 0.1%llh/l/ All/16

[Five dots on crown and two curls]

xt

727 Chubut b fuTufu pupu +++

WM(4); VM(2); HK(2); AA(2); AD(2).

728 clubull funusu pupu +++

WM(2); AA(1).

729 Chubul h fulllfu h Uh +++

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KK(1); WM(3); HK(1); AA(1).

Levon I 22I

lbf/7, Pll?-ll/-/7/ 4LI3/78

[Six dots on crown and single curl]

x-

*730 &Rubl h fuTufu (?) +++

6.3, PB, *VM(1).

lbf/h, foll%llh/l/ All&R/)

[Five dots on crown]

x-

'73 onwu "futuru tupu ++:-

6.8, PB, *WM(5); AD(i); MM(1); BN(1).

x-

*732 Publ.l. h "MITU9-U h Uhly +++

$9,74; 7.6; 7.3. PB; WM(8); KB(2); AA(2); AN(2);

*AD(2); VM(1); BN(1).

733 GPubll h RUTURU h Uh +++

AN(1); AD(1); MM(1); IS(1); EB(1).

734 & Publl h QUTIQU h Uh +++

7:0; 7.0, PB; WM(3); VM(3); AD(1); MM(1); BN(4);

HE(1).

735 hlbl.l. h RUTII:RU h U +++

KB(1).

x-

736 &Rubll h QUTIQ-U h U +++

8.8, PB; WM(2); AN(1).

lbf/7, foll?-ll/-/7/ 3UBR/7

X-

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[Five dots on crown]

*737 &hull h PUQUI/U h . h Uh +++

WM(1); *BM(1); MM(1).

222 Coinage of Cilician Armenia

Ibh/T, PUQUR/i/ -U8R/l

[Five dots on crown]

738 clubull funusu pupu +H:

*WM(1).

739 clubull futuru tupu +H

HK(1).

>{r

*740 clubul h unu'u pupu ++#||

7.35, PB, *NK(1).

740a clubull unu'u put +++

EB(1).

Ibh/ri, All QWIR/l/ 3UBR0

[Five dots on crown and single curl]

712 onwill b futuru tupu +++

MM(1).

743 opulul brunusu pup(?) ++:-

MM(1).

Ibhm, All QWIR/l/ All&R/

[Six dots on crown]

744 Chubul h full RU p Uhl, +++

WM(1); AD(1).

745 obutu b unu'u tupu +++

63; 7.5, PB, HK(1); WM(1); BM(I); VM(1); NK(1).

746 onwu b Qutu', butu +++

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WM(1); NK(1).

Levon I 223

747 onwill b futifu b up +++

VM(1); MM(1); BN(1).

748 obubul p qu'uqu b up ++:-

KK; 7.1, PB; VM(3), WM(3); KB(1); BN(4).

Ibh/7, foll'UR/l/ All&R/

[Six dots on crown]

x-

*749 obutu P futury pubu H+||

*AN(1).

750 clubill b Qutuqu pupu H+||

AD(1).

x.

75 onwill b fulllfu pupu ++#|

WM(1).

lbf/T, All?AIR/l/ All&R/

[Six dots on crown and single curl]

x-

752 onwu "fulfu pupu ++:-

7.4, PB; KK(1); WM(3); AD(1).

753 Ch'ublil h RUTURU h Uh +++

WM(3); VM(2).

lbf/T, /NI'llh/l/ All&R/

[Six dots on crown and single curl]

X-

754 & Publil h h Uh +++|

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5.I., -

224 Coinage of Cilician Armenia

Ibhm, Pll'MIR/l/ All&M

[Six dots on crown and two curls]

755 onwulf funusu pupu ++#|

WM(2).

Ibhn, All'NIR/l/ All&R/l

[Seven dots on crown]

*756 obulu, p funusu pupu +++

*VM(I); WM(1); BN(1).

757 Chubul P Ru'll RU P Up +++

VM(1); WM(1).

Ibhm, pu'llh/l/ Allh/l

[Seven dots on crown and two curls]

X:

75s opilul I funusu pupu Hll

WM(1).

Ibhn, 0.1%llh/l/ All&RU

[Five dots on crown]

*759 &pubul h fulllful Uhu +++

7.9, *PB; WM(1).

Ibhn, 0.1%llh/l/ All&RU

[Six dots on crown and two curls]

X:

760 aluul p funusu pupu +++ll

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WM(1).

Levon I 225

lbf/n), /NI'llh/l/ Allh

[Five dots on crown]

x-

*k s

761 &publil h RIITU-RU h Uhl, +++

8.o, *PB, PB(1).

x-

*762 &pubu, p unu'u pupu +++

*VM(1).

Lh/7, foll?-ll/-/l/ Allh

[Five dots on crown and single curl]

763 &publil h RII'll RU h Uh +++

WM(1); MM(1); IS(1).

Ibh/TL /NI'llh/l/ Allh

[Six dots on crown]

764 clubu, p funusu pupu +++

VM(2); KB(1).

Ibh/7, foll'UR/l/ Allh

[Six dots on crown and single curl]

765 clubull funusu pubu ++:-

PB(1); WM(3); KB(1); AD(1); BN(1); HE(1).

766 &publil / RUTURU h Uhl/ +

9.2, PB; WM(1).

767 &Publil / RUQUARU h Uh +++

5.1, PB, PB(3); KK; WM(4); AD(3); VM(3); KB(2);

15

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KB(2); BM(1); BN(2); EB(1).

226 Coinage of Cilician Armenia

768 clubull futuru b up ++:-

WM(2); VM(1).

769 Chubul h full RU h U +++

KK(1); BN(1).

Ibh/T, 6/1%llh/l/ Allh

[Seven dots on crown and single curl]

770 chubuy h funusu p up ++:-

BN(1).

FORGERIES

*771 Obv. Ibhm, Pu'ukm &lllub

Rev. Ill//.7/mk/f, /13%zil? I

[Silver]; *WM(3).

*772 Obv. Ibhm, Pu'ukm/

Rev. Ch'ubll h Rll'll Ru Uhl/

*773

[Copper]; *WM(3).

*774. Obv. Lhm, Pu%m urb, zun

Rev. Will/'07/1/./0/#, Ill/S/MU/18

[Silver]; PB(1); HK(?).

*775 Obv. (bhm, Pu%m urb, zun

Rev. Will/MIT/IR/2 ft, UUS/TW/18

[Silver]; PB(1). [Gold]; *PB(1); WM(1); AA(3); AN(I);

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BM(1).

Hetoum I 227

HETOUM I

BILINGUAL TRAMS

HETOUM - KAIKOBAD

&b/9/7RU /NIQUR/l/ All 808

x+

*776 --> |8& suis J.M >eck-il out-il Obv. Field mark. * >

2.79; 2.74; PB; 2.76; KK; AN(3); AA(3); NK(2);

BM(3); AD(3); MM(2); VM(8); *WM(18); BN(5);

HE(3); EBOI); JG(1).

*777 -%|8& 2L: |& Myech-lo\al-ll Obv. Field mark. .#S.

+x

2.90, (90%), PB; *WM(3); BM(1); NK(1).

+-

*778 8 & 3.15 &M Serb-lout-ll Obv. Field mark. ~~

/9II'll/TR/*

WM(2); *NK(1).

779 -also as 13.4-loud on Field mark 4 -

WM(1); HE(2). *

*780 -<1% as le."...allow- on Field mark 4'-

&b/0/1/l/ /NIQ &ll08

*MM(1).

&b//nhl/ /NIQUIR/l/ Allm

--

*781 Scroll|2,->5 & 21: ...ll dul-J Scroll Obv. Field mark. >

2.74, PB; KK(1); *WM(1).

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*-

*782 Scroll, - a slas allow- Scrollow Fieldmark 4

*VM(1).

783scroll' - 3 as "ou-lScrollow Fieldmark 4's

*VM(1).

+-

*784Scroll, --, -, *.dou-Mscrollow Fieldmark 4'-

*MM(1). *

15*

228 Coinage of Cilician Armenia

HETOUM KAIKHUSREW

[Without date]

&b/0/IRU (NIQUIR/l/ All 5/18

[Epigraphy similar to Kaikobad coins]

*785 - J.M., U.M &l= |cke's dul-Ji Obv. Field mark.

lis &

MM(1); VM(1); *WM(1); BN(1).

*786 - |&M, L.M &l= |ckey Cul-i Obv. Field mark.

alis &

*WM(4); VM(1); AN(I); BN(1).

*787 - J.M., U.M.&l= |cke's out J. Obv. Field mark.

*VM(2); WM(1); AD(1).

*788 - J.M., U.M &l= |ckeS, dual-J Obv. Field mark.

2L: c.

*WM(2).

*789 J.M., U.M &l= |cke Si Sulli Obv. Field mark.

21: 3

*BN(1).

790 - |&M, L'All cl|ckeS, cul-J Obv. Field mark.

*&

BN(1).

791 3-5 |&#12 U.M &l= |ckey dul-J Obv. Field mark.

*L* c.

WM(1).

HETOUM KAIKHUSREW

&b/0/1/l/ /NIQUIR/l/ All/.

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792 Year 6(3]x U.M.&l= |ckey ou l-J Obv. Field mark.

* c \,-#|J.M.'

WM(1).

Hetoum I 229

*793 Year 637 C. : : - J-- ~~ :- Obv. Field mark. -->

*BN(1). + 1-

&b//nhl/ /NIQUR/T &llfl3

*L* c |2-5 |&al U.M &l= |ckeSi Ju-l

* Year 6 . 2. Obv. Mint mark. 4-

794 y --g ~

*l- 3

2.89, (92%), PB; 2.90, KK; AN(1); *WM(5); VM.(3);

NK(1).

*795 Year 637 2 C- * - U-- ~~ Obv. Field mark. ~

CA:): *-

&l- 3

2.61; 2.76; 3.00, (90%); 2.83; 2.94, (94%), *PB; 2.80,

KK; WM(9); MM(1); VM(2); AN(1); AA(1); BM(1).

*796 Year 637 3 & 4-J-- ~~ Obv. Field mark. *>

c:};

&l- 3

*VM(1).

797 Year 637 3 &- *- J-- ~~ Obv. Field mark. -->

c:}; * :

<!-- 3

BM(1); VM(1).

*798 Year 637 2 C-- U-: *.* Obv. Mint mark. -->

cx): *-

*- :

WM(3); NK(1); *AN(1).

CA: -/

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799 Year 637 2 C-4- U- -5. Obv. Field mark. *S

&l- 3 A.

VM(1).

230 Coinage of Cilician Armenia

HETOUM KAIKHUSREW

&b/9/7AU /NIQUIR/7 &ll3/78

[Style of lettering intermediate between Kaikobad

and Kaikhusrew coins]

*8oo Year 637 * C- <-- U-- ~~ Obv. Field mark.

&l- 4.

KK(1); *AN(1); WM(1).

801 Year 637 3 & 4-J-- ~~ Obv. Field mark.

*l- 3

WM(2); BM(1); JG(1).

802 Year 637 3 C- * - L-- ~~ Obv. Field mark.

cx):

*l- 3

WM(1).

*803 Year 637 2 C- <-- U-- ~~ Obv. Field mark.

<!-- 9

*KK(1).

804 Year 637 3 &- * - J-- ~~ Obv. Field mark.

cx):

<!-- 3

WM(1).

&b//nhl/ /NI'll R/l/ All&/18

*805 Year 637 * C- * - U-- ~~ Obv. Field mark.

*w- 3

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*WM(1)

Hetoum I 23I

&b//nhl/ /NI'llh/m &ll3/18

806 Year 639 * c <-J-- ~~ Obv. Field mark. -j-

&l.- : X:

WM(1).

807 Year 639 9 C-: <-- U-- ~~ Obv. Field mark. 4-

CA:): * *

&l- >

AD(1); HE(1).

*808 Year 639 9 C-: * - U-- ~~ Obv. Field mark. -->

cx): *

&l- 3

*VM(1).

809 Year 639 2 C. C. J-- ~~ Obv. Field mark. -*>

c:): * *

&l- 3 <

BN(1).

81o Year 639 * G - J-- ~~ Obv. Field mark. .*-*-

CA:): *

&l.-->

BN(1).

*8II [Armenian epigraphy similar Obv. Field mark. -->

to 805 of year 637] * *

3 & 2 J-- **

cx):

*l- 3

*VM(2).

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812 Year 639 ; :- U-- " -> Obv. Field mark. --

*l- >

3.00, (90%), PB.

813 Year 639 * c :- J-- ~~ Obv. Field mark. -->

cy): 4-

&l- o

VM(1).

232 Coinage of Cilician Armenia

&b//nhl/ /NIQUIR/T &llfl

*814 Year 640 * - U-- " -> Obv. Field mark.

coax!

&l- 3

AN(1); *HE(4); BM(2); AA(2).

*815 Year 640 <-- U-- ~~ Obv. Field mark.

co->

*l- 3

*WM(9); AN(1); WM(1); NK(1).

816 Year 640 <-- U-- ~~ Obv. Field mark.

c:*2]

*l- 3

WM(1).

816a Year 640 <-- U-- ~~ Obv. Field mark.

ca-21

*:l.-->

PB(1).

&b/, //RU /NIQUIR/m &ll#08

817 Year 641 - *- U-- ~~ Obv. Field mark.

co-2'3

*l- 3

WM(1).

818 Year 641 -- ~ U-- ~~ Obv. Field mark.

co-2' 3

<!-- 3

WM(1); BN(2).

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*819 Year 641 -- a-- J---! ---> Obv. Field mark.

co-2 3

*:1-3

KK(1); *BM(1); HE(1).

Hetoum I 233

820 Year 641 3 *- :- J-- ~~ Obv. Field mark. -->

co-> -j- .

*:::- 3

VM(1).

*82I Year 64I 3 -> *- ! - 2 Obv. Field mark. 3 +

4 -: ~

*l- 3

VM(1); MM(1); *AD(1); BN(1).

822 Year 641 3 -> <- J-- ~~ Obv. Field mark. A-

co-> * *

&l.--> X-

WM(2).

*823 Year 641 3 *- :- J-- ~~ Obv. Field mark. -->

*l- 3 &-> * *

*l- 3

*AD(1).

&b//nhl/ /NIQUIR/l/ All&/18

*824 Year 642 3 #1 - J-- ~~ Obv. Field mark. -->

*l- >

*WM(2); MM(1); BN(2).

<b/9/7/l/ /NIQUR/m 2/18/78

826 Year 642 3 #1 - J-- ~~ Obv. Field mark. -->

*827 Year 642 3 & 4-J-- ~~ Obv. Field mark. -->

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*BM(1); BN(1).

234 Coinage of Cilician Armenia

&b//nhl/ /NIQUIR/m. All&/18

*828 Year 643 3 -> <- J-- ~~ Obv. Field mark. -*-

co-> <!-

<!-- 3

WM(1); *MM(1); HE(1).

HETOUM KAIKHUSREW

[Date not completely legible]

829 Date 64x Type 796 lis & 3 -> |&#12 U.M &l= |ches dual-l

PB(1).

830 Date 64x Type 796

WM(1); KK(1).

83I Date 64x Type 795

WM(2).

832 Date 64x Type 802

WM(1).

833 Date 64x Type 796

BN(1)

834 Date 63 x Type 795

BN(1).

835 Date 63 x Type 795

WM(1).

HETOUM - KAIKOBAD

BILINGUAL HALF TRAMS

&b//nhl/ /NIQUIR/l/ All&/18

*836 |&M, U.M &l= |class dual-II Scroll Obv. Field mark. --

*c3-~

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*WM(1); VM(1).

Hetoum I 235

&b/0/1/l/ /NIQUIR/l/ All 50-

837 |8& lis & M >e chall dual-ll Obv. Field mark. --

A-

3L-8] * .

WM(2).

*838 |8& Lis call leck-il dul-Ji Obv. Field mark. -->

3L-8] *

*VM(1).

HETOUM - KAIKHUSREW

BILINGUAL HALF TRAMS

&b//nhl/ /NIQUIR/T &ll3/18

*839 |cal, 541 &l= |cke's oual-l. Obv. Field mark. -->

2: & 2 - *

J-- */->

1.36, PB; VM(2); *HK(1); BN(3); NB(1).

*840 |cal U.M &L= ckeS out- Obv. Field mark. -->

lis & 3. * * *

J--- *, *

*AA(1); BN(1).

84I |c.'', 'All cl: ckeS out-l. Obv. Field mark. 24-

* c > --5 -- e.

J-- "A"

AD(1).

HETOUMZABEL

TRAMS

Cross with starlion holding cross

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till/'07/1/2/9'hh'.", Il b

*842 &b//mN/ Pu'uhm &ll6m8 !-4-

2.88 (90%); 3.oo (95%), PB; *MM(1).

236 Coinage of Cilician Armenia

843 &b//mNU All?AIMT All306 }-k-

2.89 (90%, PB.

844 &b//U Pll'NIR/T &llm -i-4-

2.94, PB.

Will/P/11/lh/2-hh'.", l8 bi

*845 &b//l/U Pll%ll R/T &ll/18 [5] +*-

2.94 (94%); 3.06 (95%), PB; WM(3); PH(I); AP(2);

VM(I); "AN(I); MM(1).

846 &b//nhl/ /NIQUR/T All&m [b] +!*-

".

3.oo; 2.90; 2.87 (95%), PB; WM(2); MM(1).

847 &b/mN/ Pu'uhm &um [b] +*- :bmRU (AN).

WM(1); AP(1); PH(I); AN(1).

848 &b//nhl/ /l/NIR/T &ll3/18 [5] ++--

PH(2); AP(2); WM(1); VM(1); JG(2).

849 &b//l/U Pll'llMP Allm [k] ++--

3.05, PB; AA(1).

850 &b//mNU All'NIR/T &ll3/18 [b] +!--

AN(1); PH(I); AA(1); IS(1).

851 &b//lhu /NIQUR/m 2/188 #%-

2.78, PB.

852 &b/9/lhu /NI'll R/T &ll60 +*-

AP(2).

853 &b///l/ /NIQUR/T &llm ++-k- Rev. Field mark C

PB(1); WM(3); NK(1); PH(1).

854 &b/9/lhu /NIQUR/T &ll60 -i-k- Rev. Letter 4 with or

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without dot.

WM(1); AP(1); NK(1).

855 &b/mNU Pu'uhm &um 44-x-

WM(1).

* The letters in parenthesis are the last letters on the obverse.

Hetoum I 237

856 &b//mN/ /NIQUR/T &IIB/ -#k- Rev. &b/P/1U and

&b/, /l/U".

3.02 (91%); 2.98, PB.

856a 3b//lhu /NIQUR/T 2U8 [5] ++-- Rev. With C) and

sometimes dot under

<

.301; 2.90; 2.96; 3.00; 3.00; 2.56, PB, AP(3); WM(I);

VM(1); IS(2).

856b &b//nhl/ /NIQUIR/T &ll3 +-K-

3.10, PB.

856c &b//nhl/ /NIQUR/T &ll ++-K-

MM(1); BN(1).

856d &b//nhl/ /NIQU/n 4U. *k-

3.03; 3.04; 2.89, PB, PB(1); AP(1); AN(1); MM(1).

'ill/I'l/lh/2-hR), ll

*857 &b/mRU ou'llMr Alln; +#-

2.94 (92%); 2.64 (90%), PB; *KK(1); AN(1).

'ill//.7/k/.-P. L. Lln h

*858 &b//nhl/ /NIQUR/m 2/8/ ++*- Rev. &b//l/ with dot

over 4. Dot under

second 4.

2.98; 2.92, *PB, AP(2).

859 &b//mNU Pll'NIR/m 2/18/ ++-*- Rev. No dots on 4.

MM(1).

860 &b//nhl/ /NIQUIR/T &ll3 ++--

AN(1); MM(1).

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'ill/010R/2-hl, U.8 k

861 &b//lhu /NIQU//m 2/18/18 ++--- Rev. L.

AP(1).

238 Coinage of Cilician Armenia

*862 &b//nhl/ /l/QUR/T &llm ++--- Rev. Dot.

2.83 (90%), PB; *WM(1).

Will// ?/ R/-hull, 8 b

863 &b//nhl/ /NIQUIR/T &ll308 ++--

AP(2); PH(I); AD(2); BM(1); AA(1).

Will//.7/Th/2-hl, l b

*864 &b/mNU Pu'uhm &ll68 ++--

2.95, *PB.

*865 &b//nhl/ Pll'NIR/m 2/88 ++-'-

*BN(1).

till/I'l/m/,hh'.", l b

866 &b//mh/7/NI'll R/T &ll6/18 ++-- Rev. U

2.92, PB; WM(1); BM(1); PH(I).

867 &b/mRU pu%uhm &un --->|- Rev. Pll%ll/7, U

PH(I).

*868 &bennu Pu'uhm &un it- Rev. Pu'um, o

*AD(1).

869 &b/mNU Pll'UMr &ll&f 44'- Rev. U

&b/9/1U".

2.99; 3.04, PB.

870 &benhir Pu'ulum :u6 +-- Rev. o

2.87, PB, AP(1).

871 &b//NU Pll'UM" <ll3 ++-- Rev. 0

- &b/0//U".

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3.07 (94%); 2.42, PB.

Hetoum I 239

till//7/1/0ph'u', U3

871a &b/mNU Pu'llMr All&nd ++--

EB(1).

*872 &b/nhl/ Pu'uhm &llm ++-- Rev. - and #.

2.96 (92%); 2.81 (85%); 2.49, *PB; WM(1); PH(I);

MM(1).

till//.7/1/2-hui, U8 l;

873 &b//nhl/ /l/NIR/T &ll/18 ++-- Rev. U and k.

2.61, PB.

*874 &bpmRU pu'uhm &um ++-- Rev. Pil'ilur.

2.85 (94%); 2.88 (90%); 3.06 (92%); 3.07 (90%), PB;

WM(1); *AA(1); AN(1); MM(1).

875 &b//nhl/ Pll'NIR/T &ll3/18 +*-

3.oo (92%); 2.62 (93%); 2.88, PB, PH(1); AP(2);

HK(1); MM(2); ER(1); HE(1); IS(1).

876 &b//nhl/ /l/'NIR/T Allm +#- Rev. &b/fll/'.

2.87, PB, AP(I); WM(1); JG(1).

877 &b//nhl/ /NIQUR/T &ll608 +4*- Rev. II'llMr.

PH(I); AN(1); MM(3).

878 &b/mNU Pu'ukm zum ++-*-

AA(1); EB(1).

878a &b/mNU Pu'uhm &ll60 -#*-

JG(1).

879 &b/nhu Ru'ilhm &88 ++--

WM(1); MM(1).

880 &b//7RU' foll?-ll/-/7 <ll68 -i-4>e-

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PB(1); WM(2); AA(1).

881 &b/9/1AU /NIQUR/T &ll0 +---

BN(1).

240 Coinage of Cilician Armenia

882 &b/, //RU /NIQUIR/7 <ll3/7 ++-- Rev. U, dot under &

of Allf).

2.87 (91%), PB.

883 &b///U All?AIR/T &llm ++--- Rev. Dot under both

<'s; and over first 4.

3.Io (93%); 2.92 (95%); 2.69 (94%); 3.07 (90%), PB;

KK; WM(1); BM(1); AD(2); VM(1); AA(1); MM(1).

884 &b//lhu /NIQUAm &lln +k- Rev. Dot under both

<'s.

MM(1).

885 &b//nhl/ /\IQUIR/T &IIB/ ++-- Rev. Dot underboth <'s.

2.90; 2.60, PB, AA(1).

886 &b/9/l/l/ /NIQUIR/T &ll3/" +:-- Rev. U and k.

AN(1).

886a 3b/nhl/ /l/MIM" <ll3/ ++--

JG(1).

887 &b//nhl/ /NIQUR/T &ll3 ++*- Rev. U, dot under

two 4's.

3.12; 2.90, PB, AP(2); VM(1); AD(1); MM(1).

888 &b//nhl/ /NIQUIR/T &ll3 ++---

WM(1); VM(1); MM(1).

'ill/'l/l/i/ -ph'u', ll 5

889 &b//nhl/ /NIQUR/T &ll&m ----

MM(1).

*890 &b//mNU All'ilhm &ll3/ ++-k- Rev. Dot over first and

under second 4.

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&b//nl/

MM(1).

Hetoum I 24I

'ill/'l/lk/). -ph',', l8

891 &b//NU Pll'UR/T Allm +4*- Obv. Some with dot

Over W.

2.92, PB, AP(1); AD(1); WM(1).

*892 &b//nhl/ Pll'NIR/T All&n 44-

PH(I); *WM(2).

893 &b/mN/ /NIQUR/m 2/18 ++*- Rev. Pll%ll/T.

2.80 (92%), PB.

Cross with dotlion holding cross

'ill/I'l/mh/-PR, Il k [or b|

*894 &b//mN/ RUQUR/T 2U808 +--- Rev. Dotunder both 2's.

2.82, PB, AP(I); AD(1); *AN(1).

895 &b/9/1MU Pll'UR/P 4U.808 +- Rev. Dotunder both 4's.

[thin 8]

WM(3); AP(2); HK(1); AA(2); PH(1); AN(1).

896 &b//nhl/ Pll'NIMP All08 +- Rev. No dots under 4.

PH(I); AD(1); MM(1); BN(1).

897 &b/9//il/ Pll%ll R/T &lln +- Rev. Dots over and

under first 4.

AP(3).

898 &b//l/l/ Pll'NIR/P &ll3/18 +- Rev. One dot under

first 4. Obv. Dot over 1.

PH(I); BN(1).

899 &b//nhl/ Pll'NIR/T &ll3/18 +--- Rev. Sometimes lion

with double cross.

KK(1); WM(2); AN(1); AA(1).

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900 &b/mNU ou%ujim zun +--- Rev. Lion cross some-

times with bar.

2.90, PB; KK(1); WM(2); AD(1); HK(1); MM(1).

242 Coinage of Cilician Armenia

901 &b//mNU All?AIR/T &ll3/18 +4- Rev. Dot under first 4.

2.76, PB, AP(2); PH(2).

902 &b//mNU Pll'NIR/T Allm +*- Rev. Double cross.

WM(1); AA(1); MM(1).

903 &b//nhl/ Pll'NIR/T &llm +*- Rev. Cross does not

extend under lion.

Shape of 'I like K.

WM(1); AP(1).

904 &b//nhl/ All'NIR/T All&/18 +---

2.98, AN; PH(I); WM(1).

905 &b//nhl/ All'UR/T &ll3/18 +--- Rev. Dot in field.

3.05, AN.

906 &b//mNU All'UM" <llm +:- Rev. Double cross and

dot in field.

2.48 (87%), PB; MM(1).

907 &b///U /NIQUR/T All&m +- Rev. Double cross and

dot in field.

VM(1).

*908 &b//nhl/ Pll'UR/T All8 [b] ++--- Rev. Sometimes double

CTOSS.

2.83, *PB; WM(1).

909 &b/mNU Pu'uhm &ll6 +- Rev. Dot under

second 4.

PB(1); HK(1).

910 &b//lhu /NIQUR/T &llm +- Rev. Dot under second

4. Obv. 'I like h.

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2.50, PB.

911 &b//nhl/ /l/'NIR/T &llm +- Rev. Field mark S.

2.79, PB, AD(1); MM(1); BN(1).

912 &b//l/l/ /l/'NIR/T All&n +4-

MM(1).

Hetoum I 243

913 &b//NU All'Ujim All/ +- Rev. Field mark S.

2.95; 3.08 (92%); 3.15, PB, AP(5); PH(I); WM(3);

AD(1).

914 &b//mNU (NIQUM" &ll6/ +- Rev. Field mark S.

MM(1).

915 &b//nhl/ /NIQUR/T &ll3/. +(- Rev. Field mark S.

ER(1); HE(1); EB(1).

916 &b//mN/ /NIQUAm &ll +- Rev. Field mark S.

MM(1); BN(2).

'ill/'0'10R/9hh'.", l8

917 &b/mNU Pu'uhm &806 -(e Rev. S and dot under

both 4's.

KK(1); MM(2); EB(1).

*918 &b/mN/ "I'llMr &lln' +6s Rev. S.C.

*AA(1).

919 &b/mNU bu'llMr Alln t-- Rev. Dot in field.

WM(1).

920 &b//NU All?AIR/m 2/80 +(4s- Rev. SC and dots under

both <'s.

3.07; 2.88, AN; KK(1); BM(1); AD(1); HK(1); WM(1);

MM(1)

921 &b/mNU Pu%UM" &ll +(4s- Rev. S and dots under

both 4's.

2.99 (88%), PB, BM(I); HK(1).

till// '1/1/0hhu", ll

922 &b//l/U Pll'NIR/T &ll3/18 +:- Rev. With or without

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dot under H.

PH(2); HK(1); AD(1); WM(3); BN(1); ER(2).

16*

244 Coinage of Cilician Armenia

922a &b//lhl/ Pll%llh/P &llfl 4- Rev. 'I like K, with or

without dot under one

or both &'s.

2.72; 2.85 (92%); 2.88; 2.90, PB; 2.72; 2.86; 2.86, AN;

PH(2); AD(2); KK; WM(2); VM(1); AP(3); MM(1);

BN(1); HE(2); AM(1).

922b &b/9/hl/ Pll'UR/T &ll38 +:-

WM(1); BM(1); AP(1).

*923 &b//NJ /NIQUR/T All&n ++--- Rev. Dot under first &

in WM.

WM(1); *MM(1).

924 &b//nhl/ /NIQUR/m 2/8 ++---

3.10, PB; WM(1); AD(1).

'ill// ?/1/2-hl', ll #

925 &b//nhl/ Pll'UR/P &ll3/18 +- Rev. &b//l/

2.87; 2.78; 3.oo; 3.00, PB; WM(3); AP(3); VM(1);

BM(1); AD(1); MM(1); BN(1); IS(1); JG(1).

926 &b//l/l/ Pll'UR/P &ll3/18 +:- Rev. U%UR/T

2.90 (85%), PB; JG(1).

927 &b//nhl/ Pll'UR/T &llm3 +:-

2.95, AN(1); BN(1).

*928 &b//NU All'Uhm &ll36 +- Rev. &b/9/"U" />ll'NL/7

3.oo, PB; *WM(1); MM(1).

929 &b///U /NIQUR/T &ll68 ------

2.90, PB; 3.03, AN; MM(1).

930 &b///U Pll'ilhm &ll3 +---

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3.oo, PB; PH(I).

Hetoum I 245

'ill/'07/110 hl, U8

*931 &b//lhU /l/'llMr &ll3/18 +- Rev. Dot under 3 and

after 8.

3.10; 2.85; 2.99 (90%); 2.91; 2.96; 2.88; *PB; AN(1);

WM(1); HK(1); AP(1).

932 &b//mN/ Pll'NIMP All3/18 +- Rev. II'll R/T. Dot

under 4.

3.01; 2.99, PB; KK(1).

933 &b///U Pll'NIR/T Alln +- Rev. &b/9/1U".

2.89, PB.

934 &b//nhl/ /'ll NIR/T All&n +-

3.Io, PB.

Lion holding cross to lion walking [Transition dies].

'ill/'0'1/1//-hul, l b

935 &b//l/U Pll'NIR/T All&/18 + Rev. Dot under first or

second 4. Lion holding

CTOSS.

VM(1); AA(1).

'ill/MIT/m/,-h','l ll b

*936 &b//lhu /NIQUR/T All&/18 + Rev. Lionholding cross.

2.98, *AN; PH(1).

937 &b/9/1/\l/ Pll'UR/7 <ll6/78 +3 Rev. Lion holding cross.

MM(2); WM(1).

lill/'07/1/-/.hht, ll b

938 &b//nhl/ /l/QUR/T &llm &+ Rev. Lion walking.

NK(1).

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*939 &b/mN/ /NIQUM" <ll6 &#- Rev. Lion walking.

*PH(1).

246 Coinage of Cilician Armenia

Cross with dotlion walking"

'ill/'07/1/2/9-hh'.", Iln H

*940 &b/mNU Pll'MIM" &ll3 * Obv. Dot and half-

InOOn.

*WM(3).

'ill/'0'10R/9hhu", ll k

941 &b//mN/ Pll'NIMT All&nd +6

PH(I).

942 &b//nhl/ PUQUR/T &ll6m8 ++--- Rev. Cross does not ex-

tend under lion.

WM(1); AP(1); AD(1); AA(1).

*943 &b//nhl/ Pll'UR/T &llmo ++-

2.89 (92%); 2.69 (93%); 2.89 (93%); 2.99 (91%); 2.76;

3.02, PB, PH(2); WM(2); AD(1); *BM(1); HK(2);

MM(1).

944 &b//NU /l/'NIR/T &llm +-

2.88, AN; 2.90, PB; WM(1); AP(I); HK(1); VM(1);

BN(1).

945 &b//lhu /NIQUR/T &ll3/. +:--

WM(1); AD(1); AP(1).

946 &b//nhl/ /NIQUM" &ll3/. ++---

WM(1).

947 &b//nhl/ /NIQUR/T &ll6/

2.90, AN; 2.65, PB, PH(I); BN(1).

948 &b/nhl/ Pu'ukm zur +- Rev. &b/P//U".

2.99 (90%), PB.

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949 &b//nhl/ All'ilhm &ll3 +---

AD(1); AA(1); PH(1).

* Sometimes the dot on the cross is so indistinct that it is difficult to

determine whether the coin should be placed in this class.

Hetoum I 247

950 &b//nhl/ All?AIR/n 4118

PH(I); AP(I); WM(1).

951 &b//nhl/ All?AIR/T &II6 ++---

PH(I); WM(1); MM(1).

952 &b//KU All'UR/T &ll ++-e-

PB(1); AD(2); HK(1).

953 &b/20AU All'UR/m 2/18 H2-

BN(1).

954 &b///U All'NIR/T &ll +:--

PH(2); WM(1).

955 &b//nhl/ /NIQUR/T &ll +(-

3.20, PB.

956 &b//l/U All'UR/T &L +-e-

AP(1).

957 &b//mN/ /NIQUR/T 4 +---

AA(1).

'ill/'0'10R/-hh'.", Il

*958 &b//nhl/ /NIQUIR/m 2/8/18

3.08, AN; 2.88; 2.75; 2.79, *PB; WM(2); AP(2); PH(I);

AD(1); MM(1); IS(2); JG(1).

'ill/'0'l/l/r/hul, l b

959 &b//NU Pll'UM" <llm 4-(-

2.96, PB, AP(1); WM(3).

960 &b//nhl/ /NIQUR/T &llm 3-(-

2.85; 2.95; 2.45, PB.

961 &b//NU All'UR/T &ll3

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PB(4); WM(2); PH(I).

*962 &b//nhl/ /NIQUR/T &Il +(-

3.02, AN; PH(2); *AA(1); HK(1).

248 Coinage of Cilician Armenia

963 &b///U 0\!'}llMr All +(-

PH(I); MM(1).

964 &b/mNU Pu'llMm 3L +(-

PH(2).

965 &b/mNU Pu'uhm/ 3 4-(- Rev. Dot on both <'s.

PH(I); AA(1); IS(1).

*966 &b/nhl/ Pu'ukm/ 3 &- Obv. Half-moon.

Rev. /9WI'llh/7/".

*AA(1).

till// '1/]h/9.hht.", Il

967 &b/mNU Pu'uhm &ll &+- Rev. Dots in field.

2.90, PB; WM(1).

'ill// '10R-/*bh", l R.

968 &b//nhl/ ou'llMr &llm +-e-

BM(1).

969 &b/nhl/ Pu'uhm &8/ ++---

PH(2).

*970 &b/nhl/ Pu'uhm &u &#- Rev. Sometimes dots in

field.

2.93 (89%); 2.91, PB; 2.87; 2.72, AN; PH(2); AP(1);

*BM(1).

971 &b/mRU ou'llh/m 2/8 ++---

PH(I).

972 &b//lhu /NIQUR/T &ll6 (X-e-

VM(1); AD(1); ER(1).

973 &b//NU All'UMP All +-

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PH(2).

974 &b//NU pu%UR/T All ++---

WM(2).

Hetoum I 249

975 &b//lhu /NIQUAm All +---

PH(2).

976 &b//lhu /NIQUAm All 23-

WM(1).

976a 3b//nhl/ /NIQUR/m. All &#---

IS(1).

977 &b//lhu /NIQUR/T &l, ++---

WM(1).

978 &b/mNU pu%uhm & +---

AN(1).

'ill/'07/1/-/*ph', U8

979 &b//lhu /NIQUR/T &Il +---

KK(2); 2.88, AN; PH(I).

98o3b//mNU Pll'NIR/T All 4-3-

PH(2).

'ill/'07/1/-/.ht, UB I,

981 &b//mNU Pll'}ll//. All&/18 +-

PH(1).

982 &b//mN/ /NIQUR/T &llm +----

PH(I); WM(1); IS(1).

983 &b///U /u?/IR/T &u8m ++--

2.82, PB; WM(2); PH(1); VM(2).

984 &b//mNU All?AIR/T &llm ++---

ER(1).

985 &b/mNU Pu'llMT zu/

3.20, PB; PH(3); AP(4); WM(2); AD(2); HK(2);

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VM(1); MM(1); IS(1).

986 &b/mNU Pu'uhm &u8/ --Fo-

NK(1); PH(1).

250 Coinage of Cilician Armenia

987 &b/mN/ /NI'llMr &ll6 +---

2.68; 2.53, PB; 3.03, AN; PH(2); WM(2); VM(2);

NK(1); BM(1); BN(1).

988 &b/nhl/ /NIQUR/T &ll3

2.95 (83%), PB; PH(4); KK(1); WM(9); VM(2); HK(1);

AD(1); 2.89, AN; MM(1); IS(1).

989 &b//mNU /l/'NIMT All3 ++---

PH(I).

990 &b/nhl/ /NIQUR/T All +F---

2.93, AN.

991 &b/mNU Pu'uhm &Il &#---

2.79, AN; PH(2).

992 &b//NU Pll'NIR/T All.' :-e-

ER(1).

993 &b/nhl/ Pll'UM" <ll +---

3.05; 2.80, PB; 2.89, AN; PH(4); WM(1); HK(1);

BN(1).

994 &b/mRU /'ll'UM" All %-

PB(1); PH(I); WM(1).

995 &b/mNU Pll'NIMT All ++---

2.78, AN.

*996 &b/nhl/ /NI'llMr &ll +F---

*WM(2).

997 &b//nhl/ Pll'UR/T All +(-

AD(1).

998 &b/mNU Pu'uhm &u. #- Rev. Dots in field.

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MM(1).

999 &b//nhl/ Pll'NIR/T &l, +F---

PH(I); WM(1); HK(1).

Iooo &b/9/NAU" /NI'll R/7 <l, +---

WM(1).

Hetoum I 25I

IooI &b/9/l/l/ /NIQUIR/n 4 +---

PH(I).

'ill/'07/]h0h'U.8 H

*IOO2 &b//nhl/ /NIQUIR/m &ll3/. #-

2.76, AN; *WM(1); MM(1).

Ioo3 &b//nhl/ /NIQUIR/m. All %-

WM(1).

Ioo4 &b//nhl/ /NIQUR/T &L &---

2.91, AN(1).

'ill/'07/Th0 hut, l8

Loos &b//nhl/ /NIQUR/m. All&p -e-

PH(I).

IOO6 &b/9/1/l/ /NI'llh/m &ll3/. >3:e-

PH(3); WM(1); BM(1); HK(1); MM(1).

Ioo6a &b/9/7/U" Pll%llR/T &ll/ +-

JG(1).

Ioo7 &b//nhl/ All QWIR/m 2/8 +---

3.30; 3.00; 2.91 (90%), PB; PH(3); 2.94; 2.74, AN;

WM(2); BN(1).

Ioo8 &b/9/mN/ /NIQUR/T &ll# &#- Rev. Dots in field.

2.87 (97%), PB; KK(2); AP(3); VM(3); WM(2); AA(1);

PH(2); 2.98, AN; MM(1); ER(2); IS(1).

Ioo9 &b/90AU /NIQUR/T &ll *X-e-

2.64, AN; PH(I); WM(2); AD(2); VM(1); HK(1);

MM(1); BN(1); ER(1); HE(1).

IoIo &b//nhl/ /NIQUIR/T &ll& &{-

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2.89 (91%), PB; KK; BM(1).

IOII &b/0/7RU /NIQUR/7 <ll# ++---

PH(I); IS(1); EB(1).

252 Coinage of Cilician Armenia

IoI2 &b//nhl/ /\ll'UR/7 <ll# +-

2.88; 2.71; 2.77, AN.

IoI3 &b//nhl/ /NIQUR/T &ll ++---

2.91, AN.

*IoI4 &b//NU All'ilhm &ll' #-e-

*WM(1); AD(1); ER(1).

IoI5 &b//l/U /NIQUR/T &ll #:--

3.04, PB; PH(3); AP(1).

IOI6 &b/0/ihl/ /NIQUIR/7 &ll -e-

PH(2); WM(5); AD(1); BN(2); ER(1); IS(1).

IoI7 &b//lhu /NIQUhm &ll :-e-

PH(1).

IoI7a 3b//NU /'ll'UR/T &ll ++---

AN(1).

IOI8 &b//nhl/ /NI'll R/T &l, ++---

AN(1).

IoI9 &b/9/0KU Pll'Uhm &L #--

AP(1); WH(I); MM(1).

IO2O &b/9/l/l/ /NIQUIR/7 < -j-F---

AN(1).

Io21 &b//nhl/ /NI'llh/n 4 ++---

PH(I).

Io22 &b//nhl/ /NIQUIR/n 4 *- Rev. Sometimes

/0'll?-ll/-/7/".

2.92 (98%), PB; 2.86, PB; WM(1); HE(I).

1023 &b//lhu /NIQUIR/T 4 :-e-

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WM(1).

Hetoum I 253

'ill/'0'10R-0.ht, Il A

Io24 &b//lhl/ /?ll'}llR/T &ll3/18 +:-

3.15, PB; WM(1).

Io25 &b/9//l/ /NIQUR/T All&n ++- Rev. &b/0/1U"

2.80, PB, PH(I); BN(1).

Io26 &b/9/7/l/ /NIQUR/7 <ll/)

3.07 (92%), PB; WM(1).

1027 &b//nhl/ /NIQUR/p &lln ----

AN(1).

IO28 &b/0/7RU /ll'UR/7 All&/) +:--

ER(1).

Io28a &b/9/7RU /NIQUIR/7 <ll#/. +(-

IS(2).

1029 &b//nhl/NIQUR/T &II.8 ++e-

2.95; 2.93 (90%), PB, PH(3); AP(I); WM(2); AD(1);

MM(1); BN(2); ER(1).

1030 &b//l/U /l/QUR/m. All? ++---

2.69; 2.96, AN; PH(2); WM(2); AA(1); AD(r); MM(1);

BN(1).

Io31 &b//l/U /l/QWIR/m. All# +(-

PH(2); WM(1); VM(1); AA(1); AD(2).

Io32 &b//nhl/ /NIQUR/T &II6 ++---

KK(1); WM(3); VM(1); HK(1); AA(1); MM(1); IS(1).

1033 &b/9/l/U /NIQUR/T All *:::--

2.75, AN; PH(2); AP(I); WM(1).

Io94 &b/9/mN/ /NIQUIR/T &ll& <!---

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2.99, AN.

*Io35 &b//l/l/ /NIQUIR/T &ll." +:--

3.05, *PB; KK(1); PH; PH(I); WM(4).

Io36 &b///l/ /NIQUR/m. All" ++-e-

BN(1).

254 Coinage of Cilician Armenia

1036a 3b/nhl/ All'ilhm &' +(-

JG(1).

1037 &b//mNU All'ilhm &ll ++---

2.94; 3.oo, PB; WM(1); MM(1); ER(1).

1038 &b//nhl/ All'UR/T All ++---

WM(2); PH(2); AP(1); BN(I); IS(1).

1039 &b//NU Pll'UM" <ll +:--

2.79, PB.

Io40 &b//nhl/ /NIQUR/T &ll +(-

PH(2); WM(1); MM(1).

1041 &b//nhl/ /NIQUR/T &ll (3+---

BN(1); IS(1).

1042 &b//nhl/ /NIQUR/T All (X-e-

WM(1).

1043 &b//nhl/ /NIQUR/T &l ++-e-

WM(3).

Io44 &b//nhl/ /NI'll R/T &L +---

PH(1).

1045 &b//nhl/ /NIQUR/T 4 ++---

WM(1); BN(1).

1046 &b//nhl/ All'ilhm & *D--

2.94, AN.

1047 &b//l/l/ All'Uhm & +(-

MM(1).

"ill/P/10/110 hl, U.8

Io48 &b//nhl/ /NIQUR/T &Il +-e-

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WM(1).

Io49 &b//nhl/ /NIQUM" <ll #-

PH(1); AA(1).

Hetoum I 255

'ill/'07/1/2-hh'.", l8 H

Io50 &b/9/1NU Pll'UR/7 &ll6/18 &-

KK(1); HK(1); AN(1); WM(3); PH(1).

1051 &b/mNU Pu'uhm &llm +(-

WM(2); BM(1); BN(1); HE(1).

Io52 &b//mNU All'NIR/T &ll3/18 +-

MM(1).

1053 &b//NU Pll'UM" <llm" +(-

PH(I).

1054 &b/mN/ /NIQUR/T &ll30 +--

AA(1).

1055 &b/mNU All"MIM" <llm +(-

HK(1); IS(1).

1056 &b//NU /NIQUM" &ll3/. ++---

PH(I); AD(1); BN(1).

1057 &b/mNU Pll'MIM" &ll3/ +(s-

WM(1); PH(I).

1058 &b//nhl/ /NIQUR/T &ll6/ <!---

2.85; 2.93, AN; WM(1).

1059 &b/mNU Pu'uhm &ll3/. +- Rev. &b/Pfll/

ER(1).

IO60 4b/0/IRU' foll'UR/7 <ll3 +---

PH(3); WM(2); HK(1); BN(1).

Io61 &b/0/1/U" /01%IIR/7 <ll# %---

2.86, AN; PM(1); KK(1); BM(1).

IO62 &b//7RU /9II'll//7 <ll# ++---

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PB(1); PH(2); WM(1); IS(1).

*1063 &b//NU Pu'uhm &ll ++---

# 2.57 (94%), PB, PH(2); AP(1); WM(4); *VM(1);

I}.

256 Coinage of Cilician Armenia

1064 &b//mNU Pll'UM" <ll6

WM(1); MM(1); BN(1).

1065 &b//nhl/ /NIQUR/T &ll' +---

PH(I).

IO66 &b/, /TRU foll?-ll/-/7 <ll." &#-e-

BN(1).

1067 &b//NU All'ilhm &ll' ++---

BN(1).

IO68 &b/, /Thl/ foll?-ll/-/7 <ll <!---

2.87 (92%), PH; 2.89, AN; VM(1); HK(1); PH(I);

WM(2); AP(I); MM(1).

1069 &b/nhl/ Pilquhm &ll +:--

PH(I).

1070 &b/mNU Pll'NIR/T &ll (24-3-

PH(I).

1071 &b/mRU /NIQUAm &l +-e-

2.81(90%), PB, PH(3).

1072 &b/mRU pu%llhm &L :-9-

PH(I).

1073 &b//nhl/ Pll'UR/T 3. #-

WM(1).

1074 &b/mRU /NIQUR/m 3: +(-

MM(1).

1075 &b//nhl/ All'ilhm & ++---

3.06 (94%); 3.02, PB; WM(1); AP(1); IS(1).

1076 &b//nhl/ /NIQUR/T 4 +-e-

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3.04 (94%), PB; AA(2); WM(1); BM(1); VM(1).

1077 &b//nhl/ /NIQUR/T 4 +(-

WM(1); AA(1).

1078 &b/mlur Pll'IR/T 4 (3-3-

WM(1).

Hetoum I 257

'ill/'07/1/2-hui, U8 l;

Io79 &b//lhl/ All'UR/T &ll6/18 &#-

WM(3); ER(1).

1080 &b/mN/ Pu'ulum zun 4-(-

PH(I).

Io81 &b//nhl/ /NIQUIR/T All&f <!---

WM(1).

*Io82 &b//nhl/ /N1%llh/m &ll# #-e-

KK(1); "AA(1); WM(1); MM(1); IS(1).

1083 &b//nhl/ /NIQUR/m &ll3 ++---

PH(1).

Io84 &b//NJ /NIQUR/T &ll3 3-)- Obv. Half moon and

dot.

WM(1).

Io85 &b//nhl/ /NIQUR/T 4./ 3-e-

WM(1).

'ill/'0'1/1/0ph', l A

Io86 &b//nhl/ /NI'llh/m &ll #-e-

2.80, AN.

Io87 &b//nhl/ /NIQUR/T &ll +(-

WM(1).

'ill/'07/1/2-hui, Il0 ||

IO88 &b/0/1/l/ /9II'll R/T &ll# #--

2.95, PB; ER(2).

1089 &b//nhl/ All?UR/T 4 -e-

MM(1).

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till// '10/-put, l80

Io90 &b//nhl/ /NIQUM" &ll& {2}-e-

AD(1); IS(1).

17

258 Coinage of Cilician Armenia

Io91 &b//nhl/ /NIQUR/T &ll' (3-e-

AD(1); AN(1).

Io92 &b//nhl/ Pll'UR/m. All (3-e-

3.00, PB.

1093 &b//mN/ /NIQUR/n 4 (33

MM(1).

1094 &b//NJ /NIQUAm/ &-e-

2.75, PB.

'ill/'07/)/9.ht, Il A.

*10954b*mhu Pu'uhm &usp 4-(-

*AD(1).

1096 &b/mNU All?AIR/T &ll6 +{--

3.13, AN; PH(3); WM(2); AP(1); AA(1); HK(1).

1098 &b//nhl/ /NIQUR/n 4 ++---

WM(1).

"ill// '110 hl, ll

Io99 &b//mNU Pll'UR/T All&f +4- Rev. &b/fll/

WM(1).

IIoo &b//nhl/ /NIQUIR/T &ll ++---

3.06 (93%), PB; 3.04, AN; PH(I); WM(3); MM(1).

IIoI &b/9/]hl/ /NI'llh/m &l --|--

2.78, AN.

'ill//.7/11hh'.", Il A

IIO2 <b/0/IRU (NI'llh/7 <ll# ++---

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AP(1).

Hetoum I 259

'ill/'0'10Rpt, Il A

*IIo3 &b//nhl/ /NIQUIR/m. All&/ &#-e-

2.84, PB, *WM(1); BN(1).

IIo4 &b//NJ /NIQUR/m 2/8 #-e-

3.02 (92%); 2.84, PB; WM(4).

Cross without dotlion walking

'ill/'0'10R/-hh'.", Il A

*IIo5 &b/9//l/ /NIQUIR/m. All&n ++

2.70, PB; 2.97; 2.80, AN; AP(2); *WM(1); MM(1);

BN(1); HE(1); EB(1).

1106 &b//mNU Pu'uhm &un 2~

MM(1).

1107 &b//mhl/ /NIQUR/T All&n :--

ER(1).

1108 &b//l/U /NIQUR/m 2/8/. -Hi--

2.90 (90%), PB; WM(1).

IIo9 &b//nhl/ /NIQUIR/m. All&p +:-

2.94 (93%); 2.85, PB, PH(2); AP(1).

IIIo &b//nhl/ /NIQUR/m 2/3 3-4-

BN(1).

IIII &b//lhl/ /NIQUIR/T &ll3 +:-

2.67, PB: KK(1); 2.85, AN; PH(4); AP(2); VM(2);

HK(1); BN(1); IS(2); JG(1).

III2 &b/9/mN/ /NIQUIR/m. All& *}+

2.81 (94%); 2.79 (91%), PB, PH(9); AP(2); WM(6);

VM(2); HK(1); AD(2); AN(1); BN(2); HE(1).

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1113 <b/9/1NT /NIQUIR/m. All ++

2.67, PB, PM(1); VM(1).

17

260 Coinage of Cilician Armenia

'ill// 'l/lh/8-hh'.", ll

III4 &b//l/U Pll%ll//. All&f &#

PH(I).

"ill//.7/mh/2-hl', Il A.

III5 &b//l/l/ /NIQUIR/T &ll6/" ++-

PH(I).

*III6 &b//nhl/ /NIQUIR/T &ll# ++-

*WM(2); PH(I).

1117 &b//mN/ /NIQUR/T &ll3 ++

3.15, PB; MM(1).

'ill/'/'l/m/3-hkul, ll k

III.8 &b/0/1/\l/ /011%ll//7 <ll6/78 &

PH(I).

1119 &b//nhl/ Pll'NIR/T &ll3/18 +

2.93; 2.86, AN; ER(1).

1120 <b//l/U Pll'UR/T &ll6/18 +3

WM(1).

II2I &b/0/1/l/ /NIQUR/7 &ll3/. -

2.86 (91%); 2.90, PB; PH(I).

1121a &b//lhu Pll'NIR/T All&/ &

IS(1).

II22 &b//l/l/ /NIQUIR/T &ll# (3-

2.80, PB; 2.89, AN; PH(2); WM(2); ER(1).

*II23 &b//nhl/ All QWIR/T &II6 ++-

*WM(2); VM(1); HK(1); PH(1).

1124 &b//nhl/ Pll'UR/T &ll ++-

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PH(2).

Hetoum I

26I

1125 &b//nhl/ /NIQUIR/m. All? +

PH(I); AP(1); WM(1); HE(1).

1126 &b//nhl/ /NIQUIR/m 2/8 +:-

WM(1); PH(1).

II26a &b//hl/ /NIQUIR/m 2/13 (#-

HE(2).

1127 &b//NU /NIQUIR/m &ll (3-3-

PH(2); MM(2); IS(1).

1128 &b//l/l/ /NIQUR/m. All +:-

PH(I).

1128a &b//nhl/ /NIQUR/m. All &-3

JG(1).

1128b &b//nhl/ /NIQUR/m. All *H-

IS(1).

1129 &b/0/1/U /NIQUR/7 &l :-

WM(1).

'ill/'0'100phy, U8 H

1130 &b//lhl/ /NIQUR/m. All& --(

PH(2).

'ill/'0'10/-Put, U8m 5

1131 &b//'AU All?AIR/m 2/8/. 4:-

AD(1).

1132 &b/9//l/ /NIQU//m 2/8 &

3.05, PB; PH(2); MM(1).

1133 &b//nhl/ /NIQUIR/m. All (3-

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2.75, PB.

1134 &b//NU /NIQUIR/m. All :-

2.83, AN; WM(1).

262 Coinage of Cilician Armenia

1135 &b//nhl/ /NIQUR/T &l (23-

3.03 (90%), PB; 2.39, AN.

1136 &b//nhl/ Pll'NIR/ 3

WM(1).

*1137 &b//l/l/ / l'UR/l/ [No < 3

*WM(1).

'ill/'07/1/0hul, ll/1

1138 &b//nhl/ /NIQUR/m 2/8/ *

AP(1); AN(1).

"ill// '100Fu, U8 l;

1139 &b//ih/m Pll'UR/T &ll3 &:- Rev. With or without

dots, in field or under <.

2.95; 2.92 (92%); 2.88 (92%), PB; KK(1); PH(I);

AP(3); WM(1); AD(1); AN(1).

*1140 &b//lhu /NIQUR/T &ll/ (24:-

PH(I); AP(2); *WM(2); AA(1); AD(1).

1141 &b//nhl/ /NIQUR/T &ll *:::-

3.15, PB.

1142 &b/mNU All?AIR/m 3L &#-

PH(I); WM(1).

'ill/P/I'l/lh/.hku", ll

1143 &b//nhl/ /NIQUR/T &ll3/. &# Rev. Four dots in field.

PH(I).

'ill/'0'10/-/.hht, UB :

II44 &b//nhl/ /NIQUR/T &ll30

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WM(1).

Hetoum I 263

II45 &b//nhl/ /NIQUR/T All 4

PH(2); AD(1).

II46 &b//l/l/ /NIQUIR/m 2/18 &-

AD(1).

*1147 &b//nhl/ /'ll'UR/m 2/18 &# Rev. Sometimes dots in

field.

PH(2); *WM(1).

II48 &b//nhl/ /NIQUR/m 2/8 +-

ER(I).

1149 &b//nhl/ /NIQUjim All <!-3

2.98, AN; 2.93 (86%), PB, PH(2); AD(1); BN(1).

1150 &b//nhl/ /NIQUR/T All l-

PH(6).

1151 &b//nhl/ /NIQUR/T &ll (>3-

PH(2); HK(1).

1152 &b//nhl/ /NIQUR/T &l *:::-

PH(I).

1153 &b//nhl/ /NIQUR/T &l 4

MM(1).

1154 &b//nhl/ /NIQUR/T 4 ++-

?(1).

'ill/'0'1/lh0.hhl, U3

1155 &b//l/U /NIQUR/m 2/18

PH(3); WM(1).

1156 &b//nhl/ All?AIR/n 4118 &:-

WM(1).

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1157 &b//nhl/ /NIQUR/T &ll :-

PH(2); AP(I); BN(1).

1158 &b/mN/ /NIQUIR/m &L :-

PH(I).

264 Coinage of Cilician Armenia

'ill//.7/ThPhul, U8 ||

1159 &b/mRU Pu'uhm &llm ++-

2.81, AN; PH(I); IS(1).

II60 &b/3/RU /NI'll R/T All&/7 ++-

WM(2); AP(1); EB(1).

II61 &b/, /l/l/ /NIQUR/77 &ll#0 l-

AN(1).

II62 &b/8/IRU (NI'll R/T &ll3/? +(

2.91 (86%), PB; 3.06; 2.81, AN; AD(1).

1163 &b/90AU /NIQUR/T &ll6/ *H-

2.96, PB, HK(2); PH(2); AD(1).

1164 &b//nhl/ /NIQUR/m 2/18/ -H-

BN(2).

1165 &b//nhl/ All'UR/T &ll <!--

2.75; 3.20; 2.90, PB; KK (1); 2.65; 2.85; 2.97, AN;

PH(2); AP(2); WM(8); AD(2); BM(2); AN(1); MM(2).

II66 &b//nhl/ /NIQUIR/T &ll& <!--

2.72, AN; WM(2); PH(2); ER(1).

1167 &b//mNU All?AIR/m 2/8 3-

PH(I).

II68 &b//nhl/ /NI'llh/m &ll +F-

3.07 (90%); 2.71 (95%), PB; PH(1).

1169 &b/mNU Pu'uhm &ll :-

PH(2).

1170 &b//mNU All'Uhm &ll +(

2.75, PB; PM(2); WM(1); IS(1).

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1171 &b//nhl/ /NIQUR/T All <!-

2.72, AN; AP(1).

1172 &b//nhl/ Pll'UR/T &ll 44-

BN(1).

Hetoum I 265

1173 &b//nhl/ /l/'NIR/T &l :-

2.83 (93%), PB.

*1174 &b//mNU All?AIR/T &l }-F-

*WM(1).

1175 &b//nhl/ /NIQUR/n 4 +F-

WM(1); AP(1).

1175a &b/mNU /NIQUR/n 4 3-i-

IS(1).

till/07/Th0 hl, ll&

1176 &b//nhl/ All?AIR/m 2/18/16 4-s

WM(1).

1177 &b//NJ /NIQUR/m 2/18/ @# Rev. Sometimes dots in

field.

2.93 (92%), PB; WM(1); AP(1).

1178 &b//RU All?AIR/n 4118 $ Rev. Dots in field.

3.Io, PB.

1179 &b//mNU All?AIR/m 2/18 :-

ER(1).

1180 &b//nhl/ /NIQUIR/T &ll3 (#-

ER(2).

II81 &b//nhl/ /NIQUR/T All H-

2.83 (94%), PB.

1182 &b//nhl/ /NIQUIR/T &ll6 &#-

PH(3); AP(1); WM(2).

1183 &b//l/l/ All'UR/n 4118 (3-

AN(3); KK(1); HK(1).

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1184 &b//mNU Pu%llMr &ll6 &{

WM(1)

1185 &b//nhl/ /NIQUR/T &ll :-

PH(2).

266 Coinage of Cilician Armenia

1185a &b//mN/ /l/'NIR/T All (X-

IS(1).

*II86 &b//nhl/ /NI'll R/T &l (4:-

3.04 (94%), *PB.

1187 &b/nhl/ pu%uhm & Q4

2.90, AN; AD(1).

till// ?/Th0 hl, U3 l;

*II88 &b/, /ThU" foll'UR/7 <ll3/" ++-

PH(I); WM(1); *VM(1).

1189 &b//nhl/ /l/QUR/m 2/8/ 3

PH(I); AP(1); WM(1).

1190 &b/mRU ou'llhm &ll3/. :-

PH(I).

1191 &b/nhl/ /u'llhm &ll3/. ++-

PH(2).

1192 &b//NU All'NIMT All3 ++-

2.90; 3.00 (95%); 2.87 (89%); 3.01, PB; KK(1); PH(7);

AP(1); WM(3); VM(2); HK(2); BM(1); AA(1); NK(1);

AN(1); BN(2); IS(2).

1193 &b/nhl/ /NIQUAm All

KK(1); PM(1); WM(1).

1194 &b/nhl/ Pilquhm &ll3 *X-

2.90; 2.92 (88%); PB; PH(3); 2.86; 2.92; 3.04, AN;

AP(1); AD(1); HK(1).

1195 &b//lhu /NIQUR/T &ll3 ++-

3.12 (94%), PB, PM(1); WM(1); HK(1); AP(1); MM(1);

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BN(1).

1196 &b/mNU Pll'uhm &ll3 4-3-

2.91 (91%), PB; KK(1); 2.85, AN; AP(I).

1197 &b//l/l/ All?UR/T &ll3

AP(1).

Hetoum I 267

1198 &b/mNU (NIQUAm All& <!-

2.88, AN; AN(1).

1199 &b//nhl/ All?AIR/m. All3 4-4-

2.57 A.N.

1200 &b//nhl/ /NI'llh/m &ll" (X-

2.65 (92%), PB.

I2OI &b//nhl/ /NIQUIR/T &ll" ++-

AP(I).

1202 &b//nhl/ /NIQUIR/T &ll & Rev. First one 4/0/1/\l/".

2.92 (90%); 2.77, PB; PH(4); AP(2); WM(2); AN(1);

BN(1).

1203 &b//nhl/ /NIQUIR/m &ll +(

PH(3); WM(1); AD(1); BN(1); IS(1).

1204 &b//nhl/ /NIQUR/T &ll H-

PK(1); AP (1); AA(1).

1205 &b//nhl/ /NIQUR/T &ll <!-

PH(2).

I2O6 &b/7/IAU foll'}ll//7 <ll +-

ER(1).

1207 &b///l/ /NIQUR/T &ll &#-

PH(I).

1208 &b//nhl/ /NIQUR/m &ll ++-

MM(1).

1209 &b//l/U Pll'UR/T &l <!-

2.93 (94%), PB.

I2IO &b/9/7/U" foll'UR/7 &l. *X-

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PH(I); AD(1); BN(1).

I2II 35/0/1/l/ /NIQUIR/7 <l. ++-

AP(1); VM(1).

1212 &b//nhl/ /NIQUIR/T &l (X:--

BN(1).

268 Coinage of Cilician Armenia

1213 &b//mNU /NIQUR/n 4 +{-

PH(I); WM(2); AA(1).

1214 &b//nhl/ All'UM" & ++-

PH(1); VM(1).

lill/'0'l/lhhul, ll6 k

1215 &b//mNU All'NIMT All&/ Q4

IS(1).

1216 &b/0/1/\l/ /NIQUR/T All& *:-

ER(2); IS(1).

Star under lion-with cross

till// '10K/9hkul, ll H

1217 &b/mNU Pu'uhm &ll3 -

2.95, AN.

1218 &b/9/mhl/ All?ll R/T 4 :-e-

2.90, AN.

1219 &b/nhu Ru'uhm & +-e-

WM(1).

till/MIT/IR-/-hul, l h

1220 4b//nhl/ /*ll'UR/T &ll3(?) +

WM(1).

till//.7/mh0 hut, UB

1221 &b//nhl/ /NI'll R/T &ll3/. <!-3-

2.90 (84%), PB, AN(I); AD(1).

1222 &b//nhl/ /NIQUR/T &ll6/1 +:--

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AD(1).

Hetoum I 269

1223 &b//l/l/ All?AIR/T &ll3 *H-

BN(1); ER(1).

1224 &b//nhl/ /NIQUR/T &ll *}-

2.92, AN.

*1225 &b//nhl/ /NIQUAm & <!-

2.87, *AN.

'ill/'0'10A0 ht, UB :

1226 &b/9/TRU /NIQUIR/T &ll 4-

2.91 (83%), PB.

1227 &b//nhl/ /NIQUR/T &l <!-

WM(1); BN(1).

1228 &b//nhl/ /NIQUIR/n 4 +-

2.60, AN; WM(2).

1229 &b//nhl/ /NIQUR/l/ 3 3+-

2.75, AN.

1230 &b//nhl/ /NIQUIR/l/ 4 *-

PB(1).

1231 &b//nhl/ /NIQUIR/m/, *}-

2.93 (82%), PB.

"ill/'0'100.ht, l8 k

1232 &b//nhl/ All NIR/l/ All -

2.97, PB.

1233 &b//l/l/ All?AIR/T 4 |-

BN(1).

1234 &b//l/U Pll%ll//l/ [No 4] ...

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2.75, AN.

270 Coinage of Cilician Armenia

till/0100 hu ll.8

1235 &b/nhl/ Pll'UM/ 3 *

BN(1).

1236 &b/mNU Pll'UR// (?) *H

2.80, PB.

Will/I'l/Th0 hl, ll

1237 &b//NU Pll'UR/l/ All +-

2.84, AN.

1238 &b//mNU All'ilhm &l <!-

2.84; 2.90, AN.

1239 &b/mNU All?AIR/n 4 <!-

3.00; 2.72; 2.76; 3.04, AN.

*1240 &b/nhl/ All'UM" [No 3) +-

2.89, *AN.

Rev. Undeciphered PB(1).

till/I'l/)R/>ht, ll&

*1241 &b/mNU All'ilhm & &-

*WM(1).

1242 &b/, UQUR/l/ Allm <!--e-

WM(1).

Star under lionno cross

Will/P/I'l/lh//9.ht, ll3 h

*1243 &b//RU All'ilhm/ 3 *}-

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WM(2); *AA(1).

Hetoum I 27I

'ill/'0'100 hl, l h

1244 &b//NU /l/'NIR/T 4 <!-

2.73, AN; BN(1).

1245 &b/mNU All'UR// <!-

WM(1); BN(1).

"ill/I'l/Th0 hl, ll

1246 &b//nhl/ /NIQUR/l/ 3 l-

2.82, AN; WM(1).

*1247 &b//nhl/ /NIQUR/l/ <!-

3.08 (90%); 2.95, *PB; KK(1); 2.66; 3.03, AN; WM(2).

1248 &b//NU /NIQUR// (3-2-

3.01, AN.

'ill/'0'100 hl, ll

1249 &b//nhl/ All QWIR/l/ 3 *H.

2.82, AN.

*1250 &b//NU /NIQUR// <!-

2.79*, AN; HE(1).

1251 &b//NJ /NIQUIR// Q-2-

3.OI, AN.

'ill/I'l/)R/>ht, Il A

1252 &b///l/ /NIQUR/l/ 2 --

AN(1).

'ill/'0'1/)h/h), l

1253 &b//nhl/ Pll?AIR/T &ll(?) +

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AD(1).

272 Coinage of Cilician Armenia

1254 &b/mN/ /NIQUAm/ <!---

2.94, AN.

No star and no cross

till// 'lmk/h), l8 H

1255 &b//mNU /NIQUR/l/ All/ <!-

ER(1); HE(1).

1256 &b//nhl/ /'ll NIR/l/ 4 4-

2.83; 2.81, AN; ER(1).

1257 &b/mRU Pu'ukm/ <!-

AN(1); ER(1).

1258 &b//nhl/ /NIQUR/ <!-

2.86, AN; ER(1).

*1259 &b/mNU Pu'ukm *H-

2.72; 2.97, *AN.

Will// '1/1/-/.ht, l8

I260 &b/0/1/l/ /NIQUIR/l/ &ll +: Rev. &b/Pfll/".

2.75, AN.

I26I &b/3/7/l/ /NI'll R/7/? &l. + Rev. &b/Pfll/.

2.82, AN; WM(1).

I262 &b//nhl/ /NIQUIR/l/ & *H:-

2.84; 3.08; 2.72, AN.

1263 &b/mNU All'UM/ 3 + Rev. &b/0/1U or

&b//nhl/

2.81; 2.87; 2.62, AN; ER(1).

1264 &b//nhl/ All?AIIll/0/ ++---

MM(1).

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1265 &b//nhl/ All'UR// <!-

2.88; 2.60; 2.70; 2.77, AN; WM(2).

Hetoum I 273

1266 &b//nhl/ /NIQUIR/m/ H-

NK(1).

*1267 &b//nhl/ Pll'Uhm <!--

2.86; 2.81, *AN.

I268 &b//nhl/ /NIQUIR/7 <!-

2.79; 2.99; 2.99, AN; AA(1); ER(I); IS(1).

till/'0'100 hl, l h

1269 &b//nhl/ /NIQUIRI) <!-

2.66, AN.

"ill/I'lf-0.ht, Il

1270 &b//NU All'UR/T &l <!-

2.68 (93%); 2.54; 2.75; PB.

till/010/-h/h), U8

1271 &b/mNU Pu'ukm/ +(-

AN(1).

Ill// ?/1R/9.ht, ll

1272 &b//nhl/ /NIQUIR/l/ 4L <!---

2.85 (86%), PB.

*1273 &b/mNU Pu'uk/ <!-

2.88 (90%), PB; WM(1); *AA(1).

HALF TRAMS

Cross with starlion holding cross

'ill// '100-hh 'u', ll

*1274 &b/mNU All?AIR/T &ll&m 4'-

1.46 (93%), PB; WM(3); *NK(1).

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18

274 Coinage of Cilician Armenia

'ill/'07/1/9ht, Il A

1275 &b/9/1NU All'll R/T &ll68 -#k-

WM(3); MM(I); JG(1).

1275a &b//NU All'NIMT All38 +-- [&b//U)

HE(1).

*1276 &b//mhl/ Pll'UR/T 3UB8 -i-'k-

*AD(1).

'ill/'07/1/2-hRul, ll3

1277 &b/P/MRU Pll%llh/7 <ll6/l <!--

BN(2); HE(1); IS(2).

1278 &b//l/l/ /NIQUR/m &ll3 +k-

BN(1).

Cross with dotlion holding cross.

'ill//7'1/7R/0hh'.", Il b

*1279 &b//nhl/ All?AIR/T &llm +-

1.25, KK; *WM(4); VM(1); AD(1); HK(1); MM(1);

BN(3); HE(1).

1280 &b//lkl/ /NIQUR/m. All ++---

NK(1); AD(1).

'ill/010R/-Put, U8 k (?)

I28I &b/0/1/l/ /9/1%llh/7 <ll3/78 +-

HE(1).

'ill/010/0pht, U8 H

1282 &b/9/hl/ /91%llh/m &ll3 +---

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VM(1).

Hetoum I 275

'ill/'0'100ht, Il A

*1283 <b//mhl/ /NIQUR/T 4UB/18 +-

1.50, *PB.

1284 &b//nhl/ /NIQUR/T All8 +---

AD(1).

Cross with dotlion walking

'ill/'07.0/0ph',', U8 H

1284a &b//lhu /NIQUIR/m. All& ++-e-

1.42, PB.

'ill/'07/10 hut, U8 H

1285 &b//nhl/ All'UR/7 &ll <!---

I.II, PB.

'ill/MIT/)0.ht, Il

*1286 &b//nhl/ /NIQUR/n 4 <!---

1.40 (87%), PB, *WM(1); AA(1); BN(1)(?).

'ill/'0'1/7//0/it, ll

*1287 &b//nhl/ /NIQUAm & *:-:

*WM(1).

Cross without dotlion walking

'ill/'07/)/9.ht, II?

*I288 &b//nhl/ /NIQUIR/m. All3 ++-

1.50, *PB; WM(1).

*1289 &b/mNU Pu'uhm & +-

*AN; WM(3); VM(1).

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18*

276 Coinage of Cilician Armenia

1290 &b//nhl/ /l/'NIR// + (?)

MM(1).

1291 &b/mN/ /NIQWIR/T #-

BN(1).

No crossno star

"ill/P/I'l/1//>ht, ll

*1292 &b/mN/ /NIQUAm ----

*WM(1).

'ill/P/11/10 hl, ll

1293 &b//nhl/ /NIQUR/m ++-

ER(1).

COPPER COINS TANKS1 2.

King seated on throne adorned with lions

&b/9/7/U" /NIQUIR/l/ All08

1294 CFLll h NI'll!'}}, h Uhly k L:

AD(1). P #

* The circle surrounding the king is usually a solid line, and on rare oc-

casions, dotted. On the reverse, all specimens examined had a solid circle.

* It is interesting to note the gradual simplification of the throne design.

At first the throne was adorned with lions, reminiscent of the silver coins

of Levon I. This was followed by a simpler throne with conventionalized

lions, which themselves underwent a progressive simplification. Then came

a simple throne, bench-like, with two posts on each side, and finally, a

simple bench-like throne with one leg on each side. This progressive

evolution may be represented as follows:

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5-? R ff

Hetoum I 277

*1295 publil I NITU% h Uhl/ *#

8.3; 7.9, PB; AN(I); KK(2); WM(5); VM(2); HK(3);

AD(3); *BM(1); KB(1); MM(2); BN(1); AM(1); HE(1);

EB(2).

1296 &publil h NITI', h Uhl, # Obv. Solid or dotted

a \\ circle.

7.I; 6.7; 6.1; 7.5; 7.9; 5.2; 7.4; 8.3; 5.6; 7.3, PB, PB(1);

KK(1); AN(1); WM(19); VM(7); HK(5); AD(6); AA(3);

BM(1); MM(4; BN(8); JG(3); IS(1); HE(1); EB (3).

*1297 Chubul h QuTu% h UU #

*AA(1); HK(1) * \\

1298 &publil I NITI', h Uh >|<

KK(1); WM(2); AD(1).

1299 &Publl h NITU94, h U Sk

WM(1). * \\

*13oo &publil h MITU% h Uhl/ #

6.7, *PB; AA(1); WM(1).

1301 &Publil / NIQU% h Uhl/

AD(1). %

&b/9/mhl/ /NIQUIR/l/ All&/):

1302 publil h MITU%, h Uhl/ \le

Sk

8.6, PB, HK(2).

1303 GPublil / NI'll!'), h Uhl & B.

AA(1). x \x

King seated on throne decorated with conventionalized lions

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&b/0/1/l/ /NI'llh/l/ All&/18

*1304 Chubul P NITU% h UPU #.

8.7; 8.2, PB; WM(12); VM.(3); BM(2); HK(2); AD(2);

MM(1); BN(6); IS(1).

278 Coinage of Cilician Armenia

*1305 & Publ.l. h NITI', h Uhl, i: Obv. No star in field.

*WM(2). *A*

1306 clubill b Qutu% buy #.

7.8, PB, PB(1); WM(5); AD(3); AA(1); MM(3);

BN(7); HE(1).

***

*1307 &publil / NIQU%, h UUU #.

7.3; 7.5, *PB; WM(2); BM(1).

*W*

1308 Chubul I NITU% h Uhu h :

WM(3); HK(1); AD(1); MM(1); BN(1).

*Y*

1309 clubull Tutu' pupu " +

6.o, PB; WM(2); BM(1).

*131o Ch'ublil / N1%ll!'. I Ubu h #. Rev. Note misspelling

*T QUQQUIQ.

*KK(1); WM(1); AD(1).

1311 51%bul P Tu'u', pubuhu sit.

HK(1). %T

1312 publil h NITII'', h Uh i:

WM(1). *A*

1313 publl h NITU', h Uhl/# i. Rev. Note star at end

*A* of legend.

WM(1); AD(1).

***

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*1314 Chull h NITI', h Uhuhl/ #. Rev. Ghull.

PB(1); WM(2); VM(1); *MM(I); JG(1).

1315 pull h NITI', h Uhl/h Eit. Rev. Ghull.

WM(1). *A*

1316 Chull h MITU% h Uhl/ it. Rev. Ghull.

WM(1). *A*

Hetoum I 279

1317 &Publil h RII'lllf, h Uh sit.

WM(1). *A*

1318 GFLll h RUQUIR, f U it.

WM(1). *A*

1319 &Publil / RUTII R, it.

WM(1). *A*

1320 GPublil P Tu'u', pupul S.

WM(1); AD(1). *AN

*1321 & Publl h NITI', h Uhl/ .#

*WM(4); AD(1); MM(1); BN(1).

iz.

\e

1322 pubu, p qu'u', puu :

6.1, PB; WM(1); VM(1); AA(1); AD(1); BN(1).

1323 Ch'ubll h NITU%, h Uh #

VM(I); MM(1). ZAN

1324 Ch'ublil / NI'll!?', h Uhl/ .# Obv. No star in field.

AD(3); WM(2); VM(1).

1325 Publl h QUTII'', h UU #. Obv. No star in field.

8.9, PB; WM(1); VM(1); HK(1); HE(1).

1326 &publl h QUTU9, UUU Siz

PB(1). *\\

1327 &Publl h NIQU%, h Uhl/ *K

PB(1); WM(3); MM(3); BN(1)

*1328 &Publil h QUTU%, h Uhl/ SK Obv. No star in field.

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*KK(1); VM(2); WM(1); JG(1); EB(2).

28O Coinage of Cilician Armenia

*1329 &Publil / MUTII'', h Uhl, "Le

WM(4); *BM(1). *A*

1330 CFLll h NITII'', h Uhl/ #

PB(1); AD(2); MM(1).

1331 CFUbl.l. h NITU%, h UU # Obv. No star in field.

MM(1).

1332 publil h NITU% h Uhl/ #

7.o; 5.8; 5.6; PB; WM(7); AD(5); HK(1); BN(3).

1333 CFLll h QUT II'', h UPU # * Rev. Star at end of

* ty legend.

AD(1).

* | *-

*1334 CFLll h QUTU%, h Uhl/ #

8.1; 5:7, PB; KK(1); *WM(5); VM(1); MM(3); BN(2);

IS(1).

1335 CPublil / NITII'', h Uhl/ *

KK(1); WM(1).

1336 Ch'ublil h NITI', h Uhl/ #

5.o, PB; VM(4); WM(2); MM(1); EB(1).

1337 &publil / QUTU%, h Uhl/ #

WM(4); VM(2); HK(1).

<b/0/1/l/ /NIQUIR/l/ All&n

1338 &publil / MI'll!'), h Uhl/x NL Obv. No star in field.

* \\ Rev. Cross at end of

legend.

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WM(1).

Hetoum I 28I

1339 Chubul F QUTU%, h Uhl, >|< Obv. No star in field.

WM(2); BN(2).

134o & Publ.l. h QUT II'', h Uh # ow. No star in field.

WM(1); BN(1).

134oa & Publl I QUT II'', h U >|< Obv. No star in field.

HE(1).

King seated on throne having two legs on each side

&b/0/1/l/ /NIQUR/l/ 3UB/78

1341 Chubul h QUTU%, h Uhl/ >|<

9.7; 8.5; 7.o; 6.8; 6.2, PB, PB(2); WM(15); VM(4);

BM(3); AA(2); HK(5); AD(7); MM(2); BN(2); JG(1);

EB(1).

1342 Publil / ?/I'll!?', h Uhl/x SL. Obv. Cross at end of

# legend.

AD(1); BM(1).

1343 Ch'ublil / MITU%, h UU N lar

AD(1). #

*1344 Chubul h NITU%, h Uh

KK(1); *WM(3); VM(2); HK(1); EB(1).

\le Obv. No star in field.

>|<

1345 CPublil h NITI', h Uhl/ #

7.7; 7.8, PB; WM(2); VM(1); NK(1); HK(1); AA(1).

1346 Ch'ublil h NI'll!'}}, h Uhl/ #

WM(I); BM(1); AD(1).

1347 Ch'ubll h NI'll!'}}, b Uhl/ 3%.

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WM(1); AA(1). % Wye

282 Coinage of Cilician Armenia

1348 Ch'ublil h NITU%, h Uhl/ --

KK(1); WM(4); VM(2); BM(1); HK(2); MM(1); BN(I);

HE(1).

1349 &Publil h NITU'), h Uh %

BM(1).

*1350 GPLll h QUT II'', h Uhl/ \lar Obv. Decorative de-

* \\ sign 5 to left of king.

7.8, "PB; AN(2); WM(1); VM(2); AA(1); BM(1); AD(2).

135oa & Publl h NITII'', h Uh #

HE(I). * \\

&b/9/7/l/ /NIQUR/l/ 3UB/):

1351 CFLll h QUT II'', h Uhl/ >|<

WM(2); VM(1); AD(1).

&b/9/7RU /NIQUIR/l/ 3UB

1352 hlll h QUTIQ: h Uhl/ >|<

WM(7); AD(1); AN(1); NK(1); MM(3); BN(2).

1353 GPubll h \ll'll!'}\, h Uhl/k NY, Rev. Star at end of

# legend.

BN(1).

1354 6Publil / MITU'k', h Uhl/ >|-

WM(2); VM(2); AA(1).

*1355 publil h NITU'', h Uhl/ -

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7.4, PB, *WM(2); HK(1); BN(1).

Hetoum I 283

King seated on throne of one post on each side

&b/0/1/l/ /NIQUR/l/ 3UB/18

1356 Chubul h NITU%, h Uhl/ *#.

6.o, PB; WM(2); AA(1).

1357 & publl I NIQU%), h Uhl).". # Rev. Three dots at end

x \x of legend.

WM(1); BN(1).

*1358 Chubul h MITU%, h Uhl/ +:

*KK(2); WM(3); HK(1).

1359 &publil h NIQU%, h Uh #

PB(2). -

*136o Chubill h NITI', h Uhl/ *W/ C-

8.3, PB; WM(4). * \ ^

1361 CFLll h NITII'', h Uhl/

6.4, PB, HK(1). -

&B//nhl/ /NIQUR/l/ 3UB:

*1362 publl h MITU%, h Uhl/ +:

AN(1); *WM(5); VM(1); AD(2).

1363 publl h \ll'U%), h Uhl/x &W: Rev. Cross at end of

*#.

legend.

6.o; 5.7, PB; WM(1).

1364 &publl h NITU%, h Uhl/ #

WM(1). *A*

KARDEZ

King on horseback

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&b//nhl/ /NIQUIR/l/ 4113/18

*1365 publil h NITII'', h Uhl/ : Obv. Sometimes star

*A*. or cross in field.

4.3, PB, *WM(2); VM(1); AD(2).

284 Coinage of Cilician Armenia

1366 Ch'ubll h NI'll!'}'', h Uhl/

4.4, PB; WM(1)

1367 Chubul h QUT II'', h Uh

WM(1); VM(1).

\le Obv. Sometimes star,

* \\

dot or cross in field.

VM(I); AM(1).

\lar

* \\

1368 Ch'ublil / NITII'', h UU \lar

MM(1). * \\

1368a Ch'ublil h NI'll!'}\, h' U \le

EB(1). #

1369 GPublil h Qu'll', h Uhl, # Obv. 3b/9IP.

3.7, PB. a \x

137o Chubul P QUT II'', h (?) - || -

AD(1). #

&b//nhl/ /NIQUIR/l/ All&n:

1371 Chubill h Qu'll', h Uhl/ \le Obv. Sometimes star

>|<

in field.

WM(3); AD(1).

&b//nhl/ /NIQUR/l/ &ll#17

*1372 hlbl h QUTU% h Uhl, x" | x Obv. Sometimes star

*#.

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or dot in field. Legend

does not always start

at point of cross.

6.0, PB; WM(2); VM(1); MM(1); *NK(1).

1373 Ch'ublil / NITI', h Uh *#.

HK(1); VM(1). x \x

*1374 CFLll h QUTU% h UPU >|< Obv. Sometimes star

* \\ or dot in field. Legend

does not always start

at point of cross.

3.4; 4.2; 4.4; 4.4, PB; AD(4); WM(6); MM(1); BN(3).

Hetoum I 285

1375 Ch'ublil h NITU%, h Uhly: #

* \\

WM(1).

1376 CFLll h MI'll!'}}, h Uh

Rev. Two dots at end

of legend.

\le

* \\

WM(2); HK(1); BN(2); EB(1)

1377 &publil h NITU%, h U

\lar

* \\

KB(1); MM(1); EB(1).

1378 Chubul h NI'll!?", h Uh

HK(1).

1379 &publl h NITU%, h Uh

WM(1).

138o & Publ.l. h QUTII?, h Uhl/

BN(1).

*|*

# Obv. 20/i/Il/".

x \\

&B/0/7/l/ /9/1%llh/l/ 4118

1381 GPUBll h QUTII?, h Uhl/

WM(3).

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1382 hlbl.l. h QUT II'', h Uh

WM(1).

1383 & Fublil h QUT II'', h U

WM(I); JG(1).

1384 CFLll h QUTIQ,' I Uh

KK(1); WM(2).

1385 Ch'ublil / ?/ITU', h UU

4.3; 4.2, PB.

1386 Ch'ublil h NITU%, h U

WM(1); BM(1).

x lik Obv. Dot in field.

Ak

Obv. Dot in field.

Obv. Dot in field.

::::#

aft#:::;

1387 hubl h QUT II', P, UPU

Obv. Dot in field.

Obv. Dot in field.

* \\ Obv. Dot in field.

2.9, PB, PB(1); VM(2).

286 Coinage of Cilician Armenia

*1388 CPubll h NI'll!?", h Uh #

5.1, *PB; MM(1) * \\

1389 &publil I NITI', h Uhl/ NIX

5.5, PB; WM(1). **

1390 Chubul h Qu'll', h Uh(?) *H:

4.2, PB; AD(1).

&b/0/1/.l/ /NIQUR/l/ All

*1391 Chubul h Qu'll', p Up H

PB(1); *MM(2).

1392 publl h NITU%), h Uhl, -

PB(1). #

King seated on benchlike throne

&b/0/1/l/ /ll'll R/T &ll6/78

*1393 Chubul P Ru'll Fu h Uhl, NQ Obv. Rarely inverted

>'. U or 8.

4.2; 4.5; 5.I; 3.6; 4.2; 3.8; 3.5; 4.2; 4.5, PB, PB(1);

*KK(5); WM(10); VM(1); BM(1); HK(5); AD(6);

MM(3); BN(10); JG(1); EB(1).

*1394 &Publil h NITU%, h Uhl, >'.

4:5; 4.3; 3.2; 5.o; 3.6; 4.1; 4.0, PB, PB(2); *KK(1);

WM(7); AA(1); BM(1); MM(2); BN(2); AD(4); JG(1).

1395 publil h QUTU%, h Uh \O

MM(1). #N.

*1396 Ch'ublil h QUTU%, h U >'.

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4.6; 4.3; 4.4, PB; WM(3); VM(1); BM(1); HK(2);

*AD(2); BN(3).

Hetoum I 287

1397 & Publl / QUT II'', h L #.

4.4, PB; WM(1); AD(1).

1398 & Publil h NITI', h #.

4.1, PB(2); NK(1), WM(1); VM(1); AD(3).

&b//nhl/ /NIQUAm All&n

*1399 Ch'ubll h QUTII?, h L #.

WM(1); VM(1); HK(1).

14oo & Publ.l. h QUT II'', h \O

WM(2); AD(2). >#

&b/9/hl/ /NIQUIR/T &ll3.

1401 & Publl P QUTIQ,t, h Uh \|J

5.o, PB. *N.

1402 & Publl h QUTU91, h U >'.

4.I; 3.9; 4.2, PB; WM(4).

&b//nhl/ /NIQUIR/m 2/3

1403 Ch'ublil h NI'll!?", h Uh NR)

4.95, PB. >''

&b//lhu /NIQUIR/m. All

1404 & Publl h NITU%, h U \Q

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AD(3). #

288 Coinage of Cilician Armenia

King seated on throne adorned with lions

&b/0/1/.U. foll?-ll/-/l/ All?/18

1405 Publ h . . . . . . . h U. U SK Rev. Ch'ubl.

VM(1); AD(1). * \\

&b//nhl/ /NIQUIR/l/ All&/)

1406 & Publ h NITI', h Uhl, >|<

4.6; 5.6, PB, PB(1); AA(1); MM(1); JG(1).

*1407 &Publ h QUT II'', UPU *\le

*WM(1); HK(1). *.

1408 &publ h NIQU%, h Uh

>

&

4.9, PB.

1409 &publ h NIQU%, h UU \lar

HK(1). a \\

141o publ h NITI', h U \lar

3.9, PB; WM(1). * \\

1411 CFLll h QUTII'', h Uhl/ J Obv. Star in field.

WM(1). #

1412 publil h NITII'', h UU NJ (?) Obv. Star in field.

MM(1). ZIN \ . . .

&b/, /l/l/ /NIQUIR/l/ All?

*1413 &publl h NI'll!?", h U >'.

PB(1); *WM(1); VM(1).

1414 &Publ h NIQU%, h Uhl/ -.

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WM(1); VM(1); MM(1).

1415 publ h QUTII'', h Uhl/ >|<

3.6, PB, PB(5); WM(5); VM(1).

Hetoum I 289

*1416 &Publ h QUTII?, h Uh S.

*WM(3); MM(I); JG(1); PB(1).

1417 &publ h NIQU%, h UU *

HK(1); PB(1). * \\

1418 &publ h NITU%, h U

>|<

HK(2). * \\

&b/0/1/l/ /NIQUR/l/ All

1419 &publ h NITI', h Uhl/ #

5.45, PB; WM(2); HK(1); AD(1); AA(2); KB(1).

1420 &Publ h NITI', h U SK

3.6, PB; AD(1); BM(1).

Rev. Uncertain BM(1).

UNIQUE COPPER COIN

[Struck with a silver tram die]

*1421. Obv. Ill/'0'10R-0.ht, Il

Rev. &b/9/1AU (NIQUIR/n 4ll

4.60, *PB.

ERRORS

1422 Obv. & Publil h \ll \ll', h Uhl/

Rev

*1423 Obv.

Rev

. Ch'ublil I, NITII'', h Uhl/ #

VM(1).

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Ch'ubll h RII'll R Uhl/

*\te

. Chubill h fulllf UPU(?) #

*PB(1).

19

290 Coinage of Cilician Armenia

LEVON II

TRAMS

Coins with HetoumZabel design

'ill/010/-/.ht, l k

*1424 lbh/T, Pll%llh/l/ All&/18(?) k +-

*WM(1).

upmnhop, us

*1425 lbf/T, PUQUR/l/ All&n *}+-

*AN(1).

1426 Ibh/T, All?AIR/l/ All& <!-

AN(1).

till// ?/ R-R/9.h., U.8

1427 lbf/1, PI'llh/l/ 3 +(-

KK(1); AD(1); PB(1).

Typical Levon II designlion turned left.

Rev. Ch'ubll h QUT. . . ), Uhl Rd l/MU U

*VM(1).

*1428 Obv. Ibnt, All?AIR/l/ UUbul3. . . . .8U &

Ib/T, /NI'llh/l/ ill/'bulll <ll3/.

*1429 Chubul h fulllf, h Uhl, \nt.

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2.93 (90%) *PB; WM(1); AA(1); AD(1); MM(1).

Levon II 29I

*1430 CFLll h RUQUR, h Uhl/ * Ilf-

2.86 (86%), 2.71, *PB; 2.47, KK; WM(1); AA(1);

AD(3); VM(1); MM(2); AM(1); JG(1).

1431 &publil h RU'll Ru h UU \nt

V BN(1).

M(1); WM(1);

1432 publil h RUQUAR, U * Flf-

VM .

(I).

1433 GPublil h RUTII RP), h Uhl h K Flf-

2.92 (82%), PB; AD(1).

*1434 GPublil h RUTIFR, h Uhl p k Ilf

2.90 (82%); 2.93, *PB; 2.90 (80%), KK; VM(1);

MM(1).

1435 publil / Ru'll Ru h Uhl, k

2.90 (83%), PB; VM(1); MM(2); BN(1).

1436 Ch'ublil h RUQUAR), h Uhl/\, ', % T

AD(1); MM(1); EB(1).

1436a Ch'ublil / RUQllf, h UPU K Ilf

JG(1).

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19

292 Coinage of Cilician Armenia

-l-

1436b & Publil h RUTII R, h Uhl, PU k Tl I

HE(1).

Ib/), foll'UR/l/ III/'bullt, AllU

Obv. Inscription

* starts to right of

*1437 chubul h fulllf, h UPU Puh king.

*MM(1).

1438 Chubill h Ru'll Ru h Uhl p k Ilf

MM(1).

Ib/, /NIQUIR/l/ III/'bull3, All".

1439 Chubill h RUQUAR, h Uhl, \nt.

VM(1).

Ib/, /NIQUIR/l/ UU'bull, &ll3/.

1440 chubul h fnuft, h Ubu \nt.

2.71 (78%), PB.

1441 &publil / RUQUAR, h Uhum \nt.

MM(1).

*1442 &pubill h fulllf, h Uhl/ \r + Rev. Inscription

starts at tail of lion.

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*MM(1).

Levon II 293

lb/, /NIQUR/l/ III/'bullt, All3

1443 Ch'ublil h fl!'ll Ru h Uhl/ \lf

HK(1).

lbff, All'UR/l/ III/'bullt, All3

1444 Ch'ublil / RUQUAR, h Uhl/ \nt. Obv. II'llh/7/".

2.57 (65%); AN(1).

1445 publil / RUTUR), h UPU Obv. Inscription

K starts to right of

* CrOWn.

BN(1).

1446 CFLll h RUTIlf, h Uhu hl/ Knt.

2.41 (75%), PB, IS(1).

1447 &publil / fulllf, h Uhl p Obv. Inscription

* starts at horse's

head.

MM(1).

1448 &publl h RUTUR, h Uhly, k *If

2.87 (79%), PB; MM(1).

1449 GPublil / RU'll Ru h Uhl/ ^n+.

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WM(1); MM(2).

294 Coinage of Cilician Armenia

Kn + Obv. Field mark

1450 & Publl h RUQUAR, h Uhl/ under horse.

WM(1).

1451 Chubul h fulllf, h Uhl/ \lf Obv. No field mark.

2.73 (77%), PB; WM(1).

*1452 publil h fulllf, h Uhl/ Obv. Field mark

2\" under horse and

*}} two triple dots

in field.

*WM(1); HK(1).

Ib/T, All?UR/l/ lll/'bullt, 4U/

*1453 CFLll h RUTUR, h Uhly pl/ Obv. King holding

\* double cross. Field

mark and some-

times dot.

*KB; MM(1).

1454 6Publil h RUTUR, h Uhl, fi Obv. King holding

.V* double cross. Field

mark and some-

times dot.

2.67 (65%), KK; WM(1); VM(1); AA(1); AD(2); AM(1).

double cross. Field

mark and some-

times dot.

1455 Ch'ublil / RUTII R, h Uhl, K Obv. King holding

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IV*

VM(1); AD(2); MM(2).

1456 &publl h Ru'll Ru h Uhl h k Ilf-

BN

(I).

Levon II 295

<

1457 & Publil h RUQUIR, h Uhly h K Flf

MM(1).

1458 &publl h FUTUR, h Uhuhl h Obv. King holding

.V* double cross. Field

mark and some-

times dot.

KB(1); BN(1).

1459 &publl h RUTIlf, h Uhl, Obv. King holding

\* double cross. Field

mark and some-

- times dot.

2.67, KK; WM(1); VM(I); JG(1).

lbff, 81%llR/l/ III/'bull&t, 4U [or ". U]

<

1460 &publl h RUTII R, h Uhly pl/ x Ilf-

WM(I); JG(1).

1461 Chubul h RUQUIR, h Uhly pl/ \nt.

2.78 (65%), PB.

<

1462 publl h RUTIIR, h Uhly h & Ilf

2.75, AN; 2.68 (50%), PB; VM(1); HK(1); BN(1);

IS(1).

<

*1463 publl h RII'll RV h Uhl/ K Ilf-

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2.80 (75%), *AN; WM(4); VM(2); BM(1); KK(1); IS(1).

296 Coinage of Cilician Armenia

1464 Ch'ublil / RUTII R, h Uhly pl/ \lf

MM(1).

1465 Ch'ublil h RII'lllfi, h Uhly h ^n+.

BN

(I).

1466 & Publ.l. h RUTII:ft, h Uhl/ Wrlf-

NK(1).

1467 Chubill h RIITU-R), h UU \nt.

(I).

WM(2); BN(I); AM

1468 Chubill h fulllf, h Uhl h(?) Obv. Field mark

k dot or circle.

WM(1).

1469 &publil h fulllf, h Uhl p Knt.

2.34 (54%), PB; BN(1).

1470 &publil h RII'll RV h Uh \nt.

BN(1).

lb/T, foll%ll All/ U'bull, 2U

*1471 Ch'ublil h RUTII:#, h Uhl h \nt.

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WM(1); *VM(2).

Levon II 297

lbff, Pll'UR/l/ IIITbill.3%, 3

<

1472 Publil / RU'lll:Ru h Uhly h \nt.

M(2); VM(1).

Ib/Tu /NIQUR/l/ III/'bull&t, ".

Uhl) hU J, K lf.

(I).

1474 6Publil / RUTII R, h Uhly h \ni.

PB(1).

1475 Bhubul h futus, pubu Kni.

WM(2).

1476 Chubill h RIITU fu hl/h Kni.

MM(1).

<

1477 & Publl h RUQUIR, h Uhly h \nt.

MM(1).

1473 & Publil h RUTIIf, h

NK(1); MM

Ib/77, foll?-ll/-/7/* III/'b'LII5%,

<

*1478 Ch'ublil h RUQUIR, h Uhly h K Ilf

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2.57, PB; WM(2).

298 Coinage of Cilician Armenia

1479 Chubul P RUTUR, h Uhl/ x Flf-

WM -

(I).

1480 Chubul P RII'll Ru h Uh \ Ilf

AD(2).

1481 Chubul P Ru'll Ru h Uhl, x Ilf

MM(1).

Ib/T, 6/1%llh/l/ lll/'bull&

*1482 pubul h fulllf, h Uhl, \nt.

*KB(2).

1483 Chubul P Ru'll fu h Up \nt.

VM(1).

Transitionmixed dies

Ib/TL /NIQUR/l/ lll/'bull3, All3

*1484 clubill b fulllf, pubu \in

*WM(1); AD(1);

Rev. Uncertain 2.85, PB.

Ibh/", /ll'UR/l/ All&R/

*1485 clubull fulf, pubu \nt.

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*BM(1).

Levon II

299

lbh/T, foll%llR/l/ All&I)

1486 & Publl h RUTII R', h UU \nt.

2.93 (92%), KK.

1487 Chubul h RUTII R, h UU Ani.

2.50 (49%); 2.33 (48%), PB.

Ibh/T, /ll'NIR/l/ &lll/

1488 &publl h RITU-R), h Uhl/ Ani.

WM(1).

Ani.

1489 &Publil / RUTUR, h UU * \t.

2.91, KK; WM(3); VM(1).

Ani.

*1490 &publl h RUTII R, UU * \t-

*AD(1).

Lion turned right

lbh/7, foll%llA/l/ Allh/78

1491 GPubl.l. h NITII'', h Uhl/ \in

2.43 (65%), PB; WM(2); VM(1); MM(1).

1492 htbl/l h NITU%, h Uhl/ \ firl

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AA(1).

3OO Coinage of Cilician Armenia

\ + T Rev. Lion holding

*1493 obubul h fulllf, pubu y CrOSS.

2.35 (50%), PB; WM(4); *VM(3); AA(1); MM(2);

BN(1).

1494 6Publil h fulllf, h UPU \ in

PB

(I).

\ Rev. Crowned lion

1495 pubul h fulllf, h Uhll: | | holding cross.

PB(1).

lbf/n), /NIQUIR/l/ 3UBR/)

\ + T Rev. Lion holding

1496 clubl I fulllf. I upu y CrOSS.

2.88 (77%), PB.

1497 &publil h RUQUAR, h Uhl, A. in

2.50, PB.

1497a Chubul P RU'll Ru h Uhl, \in

HE

(I).

lbf/it, /NI'll R/l/ All/18

1497b Ghubill h fulllf, h Uhl/ k _f I

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IS(1).

Levon II 3OI

Ibh/", /NIQUIR/l/ AllU8

*1498 &publil h RuTuft, h Uhl, \fr

2.50 (72%); 2.54 (62%), *PB; 2.80, KK(1); WM(3);

VM(3); AD(1); MM(1); IS(1).

1499 &publil / MITU%, h Uhl, \in

2.55 (61%), PB, BM(1).

Ib/V/I", foll'UR/l/ Allll

15oo Ch'ublil h RUTII R, h Uhl/ \ f Il

AA

(I).

lbf/7, foll?-ll/-/l/ Alln

*1501 &publl h RUTUR, h Uhl/ N in

2.56 (59%), KK; 2.42, PB; WM(3); VM(2); AD(1);

HK(1); NK(1).

1502 publil / NIQU%), h Uhl/ X in

2.76 (72%), PB; VM(1); MM(1).

1503 Ch'ubll h RUQUEF, h Uhl/ \in

2)

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WM(2); VM(2).

302 Coinage of Cilician Armenia

1504 Ch'ublil h NI'll!'}}, h Uhl/ \ in

WM(2); HK(1); MM(1); IS(1).

1505 publil h NI'll!?", h Uhl/ \+n

WM(1).

*1506 Ch'ubll h RII'lllfi, h Uhl, R+n

*AD(1).

^)

>k

1507 Ch'ublil h \ll'U%, h Uhl/ \, in

BM(1).

Ibh/T, /NI'llh/l/ Alll/

R-

1508 Ch'ublil h RUTII R', h Uhly h , firl

VM(2); IS(1).

1509 Ch'ublil h fulllf, h Uhly * in

2.oo (72%); 2.59 (52%), PB; WM(4); AD(1); MM(1);

AA(1); HE(1).

^)

>k

151o Ch'ubll h RUTII R', h Uhl/ \, in

2.52, AN.

- D -l-

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15II Ch'ublil h RII'll f\, h Uhl/ M. _||

AD(1); BM(1).

Levon II 303

1512 hlbl.l. h RII'll Ru h Uhly h N. tr.

WM(2); VM(1); AA(1).

1513 CFLll h RU'll Ru h Uhl/ Nin

WM(3); IS(1).

1514 & Publl h RUQUIR, h Uhl/ \in

2.23 (50%); PB(1).

*1515 Publ.l. h RUQUIR, h Uhl/ R. _f IT

2.28 (60%); PB(1); 2.68, AN; WM(4); VM(5); *AD(1);

MM(1); BN(1); JG(1); IS(2).

1515a & Publil P RII'll fu h Uhl/ \in

IS (1)

1516 & Publil h RUQUR, h Uhl/ \ _f I

VM(1); KB(1); AA(1); MM(1); BN(2).

1517 &publil h RuTuft, h Uhl/ \in

PB(1); WM(2); VM(1); AD(1).

1518 Ch'ubl h RUTII R, h Uhl, \in

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M(1).

304 Coinage of Cilician Armenia

1519 &Publil h fulllf, h Uhl/ \ + T Rev. Lion holding

CrOSS.

2.64 (54%), KK.

1520 &publil h NITU%, UPU h \ _f IT

MM

(I).

1521 Ghull h NIQU%, h Uhl/ \in

BN(1).

HALF TRAMS

*1522 Obv. Ibnth /l/'NIR// \

Rev. Ch'ubl h RII'll Ru Uhl/

AN(I); *MM(1).

*1523 Obv. Ibh/th /l/'NIR// \

Rev. Tram lion on small flan.

1.41 (84%), *PB.

Tram dies struck on small flans

*1524 Obv. Type I433, *I437, I446, I464 K

Rev. Lion [] t

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1.43 (83%), *PB; 1.45; KK; VM(1); AD(2); BN(1).

Levon II 305

*1525 Obv.

Rev.

*1526 Obv.

Rev.

1527 Obv.

Rev.

1528 Obv.

Rev.

1529 Obv.

Rev.

1530 Obv.

Rev.

*N*

Type I453, I458 K

Lion | | |

*BM(1); WM(1).

Type I487, 1489 \,

*I50I, 1502, 15II, 1512 * \l-

Lion | |

WM(1); *BM(1).

Unknown tram type %

Lion | | |

NK(1); MM(1).

Type I457, I460, I462, 1472, k

1477, *1478

Lion T

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BN(1).

Type 1497, *1515 o

Lion | |

1.29, PB, AN(1); VM(1).

Type 1479, 1481, *1485, I495, \

I5I9

Lion | | |

WM(1).

2O

306

Coinage of Cilician Armenia

1531. Obv.

Rev.

*1532 Obv.

Rev.

*1533 Obv.

Rev.

1534 Obv.

Rev.

1535. Obv.

Rev.

1536 Obv.

Rev.

Type *1526

Lion

_f I

WM(1); KB(1); 1.33, PB; BN(1); HE(1).

Type *1506, 151o

i.

Lion

*WM(1); MM(1).

Type *I498, 1503, 1505, 1520 \

in

Lion

*PB(1); NK(1).

Type 1516, 1517 \

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Lion | |

VM(1).

Type *1533 \

Lion | |

1.26, PB.

Type 1496 \

Lion | |

MM(1).

Levon II 307

*1537 Obv. Type 15oo, 1508

Rev. Lion | | |

*MM(1).

1538 Obv. Type *1526

\.

Rev. Lion | | |

BN(1).

1539 Obv. Type 1534, 1516, 1517 \

Rev. Lion | | |

BN(1).

COPPER COINS KARDEZ

Obverse lion and reverse cross.

Ibh/T, foll%llh/l/ All&/18U

*1540 &publil h RII'll RV h Uhl/1 # Obv. Lion walking left.

* \x Rev. Cross with four

*WM(1). stars.

Ibh/7t, All?-ll/-/l/ 3U.8/18/

1541 &publil / RU'll Ru h Uh XVIX Obv. Lion walking left.

*\* Rev. Cross with four

AD(2). Stars.

1541a & Publl h RUTUR), h U x * Obv. Lion walking left.

x \k Rev. Cross with four

StarS.

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EB(1).

* In the copper coins of this king the letter R usually appears as /".

* With rare exceptions, the stars are five pointed.

2o."

308 Coinage of Cilician Armenia

Ibh/T, All?llR/l/ &ll#08

1542 &pubul P RUQUR, h Uhl/ .# Obv. Lion walking left.

*A* Rev. Cross with four

Stars.

BM(I); BN(1).

1543 Chubul P RII'll Ru h Uh x * Obv. Lion walking left.

# Rev. Cross with four

Stars.

AD(2); NK(1).

*1544 6Publil h RUQUR, h U x * Obv. Lion walking left.

# Rev. Cross with four

Stars.

*VM(1); HK(1).

Ib/T, /NIQUR/l/ All&m

*1545 publil / fulllf, h U x * Obv. Lion walking left.

- # Rev. Cross with four

StarS.

3.5, *PB; WM(1).

Ib/TL /9II'llh/l/ AllUU

1546 & Publil h RUQUR, h Uhl/ x * Obv. Lion walking left.

*# Rev. Cross with four

Stars.

KB(1); BN(1).

lbf)", /NI'llh/l/ Allh/)

1547 &publil / RUQUAR, h Uhl/ # Obv. Lion walking left.

Sk we Rev. Cross with four

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Stars.

WM(1).

Levon II 309

Ib/", All?llh/l/ 3UBU/

*1548 Ch'ublil I RII'll Ru h U Obv. Lion walking left.

XY-k

"k" Rev. Cross with four

Stars.

4.9, PB; *BM(1); AD(1)

Rev. Uncertain HM(1).

lb/17, ANI'll R/l/ 3UB/U

1549 & Publil / RUQUEF, h U &# Obv. Lion walking left.

>kur Rev. Cross with four

Stars.

WM(1).

Ib/T, 6/I'llh/l/ Alll)

1550 &publl h RU'll Ru h Uh x Obv. Lion walking left.

# Rev. Cross with four

StarS.

WM(1); AN(1); AD(1); BN(1).

1551 Ch'ublil / RII'll Ru h U Obv. Lion walking left.

Rev. Cross with four

Stars.

Rev. Uncertain.

3.6, PB; 3.9, PB; WM(1).

Ibh/T, foll'UR/l/ All&I)

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*1552 publil h RUQUAR, h x * Obv. Lion.

# Rev. Cross.

*AN(1).

Rev. uncertain. MM(1).

3IO Coinage of Cilician Armenia

- - - - - - - - - - - - <ll#Uhl/

1553 &publil / RUQUAR, h Uhl (?) x\x Obv.

*\x Rev

BN(1).

Ibh/TL All?-ll/-/l/ All 8U/

Rev

1554 Chubill h RUTII R, h Uh x [x Obv.

AD(1); WM(1); BN(1).

lbf/it, foll?-ll/-/l/ Alll/

1555 Rev. Uncertain. # Obv.

*k}\k

Rev

MM(1).

lbf/1, Pll'UR/l/ &ll6/

1556 &publil h RITU-R), h U # Obv.

*\x

Rev

PB(1); WM(1).

Ib/), foll'llh/l/ All/

1557 CPublil h RUQUAR, (?) x -k Obv.

Skuk Rev

AD(1); MM(1).

Ib/), foll'Ilh/l/ 289

1558 &publil h RUQUAR), h U # Obv.

* \k

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Rev

Lion.

. Cross.

Lion.

. Cross.

Lion.

. Cross.

Lion.

. Cross.

Lion.

. Cross.

Lion.

. Cross.

KB(1).

Levon II 3II

Obverse cross and reverse lion.

lbf/7, foll?-ll/-/l/ Allm

1559 &publil / RUTUR, h Uhl, x * Obv. Cross.

x \k Rev. Lion.

WM(2); KK(2).

1560 & Publ.l. h RUQUIR, h Uh XVIX Obv. Cross.

# Rev. Lion.

WM(2); AD(2).

Ibhir, All'um zum (?)

*1561 &Publil h RII'lllf, Uhl/ x * Obv. Cross.

# Rev. Lion.

MM(1); *AA(1).

lh/7, foll'UR/l/ All

*1562 &Publil h Ru'll Ru h Uh x Obv. Cross.

# Rev. Lion.

*WM(1); AD(1).

* - - - - - - IIR/l/ Alll/

1563 & Publl h R. . . . . x Ix Obv. Cross.

# Rev. Lion.

MM(1).

liff, foll'}llR/ph All/18

*1564 &USll h RUQUR, h Uhl/ Obv. Cross.

+ Rev. Lion.

*WM(5); BM(1); KB(1); HK(1); 5.6; 5.6; 6.5; 3.2, PB;

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3.9; KK; AD(2); BN(1); MM(1); JG(1).

3I2 Coinage of Cilician Armenia

lbf), or lb/i/1", foll?....

1565 lbflu . . . . . . +: Obv. Lion.

- || || - Rev. Cross.

WM(1); AA(1).

1566 lbh/1, . . . . . . +: Obv. Lion.

- - Rev. Cross.

WM(1); AA(1).

Ib/T, /ll'UR/7/ &ll/18

1567 AllSll h RUQUAR, Uhl/ Obv. Lion.

+ Rev. Cross.

BN(1); JG(1).

lbff, Pll'um (?) Allm

1568 &llSbill h fulllfi, UPU Obv. Lion.

+ Rev. Cross.

PB(1).

[.. . . . . . . . . ] NIR/l/ 3UB..

*1569 &llSbul P Ru'll R. Uhl/ Obv. Cross.

Rev. Lion with stars.

*AN(1); MM(1).

Rare types and errors.

*157o Obv. libn All'ilhm/ All&U *#

Rev. Ibum Pu?... zu... T

*AD(1); JG(1).

*1571 Obv. Chubill h fulllfi, U +

Rev. . . . . . . . . . . . Tll-fi, h Uh | |

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HK(1)

Levon II 3I3

1571a Obv. Ch'ublil / RU'll h *#

Rev. Chubul h fu'luf, b U81 ||

EB(1)

1572 obv. thm, Pu'uline zug, '#

Rev. Lh/7t, foll'UR/l/ 3UB/78 | |

PB(1).

1572a Obv. Ib/T, or lbf/1, Pll'... .# Obv. Lion.

Rev. lb/Tu . . . . . . . | | Rev. Cross.

WM(1); AA(1).

1572b Obv. 150', or Ibh/", Pll'. . . . #

Rev. lbh/7t, . . . . . . . | |

WM(1); AA(1).

Lion turned right :

*1573 Obv. [Ibkm, All'IR]/l/ All305 # Obv. Lion.

Rev. Chub. Ul p Rll'...]ll Ru h Uh Rev. Cross.

AD(3); WM(1).

Rev. Uncertain.

PB(1).

1574 Obv. Ibh. .U'll. . . . :# Obv. Lion.

Rev. Ghul. . . . . . . . Uhl/ * \* Rev. Cross.

4.0, PB; WM(1); KK; AD(1).

Rev. Uncertain.

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AD(1); BN(1).

3I4

Coinage of Cilician Armenia

*1575 Obv

HETOUM II

BILLONS

&b//nhl/ /NIQUIR

o,71, *PB(1).

1575a Obv. 3b//nhl/ /NIQUR/m

1576 Obv

1577 Obv

1577a Ob

1578 Obv

*1579 Obv

158o Obv

PB(1).

. &b//nhl/ /\ll. . . #

WM(1)...

. . . . /NI'llh/7. #

WM(1).

v. &b/9/7/l/ /NIQUR/T #

PB(1).

. <b/0/TRU /NIQUIR.. #

BN(1).

&b//nhl/ /NIQUIR/ #

*WM(1).

. &b//nhl/ /NI'llh/m #

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MM(1).

1581. Obv. &b//nhl/ /NIQUIR/m #

WM(1).

*1582 Obv. &b//nhl/ /NIQUIR/m #

*NK(1).

Rev. III/'bull&t, &ll3/ +

Rev. Ill/'bull 8, &ll/78 +

Rev. Ill/'bull. . . . +

Rev. III/'b'Lll#1, 3L/8/7

Rev. III/'bulll, &ll#

Rev. III/'bull&t, <ll/)

Rev. III/'bullff, All?/?

Rev. lll/'bull#1, 3 ll/7 +

Rev. Ill/'bull&t, <ll3 +

Rev. urbuls. Als -E

Hetoum II 3I5

1583 Obv. &b//nhl/ /l/'NIR/T # Rev. urbuls us +

AD(1).

1584 Obv. &b//l/U Pll'll-

WM(1).

1585 Obv. &b//nhl/ All'll

KB(1).

1586 Obv. &b//nhl/ /NIQUIR/T

BN(1).

*1587 Obv. &b/mN/ /NI'llMr.

*WM(1).

1588 Obv. &b//nhl/ /l/QUR/m

o.64, PB; MM(1).

# Rev. III/'bull 8', 4U.5/7 +

Rev. Ill/'bull3, . . . . :

Raurous, usn H.

Ra urbula us H.

Rev. urbul3, Alln ii

COPPER COINS KARDEZ

[Obv. King's head]

&b//nhl/ /NIQUIR/l/ All#08

*1589 &publil h NIQU%, h Uhl/

4.75, *PB; HK(1).

1590 &Publl I NIQU%, h UU

3.7, PB; WM(1).

Rev. Incomplete.

Obv. King's head with #

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two curls. #3

Rev. Ornate cross.

Obv. King's head with #

two curls.

Rev. Ornate cross.

HK(2); WM(1); AN(1).

316 Coinage of Cilician Armenia

&b/, /ThU" /NIQUR/l/ All 5/7:

*1591 Chubul h Qu'll'.... Obv. King's head with

two curls. #}

Rev. Ornate cross.

*WM(1).

&b//nhl/ /NIQUR/l/ All3/1

1592 publil I NI'll', h Uhl, Obv. King's head with #

two curls.

Rev. Ornate cross.

4.9; 3.9, PB; WM(2); AD(2); HK(2); MM(1); BN(2);

$3

JG(1).

*1592a Chubul h \ITU%, h UU Obv. King's head with

two curls.

Rev. Ornate cross.

3.1, *PB; AD(1).

1593 &publil / NITU%, h Uh Obv. King's head with #

two curls. Q

Rev. Ornate cross.

3.7, PB; AD(1).

Rev. Incomplete.

WM(5); AD(5); AN; 5.2; 3.6, PB, IS(1).

&b//nhl/ All'UR/l/ All?:

1594 Ch'ublil h NITU%, h Uhl/ Obv. King's head with

two curls. #3

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Rev. Ornate cross.

WM(2); AD(1).

*1595 hlbl.l. h "MITU', h UU Obv. King's head with #

two curls.

Rev. Ornate cross.

*HK(1).

Hetoum II 317

&b/0/1/\l/ /NIQUIR/l/ &ll3

*1596 &publil h QUTII'', h Uhl, Obv. King's head with

two curls. FC

Rev. Ornate cross.

3.5; 3.9, *PB, PB(1); WM(1); AD(1); MM(3); BN(3).

EB(1).

1596a &publil h NITI', h Uh Obv. King's head with #

two curls. #

Rev. Ornate cross.

JG(1).

&b//mhl/ /NIQUR/l/ All

[Obv. Type No. 1593, 1595, 1596]

1597 GPubll h NI'll!'), h Uhl/ Obv. King's head with #

two curls. #3

Rev. One with two dots

in field.

WM(2).

1598 GPublil h NITII'', h U Obv. King's head with #

two curls.

Rev. One with two dots

in field.

WM(1).

1599 GPublil I NITU% h Uhu I (?) Obv. King's head with #

two curls. #3

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Rev. Very ornate cross.

MM(1).

&b//nhl/ /NIQUIR/l/ All08

[Obv. Type 1601]

16oo & Publil h QUT II'''), h Uhl/ Obv. King's head. .

AD(1); BN(1).

318

Coinage of Cilician Armenia

&b//nhl/ /NIQUIR/l/ All&n

*1601 Ch Lll h QUTII?, h Uhl/ Obv. King's head. #

Rev. One with very *

Ornate CrOSS.

WM(1); BM(1); HK(1); AD(1); *NK(1); JG(1).

*1602 Ch'ubll h QUTII'', h Uh Obv. King's head. #

3.9, *PB, PB(1). *

&b//nhl/ /9/1%llh/l/ All&/1

*1603 Chubul h MITU%, h Uhl/ Obv. King's head with

two pendants.

*WM(4); HK(1).

1604 Ch'ublil h NITU%, h Uh Rev. One with two dots

in field.

4.8, PB; JG(1).

&b//nhl/ /NI'llh/l/ All&/18

1605 &Publil h QUT II'', h UU Obv. King's head with ''.

outward curls. *: l

AA(1). -

*1606 Ch'ubll h QUT II'', h Uh Obv. King's head with ''.

outward curls. #

*WM(1)

Rev. Incomplete.

WM(2); BN(1).

&b//nhl/ /\ll \llh/l/ All&/):

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[Obv. Type 1606]

1607 CFLll h QUTII?, h Uhl/ Obv. King's head with ''.

two curls. :

AA(1).

Hetoum II 3I9

&b//nhl/ /NIQUIR/l/ All;

[Obv. Type 1606]

1608 Ch'ubll h \ll'll!?", h Uhl/ Obv. King's head with

two curls. &

N:

'

Rev. Uncertain.

WM(1); BN(1).

&b/0/Al/ /NIQUR/l/ All08

Obv. King's head with two star

*1609 &publil h NITI', h Uhl/

pendants.

*WM(1).

16Io Rev. Incomplete.

WM(1); AD(1).

&b/0/1/l/ /NI'llh/l/ 3UB/l

[Obv. Type *1609]

Obv. King's head with two star

16II Ch'ubll h QUT II'', h Uhl/

pendants.

HK(1).

Rev. Incomplete.

4.25, PB; AD(1).

&b/0/1/l/ /NI'llh/l/ All:

[Obv. Type *1609]

Obv. King's head with two star

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1612 Ch'ublil h \ll'll!?!, h U

pendants.

WM(1).

&b/9/mhl/ /NI'llh/l/ &ll/18

*1613 Chubul h QWITU% h Uhl, Obv. King's head with one #

pendant under left ear. :

*WM.(3); BM(1).

32O Coinage of Cilician Armenia

&b//nhl/ /NIQUIR/l/ All&n:

[Obv. Type *1613]

1614 Rev. Uncertain. Obv. King's head with #

dots in field. CCM

AD(1).

&b//nhl/ /NIQUIR/l/ All&n

*1615 6.htbul h NITI', h Uhl, Obv. King's head with two dots

as pendants.

2.7, *PB.

1616 &hlll h QUT II'', h Uh Obv. King's head with two dots

as pendants.

WM(1).

&b/0/1/\lf /NIQUIR/l/ &ll

(Obv. Type *1615]

1617 Rev. Incomplete Obv. King's head with two dots

as pendants.

WM(2); KB(1).

&b/9/7AU /NIQUIR/l/ All 5/18

[Obv. Type *1619]

1618 Ch'ublil h QUT II'', h Uhl, Obv. King's head with ''.

two curls.

VM(1).

&b/nhl/ Pu'ukm/ 3U8 (?)

*1619 &publil I QUTII'', h Uhl/ Obv. King's head with

two curls.

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*WM(1).

Hetoum II 32I

[Obverseking seated]

&b/, /7RU /NIQUIR/7 &II

[Obv. Type *1622]

1620 &hll h \ll'll!?, h U Obv. King seated holding staff

in right hand and cross in left

hand. - - -

WM(1). Rev. Cross with four dots. +:

&b/, //RU foll?-ll/-/7 &ll

*1621 Ch'ubl h QUT II'', h Uh Rev. Cross with no dots.

*WM(2).

Rev. Illegible.

WM(4).

&b//nhl/ /NIQUIR/n 4.

*1622 Ch Ll h QUTII?, h Uh Rev. Cross with four dots. +:

*NK(1); WM(1).

&b//nhl/ /NIQUIR/n 4

*1623 & Publ h QUTII' h U Rev. Cross with two dots.

*AN(1).

<b//nhl/ /NI'llh/m

[Obv. Type *1622]

1624 6Publ h QUTII' h U Rev. Cross with four dots. *#

3.7; 3.8, PB, AN(1); WM(2); EB(1).

&b//7AU /NIQUIR

[Obv. Type 1621]

1625 hlbl. I QUTII?, h Rev. Cross with no dots.

BM(1).

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2I

322 Coinage of Cilician Armenia

&b//nhl/ /NIQUI"

[Obv. Type *1621]

I626 Ch'ubll h Uhl/ Rev. Cross with four dots. #

VM(1); AD(1); HK(1).

&b/0/1/l/ /NI'll

1627 CFLll h Uhly Q. Rev. Cross with four dots. #

BM(1); AD(1); MM(1).

1628 Ch'ubll h Uhl, QL Rev. Cross with four dots. #

WM(1); HK(1); BN(1).

1629 Chubl h Uhly Q. Rev. Cross with four dots. : :

WM(1); AD(1); HK(1).

1630 CFLll h NIQUT'. Rev. Cross with four dots. H.

MM(1).

*1631 &pubill h Uhl/ Rev. Cross with four dots. 'H'

3.7; 3.2, *PB; WM(5); BN(3).

Rev. Uncertain.

2.6; 3.8, PB.

&b//nhl/ /NIQ/

- [Obv. Type *1631]

1632 CPublil h Uhl h Rev. Cross with four dots. #

2.6; 2.0, PB

Not legible.

WM(1).

1632a Ch'ubl h Uhl/ Rev. Cross with four dots. *#

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JG(1).

Hetoum II

323

&b//nhl/ /NIQ.

[Obv. Type *1631]

1633 GPubll h Uhl/ Rev. Cross with four dots.

3.8; 3.6, PB; WM(2).

&b/9/7/l/ /NIQUIR/T

*1634 &publil h NITI', Rev. Cross with four dots.

2.0; 2.7, PB, *WM(2).

&b/0/1/l/ /NIQUIR

[Obv. type 1634]

1635 publl h NITII?. Rev. Cross with four dots.

2.6, PB; WM(5); KK(1).

&b/0/1/l/ /9II'll

*1636 Chubul h NITU% Rev. Cross with four dots.

*KK; AA(1).

&b/0/1/\l/ /NIQ/m

1637 & Publl h . . . . . . Rev. Cross with four dots.

KK(1); BN(1).

&b/0/1/\l/ All?,

1638 Ch'ubll h . . . . . . Rev. Cross with four dots.

WM(1).

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21*

324 Coinage of Cilician Armenia

&b/, /TRU /NIQUR

(Obv. Type *1640]

1639 &publil / UPU NIT. Rev. Cross. +

WM(2).

*1640 Chubul h Uhly Qll Rev. Cross. --

*BM(1); WM(1).

1641 Chubill h Uhly Q. Rev. Four dots in field. #

WM(1).

1642 publl h Uhl/ Rev. Cross. +

WM(1).

&b/9//hl/ /NI'll

1643 publil h Uhl, NIT,

WM(1).

*1644 Chubul h Uhu Q. Rev. Cross. >|<

WM(1); *AD(1).

1645 publil h Uhly Q. Rev. Some with four dots in

field.

WM(3).

&b//nhl/ /NIQUIR/m

*1647 Ch'ubl h NITU' U Rev. Cross with four dots. *#

*BM(1); WM(3); AD(3); HK(1).

1648 &publil h Uhl (?) Rev. Cross with four dots. *#

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WM(1).

Smpad 325

&b//nhl/ /NI'll"

*1649 &b//lhu /NI'll' Rev. Cross. K or >

AA(1); AD(1); *WM(1).

Not legible 2.4, PB; WM(1).

&b//nhl/ /9II'll

1650 &b//nhl/ /l/'N' Rev. Cross %

2.6, PB; WM(2); HK(1); BN(1).

1651 &b//l/l/ All?/m Rev. Cross. SK

BN(1).

&b/, /l/l/ /NI'll

[Obv. Type *1649]

1652 &b//nhl/ /l/'NI/l/ Rev. Cross. 7F

AD(3); WM(1).

&b//nhl/ /NI'l,

[Obv. Type *1649]

1653 &b//l/l/ /l/Q. Rev. Plain cross. +

AD(1).

SMPAD

TRAMS

[King seated on throne, holding cross in right hand and fleur de lys

in left, as on the coins of Levon I]

UUTRIIS /NI'll R/T &ll3/18

1653a ill/'0'10R/8R, UUS/IR/18 Rev. Unusual cross.

2.42, PB(1).

1653b turn"mh/f, uusmRon H.

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IS(1).

326 Coinage of Cilician Armenia

*1654 Ill/'0'10R/F, UUSORT (++-

*KB(1).

Ul/RIIS/NIQ/l/ Allm

*1655 upinnhof, uusnRuns (++-

KB(1); *AD(1); BN(1); MM(1).

UU'RUS (NIQUIR/l/ 3U

*1656 ill/I'mh/fu UusnRwn (++-

*WM(1).

1657 ill/I'l/R/F, UUSOO. (?)

MM(1).

UU'RIS /NIQ/m &ll3

1658 Ill//7/k/fu UUS (++-

MM(1).

[King seated on throne, holding cross in right hand and a mace in left,

extending over left shoulder]

UU"RUS foll'UR/l/ 3UB/18

*1659 turm"/"pf, uusnRwns (++-

AD(1); *AA(1); PB(1).

1660 ill/I'mhoff, uusmkon (-|--

AA(1); IS(1).

UUTRUS /NIQUR/m &II/18

*1661 ill// ?/ R/2 ft, UUS/ (++-

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*AA(1); WM(1).

Smpad 327

UUTRUS 0/I'll R/m. All3/.

1662 ill/I'lmk/f, uUSmit5n5 (++-

WM(1).

1663 ill/m/mk/ft uusmkon (++-

2.50, KK; AA(1); JG(1).

*1664 burninhof, uusmn; (++-

*AD(2); MM(1).

1665 'ill/'0'10R/?fu III/S/NA (++-

2.88 (76%), PB.

1666 'ill/07/TR/fi, UUS/ (++-

VM(1).

1667 ill//.7/mk/, fl. U.JS/ (++-

MM(1); IS(1).

Rev. Not legible.

AD(1); JG(1).

UU'RUS 0/IQUIR/m 2/3

1668 ill/mmhof, uusmann (++-

WM(1).

UU'RUS 0l.9/l/ All&/)

1669 turm"mhof, uusmn; (++-

WM (1).

167o ill/P/17/lh/7/#, IUSnty (++-

WM (1).

1671 ill/'07/h/ ful III/S/m/, #+-

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2.61, PB; WM(1); 2.55, KK.

328 Coinage of Cilician Armenia

UU'RIIS/NIQ/m &ll3/.

1672 ill/I'lmk/fu IUSnk (++--

MM(1).

UU'RUS 011%/m &ll3/

1673 "upmnhof, uusmin (++-

WM(1).

*1674 ill/I'lmk/ft, UUSmh (++-

2.80 (76%), *PB.

Rev. Not legible.

BM(1).

Ul/RIIS/NIQ/m &ll#

1675 upinnhof, uusmi (?) (++-

BN(2).

1676 upman/fu uusmnom! (++-

2.47 (68%), PB.

HALF TRAM

*1677 Obv. UURIUS] [/'ll]'llkm &

Rev. Uncertain.

*WM(1).

COPPER COINS KARDEZ

On the obverse the king is on horseback walking right and holding a

mace in his right hand. On the reverse is a cross with four lilies or

doves in flight in the four corners.

UU/US /NIQUIR/l/ All#0

1678 &publil ()? I fulllf p

1.93, PB.

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*1679 &publ h fuTuf

*KB(1).

Smpad 329

URLIS/NIQUR/l/ All

*168o Ch'ubl h RII'll R h Uh

*WM(2); BN(1).

1681 Ch'ubl h RII'll RU

WM(1).

Rev. Uncertain.

AN(1).

UU"RIIS /NIQUR/T &ll#0

1682 hbbl h RII'll Ru h UU

1.8o, PB; BN(I).

1682a Ch'ubl Rll'll R Uh

HE(I).

1683 CFLl h RUTII:RU Rev. Ornate cross.

AD(1).

Rev. Uncertain.

HK(1); 2.20, PB. Rev. Ornate cross.

UUTRUS 01%llh/m &ll/18

1684 &publ h RITU-R/

MM(1).

UU"RIIS foll'UR/T &ll

*1685 Ch'ubl h RII'll Ri, UU Obv. Legend begins at

foot of horse.

*AD(1).

I686 . . . . . . . . Ulf. Uh

BN(1).

1687 &publ h RUTII R',

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AD(1).

330 Coinage of Cilician Armenia

UU'RUS 01%llh/7 &ll/)

*1688 &hll h RII'll RU Rev. Ornate cross.

1.9, PB; WM(1); *AD(1); VM(1).

1689 &publ RUTII:f UPU

MM(1).

UUTRIIS/NIQUIR/T &ll

1690 Ch'ubl RIITU-R Uhl, Rev. Usually ornate

CIOSS.

1.80; 2.35; 1.6, PB; WM(2); VM(1); BN(1).

1691 &publ h FUTUR / Uh/

VM(1); BN(1).

1692 publ RUTII R Uh/

MM(1)

1692a publ RUQUR Uh

JG(1).

1693 &publ RUTUR / U

VM(1); WM(1); AN(1).

Not legible. Obv. Legend begins at mace of king.

Rev. Uncertain.

HK(1).

UU'RIIS/NIQUIR/n 4

1694 &publ h RUQUIR UU

2.2, PB.

1695 publ h RUTIlf h U

KB(1).

1696 &publ RUQUR U

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2.0, PB.

1696a & Publ RII'll R p L.

JG(1).

Smpad 33I

UU"RUS /NIQUIR/m

*1697 &Publ RUQUIR Uhly

*NK(1).

1698 & Publ RUTUR L

AD(1).

Rev. Uncertain.

AD(1).

UU'RUS /NIQU/m &II

I699 Rev. Uncertain.

HK(1).

URUS 6/IQ/l/ Allm

17oo & Publ h RUTII:f h Uhl/

2.3, PB; WM(2); AD(1).

*1701 Ch'ubl h RUQUIR Uhly

*NK(1).

1702 hlbl. h RUTII R Uh

AD(1).

1703 Ch'ubl KIITU-R U

WM(1).

UU'RUS /NIQ/l/ 4L&I)

1704 & Publ h KUTII./. Up

AD(1).

1705 hll h RUQUIR

KB(1).

Rev. Uncertain.

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I.6, PB.

332 Coinage of Cilician Armenia

Ul/RIIS /NIQ/l/ All

1706 & Publ fulllf UPU (?)

WM(1).

UU"RUS 0\ll?/7 &ll3/18

1707 publ RUQUER UPU

1.9; 2.0, PB.

Rev. Uncertain.

1.9, PB. (Obv. URUS); AD(1).

1708 CFLl RII'll f h Uhl/

WM(1).

1709 &publ RUTII:RU

PB(1); WM(2); BM(1).

Rev. Uncertain.

2.4, PB; WM(3).

UU RUS foll'}/7 <ll#/)

171o Ch'ubl fu'll f Up

2.30, PB; BN(2).

171oa & Publ RUTIFR, h

HE(1).

Rev. Uncertain.

EB(1).

UUAllS /NIQ/m &II6

1711 CFLl RUTUR UPU

WM(1); BN(1).

1712 CFLl RUQUAR Uh

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WM(1).

Smpad 333

*1713 CFLl RIITU-R U

2.0, PB; *AD(1).

Rev. Uncertain.

HE(1).

UUTRUS 0/IQ/m &II/

1714 Ch'ubl fulllf. Uhl/

1.50, PB.

1715 hlbl. RII'll RU

HK(1).

1715a & Publ RUTII://

JG(1).

Ul/RIIS/NIQ/m &ll

1716 & Publ RIITU-R Uh/

AD(1).

1717 Ch'ubl RUTIlf. Up Rev. Sometimes ornate

CrOSS.

AD(4); BN(1).

1718 Ch'ubl RII'll RU

WM(4); HK(1).

Rev. Uncertain.

AD(2); WM(1); 1.8, PB, IS(1).

UUTRLIS/NIQ/m 2/

1719 &Rubl h RII'll RU

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1.9, PB; WM(1).

334 Coinage of Cilician Armenia

Ul/RIIS/NIQ/n 4

1720 Ch'ubl RUTIlf Uh

MM(1).

1721 &publ RITU-R

MM(1).

URLIS/NIQ/m &

1722 hlbl. FUTUR U/

WM(1).

Rev. Uncertain.

WM(1).

Rarity

*1723 Obv. Ch'ubl RUQUR Uh

Rev. Ch'ubl RUTII:R Uhl/

*WM(1).

Very poor die.

GOSDANTIN I

TRAMS

1724 Obv. 'imuSUV'hill// /NIT &ll

Rev. Ill/010R/ fu UB I foll?/m

Obv. King on horseback

holding sword.

Rev. King standing hold-

ing sword in right hand

and cross in left.

2.8. [Kunsthistorisches Museum, Vienna].

WM(1). (Legend not clear).

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*1725 Obv. inuS",'l', Pll'Uhm &ll30 Obv. King on horseback

Rev. Will// '10R/9/#, IIB # /*ll%ff"

2.6, *PB.

holding sword.

Rev. King standing hold-

ing sword in right hand

and cross in left.

Gosdantin I

335

*1726 Obv, inl/SU','kplum/ 019/T 3U808

Rev. Ill// '10R/ full k /NIQ/m

*3.0, WM; WM(1).

1727 Rev. MUS. MP, PUQ/m Allm3

Obv. Ill//.7/mk/ft, U8 H /NIQ/m

2.60, HE(1); WM(2).

1727a. Obv. 'imuS/u?/", /ll'Mr &llm

Rev. Ill/'07/0/, U8 l; /NIQUR/m

WM(1).

1727b Obv. 'imuSUV) plum/ 0.1%m &ll30

Rev. III/'0'10"/#, Il k(?)

/9II'llh/7

WM(1).

1727c Obv. inUS'h', Pll'Mr &ll3/18

Rev. Ill//.7/7//f, U.8 h/NIQ://

IS(1).

Obv. King on horseback

holding sword.

Rev. King standing hold-

ing sword in right hand

and cross in left.

Obv. King on horseback

holding sword.

Rev. King standing hold-

ing sword in right hand

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and cross in left.

Obv. King on horseback

holding sword.

Rev. King standing hold-

ing sword in right hand

and cross in left.

Obv. King on horseback

holding sword.

Rev. King standing hold-

ing sword in right hand

and cross in left.

Obv. King on horseback

holding sword.

Rev. King standing hold-

ing sword in right hand

and cross in left.

COPPER COINS - KARDEZ

li/TUSU','khli,M//NIQ/7

1728 &publ FUTUR, h Uhl/

AD(1).

336 Coinage of Cilician Armenia

*1729 &publ QWITV1% Uhl, Obv. Similar to reverse of

silver trams.

Rev. Cross. +.

2.5, WM; *AD(1).

Rev. Uncertain.

PB(1); WM(1).

Unl/SII","khll L/l/ /9II?.

*1730 &publ NITI', Uhl k Rev. Cross. +.

2.72; 2.70, PB; 2.5; 1.85, *WM; AD(2).

1731 Chubl NITI', Uhl k Rev. Cross. --

2.1, KK; 2.45, WM; BN(1); PB(1). ->

1732 publ RUTII R, Uhly 5 Rev. Cross. -.

AD(2); BM(1); BN(1); EB(1); WM(1).

Rev. Uncertain.

EB(1).

U/7USIIL'hill// /9'll%/7

1733 &publ NIQU%, Uhu k Rev. Cross. -.

2.03, PB; MM(1).

LEVON III

TAKVORINS

Ibh/T, All?AIR/l/ Allfl

*1734 &publl h RII'll Fu Ubl. b Obv. Three dots .", to left

of king.

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2.26; 2.27; 2.16, PB; VM(1); WM(1); AA(1); *AD(1).

Levon III 337

1735 Chubul P RIITU-R), Uhl, Obv. Three dots .", to left

of king.

WM(1).

1736 &publil / RUQUIR, Uhl, Obv. Three dots .... to left

of king.

PB(2); WM(4); NK(1); AA(1); MM(2); JG(1).

1737 &publil h RUQUAR, U/ Obv. Three dots .", to left

of king.

WM(2); MM(2).

1738 Chubul h RUQUAR, U. Obv. Three dots .", to left

of king.

AD(1); HK(1).

1739 &publl h RII'll RV U Obv. Three dots .", to left

of king.

WM(2); HK(1); MM(1); EB(1).

Rev. Uncertain. Obv. Three dots .", to left

of king.

BN(1).

Ibh/1%, 0.1%llh/l/ All/181

*1740 &publil / RUQUAR, Uhly 5 Obv. Three dots *.* to left

of king.

*AN(1).

1741 & Publil / RU'll Ru Uhl/ Obv. Three dots *.* to left

of king.

2.37 (50%), PB, PB(3); WM(1); VM(1); AD(1); IS(4);

JG(1).

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1742 publl h RII'll Fu U-U Obv. Three dots *.* to left

of king.

PB(1); KK(1); WM(1); HK(1); KB(1); IS(1).

* The position of three dots is sometimes intermediate between.". and *.*.

22

338 Coinage of Cilician Armenia

1743 Ch'ubll h FUTUR), Uh Obv. Three dots *.* to left

of king.

2.35 (50%), PB; NK(1); AD(1); HK(1); BN(1); PB(1).

1744 &Publil h RUQUAR, U. Obv. Three dots *.* to left

of king.

PB(1); WM(2); IS(1).

1745 publil / RUQUEF, U Obv. Three dots *.* to left

of king.

MM(2); IS(1).

Ibh/", /\ll \llh/l/ Allfl

*1746 &publ h fulllf, h Uhly Obv. Field mark 6.

Rev. Sometimes star under

lion.

WM(10); AA(3); HK(3); *AD(3); MM(1); BN(3); HE(1).

1747 &publ fulllfi, h Uhl (?) Obv. Field mark 6.

BN(1).

Rev. Uncertain.

IS(1).

lbh/T, All?llh/l/ All3/18

*1748 &publ h fulllf, h Uhl, Obv. Circle to left of king.

2.05, PB; WM(2); AD(2); *HK(1).

Ibh/TL /\I'll R/l/ All/18

*1749 Ch'ubl h fulllf, h Uhl, Obv. Dots in field.

Rev. Star under lion.

*WM(1).

Ibh/TL All'UR/l/ All/18

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*1750 &publl h fl!'ll Ru Ubl h Obv. Field mark 3 to left

of king.

*BM(1).

Levon III 339

lbh/11, All?llh/l/ All&/18

1751 Chull h fulllf, h Uhl/ Rev. One with star under

lion.

WM(2).

*1752 &publ h fulllf, Uhu Obv. Floral and three dots.

*NK(1).

lbf/il, foll'UR/l/ 3U.8/18

*1753 &publ h fulllf, h Uhl, Obv. Letter 'I under horse,

three very small dots to

left of king.

Rev. Ornate cross.

*WM(2).

1753a publ h RII'll Ru h UPU Obv. Letter 'I under horse.

WM(2).

1753b & Publ P RUTIlf h Uhl/ Obv. Letter 'I under horse.

MM(1).

1753c Chub. P RIITU-R / UPU Obv. Letter 'I under horse.

Three small dots.

IS(1).

lbf/1%, All?UR/l/ All3/18

*1754 CFLl I NITU9, Ubu Obv. Letter' to left of king.

*NK(1)

lb/iu, /9/1%llR/l/ 3UB/18

*1755 publ h QUTU%, h Uhly Obv. lb/7, and field mark P.

*WM(2).

lbf/T, /NIQUIR/l/ Allm

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*1756 &publ I fuTuf p upu (?) Obv. Field mark flower and

three dots.

*BN(1); PB(1).

22*

340 Coinage of Cilician Armenia

lbf/n), /NIQUIR/T &ll3/18

[Obv. Type *1734]

1757 &publil I NITI', h Uhl/ Obv. Three dots .", to left

of king.

NK(1)

1758 &publil / RUTII R, RU Obv. Three dots .", to left

of king.

WM(1); IS(1).

1758a & Publl h RUQUAR, Uh Obv. Three dots .", to left

of king.

IS(1).

1759a Chubul h RUQUAR, U. Obv. Three dots .", to left

of king.

IS(1).

1759 &publil / MI'll', Uh Obv. Three dots .", to left

of king.

WM(2).

1760 &Publl h NITI', U. Obv. Three dots .", to left

of king.

2.41 (50%), PB, IS(1).

Lh/7, foll?-ll/-/7 <ll#/18

*1761 & Publil / RUQUAR, h Uhl/ Obv. Circle to left of king.

*BM(2); AD(1); BN(2).

1762 publil h RUQUAR, Uh Obv. Circle to left of king.

VM(1).

lbf/7, foll?-ll/-/7 <ll#/18

marks.

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*1763 & Publil RII'll fu Uhly Obv. Small 8. No field

*WM.(3); AD(1); MM(1).

Levon III 34I

1764 CPublil RUQUAR, UU

HK(1).

1765 publil RII'll RV h Uhl. A Rev. Dots under lion.

MM(1).

lbf/17, All?IIR/m. All3/18

*1766 Chubul h Qu'll!'}}, Uh Obv. Three circles C., to left

of king.

PB(1); *WM(1).

1767 Chubul h NIT', UU Obv. Three circles 6% to left

of king.

KK(1); VM(1).

lbf/7, foll'UR/7 <ll3/18

1768 Chubul All'U.R., UPU

BN(1).

Rev. Uncertain.

BN(1).

lh/7t, foll%llh/l/ All/18

[Obv. Type *1746]

1769 Ch'ubl h RUQUAR, h UPU Obv. Field mark 6.

PB(1); HK(1); AD(1); MM(1).

177o Ch'ubl I RUTII R, f Up Obv. Field mark 6 and

three dots in field.

AD(1).

1771 &publ h fulllfi, p UU Obv. Field mark 6.

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WM(1).

342 Coinage of Cilician Armenia

Ibh/T, /NI'llh/l/ All/18

[Obv. Type *1753]

1772 publ h fulllfi, UPU Obv. Letter 'I under horse.

HK(1)

lbf/7, foll?-ll/-/l/ All/18

1772a Ch'ubl h fulllf, h Uhl, Obv. Star under horse.

JG(I).

lbf/", /NIQUR/T &ll/18

*1773 &publ h fulllf, h Uhl/ Obv. Letter' to left of king.

*VM(1).

lbf/11, foll?-ll/-/7 <ll/18

*1774 &publil I NI'll!', UPU : Obv. Cross mark -i- to left

of king.

Rev. Cross behind lion.

*WM(1).

1774a 6publil I NITI', Uhl/

IS(1).

1775 &publil h NITU', Uh

PB(1).

Rev. Uncertain.

JG(1).

Ibh/1, foll'UR/l/ All&n"

[Obv. Type *1734]

1776 &publil RU'll fu UPU Obv. Three dots .", to left

of king.

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WM(1).

Levon III 343

Ibh/", /NI'll//m 2/18/)"

[Obv. Type *1734]

1777 &publil / fulllfi, Uhl, Obv. Three dots ...". to left

of king.

KK(1); WM(2); JG(1).

1777a & Publil h fulllf, U.U Obv. Three dots .", to left

of king.

MM(1); IS(1).

1778 &publil / RUQUAR, Uh Obv. Three dots .", to left

of king.

WM(2); BN(1).

1779 &pubul P Ru'll Ru U Obv. Three dots .", to left

of king.

KK(1); VM(1).

Ibh/T, Pll'NIR/T &ll3/."

1779a publil h fulllf, Uhl, Obv. No field marks.

PB(1).

lbf/I', /ll'll//m &ll3/.

1780 CPublil / fulllf, h Uhl/ Obv. Three dots .", to left

of king.

MM(1).

lbf/7, foll?-ll/-/7 <ll#/1

[Obv. Type *1734]

1781 &pubill h fulllf, UPU # Obv. Three dots .", to left

of king.

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WM(1).

344 Coinage of Cilician Armenia

1782 publil I QUT II'', Uhl (?) Obv. Three dots ... to left

of king.

BM(1); PB(1).

1783 &publil h NITU%. Up Obv. Three dots .", to left

of king.

WM(2); AN(1); MM(1).

1784 Chubul h NITI', U. Obv. Three dots .". to left

of king.

MM(1).

1785 Chubill h NITI', U Obv. Three dots .", to left

of king.

HK(1).

1786 Chubul h fulllf p UU Obv. Three dots .", to left

of king.

MM(1)

1787 Ch'ubl h RIITU-R h Uh Obv. Three dots .", to left

of king.

WM(1).

lbf/T, /NI'll R/T &ll3/.

[Obv. Type *1774]

1788 &publil h fulllft Uhl, I Obv. Cross mark -i- to left

of king.

AN(1).

1789 Ch'ublil I NITU%, Uh Obv. Cross mark -i- to left

of king.

KK(2).

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1790 Chubul h \ll'U' U Rev. Some single cross and

others double cross.

2.20 (56%), PB; WM(2); HK(1).

Levon III

345

1790a Ghull h NI'll!',

HE(1).

Obv. Cross mark -i- to left

of king.

Ibh/T, All?IIR/l/ All&"

[Obv. Type *1734]

1791 &publil / NITII'', UPU

2.57, PB; VM(1).

1792 publil / QUTU%, FU

MM(1).

1793 &Publil h RUQUR, IRU

MM(1).

1794 &publil / NI'll!'}}, U.

WM(1).

Ch'ubll h QUTU%l, U

I79

WM(1).

Obv. Three dots .". to left

of king.

Obv. Three dots .", to left

of king.

Obv. Three dots .", to left

of king.

Obv. Three dots .". to left

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of king.

Obv. Three dots ...". to left

of king.

Lh/77, foll'II//7 <ll3/

[Obv. Type *1734]

1796 &publl FUTUR, Uhl/

BM(1); WM(1).

1796a & Publil / RUQUAR, U-U

Obv. Three dots ...". to left

of king.

Obv. No field mark.

IS(1).

346 Coinage of Cilician Armenia

Ibh/Tu /NIQUR/T &ll3

[Obv. Type *1740]

1796b publil / RU'll Ru h Uhl/ Obv. Three dots *.* to left

of king.

PB(1).

1797 Ch'ublil / fulllf, Uhl, Obv. Three dots *.* to left

of king.

2.08, PB.

1798 &publl h NITI', Uh Obv. Three dots *.* to left

of king.

WM(1); MM(1).

1799 Chubul P RUQUAR, U Obv. Three dots *.* to left

of king.

WM(1); PB(1).

lbf/it. All?-ll/-/m &ll#

1800 Ch'ubll h fl!'lll:Ru Uh Obv. Three dots *.* to left

of king.

MM(1).

lbf/TL /NIQUIR/l/ All

[Obv. Type *1734]

1801 &hll h RII'll Ru Uhl/ Obv. Three dots .". to left

of king.

WM(1).

lbf/it, /ll?-ll/-/l/ All/

[Obv. Type *1753]

1802 & Publ RU'll Ru h Uhl. A Obv. Letter 'I under horse.

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HK(1).

Levon III 347

1803 &publ h RIITU-R), h Uhl, Obv. Letter 'I under horse.

MM(1).

Rarities and errors

*1804 Obv. Ibh/T, PUQUAm/ 3U808 /

Rev. Ch'ubl h RUQUERL h Uhl, Rev. No cross behind lion.

1.40, *PB(1); 2.40, PB(1).

*1805 Obv. Ibh/T, PUQUR/l/ 3U/18

Rev. Lh/7t, /NIQUIR/l/ 2U8/18

*AA(1); BM(1).

*1806 Obv. Ibh/r, All?AIR/l/ 3U 018 (or &llm/8)

Rev. All?, bl. h fl'll Ru h Uhl/

*WM(2); JG(1).

COPPER COINS - KARDEZ

Ibh/T, Pll'll R/l/ All

1807 &publil / MITU%, Obv. King seated on throne.

Rev. Cross with dots. #

2.90, PB; WM(1).

1808 Ch'ubll h \ll'U'. Obv. King seated on throne.

Rev. Cross with dots. +:

KK(1); WM(2); BN(2).

*1809 &Publil h MITU' Obv. King seated on throne.

Rev. Cross with dots. +:

KK(1); WM(3); *AD(1); BN(1).

Rev. Uncertain.

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5.7, PB.

348 Coinage of Cilician Armenia

Ibh/I'l All'UR/l/ 2

1810 &publil / QUTU% (?) Obv. King seated on throne.

Rev. Cross with dots. #

WM(1).

lbf/I'l All?llh/l/*

18II Ch'ubll h NITU/ Obv. King seated on throne.

Rev. Cross with dots. #

2.45, PB, HK(1).

lbh/", /NI'llh/

1812 Ch'ublil h QUTU9, U (?) Obv. King seated on throne.

Rev. Cross with dots. #

BN(1).

1812a Ch'ublil / QUTII? (?) Obv. King seated on throne.

Rev. Cross with dots. #

EB(1).

Ibh/", /NI'llh/l/ &ll

*1813 CFLll h NI'll!', Obv. King seated on

cushions.

Rev.

*WM(1); BN(1).

1814 Ch'ublil h QUTIIQ.

WM(1).

Rev. Uncertain.

Cross. SK

a TV-

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WM(2).

Levon III 349

Ibh/", /NIQUIR/m/,

1815 publil h NITU% Rev. Plain cross. +-

PB(1).

Ibh/I'l, /NIQUIR/T &ll#

1816 & Publl h \ll'll!'}\, . . . Obv. King seated oriental

fashion. -

Rev. Cross with dots. #

WM(1).

lbf/", /NIQUIR/T

*1817 Chubul. h "MITU% Obv. King seated oriental

fashion.

Rev. Cross with dots. #

2.7, PB; KK(1); *WM(2).

1817a publil h \ll'U' Obv. King seated oriental

fashion.

Rev. Cross with dots. #

WM(2).

I818 Rev. Uncertain.

KK(1); KB(1); WM(3); VM(2).

1819 &Publl h \ll'. Obv. King seated oriental

fashion.

Rev. Cross with dots. #

WM(1).

1820 & Publil / NI'll!",

3.5, PB.

lht, foll?-ll/-/7 <ll#

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1821 & Publil h QUT II'', h U Rev. Plain cross. +

PB(2).

350 Coinage of Cilician Armenia

*1822 Ch Lll h QUT II Rev. Plain cross. +

KB(1).

Ibki, All'UR (?)

1823 &publ h RII'lllf

BN(1).

lbf/", /ll'UR'

*1824 6Publil h FUTUR, h Obv. King seated.

3.4, PB, *WM(1).

1824a Publ h RUTUR (?) Obv. King seated.

JG(1).

1825 publil I NITU Obv. King seated.

VM(1).

Rev. Uncertain.

WM(1); VM(1).

lbf/1%, All?llh/l/ All#

1826 Ch'ubll h \ll'll!?", Obv. King seated on throne

holding staff with right hand

and cross with left hand.

Rev. Cross. SK

WM(1).

1826a Ch'ubll h NI'll!?.

JG(1).

*1827 Chubul, h \ll'U' ... Obv. King seated on throne

holding staff with right hand

and cross with left hand.

Rev. Cross. SK

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*AD(1); WM(1).

Levon III 35I

Lh/7t, . . . . . //*

I828 Uncertain Obv. King seated on throne

holding staff with right hand

and cross with left hand.

\ w,

Rev. Cross. SK

Ibh/", /NIQUIR/m/

1829 &Publ RUTII. . Obv. King seated on throne

holding staff with right hand

and cross with left hand.

WM(1).

Rev. Cross. S

WM(1).

Ibh/", /NI'll R/T

*1830 CFLl RUTII. . Obv. King seated holding

staff with right hand.

Rev. Plain cross. +

*WM(1).

Ibh/T, Oll'}ll/

1831 & Publ. ... QUT. . . . Obv. King seated holding

staff with right hand.

Rev. Plain cross. +

Ibh/1%, All?llh/l/ 3U

1832 lbf/1, Pll'UR/m/ Obv. King seated oriental

fashion, holding staff with

left hand and cross with

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right.

Rev. Plain cross. +

3.2, PB; WM(1).

WM(1); EB(1).

352 Coinage of Cilician Armenia

Ibh/T, /NIQUIR/l/ 3

1833 Lhm, Pll'UR/m/

BN(1).

Obv. King seated oriental

fashion, holding staff with

left hand and cross with

right.

Rev. Plain cross. +

Ibh/T, /NIQUIR/m/

1834 lbf/T, Pll'UR/l/ All3

AD(1).

Obv. King seated oriental

fashion, holding staff with

left hand and cross with

right.

Rev. Plain cross. +

lbf/T, /NIQUIR/l/

*1835 lbf/", /NIQUAm/

*WM(5); AD(4); BN(1).

Obv. King seated oriental

fashion, holding staff with

left hand and cross with

right.

Rev. Plain cross. +

lbf/it, foll'll R/l/?

1835a lbf/T, PUQUR/l/ 3

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Obv. King seated oriental

fashion, holding staff with

left hand and cross with

right.

Rev. Plain cross. +

JG(1).

Oshin 353

*1836 lbf/", /NIQUAm/ Obv. King seated oriental

fashion holding staff with

left hand.

\te

a Wa

2.4; 3.5; 3.3; 2.65, PB; *WM(2); AD(4); VM(1); BN(1).

Rev. Cross.

Rev. Uncertain.

WM(5); AD(1); AM(1).

Ibh/r, Pll'Illkm/] (?)

1837 . . . . . . . Q-ll/-/7/? Obv. King seated on throne.

PB(1).

lbh/1, Pll'll R

*1838 upn"mR/f, uu (?)

*WM(2).

lbf/", Pll'UR/m (?)

*1839 lbf/it. All'ilhm/ (?) Obv. Very crude representa-

tion of king.

Rev. Cross. Sk

Cros * \

AD(1); *BN(1).

OSHIN

Coronation trams

URhl, Pll'UR/l/ 3UB/18 H

1839a ill/'07/1/./bl|UR LIV/ (++-

2.89, PB(1).

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Ulhht, /NIQUIR/l/ Allfl&

*1840 ill/I'l/ih/f, Ilm B-He- Obv. Hand with extended

two fingers above fleur de

lys.

*WM(1).

23

354 Coinage of Cilician Armenia

1841 ill/I'lmk/fu Uw/18

WM(1); MM(1).

1842 ill/I'l/R^f, Il k

AN(1).

1843 "ill/'07/h/ full k

2.95, KK(1).

1844 Ill/I'lmk/fu III/SI

KB(1).

1845 ill/I'lmk/f, Ill/S

AD(1); BN(1).

1846 ill/I'lmk/f, Uwn

KB(1).

1847 ill/I'lmk/fu Uw/18

KB(1).

(H

(++-

(++-

(-K

Obv. Hand with extended

two fingers above fleur de

lys.

Obv. Hand with extended

two fingers above fleur de

lys.

Obv. Hand with extended

two fingers above fleur de

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lys.

Obv. Hand with extended

two fingers above fleur de

lys.

Obv. Hand with extended

two fingers above fleur de

lys.

llhhl, foll?-ll/-/7 <ll#/78

*1848 ill/I'lmk/f, Uwns

*WM(1).

Obv. Letter 8 in field on

right.

(H(?)Obv. Letter 8 in field on

left.

(-K

Obv. Letter 8 in field on

left.

Oshin 355

llhh), /NI'llh/m &ll3/.

*1849 ill/I'lmh/ft, Uwn (-F

*BN(1).

TAKVORINS

UACh', foll'UR/l/ Allm1

1849a & Publil / RUTII R, Uhly 4 Obv. No mint mark.

JG(1).

*1850 Chillt, k h RUQUIR Uhl/ Obv. No mint mark.

*MM(2).

1851 Ch'ublil h RII'll RV Uh Obv. No mint mark.

2.05, PB; AD(1).

llhhl, foll%llh/m 2/16/18

[Obv. Type *1850]

1852 Ch'ult, h RITU-R), Uhl/ Obv. Mint mark /8.

2.55; 2.52, (65%), PB; WM(2); BM(1); MM(1).

UACh'L /NIQUR/7 <ll3/18

[Obv. Type *1863]

1853 Ch'ubll P RII'll RV Uhl/ Obv. Mint mark /8.

PB(1); JG(1).

1854 &publ h RUTII R, Uhl/ Obv. Mint mark /8.

MM(1); IS(1).

1854a Chubul P RIITU-R JU Obv. Mint mark /8.

IS(1).

* With the deterioration of workmanship in the preparation of dies, it

becomes impossible to decipher some of the letters. On the reverse of these

coins, the word Rll'll R or %ll'll!? is written fll/'ll k so that it is impossible

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to tell which spelling is used. Note that the letter T is often written /".

23*

356 Coinage of Cilician Armenia

1855 hl,... h RITU-R Uh Obv. Mint mark /8.

MM(1).

1855a Ghul h KUTII R, UPU Obv. Mint mark /3.

IS(1).

URht, / I'llhm (?) &llm

1856 &publil RITU-R), UPU Obv. Mint mark."../.

2.51 (54%), PB.

UACh'L /NIQUA/m 2/18/78

*1857 Chult, h fulllfi, Uhl, Obv. Mint mark 8/.

2.40, *PB, PB(1); IS(2).

UACh'i, All?-ll/-/m &ll&/18

1858 Chull, h fulllf, h Uhl/ Obv. Mint mark/lf.

PB(1).

UACh', /ll'UR/7 <ll3/7

1859 &Publil h Ril'lllf UPU Obv. Mint mark /8

VM(1); MM(2).

*1860 Ch'ubll h RII'll RUFU Obv. Mint mark /8

*WM(1); MM(2); IS(1); HE(1).

1861 Ch'ubl h RUTII R', Uhl/ Obv. Mint mark /8

WM(3); MM(2); BN(1).

1862 Ch Ll h RII'll R Uhly h Obv. Mint mark /8

VM(I); JG(1).

1862a Ch'ubl h RUQUIR Uhl/ Obv. Mint mark "|8

PB(1).

Rev. Uncertain.

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AN(1).

Oshim. 357

Ulhht, /NI'll R/T &ll#/)

*1863 Ch'ubl h RII'll R. Uhl/ Obv. Mint mark /8

AN(I); KK(1); WM(2); HK(1); MM(2); *BN(1); IS(1);

JG(1).

1864 &publil h RII'll R. Uhl/ Obv. Mint mark /8

2.42, PB; BN(3).

1865 publil / RU'lllf UPU Obv. Mint mark /8

2.48, PB, AA(1); WM(1); AD(1).

1866 Ch'ubll h RII'll RUFU Obv. Mint mark /8

2.49 (70%), PB, PB(1); KK(1).

1867 Chubul h RII'll f Up Obv. Mint mark /8

AA(1); MM(1); IS(1).

1868 Ch'ubll h RII'll Ru U. Obv. Mint mark /8

2.53, PB; WM(1); BN(1).

1869 Chl h RII'll R. Uhl/ Obv. Mint mark /8

MM(1).

UACh'i, foll'UR/T &ll#/7

187o Chulu h fuTUR, Uhl/ Obv. Mint mark/8.

2.52 (65%), PB; WM(2); VM(1); MM(2).

1871 Ghult, h fuTuft, uhu I (?) Obv. Mint mark/8.

VM(1).

1872 Ch'ult, h fulllf, Uh Obv. Mint mark/8.

*WM(1).

*1873 Chulu k h fulllf. Uhl/ Obv. Mint mark/8.

*HK(1); NK(1).

1874 Ch'ultr k h RII'll R U. Obv. Mint mark /8.

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PN(1).

1875 hlbl.l. h RUTII R', UPU Obv. Mint mark/8.

MM(1).

358 Coinage of Cilician Armenia

1876 Ch'ublil h NITI', Uhly 5 Obv. Mint mark /8.

PB(2).

U.J.C.ht, /ll?-ll/-/7 <ll#/.

1877 &hell, k h fuTuft, Uhl, Obv. Mint mark 8/.

2.49 (65%), PB, AD(1); AK(1); MM(1); BN(1).

1878 &pult, k h (?) fulllf, Uh Obv. Mint mark 8/l.

2.16, PB.

1878a Ghult, h RUTII R, Uhu Obv. Mint mark 8/l.

PB(1).

1879 Ch'ult, h MITU%, UU Obv. Mint mark 8/l.

MM(1).

Ulhht, /NI'll R/T &ll3/7

1880 Chull 5 h RII'll Ru Uhl/ Obv. Mint mark 9/.

PB(1); WM(2); MM(1).

1881 Chull", h RII'll Ru Uh

WM(1).

UACh'i, foll%ll R/T &ll3/7

*1882 Ch'ult, h RII'll Ru U Obv. Mint mark U/u.

2.61, PB, PB(2); *WM(1); MM(2).

Ilhhl, /NIQUIR/m &ll3/.

1883 Chuuw (?) p fulllf, Uhu h Obv. Mint mark 8/ip.

HK(1).

IIRChu, /ll'}-ll/-/7 <ll3/1

1884 & Fult, h fulllf UPU Obv. Mint mark /'.

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2.55 (65 %), PB.

Oshin 359

1885 & Full" h NITU%, Uhl/ Obv. Mint mark /".

MM(1); IS(1).

Ulhht, /NIQUIR/7 &ll3/7

1886 Ch'ubl h RII'll R. Uhl/ Obv. Mint mark /8.

AA(1).

UACh', foll'UR/7 &ll3/.

1887 &pult, h fulllf. Ubu Obv. Mint mark /Um.

VM(1)

1888 Ghult, h RUTII R, Uh Obv. Mint mark /l/l.

WM(1).

1889 &hull, h RUTII R, U Obv. Mint mark / Un.

WM(1).

UACh'i, /NIQUIR/T &ll3/.

1890 &Rult, h \ll'U' Up Obv. Mint mark 3/y.

BN(1).

llhhl, /NI'll R/T &ll3/.

1891 &Pult, h Ril'll Ru Uhl/ Obv. Mint mark //r.

AD(1).

UACh', foll'UR// 3UB/7

1892 pult, h Ru'll RUU Obv. Mint mark /Un.

BN(1).

*1893 &pult, h fulllf, h Obv. Mint mark "| Un.

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*AD(1); MM(1).

360 Coinage of Cilician Armenia

1894 Chull, h RUQUAR, U Obv

MM(1).

1894a GPLII, h RUTU-R Uh Obv

PB(1).

llhh), /N1%llh/m &ll3/.

[Obv. Type *1863]

1895 pulli, k h fulllf UPU Obv

MM(1).

1896 &publ h fulllfi, p UU Obv

2.31 (65%); WM(1); VM(1).

1897 Ch'ult, h RUQUAR, Uh Obv

2.35 (58%), PB; AD(1).

1898 &Rult, k h fulllf, Up (?) Obv

KK(1); WM(1).

1899 &publil / RU'lf Uhl (?) Obv

2.40, PB.

1900 Ghull h RITU-R), UPU Obv.

MM(1).

UACh'i, foll?-ll/-/n 4113/*

[Obv. Type *1863]

1901 &publil / RUQUAR, U. Obv

KK(1).

1902 Ch'ublil / RUQUER UPU Obv

PB(1); VM(1).

1903 &pult, h RUTII R, Uh Obv

PB(1); BN(1).

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. Mint mark "| Ul.

. Mint mark "| Un.

. Mint mark /8.

. Mint mark /8.

. Mint mark /8.

. Mint mark /8.

. Mint mark /8.

Mint mark /8.

. Mint mark /8.

. Mint mark "/8.

. Mint mark "/8.

Oshin 361

UR&F, foll'UR/m 2/16/*

1904 & Publl h RUTII R, Uhl/ Obv. Mint mark 8/1.

2.57 (65%), PB.

UACh', foll%llh/m 2U8/?

[Obv. Type *1860]

1905 hull" h FUTUR), Uh Obv. Mint mark/8.

NK(1); MM(1).

1906 & Pullu k h RITU-R UUh Obv. Mint mark /8.

MM(1).

1906a & Pulv h RUQUIR U. Obv. Mint mark /8.

PB(1).

llhhl, foll'll R/T &lll

1906b publil P RuTuf Up Obv. Mint mark /8.

IS(1); HE(1).

UACh'i, /NI'llh/m &ll#

[Obv. Type *1873]

1907 &bull, h fulllfi, UPU Obv. Mint mark/8.

2.49; 2.39, PB, PB(1).

1908 & Pullt, h fulllf, Uh Obv. Mint mark /8.

2.63 (65%), PB; WM(1); AD(1); BN(1); IS(2).

1909 &Rult, h fulllf UPU Obv. Mint mark /8.

BN(1).

Rev. Uncertain.

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MM(1).

362 Coinage of Cilician Armenia

UACh'i, /NI'llh/7 <ll#

[Obv. Type *1863]

191o Chulu k h RUQUEF, Uh Obv. Mint mark /8.

2.75 (58%), PB.

1911 Chulu k h RUTUR UPU Obv. Mint mark /8.

KB(1); MM(2); IS(1).

1912 hull, k h RITU-R U. Obv. Mint mark /8.

WM(1).

1913 & Pubul P RUTU-R UPU Obv. Mint mark /8.

WM(2).

1914 &publil h RUQUAR, Uh Obv. Mint mark /3.

2.37 (52%), PB, PB(1); MM(1); JG(1).

1914a Ghull, h fulllf, Uh Obv. Mint mark /8.

IS(1).

1914b &hull, h RUQUAR, U. Obv. Mint mark /8.

IS(1).

1915 publil / RUQUAR, U Obv. Mint mark /8.

2.47 (65%), PB, PB(1); WM(1); MM(1); BN(1)

*1916 &publ h Ru'll fu UPU Obv. Mint mark /8.

PB(1); *WM(1).

1917 &publil h Ru'lf Uhl, Obv. Mint mark /8.

MM(1).

1918 &publ h RUTII R, RU Obv. Mint mark /8.

MM(1); IS(1).

1919 Chull h RUTIlf, Uhl/ Obv. Mint mark /8.

MM(1); HE(1); IS(1).

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1920 Ghull, k h RII'll Ru Uh/ Obv. Mint mark /8.

MM(1).

Oshin

IIRht, /NIQUIR/7 &ll?

[Obv. Type *1882]

1921 &publl h FUTUR, h U Obv. Mint mark llllf.

MM(1).

1922 publil I fl'Ilf, U Obv. Mint mark ll//.

VM(1); BN(1).

1923 & Fult, h RUQUAR, U Obv. Mint mark U/U".

2.63, PB; WM(1); BN(1).

Rev. Uncertain.

2.26; 2.13, PB, HK(1); BN(1).

UACh'i, foll'UR/T &ll#

1924 &hull" h RUTU-R), U (?) Obv. Mint mark Plf.

MM(2).

IIRChl, foll?-ll/-/m 2/18

*1925 pult, h fulllf UPU Obv. Mint mark #/U".

AD(1); KB(1); MM(1); *HK(1).

1926 &Rullo p RIITU-R, Uh Obv. Mint mark #/U".

PB(2); WM(1); MM(1).

1927 &Rult, h Ru'lf Uh Obv. Mint mark #/U".

WM(2).

Rev. Uncertain.

2.53; 2.51, PB; WM(3); VM(1); AD(2); AN(1); MM(1).

UACh', Pll?-ll/-/7 <ll#

1928 &Rult, h fulllf, Uh (?) Obv. Field mark 8/1.

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AN(1).

364 Coinage of Cilician Armenia

Ulhh', OWI'll R/T &ll#

[Obv. Type *1857]

1929 CFLuv h RUTII R, Uh Obv. Mint mark 8/.

AD(1).

1930 &Rult, h fulllf, U. Obv. Mint mark 8/.

AD(1).

Ilhhl, All?llh/m &ll

[Obv. Type *1925]

1931 &publil P RII'llfi, UPU Obv. Mint mark $/lf.

AA(1); MM(1).

1932 pult, h fulllf. Up Obv. Mint mark #/U".

WM(3); VM(1); AD(4); MM(1); IS(2).

1933 Chull, h FUTURUU Obv. Mint mark Q/U".

AD(1); MM(1).

Rev. Uncertain.

BN(1).

UACh', foll?-ll/-/T &ll

1934 GPublil h RUQUAR, U Obv. Mint mark uncertain.

PB(2).

UACh', foll'UR/7 &ll

*1935 hull, h FUTUR Uh Obv. Mint mark 7/.

PB(1); *AA(1); WM(1).

Unique copper coin

[Silver Takvorin Type]

*1936 Obv. Ilhhl, Pll'NIR/T &lln Obv. Mint mark 8/1.

Rev. Ch. . . RII'll Ru Uh

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2.58, *PB.

Oshin 365

HALF TRAM

Single specimen reported (see p. 93), of the coronation

tram type. Present whereabouts unknown.

COPPER COINS - POGHS"

Ulhht, /NI'll R/7/ &ll3/78

1936a Chubul h RII'll RV Uhl/ Obv. King seated on bench

and holding cross in right

hand and fleur de lys in

left hand.

HE(1). Rev. Cross.

llhh), /NIQUIR/m. All

*1937 Chulo k h RuTuf (?) Obv. King seated on bench

and holding cross in right

hand and fleur de lys in

left hand.

1.15, *PB, PB(2); WM(2). Rev. Cross. |

1938 &publl RU'llf U. Obv. King seated on bench

and holding cross in right

hand and fleur de lys in

left hand.

WM(1). Rev. Cross.

Rev. Uncertain.

PB(2).

1939 &publil RUQUR U Obv. King seated on bench

and holding cross in right

hand and fleur de lys in

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left hand.

Rev. Cross.

1.55, PB, PB(1); AD(1); MM(1).

Rev. Uncertain.

AD(1); WM(3); PB(1); JG(1).

1 A few last minute additions are not included in the section of statistics.

366 Coinage of Cilician Armenia

UACh'u /\ll \ll... </

1940 ?.... l!'ll', UPU Obv. King seated on bench

and holding cross in right

hand and fleur de lys in

left hand.

Rev. Cross.

MM(1).

IIRChu /NI'll R/T 4

*1941 Chulla k h fulllf Obv. King seated on bench

and holding cross in right

hand and fleur de lys in

left hand.

Rev. Cross.

WM(4); 1.40, PB*; JG(1).

Rev. Uncertain.

AD(3); 1.25, PB(6); WM(2); JG(2).

Ulhht, /9'll%llh/7

*1942 &Rult. A fulllf U Obv. King seated on bench

and holding cross in right

hand and fleur de lys in

left hand.

Rev. Cross.

1.25, *PB(2).

1942a hull" | RUQUU Obv. King seated on bench

and holding cross in right

hand and fleur de lys in

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left hand.

Rev. Cross.

AD(1).

Rev. Uncertain.

WM(2).

Oshin 367

UACh'i, /ll'llh/7 <ll#

[Rev. Type *1945]

1943 &publ h fulllf U Obv. King seated on bench

and holding cross in right

hand and fleur de lys in

left hand.

Rev. Cross. *

WM(1).

1943a Ghult, h \ll 21%, h Obv. King seated on bench

and holding cross in right

hand and fleur de lys in

left hand.

Rev. Cross. *

PB(1).

Ilhh), ll%llh/m &ll

1944 & Publl h . . . . . Obv. King seated on bench

and holding cross in right

hand and fleur de lys in

left hand.

Rev.

AD(2). ev. Cross *

1944a Ghull." A h \ll 21%(?) Obv. King seated on bench

and holding cross in right

hand and fleur de lys in

left hand.

PB(2). Rev. Cross. *

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UACh', foll Q-ll/-/n 4

*1945 publ h NITU9, U. Obv. King seated on bench

and holding cross in right

hand and fleur de lys in

left hand.

*WM(1). Rev. Cross.

368 Coinage of Cilician Armenia

1945a Ghull, h . . . . .

AD(1); PB(1).

*1946 Takvorins with Arabic surcharge bearing Mamluk Sultan's

*1947 name Nsir Nsir al Din Muhammad.

LEVON IV1

TAKVORINS

Ibh/T, /NI'll R/T &ll3R/18

*1948 &publil h Ru'll R. p Up (?) Obv. Field mark +/?.

*BN(1).

lbf/", /NI'llh/l/ &ll3/18

1948a Chubul P RUQUAR, h U Obv. Field mark +/?.

IS(1).

lbh/), foll'UR/T &ll3/18

*1949 &Publil / RUQUAR, h Uhl/ Obv. Field mark 'i/r.

PB(1); *WM(1); AD(2); MM(1); IS(1).

1950 &publil / RUTIlf, h Uh Obv. Field mark 'i/U".

2.45; 2.31 (57%); 2.45 (56%), PB.

1951 &publil h fulllf. Uhl, Obv. Field mark 'i/U".

2.40; 2.42, PB; WM(3); AD(4); MM(2); BN(1).

1952 publl h RII'll R. Uhl, Obv. Field mark 'i/U".

PB(2); WM(1); MM(2); BN(1); IS(1).

1953 &Publil h RUQUAR, UU Obv. Field mark #/U".

BN(1).

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* It is often impossible to differentiate the R from Q, in the legend.

Levon IV 369

lbf/n), /NI'llh/m &ll3/18

*1954 Ch'ublil h RII'll Ru h U Obv. Field mark A/r.

2.60; 2.30 (60%); 2.26 (54%); 2.44, PB; WM(4); AD(2),

MM(3); IS(1); JG(1).

Rev. Uncertain.

WM(5); MM(3).

1955 publil h RUTU-R Uhl/ Obv. Field mark A/lf.

PB(1); MM(4); BN(2).

lbf/7, foll?-ll/-/7 <ll3/18

1956 &Publl h Rll... h U Obv. Field mark blur.

2.29 (60%), PB; MM(1).

Ibh/7t, foll'UR/T &ll#/18

1957 &Publil / RUQUAR, h Uhl/ Obv. Field mark 8/.. -

2.36 (65%), PB.

lbf/it. All?llh/m &ll3/18

1958 &Publil RUQUAR), h U Obv. Field mark/./.

2.49; 2.30, PB.

Rev. Uncertain.

AD(1).

lbf/T, Pll'll//m &ll3/18

1959 GFLll h RUQUAR, h U Obv. Field mark 1/.

KK(1); MM(1).

lbf/7, foll?-ll/-/7 <ll#/18

*1960 &publil I All'luf UPU (?) [or R, h U] Obv. Field mark l/r.

AD(2); *WM(1); NK(1); MM(1); BN(1).

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24

370 Coinage of Cilician Armenia

lbf/T, Pll'll R/T &ll#/18

1961 GPublil h fulllf, h U Obv. Field mark P/f.

WM(1); AD(2).

*1962 publil h Ru'll RV U Obv. Field mark Plur.

KK(1).

lbf/it. All'ilhm &ll608 (?)

1963 publil / RUQUAR, UPU Obv. Field mark */un.

WM(1); BN(1).

Ibh/", All'll R/T &ll3/18

1964 6Publil / RUTII:8, h U Obv. Field mark //.

MM(3).

lbf/7, foll?UR/7 <ll3/18

1965 publil / RUQUER, .. Obv. Field mark "/.

WM(1).

lbf/T, /ll'}llh/m &ll3/.

1966 Chubul h Rll'luf, Uhl/ Obv. Field mark 'i/r.

2.30 (56%); 2.32 (65%), PB, PB(1); NK(2); AD(1).

1967 Chubill b fulllf UPU Obv. Field mark #/U".

2.25; 2.45 (65%); 2.23 (56%); 2.45; 2.37; PB; KK(1);

PB(3); WM(5); AD(3); MM(2); BN(1).

1968 &publil h fulllfi, p U Obv. Field mark'i/U".

MM(3).

Rev. Uncertain.

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PB(1).

Levon IV 37I

Ibh/T, foll'UR/T All&n

1969 Chubul h fulllf, h Uhl/ Obv. Field mark Blu.

WM(1); AD(1); MM(1); BN(1).

197o Chubul P RIITU-R), h U Obv. Field mark A/U".

2.60; 2.29; 2.25, PB; WM(5); AD(4); BM(1); AN(1);

MM(3); BN(1); PB(1); IS(2).

1971 Chubill h fulllfi, UPU Obv. Field mark Bllf.

MM(1).

lbf/T, All?llh/l/ &ll3/.

*1972 publil h fulllf, h Uhl, Obv. Field mark A/r.

2.33, *PB.

1973 Ch'ubill h RUTIFR, p U Obv. Field mark A/U".

WM(1).

Ibh/17, 19ll'UR/T All 5/7

*1974 Chubill h RII'll Ru h U Obv. Field mark Plif

with U under horse.

*MM(3); BN(1).

Rev. Uncertain.

MM(1).

lbf/1%, 0-l'UR/7 <l/5/1

*1975 CPublil / fulllf, p U Obv. Field mark 1/u.

2.35; 2.22 (56%); 2.08 (53%), PB; KK(1); *WM(1);

MM(1).

Rev. Uncertain.

WM(1).

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24*

372 Coinage of Cilician Armenia

Ibh/T, /NI'llh/m &ll3/.

1976 Chubill h fl!"Ilf, h U Obv. Field mark /u.

2.43 (54%), PB; WM(1); MM(1); PB(1); JG(1).

Obv. and rev. Uncertain.

WM(1); AD(1).

lbf/T, foll'll R/T &ll3/.

1977 Chubul h RUTIlfi, Ubu Obv. Field mark P/.

WM(1).

1978 Chubul h fulllf. Uhl, Obv. Field mark A/.

2.42, PB.

1979 Ch'ublil h RII'll fu h U Obv. Field mark / /.

WM(1); AN(1); MM(2).

198o 6 publil / RUTIlf UU Obv. Field mark //.

2.34, PB.

Rev. Uncertain.

2.70; 2.26 (53%), PB; WM(2); MM(1).

lbh/TL /NIQUIR/m 2U8/)

1981 Chubulip fuTuft, hu Obv. Mint mark 1/.

MM(1).

Ibh/7t, foll?-ll/-/m 2/18/7

1982 CFLll h fl'U.R., h U Obv. Field marks if X*.

2.41 (58%), PB.

1983 CFLll h RUQUAR, U. Obv. Field marks #22.

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WM(1).

Levon IV 373

Ibh/7, foll'll R/7 <ll3/.

1984 6Publil h fulllf, h U Obv. No field marks.

2.25 (65%), PB; WM(2);

Rev. Uncertain.

WM(2).

Ibh/T, /NIQUIR/m. Alln

*1985 Chubul h fulllf, h U Obv. Field mark VV\

under horse.

AD(2); WM(1); AN(1).

lbf/17, foll'UR/T &ll#/7

1986 Chubill h fulllfi, p U Obv. Field mark :/.

AD(1).

1987 Chult, h RIITU-R UPU Obv. Field mark"/.

WM(1);

Rev. Uncertain.

WM(1).

lbf/it, /NIQUIR/m. Alln

1988 Chubill h RUQUAR, U Obv. Field mark U/ 9.

WM(1).

lh/77, All?-ll/-/7 <ll#

*1989 &publil RII'll Ru h U Obv. Field mark P/.

*WM(1).

1990 GPublil h RII'llf, h U Obv. Field mark P/.

WM(1).

Rev. Uncertain.

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NK(1); MM(1).

374 Coinage of Cilician Armenia

lbf/T, /NI'll R/T &ll#

*1991 Chubill h Ru'll Ru h Uh Obv. Field mark "/..

*AD(1).

lbf/1, pl!'}ll//m &ll#

1992 publil h Ru'll Ru h U Obv. No field marks.

WM(1).

Ibh/), /NI'll R/T &ll3

1993 Ghull, h . . . Obv. Field mark U/Un.

MM(1).

Raritylion turned left.

lbf/1%, All?-ll/-/m &ll3/18

*1994 Ghull h fulllf, h Uhl/ Obv. Field mark /9.

Rev. Lion turned left.

AN(1).

1995 hull I RU'll Ru UPU Obv. Field mark /9.

Rev. Lion turned left.

WM(1); BN(1).

COPPER COINS - POGHS1

King holding staff in right hand which extends over shoulder. Cross

in left hand. Throne decorated with lions.

lbf/T, Oll'}llh/l/ &llfl

*1996 Uncertain. Rev. Cross. SK

*WM(3); MM(1).

1 A number of last minute additions were made which were not included

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in the statistics section.

Levon IV 375

Ibh/", /NI'llh/l/ &

*1997 publ h fulllf Rev. Plain cross. +

1.45, PB;

Rev. Uncertain.

*WM(2); PB(1).

1998 & Publ h NITU%, Rev. Plain cross. +

1.9, PB.

lbf/11, AWIQUIR/l/

1998a Ch'ubl h RUQUIR U Rev. Plain cross +

PB(1).

Large poghs King holding staff in right hand which extends over

shoulder. Cross in right hand. Peculiar throne.

Ibh/I'l, Oll'UR/T &ll3/.

*1999 &publ h QUT II'', h Uhl, Rev. Cross with or with-

out dots.

*WM(1); MM(1).

20oo Ch'ubl h \ll'll!?, h Uh Rev. Cross with or with-

out dots.

WM(2); BN(I); AD(2);

Rev. Uncertain. Rev. Cross with or with-

out dots.

WM(1); AD(1); MM(I); JG(1); EB(1).

2OOI . . . . . . .ll'ku. Uh

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MM(1).

376 Coinage of Cilician Armenia

lbf/1%, All?AIR/T &ll

2002 Ch'ubl h \ll'll!'}\, Uh Rev. Cross with one or

more dots.

2.1, PB; WM(1); AD(1);

Rev. Uncertain.

WM(2); AD(1); EB(1); PB(1).

2003 Ch'ubl h FUTUR Uhl/ Rev. Cross with one or

more dots.

PB(2); BN(1).

lbf/ft, Pu'uhm (?)

*2004 6Publ RUTUR, Uh (?) Rev. Plain cross. +

*WM(1).

Smaller version of large poghs

Ibh/", /\ll \ll R/T &lln

*2005 hbbl p RUTII R Uh Rev. Cross plain or with

four dots.

1.60; 1.23, *PB, PB(2).

2005a Ch'ublil / RUQUR

PB(1); JG(1).

Rev. Uncertain.

1.20, PB; WM(2); JG(1).

2006 Ch'ubl ll'll R U-U Rev. Cross plain or with

four dots.

BN(1).

Ibh/]", /ll'llhm &ll3

2006a Ch'ubl h Rll'll R h Uh Rev. Cross. *

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JG(1).

Levon IV

377

*2007 Ch'ubl h RIITU-R,

*WM(1).

Rev. Uncertain.

WM(1); AD(1).

2008 Ch'ubll h \ll'll!'}},

MM(1).

2008a Ch'ubl RLI'lll:Ru U

PB(1).

Rev. Cross. *

Rev. Plain cross. +

Rev. Cross with four .W.

dots. #

lbf/11, AlI'llh/m &ll

2009 Ch'ublil / MI'll U.U

MM(1).

Rev. Uncertain.

BN(1); PB(1).

Rev. Various crosses.

lbh/1, foll%llh/n 4

2OIo Ch'ubl h RII'll Fu

WM(1); JG(1); PB(2).

Rev. Uncertain.

WM(5); BN(1); PB(1).

Rev. Various types of

CrOSSeS.

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lbf/", /NIQUR/l/ 3

2OIoa Ch'ubl h RII'll Rh

PB(1); JG(1).

Rev. Various crosses.

King holding cross in right hand and staff in left extending over

shoulder.

lbf/TL /NIQUR/l/ Alln

2OII Ch'ubll h RU'lll:R

JG(2).

378 Coinage of Cilician Armenia

lbh/TL /NIQUIR/l/

2OIIa & Publ. h RII'll Rh

WM(1); PB(1).

King with orb in left hand and staff in right hand extending over

shoulder.

Ibh/I'l, Pll%llh/l/ All

2012 hlbl.l. h RII'll R h Uh Rev. Cross plain or with

dots.

WM(1).

2013 Ch'ublil h RII'll Rh Rev. Cross plain or with

dots.

1.4, PB.

*2014 CFLll h MITU% Rev. Cross plain or with

dots.

1.5; 1.45, *PB.

lbf/17, (NIQUIR/l/ All

2015 Rev. Uncertain. Rev. Cross plain or with

dots.

1.6, PB; AD(1).

lbf/T, /NIQUIR/l/ 3

2016 Ch'ubll h RII'll f: Rev. Cross plain or with

dots.

WM(1); PB(2).

King with cross in right hand and lily in left

Ibh/7, foll?-ll/-/7 <ll3/18

2017 Ch'ublil h RUTIlf, h U

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PB(2).

Levon IV 379

Rev. Uncertain. Rev. Cross. -.

AD(2); PB(3).

Ibh/", /NIQUR/m 2/18/)

2018 Ch'ubll h RU'll Ru h Uhl/ Rev. Various types of

CrOSSeS.

WM(1); MM(1).

2019 &publil / fulllfi, p UU Rev. Various types of

CrOSSeS.

BN(1).

*2020 Ch'ubll h RII'll Ru h U Rev. Various types of

CrOSSeS.

1.55, PB, *WM(4); AD(1); BN(1); PB(6).

Rev. Uncertain.

WM(5); AD(3); HK(1); BN(I); JG(1); PB(6).

lbf/1%, All?llh/m 2/18

2021 Ch'ubll h RII'll Ru h U Rev. Cross. *

1.65, PB; WM(2); PB(2).

lbf/T, Oll'll R/T &ll

2022 hlbl. J. RU'll Ru Rev. Uncertain.

MM(1).

Rev. Uncertain.

AD(1).

lbf/T, foll'UR/T 4

2023 publl h RII'll Ru (?) Rev. Plain cross. +

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1.20, PB; AD(1).

380 Coinage of Cilician Armenia

lbf/T, PUQjim (?)

2024 Rev. Uncertain. Rev. Plain cross. +

AD(1).

lbf/T, All?llh/l/ 3

2025 lbf/T, PUQUR// Rev. Plain cross. +

AD(1).

lbf, foll'NIR/T All&m

2025a Chubul h fulllf, h UU Rev. Cross. +

PB(1).

Errorrarity

2026 Obv. Ch'ublil / RU'l . . . .

Rev. Chub. . . . . II'll f: h

AD(1).

TAKVORINS

*2027 Takvorins overstruck in Arabic with Mamluk sultan's name

Nsir Nsir. al Din Muhammad.

*2028. Takvorins overstruck in Arabic with Mamluk sultan's name

Nsir Nsir. al Din Muhammad.

GUY

TAKVORINS

'ih All?llh/l/ All 808

2028a Ch'ublil h RII'll Ru Uhl, Obv. Circle and dot in

field. No field mark (EB)

IS(1); EB(1).

*2029 &pubill fulllf, h Uhl, Obv. Two circles in field.

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1.94, *PB; WM(1).

Guy 38I

2030 CFLll h RUTUR), Uh Obv. One or two circles in

field.

KK(1); PB(1); AD(1).

2031 CFLll h RUTURL U Obv. Dot in field.

2.34, PB; WM(1); MM(I);

Rev. Uncertain.

2.09, PB; WM(1); MM(1).

2032 publl P RUTII R, H U (?)

EB(1).

2032a Ch'ublil RUQUAR, Uh Obv. One circle in field.

PB(1).

th All?UR/T &ll3/18

2033 Ch'ublil / RUTII R', Uhl/ Obv. Two dots.

WM(1); MM(I); AD(1).

*2034 GPublil h RUQUAR, Uh Obv. One or two circles

with or without dot.

Rev. With or without dot

and circle.

2.05, KK; WM(3); VM(1); *NK(1); KK(1); AD(3);

MM(1); JG(1).

2035 publil / RU'll R. UU Obv. Two dots.

WM(I); JG(2).

2036 & Publl h RUQUAR, U Obv. Two dots.

WM(1); PB(1); IS(1).

Rev. Uncertain.

AD(2); PB(2); JG(1); HE(2); IS(1).

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'ih /NIQUIR/l/ All&I)

*2037 &publil / RUQUAR, Uh Obv. Two circles in field.

1.95, *KK; EB(1).

382 Coinage of Cilician Armenia

Uh Oll'UR/T &ll#/]

2038 &publil RII'll Fu Uhl/ Obv. Two circles in field.

Rev. One dot.

MM(1).

2039 &Publil / fulllf, Up Obv. One or two circles in

field.

MM(1); BN(1).

COPPER COINS - POGHS

tih All%llh/m &ll#/)

*2040 CPubll fl!'ll Ru Obv. King seated holding

cross in right hand and

fleur de lys in left hand.

*WM(2).

GOSDANTIN III1

TAKVORINS

Struck in Tarsus

li/}USU'L'.ht, /NIQ/7

2041 &publil RU'll!, Sl. Rev. Lion walking left.

PB(1).

li/IDSU L'h'L /\ll'.A)

2042 Chull Rll'... Sl/

1.88, PB.

li/}USll'.ht, /9IIQ.M)

*2043 Chull FUTURS/ Obv. Letter 'l in field.

WM(2); BM(1); NK(1).

* Because of the poor condition of many Gosdantin III and IV coins, in

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some cases it was necessary to guess the correct legend.

Gosdantin III 383

inl/S/"L'h', foll'km

*2044 Fulll . . . . . SILP Rev. Circle or dot in field.

2.05, PB; *WM(2).

'i/NIS("L'h', Oll'.

*2045 publ h RIITU-R Sup

*MM(1).

'imuSgt.'', (?)

2046 Chubill h RUTII R', h Sf

1.84, PB.

lif UST, Lht, /9II?./7

*2047 Chull RUTIlf. SU

*BM(1); MM(1).

Unl/'N'Lht, /9II?, 3

2047a Chill(?) fulllf, Supun

PB(1).

'imus,'l', Pll (?)

*2048 . . . . . 'RUTIFR, SII/ Rev. Lion walking left.

*KK(1).

imus,'l', on

2049 Chull FUT. SU/

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WM(1).

384 Coinage of Cilician Armenia

li/TU'Lh'L /9'll?, f)

2050 & Publl h RUQUAR SU

WM(1).

Struck in Sis

li/TLSU L7.ht, foll? &R 8

*2051 & Publl RUQUAR, Uh Obv. Field mark b and 0.

*MM(2).

II/7USIIL7/5, />U.9. I

2052 publl RUQUAR, Uh/ Obv. Field marks circle

and dot or "l.

2.19, PB; WM(1); BN(1).

2053 Ch'ubll RUTII R' Up Obv. Field markb and dot.

WM(1).

*2054 6Publil RIITU-R Uh Obv. Field marks circle

and dot.

*MM(2).

Timl/SU'L'h', O.Q. 28/78

2055 publl RUQUIR, Uh/

2.05, PB.

2056 &Publil RUTII R, Uh

WM(1).

Timl/Sl','l'h', p.7.4/18

*2057 Chubill fulllfi, Uh Obv. Various field marks,

three dots, circle, R, L,

dots etc.

*WM(3); NK(2).

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2057a publil RII'll Ru P

IS(1).

Gosdantin III 385

li/TUSU'L'kht, /9% &R8

2058 Ch'ublil Ril'll R. Uh Obv. Circle.

VM(1).

U/USII),").ht, /9% /

*2059 CFLll RUTUR, Uhly h Obv. Circle and b, dots.

Rev. Circle, b, dots etc.

*WM(1); BM(1); BN(2).

2060 Ch'ublil RII'lll:Ru Uh

NK(1); BM(1); WM(1).

2061 Ghull Rll'lll:Ru Uh/ Obv. Circle and dots.

HK(1).

U/TUSU L'h', fo. 7, 8

2062 Ghull h Rll'lll:Ru Uh

WM(2).

li/TUSU'L'kht, / Allfl

2062.a Ch'ublil RII'll Ru Uh Obv. Dots in field.

JG(1).

liml/S/L7.ht, /NIQ. 4

2063 Uncertain Obv. Letter l and dot in

field.

AD(1).

Q/NISO'L'h', foll'll

2064 Chubill RUQUAR), (?) Obv. Dots in field.

1.99, PB; WM(1).

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25

386 Coinage of Cilician Armenia

limljS(L7.ht, /NIQ/m

2065 publ RII'll RV Uh Obv. Circle in field.

1.75, PB; WM(1).

limljS("L'h', foll'.

*2066 Ch'ubl h RII'll fu UU

*VM(1).

timl/S/","kh", /9%ll

2067 Chubill h RUTIlf Obv. Letter 'l in field.

PB(1)

"iml/Sgt."kh", 6.9/m

2068 Ch'ubll h RII'll Ru h Obv. Letter 'l and or dot

in field.

WM(2); BM(1).

'imuS600F, 6% &ll608 (?)

2069 Ch'ublil Ru'lllfi, Uh

AD(1).

limDSO","kh", / 38/18

2069a 6 publil h RII'llfi, Uh(?) Obv. Field mark : under

horse.

EB(1).

'imuS, kht, 4 480 (?)

207o Ch'ubl h RU'll R. U

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WM(2).

Gosdantin III

387

limljS0,7/", /?"}. 38

2071 Chubul h fluft, Uh Obv.

MM(1).

Rev. Uncertain.

PB(1).

timuS","kh", / Q. All

2072 publil Ru'll RV h U (?) Obv

WM(1).

2073 publil RII'll Ru h Obv

2.07, PB; WM(1).

2074 Chull RUTII R, Uh (?)

WM(1); AN(1); AD(1).

limljS01.7 ht, 7, h

2075 Uncertain Obv

PB(1).

limljS("L'h', /3% &

Dots in field.

. Field mark dot.

. Field mark "l.

. Letter l and dot.

*2076 CFull (?) RUQUAR, U Obv. Dots in field.

2.03, *PB; BN(1).

2077 Chull h fulllf (?) Obv

WM(2);

Rev. Uncertain.

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WM(2); AD(1).

li/IDST Lht, foll?, 4/

2078 &publil h fulllf, I Obv

WM(1).

. Dots in field.

. Dots in field.

25*

388 Coinage of Cilician Armenia

2079 Ghull h RII'llf h U

MM(1).

'iml/S('u'', 6%/n 28

2080 Ghull h RII'lll:Ru U Obv. Three dots.

WM(1); BM(1).

q/ml/Sgt.')", /7/n 4

2081 Chull h Rll'll RU Obv. Three dots.

WM(4).

WinUS(L', foll' (,

2O82 hlll h Rll'll Ru h Obv. Field mark 'l and

dot.

MM(2).

li/TUS",'k', /?"}. 48

*2083 Chull h RII'll RU Obv. Three dots and 9. in

field.

*WM(3).

2084 Chull RU'll R Uh Obv. Three dots in field.

WM(2).

Rev. Uncertain.

MM(1).

U/USQ-h', /9II'll R///*

2084a Publil RII'll Ru h / Obv. Star and two dots in

field.

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JG(1).

Gosdantin III 389

T/Sgt."ht, 8%m/

2085 Chull h RITU-R), h Uh

WM(1).

*/S/","kh", /*k/

2086 Chull h RU'R UP (?) Obv. Field mark l.

NK(1).

'i/TSC, MP, All?,

2087 Chull RUQUIR U Obv. Field mark l.

AD(1); MM(1).

limS,7/", 7, 28

2088 Chull h RII'll R. Uh

MM(1).

2089 &publ fulllf. Up

2.25, PB.

"if S0,7.ht, /3%

2090 CPubl h RUTUR

WM(1).

2091 Ghull UTIlf h (?)

PB(1).

li/TS",' ht, /NI'll R/T &ll

2092 publ h RUTIlf, h Uh Obv. Circle in field.

WM(2); PB(2).

*/TS","kh", foll'UIR/7/*

2093 R'lllfi, Uh Obv. Field mark -i-.

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BN(1); PB (with Arabic surcharge) (1).

390 Coinage of Cilician Armenia

limSt, *h, foll%llh/n 28

2094 &publl h RII'll R. Uh/

WM(1).

2095 publl h RUTII R' U

2.08, PB.

'S','l', All'IRIn 48 (?)

2096 &publ RuTuft, Uhu I (?) Obv. Three dots in field.

BN(1).

"ISC","kh", 6% &ll/18

2097 &publil RUTUR, Uh/

WM(1); MM(1).

2098 &Publl RU'll R. Up

WM(1).

"SI","kh", . . . . 4/18

2099 Uncertain. Obv. Dots in field.

PB(1).

'ilms/u?'', o' <ll3/18

2Ioo hull h RII'lll:Ru U Obv. Field mark land dot.

WM(1).

limSou?'', foll?/n 48

2Iooa Chull h RII'll Ru h Uh/ Obv. Cross in field.

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IS(1).

Gosdantin III 39I

'imSG.'', 6%. 48 (?)

2101 Ghull h RUTII R', (?)

2.17, PB.

tims','k', foll'UR/T All

2Io2 Ch'ubll RU'lll:Ru Uhl/ Obv. Circle in field.

AD(1).

li/TS','k', foll'}\ll//n 48

2103 Ghubill h Ru'll Ru (?) Obv. Four dots.

WM(1).

2104 & Full h RUTR), Uh Obv. Two dots in field.

WM(1).

2105 2 RU'll RV h Uhl/ Obv. Three dots in field.

WM(1).

2105a GPLll RUQUIR, Uh Obv. Circle in field.

JG(1).

'ins,'. Pu'uk/n 4 (?)

2106 2 RUQUIR), h Uhl/

AD(1).

2107 Chull RUTII R, Uhl/

AD(1).

2107a publil RII'll R. U

JG(1).

/MSL7%, foll'', 48

*2Io8 Chubu h RUQUIR / Uh Obv. Field mark l under

horse.

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*WM(1).

392 Coinage of Cilician Armenia

'imSv%, Pu'uhm (?)

2Io9 CFLll h RUTII R Uh Obv. Field mark l under

horse.

WM(1).

/NS'', /34 &ll&M'8

2IIo Ch'ubll h Rll?ll-Ru U

MM(1).

2III Chubill h RITU-R), Uh (?) Obv. Dot under horse.

PB(1).

W/luf,71, A4/m 28

2II2 hlbl. Rll?ll-Ru Up Obv. Three dots in field.

WM(1).

limljST /NI'llh/m 2/18

2113 GPubll RUQUIR, h Uh

MM(1).

Timl/? /NIQUIR/n 48

2114 6Publl RUTII R, h U/

2.22, PB.

'imuS(Q,')P, &llm

2115 publil h RII'll RV U/l Obv. Field mark : under

horse.

WM(1).

2116 Ch'ubll h RII'lll:Ru Up Obv. Field mark : under

horse.

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AN(1).

Gosdantin III 393

/NIST', /?ll'?. All

2116a Ch'ubll KIITU-R h U

IS(1).

"S0%, A4. All&/18

2117 Ch'ublil RUTII R, Uh

2.16, PB.

2118 Ch'ublil RII'll Ru U

WM(2).

Rev. Uncertain.

WM(1); PB(1).

Rarity

*2119 Obv. Chubul h RUQUAR, U/ Obv. Field mark l.

Rev. Chu... fuTufu

*WM(1).

COPPER COINS - POGHS

Struck in Tarsus

U/NISIIL'h', /9II?.1

*2120 Ch'ubl h Rll'. Slo Rev. Note St/ [Tarsus].

Cross.

*HE(1); PB(1). +

Struck in Sis

li/TUSU','kht, / Q. All 8/18

2121 Ch'ubl Rll'll fu Uh Obv. King seated holding

cross in right hand and

fleur de lys in left hand.

Rev. Cross. *

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* These two poghs appear to be struck from the same die.

WM(1).

394 Coinage of Cilician Armenia

'imu(SCVTh), 6% :

2122 Ghull Rll'll Ru U Obv. King seated holding

cross in right hand and

fleur de lys in left hand.

Rev. Cross. *

WM(3); PB(1).

Rev. Uncertain.

WM(2).

Unl/S('L'h', 'Q.

*2123 P RII'll fu ... Obv. King seated holding

cross in right hand and

fleur de lys in left hand.

Rev. Cross. *

WM(1); PB(1).

'SCL'h', NIQUIR/m/,

2124 Uncertain.

PB(2).

'S6(7.ht) (0%) m &

*2125 publil / R.I'll RV U (?) Obv. King seated holding

cross in left hand and

fleur de lys in right hand.

Rev. Cross.

WM(1); PB(1). -.

'ins,' (?) Pu'ukm/ 3

2126 Ch'ublil RII'll Ru U

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PB(1).

Levon the Usurper 395

Q/ml/St. ... ?

*2127 Uncertain.

WM(1);

Not legible.

WM(3); 1.30, PB, AN(I); JG(1).

*//l/ . . . . . . L /9'll'.

2I28 ht,. . . . . .

NK(1).

LEVON THE USURPER

TAKVORINS

Ibsl/TL /N1%llh/m &ll3/18

2129 Chull h Ru'llfi, h Uhl, Obv. Circle to left of king.

2.15, PB; MM(1); IS(1).

*2130 Ch'ubll h KUTVIR, h Uh Obv. Circle to left of king.

Rev. Usually circle or dot.

1.85; KK; *WM(4); AD(I); JG(1).

2131 CFLll h AllTVIR, h Uh Obv. Circle to left of king.

Rev. Usually circle or dot.

WM(1); AD(1).

2132 publl h RUTII R, h Uh Obv. Field mark G to left

of king.

WM(2); AD(1).

2133 GPubll h RII'll Ru h Uh Obv. Field marks dot and

circle.

2.24, PB.

2134 P J RUQUIR, h Uh Obv. Field mark 7.

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2.24, PB.

396 Coinage of Cilician Armenia

2135 & Publil / RUQURL . . . . . . Obv. Field marks two

circles.

2.00; KK.

2136 Ch'ublil h RII'll Ru h U Obv. Field mark 7.

2.15, KK.

2137 publil h RUQUIR, . . . . . . Obv. No field marks.

WM(1).

2138 Chll h RUTII:R\, h' U Obv. Field mark #.

Rev. Field mark ".

BN(1).

Ibslf", All?llh/m &ll6/1

*2139 Chubul h fulllf, h Uh Obv.

*AD(1); WM(1).

214o Ch'ubll h RUTII. . . . Obv.

WM(1).

2141 Ch'ublil h RUTUR, h U Obv.

MM(1).

Rev. Uncertain.

JG(1).

Ibsl/Tu /\ll \ll R/7 &ll/7

2142 publi P RII'll R. h Uh Obv.

2.24, PB.

Ibsl/T, foll'llh/m &ll&

2143 publil / RUQUAR, h Uhl, Obv.

WM(1).

2144 6Publil h RU'll Ru h Uh Obv.

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2.30, KK.

Circles in field.

Field mark #.

Circle to left of king.

Circle to left of king.

Two circles.

Circle and dot.

Levon the Usurper 397

2145 publil h fulllf, h Uh Obv. Circle to left of king.

Rev. Two circles.

2.05, KK.

*2146 Chubul h fulllfi, h U Obv. One or two circles in

field.

2.41; 1.99, PB; *WM(4); MM(1); BN(I); JG(1).

2147 Ch'ubll h RUQUAR, h / Obv. Circle and dot.

BM(1); AD(1).

2148 GPubl RUTII R, f U Obv. Circle and dot.

AH(1).

2149 CFLll h RUQUAR, h Obv. Two circles in field.

WM(1).

Ibslf", /NIQUIR/T &II/

2150 Ch'ubl h RUTII), h Uhl/ Obv./Rev. Circle in field.

PB(2).

2151 Ch'ubl h RUTII R', h Uh Obv. Circle in field.

WM(2); AD(1); IS(1).

*2152 publl h KUTUR, h U Obv./Rev. Circle in field

and cross in obverse.

*WM(1).

2153 Ch'ubl h RUTII R, h U Obv. Circle in field.

MM(1); BN(1).

Ibslf", /NI'll R/T &ll

2154 &publ h RUQUAR), h UPU Obv. Circle in field.

WM(1).

2155 publil / RU'll Ru Uh Obv. Two circles.

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2.32, PB; WM(1); MM(1); IS(1); JG(1).

2156 Ch'ubll h RUQUAR, h U Obv. Circle and dot.

1.98, PB; MM(1); BN(1)(?); IS(1).

398 Coinage of Cilician Armenia

2157 CPUbl h RUQUAR, Uh Obv. Circle in field.

2.06, PB; WM(1); EB(1).

*2158 Ch'ubl h RIITU-R), h U Obv. Circle in field.

*NK(2); WM(3); AD(2); HK(1); MM(1); BN(1).

Rev. Uncertain.

MM(1); JG(1).

Ibsl/TL /NI'llh/m 2/

2159 Chubill h RU'll RV h Uh Obv. No field mark.

BN(1).

*2160 Chubul h fulllf, Uh(?) Obv. Circle and dot in

field.

2.07, PB, *WM(1).

Ibslf", /NI'llh/m &ll3/18

(Obv. and rev. Ib"l/Tu)

216I Obv. Ib"l/I'l, All?-ll/-/7 <ll3 Obv. Circle in field.

Rev. Ibslf", foll'll R/T &ll3

2.38, PB; WM(1).

*2162 Obv. 1; "l/17, All?-ll/-/7 <ll/ Obv. Circle in field.

Rev. lb"l/T, Oll'll R/T &ll/

*WM(1); AA(1).

2163 Obv. lb"l/T, PUQUR/T &ll/ Obv. Circle and dot.

Rev. Ibslf", Pll'UR/m. All(?)

AN(1).

COPPER COINS-POGHS

*2164 lb"l/T, foll'. ... (3/1808) Obv. Letter P to right of

Chu. . . UTII R' Uhl/ horse's front legs.

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*WM(4); AD(2).

Gosdantin IV 399

Uncertain with / under horse.

WM(1).

2165 lb"l/T, PUQU/m &ll/m Obv. Letter /9 under horse.

Ghull h \ll . . . .

MM(1).

2166 lb"ln, 0.1%UR/m (?) &ll Obv. Letter /0 under horse.

Rev. Uncertain.

BN(1).

2167 lb"l/T, All'NIR/T &ll/ Obv. Letter 6 to right of

- - - - - - - - - - - - Uhl (?) horse's front legs.

MM(1).

*2168 lb"l/ht, /9. . . . . <ll3/18 Obv. Letter /9 between

Chull h Rll? . . . . horse's hind legs.

Rev. Letter /0 under lion's

front paws.

MM(1).

GOSDANTIN IV

TAKVORINS

11/7USULT.'', A. . . . . </18

2169 Ghull h RU. . . . Obv./Rev. 1/1.1

2.45, PB.

"muscu'.ht, Pu'ukm (?) m

217o Ch'ubl h RU'll fu h Uhl/

WM(1).

* Field marks lll and SIS are usually between the front and hind legs of

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the horse and lion unless stated otherwise.

400 Coinage of Cilician Armenia

timuS(L'h', foll'U/m 2/18

2171 Ch'ubl h RuTuft, h Uhl, Obv./Rev. S/Sbetween

hind legs.

BN(1); HE(1).

2171a Ghull h UTUR, h Uhl/ Obv./Rev. 1/1 between

hind legs.

IS(1).

"iml/S/L7.ht, /NI'll/n 48

2172 publil h fuTuft, h Upuu (?) Obv./Rev. 1/1.

WM(2).

2173 Chull h RII'll Ru h UPU Obv./Rev. 1/1.

2.15; 2.00; 2.18; 1.99, PB; WM(3); AD(1).

'imus','l', (?) ou%um &

2174 & Publ h RUQUR, h Uh Obv./Rev. 1/l between

hind legs.

BN(1).

"iml/S/L7.ht, /NIQ/m 2/18

*2175 hull h FUTUR, h UPU Obv./Rev. Sls.

*WM(1); AD(2); MM(2); BN(1); PB(1).

2176 & Publ h RUQUIR, h Uhl, Obv./Rev. 1/1 or S/s.

WM(3); AD(3); BN(3).

2177 Ghull h RUTIlf, Uhl/ Obv./Rev. 1/1 between

hind legs.

BN(2).

'iml/S/L'kh, All?, 48

2178 Chull h KUTVIR, UPU Obv./Rev. Sls.

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WM(1).

Gosdantin IV 40I

"inus(?)" ht, Am 28

*2179 &bull h fl:Ru Ubu Obv./Rev. 1/s.

*WM(1).

'i/NJS('L'h', /7%, 48

2180 Ch'ubl h RII'll R Obv./Rev. 1/l.

Rev. L. between front paws

of lion.

WM(1).

timl/S/L7.ht, /l/QU/m

2181 Chull h RUTII R', h Uhl/ Obv./Rev. 1/l.

1.93, PB; WM(1);

Rev. Uncertain.

AD(1).

Timl/S/"L'kht, /NIQ/m

2182 hull h RII'll Ru h Uhl/ Obv./Rev. 1/l.

AD(1).

limljS("L'h', /NIQ.

2183 & Publ P AllTU. . . . . Obv./Rev. L/L between

hind legs.

BN(1).

liml/S/L', 61%ll//m 2/18

2184 Chull h RII'll Ru h Uhl/ Obv./Rev. S/S or l/l.

2.05; 2.29; 2.23; 2.21, PB; BN(I); JG(2).

WITUS"L", / I'll/m 2/18

2185 Chull h RIITU-R), h Uhl/ Obv./Rev. S/S and l/l.

2.0; 2.17, PB; WM(2); AD(1); MM(1); BN(1); IS(1).

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26

4O2 Coinage of Cilician Armenia

*2186 Ch'ubl h RII'll R. h Uhl/ Obv./Rev. S/S or l/l.

2.15, PB; *WM(1).

liml/S/L', /NI'll/n 28

2187 hbbl h fulllf, h Uhly Obv./Rev. 1/l.

1.93, PB; AD(2).

limljS/"L', foll'll/n 4

2188 Chull I RII'll Ru h Uhl/ Obv./Rev. l/l Or S/S.

2.27; 2.oo; 2.10, PB; NK(1); WM(1); AD(1); MM(1).

2189 GFLll h Ru'll fu h Uh(?) Obv./Rev. 1/1.

WM(1); AD(1).

2189a Ghull h RUTUR, Uhl (?) Obv./Rev. 1/l.

JG(1).

Rev. Uncertain.

IS(1).

liml/S/L', foll?/m 2/13

2190 Ch'ubl h fulllf, h Uhl, Obv./Rev. S/s.

1.87; 2.20; 2.22; 2.33, PB; WM(3); AD(3); JG(1).

2191 Ghull h fulllf, h Uhly Obv./Rev. Sls.

WM(1); AD(1).

liml/S/L', 0.1%/n 48

2192 Chull P RIITU-Ru h Uhl/ Obv./Rev. l/S.

2.05; 1.88; 2.14; 2.34; 2.26; 2.21; 2.18; 2.23, PB; WM(1)

2193 & Publ h RUQUAR, h UPU Obv./Rev. S/s.

WM(2).

*2194 Chull h RII'll R. Up Obv./Rev. 1/1.

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*WM(1).

Gosdantin IV 403

"inl/S/L', /9IIQ/m (18

2195 Chull h RUQUAR, h Uhl, Obv./Rev. S/s.

1.95; 2.02, PB; AD(1); MM(1).

*21.96 &publ h RuTuft, h Uhl, Obv./Rev. S/S.

*WM(1);

Rev. Uncertain.

I.95, 2.05; PB.

timuS(L', foll'km/

2197 Uncertain. Obv./Rev. Sls.

1.55, PB, IS(1).

'i/NJS('L /NIQUIR/T &ll/18

2198 Chull h RUTII R', h Uhl, Obv./Rev. S/s.

AD(2).

'insuu'.ht, (?) pu%m #

2199 Chull h RUTII R, h Uh Obv./Rev. 1/l.

NK(1).

'ins','khu (?) All'um 38

2200 CPUbl h RII'll Ru h Uhl/ Obv./Rev. 'l/-l between

hind legs.

BN(1).

'i/S/L/k}'', All?/n 28

220I Chull h Rll'll Ru h Uhl/ Obv./Rev. 1/1.

WM(1).

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26*

4O4 Coinage of Cilician Armenia

T/S"L'h', foll'. 208

2202 Ghull h RII'll Ru h Uhl/ Obv./Rev. 1/l.

WM(1).

limS/","kh", /NIQ, 38

2203 Ghull h RUQUAR, h Uhl/ Obv./Rev. 1/1.

AD(1).

limS('u'.ht, /NIQUIR/p

2204 Chull h RII'll RV h Uhl/ Obv./Rev. 1/l.

HK(1).

T/Sgt."kh", /NIQ/m

2205 & Full h RUQUIR, h Uh Obv. 1 between front and

hind legs.

Rev. L. between front legs

MM(1).

'insu%h, pu%m zu (?)

2206 Ghull h RII'll Ru h Uh Obv./Rev. 1/l.

WM(1).

'i/IS/'l', All?, 3/18 H

2207 CFull I RUQUAR, h Uhl, Rev. l between front and

hind legs.

MM(1).

*2208 Chull h RIITU-R Uhl/ Obv. l above horse and

dots.

Rev. l between front and

hind legs.

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*MM(1).

Gosdantin IV 405

"if S0,7%, 0%. 48

2209 Ghull h RII'll fu UPU Obv./Rev. ...ll.".l.

Obv. 1 between front and

hind legs.

Rev. 1 between hind legs.

MM(1).

/"Su%l, All?-ll/n 28

22Io Chull h RII'll Ru h Uhl/ Obv./Rev. 1/l.

WM(1).

22II Ghull h RII'll Ru U Obv./Rev. 1/l.

AD(1).

H/TS",'', foll'UIR/7

2212 Ghull h RII'll R. h Uhl/ Obv./Rev. l/s.

WM(1); AD(1).

'inst (?) 01%llR/m 2/18

2213 Ch'ubl h RUTII R', h Uh Obv./Rev. 1/1.

WM(1).

'i/NISO'L', 0/19/n 4/18

*2214 Ch'ubl h QUT II'', h Uhl/ Obv. Sls.

Field marks between

front and hind legs.

*WM(6); PB(1).

Not clearly legible but belonging to this class:

WM(5); AA(1); VM(2).

*In most cases where Chull appears, the letter ll has an elongated arm as

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if it were a ligature of U and 1.

406

Coinage of Cilician Armenia

Timl/l/','l', Oll'U/7 </18

2215 publ h RII'll Ru h Uhl/

AD(2); PB(1).

Obv./Rev. S/S.

'imums/u?'', pu%m (?) &nd

2216 Chull h NIQU%, h Uhl (?)

AD(I); JG(1).

Obv./Rev. S/s.

COPPER COINS - POGHS

Takvorin type

2217 Obv. inl/S. . . .

Rev. Zhu, . . . h Uhl/

22IS Obv.

Rev.

2219 Obv.

Rev. & Publ . . . . ku. Uhl/

WM(1).

2220 Obv. 'i/1U.S. . . . . . . . /m 2/18

Rev. Chu . . . . . . . . .

WM(3), 2.25; 1.74, PB.

*222I Obv. '7/7'U. . . . . . U%U/m 2/18

Rev. . . . 'II'll?:, . . .

*WM(1).

2222 Obv. "If/US . . .

Rev. . . .bl. h . . .

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WM(1).

2223 Obv. 'if'l/S/L7/. . . .

Rev. Chu. . . . . . Q, L, Uhl/

WM(1).

"If/l/ . . . . . . /NIQ/n 48

Chu. . . . . . * Uhl (?)

WM(1).

limljSt. . . . /NIQ/n 4

All field marks S/S and

between front and hind legs.

All field marks S/S and

between front and hind legs.

All field marks S/S and

between front and hind legs.

All field marks S/S and

between front and hind legs.

All field marks S/S and

between front and hind legs.

All field marks S/S and

between front and hind legs.

All field marks S/S and

between front and hind legs.

WM(1).

Gosdantin IV 4O7

2224 Obv. inuS. ... Pll'. . .

Rev. & Fulll ... Uhl/U (?)

All field marks S/S and

between front and hind legs.

WM(1).

2225 Obv. 101/S. ... U%/n 28 All field marks S/S and

Rev. Ch'ubl . . . between front and hind legs.

1.57, PB.

Takvorin type with letter /*

*2226 Obv. 1/7SU?",. . . . . . /m &

Rev. & Full ...U', ...

WM(2); *AD(1).

2227 Obv, inUSUVMFu (?) All'M" . . .

Rev. Zhull h Rll'. . . .

WM(2).

Uncertain inscription.

WM(2); AD(1).

2228 Obv. 'Slou'.hu . . . [20, 2U8/18]

Rev. Ghulll . . .'ll RU

WM(3).

2229 Obv. 'if'Su'u. . . .

Rev. Chull h RII'll Ru Uh

BN(1).

*223o Obv. 'SU?. . . .

Rev. Chulll . . . 'Il Ru Uhl/

*WM(1).

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22.30a Obv. 'S . . . . . 'u', . . . . . . /n 4

Rev. h. . . . . . . . . . .

IS(1).

2231. Obv. MUIP," (?) 0119/n 28

Rev. Chull h NI'll', h Uhl/

PB(1).

Legend incomplete.

AD(1); MM(2); IS(1).

Obv. Letter /9 between

front and hind legs.

Obv. Letter /9 between

front and hint legs.

Obv. Letter / to right of

front feet.

Obv. Letter / to right of

front feet.

Obv. Letter 6 to right of

front feet.

Obv. Letter / to right of

front feet.

Obv. Letter /9 between

front and hind legs.

408 Coinage of Cilician Armenia

2232 Obv. 'SIR. . . . /l/'NIIT 4 Obv. Letter /9 between

Rev. Ch'ubl h . . . front and hind legs.

PB(1); AD(1).

*2233 Obv. 'Sll...","... ../n 4 Obv. Letter /9 between

Rev. Chull NIT... hind legs.

*WM(1); AD(2).

*2234 Obv. inuSUV'h', All?/r (?) Obv. Letter /9 above

Rev. Ch'ubll h QUTII.. Uhl/ horse's head.

*AD(1).

Takvorin type with letter U on reverse

*2235. Obv. 'if'Ul/?', . . . . . . . </18

Rev. . . . . .U', Uhl/

*WM(1).

Uncertain.

WM(1).

Rarity

2236 'i/1U.S. . . . . . . . . . . Obv. Horse walking left.

&publ h fulllf, h Uhu (?) Rev. Lion walking left.

*VM(I);

Uncertain.

BN(1); PB(1).

LEVON V

BILLONS

*2237 Obv. Ibh/T, PUQ. Obv. King's head.

Rev. UR/7/? &ll3/18 Rev. Cross +-

o.75, PB; *AA(1), WM(1); HE(1).

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*2238 Obv. Ibh/", /NIQUR// Obv. King's head.

Rev. Ill/'0'10R//: Rev. Cross +.

o:75, PB, *WM(2).

Levon V

409

2238 Obv.

Rev

*2239 Obv.

Rev

2240 Obv.

Rev

2241 Obv.

Rev

Ibh/", /NIQUIR/l/ Obv.

ill/'0'10R/f, UU (or U3) Rev.

o.55, PB; WM(1); AD(1).

Ibh/1%, All'UR/m Obv.

. lll/'bull&t, <ll# Rev.

*WM(2).

lbf/", /NIQUR Obv.

ill//.7/k/f, Rev.

WM(1).

lbf/1%, AlI'll/. Obv.

ill//.7/mk/9/", Rev.

AD(1).

Obv./Rev. Uncertain.

*2242 Obv.

Rev

Rev

2243 Obv.

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Rev. III/'bull 8, &ll&/18

EB(1).

COPPER COINS - POGHS

lbh/7t, /NIQUIR/T / Obv.

. Ull/'bull&t, <ll Rev.

o.90; o.95, *PB; MM(1); AD(1);

. Uncertain.

AD(1).

Ibh/1%, 0/IQUIR/m Obv.

NK(1); AD(1);

Rev. Uncertain.

Rev.

King's head.

\la

Cross SK

King's head.

Cross +

King's head.

\ta

Cross SK

King's head.

Cross *H

Lion facing right.

Cross. +

Lion facing right.

Cross. +

WM(1).

4IO Coinage of Cilician Armenia

2244 Obv. Ibh/", Pll'UR/l/'

Rev. Uncertain.

WM(2);

Inscription uncertain.

o.75; 1.05, PB; WM(2); o.65, KK; AD(1); JG(1).

*224.5 Obv. Ibh/Tu . . . . In Obv. Lion facing left.

Rev. . . . . . 'RUTII R', . . . Rev. Cross. +

o.95, PB; *WM(1).

POST ROUPENIAN (?)

[Pseudo-Armenian legend]

*2246 Obv. King on horseback walking right.

*2247 Rev. Lion walking right.

AD(1); PB(2); WM(2); *MM(4); BN(2); BM(1).

*2248 Rev. Lion walking left.

*WM(1).

2249 Obv. King on horseback, walking left.

Rev. Lion walking left.

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PB(1).

INDEX OF LEGENDS

LEVON I

DOUBLE TRAMS

Ibh/It, All?-ll/-/7/ III/'b'Lll3, All 808

I.a. 'ill/'/'l/mk/?blUF, UUS/IR/18

b. Ill/'0'1/1//0llIFF, IJS/IRI/

2. Ill//.7/mh/bf, LIUS/IRO (18

3. Ill/'0'10R//#, III/S/IRV/18

Lh/I'll f?'./ III/'bullt, All 5/18

I. ill/07/1/./bf, LIUS//w/18

2. Ill// '10R/RW, UIUS/NAT/18

3. Ill/'0'10R/F, UUSmR/

lbf/T, foll?-ll/-/l/ 3UB/18

I. ill/'07/1/./b/#, Ill/S/IRT/18

2. 'ill/'0'l/m/i/%f, lll/S/IRT/18

HALF DOUBLE TRAMS

lbf/7, foll'UR/l/ 3UB/78 b or /

I.a. 'ill/I'l/mh/9/#, IUS/NAT/18

b. 'ill/'0'l/mh/off), UIUS/10/18

c. Will/P/I'l/1/.hfi, UIUSAF/18

lbf/T, /ll'llh/l/ Allfl

I. ill/'0'lflk/bluff, lll/S/IR/18

2.a. 'ill/'0'10R/9/#, IIUS/IRO/18

b. 'ill/'0'l/lh/9/#, Ill/SURV113

ill/'0'1/1///#, IUS/Twh/18

ill/'0'10A/8R, III/SR/18

ill//.7/mh/?fu IIUS/TT/1

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. 'ill/'07/1/2/0/$, Ill/SW/18

ill/P/I'l/Th/9R, UIUSR/18

I32,

I35,

I31

I31

I32

I32

I34

I32

I33

I33

I34

I34

I34

I35

I37

I35

I36

I36

I36

I36

136

I36

4II

4I2 Coinage of Cilician Armenia

h. Ill/'07/mk/fu UUS/18

i. ill//11/mh/9/#, III/SRU/18

3. Ill/'0'10R/ bf, LIUS/10/1

HALF TRAMS

Quarter Double Tram

lbh/", /ll'UR/l/ All3/18

Half Trams

Ibh/T, foll'UR/l/ 3U.8/18 H

I. ill//.7/mk/fu IIUS/IRI/

lbf/T, /NIQUR/l/ Allll F.

I. ill/I'l/mh/9/#, IUSmhn

Ibh/", /NIQUIR/l/ All/18

I.a. 'ill/I'l/R/RW LIUS/10/18

b. Ill// '10R/8R, UIUS/IRI/)

Ibh/T, Oll'llh/m &ll3/18

I.a. 'ill/'0'10R/ fu lll/S/10/18

b. Ill/010R/ fu UUSITU/l

lbh/T, /NI'llh/m All8

I. ill/'0'10R//#, IUS/IRT/l

lbf/T, 6/I'llh/m &ll3

1. ill/'0'10R/8R, UUS [Inverted inscription]

CORONATION TRAMS

One lion type

Ibh/7, foll'NLR/l/ 3U.5/18

I.a. 'ill/'07/IR/2 ft, U8 l; /NIQ/m

b. III//11/mk/fu UUS/ho/18

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c. ill//.7/mh/fu UUS/U/

d. Ill//]",0R/ ful Ul/S/TW/

e. Ill/'0'10R//#, III/SI)

136

I37

I37

I37

I37

138

138

138

138

138

138

I38

I39

I39

I39

I39

I39

Index of Legends

4I3

Ibh/11, AlI'llh/m 2/18/18

I. Will/P/I'lflh//, IIIIS

lbf/1%, 0/I'llh/m &ll3/.

I.a. 'Ill//.7/mh//, UIUS/)

b. Ill//.7/mh/9 fu ll.US/

c. Ill//.7/mh/ fu ll.US

Lh/7, foll'UR/T &ll#

I.a. 'ill/P/I'l/l/i/%f, lll/S

Two lion type [With letters in obverse field]

lbf/", Pll'MIR/l/ 3UB/18 H

1. Ill/'0'10//ft, UUS/ [8II]

lbf/7, foll'UR/l/ 3UB/18 /

1. Ill/'0'10R/8R, UUS/ [8II]

Ibh/77, fNIQUIR/l/ Allm

1. Ill/'0'10R/fu IIUS [8x]

lbf/7, foll?-ll/-/7 <ll3/

1. ill/I'lmk/ft uul (8)

Two lion type [No letters in obverse field]

lbf/7, foll'UR/7/ 3UB/78 /

I. Will//.7/mk/#, IUS/

lbf/T, foll'UR/l/ 3UB/18

I.a. 'ill//11/mh/?ft, UUS/IRI/18

b. Ill/P/I'l/mk/fu lll/S/IRT/l

c. ill/I'l/mk/fu IIUS/IRT

d. Ill/'07/mh/fu IIUS/NA

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e. Will/'0'10R/ fu lll/S/

f. 'ill/'0'10"/9/#, Ill/S/

| g. ill/'0'10R/F, UUS

I39

I39

I39

I39

I39

I40

I40

I40

I40

I40

I4I

I4I

I4I

I4I

I42

I42

I42

4I4

Coinage of Cilician Armenia

Ibh/1%, 0.11%llh/m 2/18/18

I. ill/MIT/IR/NIRL III/S/IR

2.a. 'ill/P/I'l/mh/ fu ll.US/

b. ill/I'l/R//#, IUS

c. ill// '1/1/.//#, IU

Ibh/", /NIQUIR/T All&n

I.a. 'ill/P/I'l/mk/fu lll/S/

b. Ill/'0"/"R/8R, UUS

lbf/it, Pll'll R/T &ll/18

I.a. 'ill// '1/MR/ fu ll.JS/IRT

b. 'ill//.7/mh/fu IIUS/NA

lbf/it, foll'IIR/T &ll

I. ill/P/I'l/h/ fu III/S

TRAMS

lbf/I', All?/m lll/'bu <llfl

I.a. 'ill// "fik/fu UUS/RW (18

b. Ill/'0'l/mh/fu lll/S/ht//18

illh/I'l/lh/9R, ILUS/IRI/

ill//11/1/./FL IIUS/10/18

ill/P/IT/IR/2 ft, LIUS/N 0/)

ill/P/17/lh/?full/Shufl

ill/P/17/l/r/fu IIJS/TW/)

lbf/1%, All?/T lll/'b', 'll/)

I.a. 'ill/P/11/mh/9/#, Ill/S/IRI/18

b. Ill// '1/ R/2 ft, UUSR0 (18

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lbf/1%, 0.U.7/7 Ul/'b', <ll#8

I.a. 'ill/'0'l/lh/fu lll/S/IRI/18

b. Ill// '1/1//fu ll.US/Th9/)

c. ill// ?/IR/F, III/S/N 0/.

I43

I43

I43

I43

I43

I43

I44

I44

I44

I44

I45

I45

I46

I46

I46

I46

I46

I47

I47

I47

I47

Index of Legends

4I5

lbf/", Pll'UR/l/ All/18 H [Non-artistic]

I.a. ill//11/mh//, IIDS/IR8/18

With b. [ill/I'lmk/ft, UUS/IRS/

Footstool c. ill// ?/IR/9R, III/S/19/18

d. Ill/07/1/.//#, III/S/IRG

e. Ill// '10R/ fu III/S/19

2.a. 'ill/010//ft, UUS/IR8/18

NO b. ill// 'lmk/fu IIUS/IRS/)

Footstool c. Will/010R/8R, UIUS/IR

d. Ill/P/11/mh/9R, UUS/19

Obverse 3.a. 'ill/I'l/ih/fu UUS/IR908

Ornate b. Ill/07/1///#, IIDS/IR8/1

4.a. 'ill/I'lmR/NIR, UUSmh908

Reverse b. Ill//.7/mh/9/#, IUS/IR8/18

with X c. ill/P/I'l/mh/?fu llllS/Th9/1

lbf/it, Pll'UR/l/ 3U808 ' [Artistic]

I.a. 'ill/P/17/lh/fu IIUS/IR/18

b. Ill/-/17/nh/2,fu IIJS/IR/

c. ill/P/17/l/r/ fu ll.JS/\ht;

d. Ill/P/17/lh/0/#, IUS/m/,

lbf/1, Pll'NIR/T &ll/18 / [Artistic]

I.a. 'ill/'0'l/lh/9/#, Ill/S/IRU/18

b. ill// ?/ R/2 ft, UUS/IR '

c. ill/'0'1/1/.//#, Ill/S/IRT

lbf/", AlI'llh/l/ All3/18 [Artistic]

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I.a. 'ill/'0'10R/8R, Ill/S/IRT/18

b. Ill//.7/k/) fu ll.JS/IRI/

c. ill/I'l/R/8R, UDS/IRT

Ibk), All'UR/l/ 3U8/18 H [Non-artistic]

I. ill/MIT/IR/ft, l'US/IR8/18

I47

I48

I48

I48

I49

I49

I50

I50

I50

I5I

I5I

I5I

I5I

I52

I52

I52

I52

I52

I52

I52

I53

I53

I53

I53

I53

416 Coinage of Cilician Armenia

lbf/", Pll'NIR/l/ Alll/U6 [Distinctive design]

No footstool I.a.

b.

till/I'l/R/9/#, IUS/mha/h

'ill/'0'10R/ fu ll.0S/IRU

c. ill/'07/1/./9R, III/Smir

lbf/", Pll'NIR/T &lll/U6 [Distinctive design]

I.a.

With b.

footstool C

2.a.

Two dots b

on obverse C

'ill/'0'1/lh/?fu III/S/mhrn.".

till/I'l/mk/fu IIUS/IRI/

ill/I'l/Thft, III/SIMRT .".

ill/I'l/mk/fu III/SmR.

ill// '10R/ fu II/IS/IRT -:

ill/07/1/2/9R, II/SRT

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ill/I'l/mk/9/#, IUS/IRT/18

ill/'0'10R/8R, lll/S/IR/l

ill/I'l/mh/fi, UIUS/IRT-

ill/I'l/mk/f, Ill/SnRT

ill// '1/.h/f, ll/IS/IR.

ill//.7/mk/fu IIUS/10

ill//.7/mk/ft, UUS/

lbf/T, PUQUR/l/ Allmm [Artistic]

I.a.

b.

C.

d.

e.

f.

8.

till/P/11/mh/?ft, UUS/IRT/18

till/I'l/mk/fu UUS/ho/18

till//.T.M.R/9R, UUS/mhn

'ill/I'l/mh/?fu UUS/htm

"ill/P/TT/ih/fi, UUS/IRT

till/'0'10R/ fu ll.US/10

"ill//.7/mk/fu IIUS/NA

lbf/T, Pll'NIR/T &ll308/. [Artistic]

I.3.

b.

'ill/P/I'l/Th//, LIUS/TRW I

till//.7/mk/fu IIUSITT

Ibh/T, PUQUR/T &ll/18/) [Artistic]

I. al.

b.

till//.7/mk/fu IIJS/ho/18

"ill//.7/mk/fu IIUSmhr

c. ill/I'l/mk/FL IIUS/18

d. Ill// '10R/>Ru ll.US/

I53

I53

I54

I54

I54

I54

I54

I54

I54

Index of Legends

4I7

Ibh/", Pll'UR/T &llll/18 [Artistic]

I.a. 'ill/I'l/mk/fu ll.JS/IRU/)

b. Ill// '10R/8R, U.J.Smhty

c. ill/I'l/mk/fu II/S/mhty

d. Ill/'07/mk/fi, IILSU/

lbf/T, Pll'UR/l/ All3/18l.

I. ill//11/mk/fu III/S/IRT

Ibh/T, Pll'UR/l/ All3/1/18

I. ill/P/11/mh/fu IIUS/IR.

Iblin, bu'uline zund [Artistic 4-H

I57

I57

I57

I57

I57

I57

I.a. 'ill/I'l/R/9/#, IUS/IRI/18 /

ill/P/TT/ih/, fl. III/S/IR//18

ill/'07/1/2/2/#, IIIIS/hi//18

ill/'07/mh/9/#, Ill/SnRT/]

ill/P/I'l/mh/9/#, IUSMRT/)

ill/I'l/mh/*f, III/S/Nirm

ill/'07/mh/9R, III/SITU/18

ill/P/11/mh/9R, III/S/mlity

ill/I'l/mh/9 RR LIUSmRU

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ill//11/1/.//#, II/IS/NA),

ill/I'l/mk/fu IIJSITU/

ill/I'l/mh//, LIUS/IR

ill/I'l/mh/?f Ul/SUR

ill/P/17/lh/fu IIUS/10.

ill//I'l/lh/9/#, Ill/S/

ill/'07.0///#, IUSU

ill/MIT/IR/>Ru III/S/

ill/P/17/nh/2,fu IIUS

ill/P/17/nh/-fi, UU/

ill//.7/k/./#l, IIII

2.a. 'ill/P/I'l/mh/?fu lll/S/NAT/18

King's crown b. ill/I'l/mk/9/#, UUS/NATI)

within circle c. Ill/P/17/l/r/fu IIUS/IR).

158

158

I59

I59

I59

I6o

I60

I6o

I6I

I6I

I6I

I6I

I6I

I6I

I62

I62

I62

I62

I62

I62

I62

I62

I62

27

418 Coinage of Cilician Armenia

3.a. lupinnhof, uusnRwn [Artistic (4-H J 163

Cross entirely b. 'Ill/010R/F, UUSmRw I63

within circle c. ill/P/17/nh/-fi, UIUSU/ I63

Reverse 4.a. 'ill/'0'10R/f, UUSmRwn I63

coronation b. Ill//.7/mh/9R, UUS/ho/) 163

type c. ill/P/TT/ih/f), UIUS/h? I63

CrOSS d. Ill/07/Th/f, U.JS/IR I63

5.a. 'ill/I'lmk/f, UUSmh908 163

King's left foot b. 'ill/I'l/ln/f, UUSmR80 I64

turned outward c. 'ill/P/7'1/7R/0/#, Ill/S/78/7 I64

I.a. 'ill/'/'l/l/r/ fu ll/IS/IRn I64

b. Ill//.7///f, IIDS/IRT I64

c. ill/'0'10R/8R, II/IS/IRT I64

d. Ill//.T.M.R//#, IUS/ht/ I64

e. Ill//.7/]h/f, Ill/S/T" I64

f. Ill//.7//h/ fu III/S/NA 165

g. ill/I'l/ih/fi, UUSA, I65

h. Ill//.7/mh/9/#, III/SR 165

i. ill//.7/Th/fi ll/NIV 165

6.a. 'Ill// '1/MR/ full USmh9/18 165

Ornate b. III//7/TK/9R, IUS/IRV/11 I65

design c. ill/I'l/mk/fu lll/S/TR90 I65

d. Ill//.T./lh/*F, LIUS/ho/) I66

Ornate 7.a. 'ill/m/mk/f, uUSmh908 I66

No footstool b. Ill// 'lmk/fu ll.JS/Th9/) I66

Star in 8.a. 'ill/'0'10R/RW, UUSmh908 [Non-artistic] 167

circle

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inscription b. Ill/'0'0N/f, JusnR80 [cross (++-l 167

9.a. 'ill/I'lmk/f, Ill/SnR908 I68

NO b. 'ill/P/I'lflk/9/#, Ill/S/Th9/1 I69

footstool c. Will/P/I'l/lh/?fi, llllSUh9/) 169

Inscription 10 urinnleft uusman (++-" I69

reversed

Index of Legends

4I9

3.

ill/I'lmk/f, UUSmR908 k [Non-artistic]

ill/I'l/mk/ft III/Smh9/18

ill/P/17/nh/2,full US/Th9/.

ill/010R/2 ft, UUS/IR9

ill/P/17/nh/2,full USU/9

ill//.7/mk/f, Ill/S/190

ill/P/I'lf h/?fu IIUS/19

ill/m/mh/f, uusgn (?)

ill//.7/mk/ft, UUS/9

ill/'0'10R/F, UUS$

ill/I'lmk/fu IIUSmh908 [Non-artistic]

ill/I'l/mk/fl. U.JS/Th908

ill/P/IT/m/s/. Fu llllSmh9/)

ill/I'l/mh/fu IIDS/IR9

ill/P/11/mh/ft, Ill/S/19

ill//.7/IA/9/#, IIUS/m/

ill/I'l/mh//, LIUS$

lbf/n), /NI'll R/m. All&/18

With b

footstool C

I2.2

NO b

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footstool C

8.

I.a.

With b.

footstool C

8.

2.3

NO b

footstool C

8.

'ill/I'lmk/f, Ill/SnR/18 [Artistic]

'ill/I'l/l/r//#, IUS/h/18

ill//.7/mh//, LIUS/NATI)

ill//.7/7R//#, IUS/NW/)

ill//.7/k/./#, IUS/IRT

ill//.7/mk/fu IILS/10/

ill//.7////#, IUS/10.

ill//.7///0/$, III/S/NA

. Ill// '1/ R//#, IUS/)

ill//.7/"R/9/#, IUS/

ill//.7/"R/9/#, IUS

ill/I'lmk/f, UUSmRul [Artistic]

ill//.7/lh/9R, Ill/Smht, 1

42O Coinage of Cilician Armenia

3.a. Tupinnhof, uusnRw [Cross (++-)

Cross b. [ill/MIT/IR/2 ft, UUS/htr

within c. ill/I'l/m/, //#, IUSU/

circle d. Ill//.7/mh/9/#, Ill/S/NA

4.a. 'ill/I'lmk/fu UUS/IR8/18 H [Non-artistic]

With b. Ill/P/11/mh/fu lll/S/IR8/18

footstool c. Will/P/17/nh/2,full US/IRS/

d. Ill/010R//#, Ill/S/Th9

5.a. 'ill/'0'10R/>Ru lll/S/lh9/18 H [Non-artistic]

NO b. Ill//."lmh/9/#, IUS/IR8/18

footstool c. ill/MIT/IR/8R, UIUS/Th9/)

d. Ill/"I'l/l/i/} f), UIUS/IR

e. Ill// '10R/ fu III/S/19

f ill//.7/mh//, III/S/

6.a. 'Ill/m"mk/fu UusnRwn [Cross (++-l

Sq. type b. ill/P/11/mh/7 fu IIJSORT

c. Will/P/17/nh/-fi, UIUS/ht,

d. Ill/'0'10R/ fu U.JS/10.

e. Ill//.7/k/./#, Il/NIO /

f ill/P/17/lh/ fu ll.8/III).

Sq. type 7.a. "Upminhof, uusm" [Cross (++-l

Dot on 1 b. 'ill/P/I'l/l/i/%ft, lll/S/TO.

8.a. turninhof, uusnRw (Cross (++-l

Sq. type b. [ill/'0'l/m/i/%ft, UUS/h?

Dot on 1 c. ill//.7/mh/?ft, UUS/TO

Inverted b d. Ill// '1/ h,0ft, UB/NIT

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Dot on 1 9. Ill/'0"/lh/fu UUSmh908 [Non-artistic]

R instead of b

Io. Ill/'0'10R/fu Uusimhon [Cross (++- |

No footstool II. ill//I'lflk/). Fu lll/S/Th9/1

ISO

ISO

I8O

I8o

ISI

ISI

I8I

I82

I82

I82

183

183

183

I84

I84

I84

I84

I84

I84

I84

184

I85

185

185

185

185

185

I85

I86

Index of Legends

42I

lbh/1%, All?llh/l/ All/18

With

footstool

NO

footstool

No

footstool

I.3.

till/filmh/ft, UUSmRm [Artistic]

ill//.7/mh/ft, UUS/IRI/

ill/P/11/mh/ft, LIUSMRU "

ill/MIT/IR//#, IIIIS/IRT

ill/P/IT/IR/2 ft, UUS/IR

ill/MIT/IR//#l, Ill/S/10.

ill/MIT/IR//#, Ill/S/l

ill/010R/F, UUS/IRWI) [Artistic]

ill//.7/mh/9/#, IUSmht, I

ill// '10R/ fu ll.US/IR).

ill// ?/IR/fu IIDS/IR

ill//.7/k/9R, ILUSITT

ill// '10R/ fu ULS

ill/'0'10R/ft, UUS/IR908 [Non-artistic]

ill//.7/mh/fu UUS/IR90

ill//.T.M.R//#, IUS/IR1

ill/-/17/l/r//#t UUS/IR

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ill//11/1/./f, UUS/19

ill/'0'10R/F, UUS/IR8/18(Cross *(+- |

ill/P/17/lh//, LIUS/Th90

lbf/it, foll?-ll/-/7 <ll/18

With

footstool

NO

footstool

I. d.

b.

'ill/'0'10R//#, Ill/S/IRWIl [Obv. non-artistic]

'ill/'0'10R/fu III/SIAw/ [Rev. artistic]

ill//.T.M.R/>Ru IIUS/IRI/

ill/P/11/1///#, Ill/S/0/ity

ill/'07/1//ft, LIUS/m/

ill//.T.M.R//#, IUSITT

ill//I'l/l/i/%ft, lll/S/)

ill/'0'10R/F, UUS/IRm [Obv. non-artistic]

ill/I'l/R/fu UUS/NW/18 [Rev. artistic]

ill/'/11/1///#, III/S/IRU/1

ill/'07/1/./9/#, Ill/S/N 0/)

ill/MIT/IR/f, IUSMRT

I86

I86

I86

I86

187

187

187

187

187

187

I88

I88

I88

I88

I88

I88

189

189

189

189

422

Coinage of Cilician Armenia

With

footstool

NO

footstool

Star in

legend

circle

f. 'ill//11/mh/?fu ll.US/IRI,

g. ill/I'l/R/F, UUSmir

h. Ill/'/'l/l/i/%fu ll.US/

i. ill/'0'l/lh/fu lll/S/

j ill/I'lmh/ft, UUS

a. Ill/'0'0N/F, UUSOR8/18 [Non-artistic]

b. Will/'0'10R/ Fu Ill/S/Th90

c. Will/P/17/nh/-fi, UIUS/IRG

d. Ill/010R/8R, UUS/19

a. Ill/'0'.0//f, UUSOR908 [Non-artistic]

b. Will/P/I'l/m/i/%ft, UUS/IRS/)

c. ill/'0'l/mk/fu III/S/mh9

d. Ill//.7/\h/9R, IILSUh9

e. Ill/'0'1/1/./0ft, UUS/19

f. Ill/'0'10R/ fu UIUS$/l

1.a. tupninkpf, uusmi,908 [Cross "(H-]

b. 'ill/'0'1/1//fu lll/S/Th9/1

c. Ill/'0'10R/F, UDS/IRG

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lbf/T, All?-ll/-/l/ All8

I.a. 'ill/I'l/mk/fu IIUSmhm [Artistic]

b. Ill/'0'10R/ fu III/S/hq/18

c. Will/'0'l/l/r/ fu lll/S/NAV/)

d. Ill/'0'l/lh/?fu III/S/hf,

e. Ill// 'lf]h/fu IIJS/TW/18

f ill/P/I'l/l/i/%ft, UUS/TW/)

Ibh", /ll'}llh/l/ All#08

1.a. 'ill/I'l/mk/fu III/S//w/18 [Artistic]

b. ill/MIT/IR/?fi, UIUS/ht/18

c. ill/P/IT/IR/8R, Ill/S/IRI/

d. Ill/'0'lflk/?fu IIIIS/ht/

e. 'ill/P/I'l/lh/ fu ll.US/mlity

f. 'ill/P/11/mh/?ft, UUS/

I92

I92

I92

I92

I93

I93

I93

I93

I93

I94

I94

I94

I94

I94

I95

I95

I95

I95

I95

I95

196

196

I96

I96

I96

I97

I97

I97

I97

Index of Legends

423

lbff, All QWIR/l/ All&/18

I.a.

b.

'ill/I'l/mk/f, UUSmk [Non-artistic]

till/I'l/mh/9/#, IUS/

2. 'ill/I'l/R/ft, UUSmRm [Artistic]

Ib/7, foll?-ll/-/7 <ll#/78/7

I.3.

b.

'ill/I'lmk/fu III/SmR [Artistic]

'ill/I'l/mh/9/#, ILUSITU

Ibn, bu'uhm" + zug:#08+

'ill/010R/fu UUSmR908 [Non-artistic]

till//.7/]h/9/#, III/S/Th9/)

ill//.7/mh/9/#, IUS/19/)

ill/P/TT/ih/fi, IILS3/18

ill//.7/mh/ft IIUS$/l

ill//7/1/./oft, UUS$/l

ill//.7/\h//, UUS/

ill// ?/mh/9/#, IUSS

till// ?/ R/0/#, IIUS

lh/7, foll%UR/7/ 3UB/7

I. al.

Obverse b.

gold C

type e

i.

I.a.

b.

2.3.

3.a.

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coin d

L with dot b

Foot turned 4.a

'ill/I'lmk/f, UUSmR' [Artistic]

till/07/]h/?fu IIUS/NA

. Ill//.T.M.R/off, LIUSmir

ill/'0'1/l/i/%f, lll/S/

ill/'0'1/MR/8R, Ill/S

. ill/I'l/mk/f, UUS/IR908 [Non-artistic]

ill//11/1///#, IIUS/Th9/1

ill/'07/1//ft, UUS/19/

ill/P/I'l/h/ fu IIUS/R&

urinnleft uusukun Cross(++-

ill/'07/1///#, Ill/S/IRI,

ill// '10R/ F. UITS/IRT

ill// '1/ R/2 ft, UUS/10.

upmml/ft uusmu [Cross (++-l

ill/P/17/l/r/fl. lll/S/NA

ill//.7/k/fu IIS/NIUSA

I97

I97

I97

198

198

424 Coinage of Cilician Armenia

Ibh/1, Pll'llh/m &ll3/.

I.a. 'ill// '10R/F, UUSOR" [Artistic]

With b. ill/I'l/mh/fi, UIUS/NA

footstool e. Will/I'l/mh/fu IIUSU/

d. Ill//.7/mk/fi III/SI.

e. Ill//.7/k/). F. Ul/S/

f. Ill// '10R/ fu IIUS

2.a. 'ill/I'l/mk/fu UUS/IRO [Artistic]

NO b. Will/'0'l/lh/ fu lll/S/NA

footstool c. ill/I'l/l/r/fu III/S/10.

d. Ill// '1/MR/2 ft, UUSI)

No footstool 3.a. 'ill/'0'10R/ Fu UUS/IR908 [Non-artistic]

b. Ill// '10R/ fu ll.JS/IR/18

c. ill// ?/ R/2 ft, UUSA/19/1

4.a. 'ill/I'l/h/ fu llllSmh901 [Non-artistic]

NO b. 'ill/'0'1/l/r/fu ll.US/IR10

footstool c. ill/I'l/lh/fi III/S/Th9

Ibh/), All'UR/l/ All?:

'ill/I'lmk/fu UUS/Nw [Cross (++- ]

I.a. 'ill//.7/mh/f, Ill/SAR

Dot on 1 b. ill/I'l/mk/fu ULSITU

c. Will/'0'1/l/r/fu U.S/10.

lbf/1%, 0.11%llR/l/ All

Some left I.a. 'ill/'0'10K/9/#, Ill/S/IR8/18 H

foot turned b. Ill//]"flh/fu III/S/Th9/18

outward c. ill// '10R/ fu UIUS/IR&

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d. Ill// '10R//#, IUS/IR

c. ill/P/17/l//. Fu III/S/)

lbf/il, All?ll//m All

I.a. 'ill/I'l/lh/fu UUS/IR/ [Artistic]

With b. Ill/P/I'l/l/r/, fl. lll/S/h

footstool c. Ill/'0'10R/ Fu III/S/

d. Ill//."lfm/i/9/#, IUS

20I

2OI

2OI

2OI

2OI

2OI

2OI

2OI

2O2

2O2

2O2

2O2

2O2

2O2

203

2O3

203

2O3

2O3

2O3

206

204

2O4

2O6

204

204

2O4

204

2O4

Index of Legends

425

NO

footstool

ill/I'l/R/F, UUSmh908 [Non-artistic]

ill//.7/mh/9R, UUSmh90

ill/'07/1/./9R, UIUSmh9

ill/I'l/mk/9/sh IIDS/IR:

ill/I'l/mh/9/#, IUSm/

ill/'0'10///#, IUSM)

ill/'07/0/i/ft, US/

ill/P/11/mh/ft, UUS

upmnhof, unsmium [Cross (++-

ill// ?/mh/FL IIUS/IRT

ill/I'l/mh/ft, II/SIAT

ill/I'l/mk/ft, IUSU/7

lhl, foll'llh/m 2/18

1.a. 'ill/010R/F, UUSmR [Artistic]

ill/010R/F, UUS/m/

ill/'07/1//ft, UUSmir

ill/I'l/mk/fu UIUSM.'

ill//.T.M.R/0/#, Ill/S/)

ill/I'l/mh/?ft, UUS/

lbf/7%, foll'UR/l/ 4L/1

1. Ill// '10R/F, UUSOR8 [Non-artistic]

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lbf/17, foll'UR/T &ll/)

1.a. 'ill/'0'10//ft III/S/IR8 [Non-artistic]

b. Ill// '1/1/.//#, IUS/19

lbf/11, foll'UR/7 &ll/

1. ill/'0'10R/ft, UUS/ [Artistic]

2. 'ill/'0'1/1///#, Ill/S/IR90 [Non-artistic]

lbf/1%, foll'UR/l/ 3U

I.a. 'ill/P/I'l/l/i/%ft, lll/S/Th9

b. ill/I'l/mh//, UUS/19

2O4

204

205

205

205

205

205

205

205

205

205

205

2O6

2O6

2O6

2O6

2O6

207

207

207

207

207

207

With

footstool

207

207

426 Coinage of Cilician Armenia

Ibh/7, foll'UR/T &ll

With 1.a. 'ill/'0'10R/8R, UUS/ [Artistic]

footstool b. Ill/07/1//ft, UUS

No footstool I.a. 'ill/'0'l/l/r/fu UUS/ [Artistic]

b. Ill/'0'10R/ Fu IIUS

2. 'ill/mT/mk/fu Uusingn [Non-artistic]

3.a. 'ill/'0'10R/F, UUSOR8/18 [Non-artistic]

No footstool b. Ill/'0'1/lh/fu III/S/Th90

c. ill/I'lmk/fu UUSmh9

d. Ill/I'lmk/f, UUSm?

Ibh/", /NIQUIR/T 3/

No footstool I.a. 'ill/'0'10R/8R, UUS/ [Artistic]

b. Ill//11/1//f, IIIIS

Ibh/7, foll?-ll/l/ 3U.8/78

1.a. 'ill/I'l/ih/ft, UUSnk [Artistic]

b. Ill/010R/RW LIUS/

2O8

2O8

2O8

208

2O8

2O8

2O8

2O8

209

209

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209

No footstool 2.a. 'ill/'0'10R/8R, UUS/IR8/18 [Non-artistic]

b. ill/I'l/mh/?ft, UUS/R&

lht, /NIQU/7/* <llfl

1.a. 'ill/'0'10R/F, UUSmRm [Artistic]

b. Ill/010R/ fu III/S/IR/"

c. ill/P/17/l/r/fu IIUS/NAT/)

Ibh/T, /ll?IIAll/l <ll#

1.a. 'ill/'0'10R/F, UUSmt. [Artistic]

b. 'ill/'0'1/l/i/%ft, UUS/m/

Lh/7, foll%fl/ Allfl&

1.a. 'ill/I'l/mh/F, UUSOR8/ [Non-artistic]

b. 'ill/'07/1/h/?ft, UUS/R&

209

209

209

209

209

2IO

2IO

2IO

2IO

2IO

2IO

Index of Legends 427

Lily in right hand

Ibh/TL /NIQUR/l/ All3/18

I.a. 'Ill/'07/0/i/ fu IIUS/IRS/18 2IO

b. 'ill/P/I'l/l/i/%ft, lll/S/IRf. 2II

c. ill// '10R/ fu IIDS/IRI, 2II

d. Ill/P/17/l/i/}/{i, UIUS/19/ 2II

e. Ill//.7/mh/9/#l III/S/19 2II

Ibh/Tu /NI'llh/m &ll3/18

1. Tupinnhof, uusnRH [Cross (++- | 2II

Ib/7, foll'UR/l/ All 3/18

I.a. 'ill/'0'1/1//0ft, UUS/IR8/18 2II

b. Ill/"I'l/TR//#, Ill/S/IRT/) 2II

c. ill/'0'l/lh/?fu IIUS/IRSI) 2II

d. Ill/P/11/1/i/%fi, UIUS/IR. 2II

e. Ill//.1/MR/ Fu II/IS/IRT 2I2

f, ill/-/17/lh/9/#, II/SR5 2I2

Lh/7t, foll?-ll/-/l/ All 3/7

I.a. 'ill/P/17/lh/fu IIUS/\r 2I2

b. 'ill/P/11/1/./0/#, Il/NISR 2I2

Ib/7, foll'UR/7 <ll#/.

I.a. 'ill/'07.0///#, Ill/S/IRG/18 2I2

b. [ill/'07/Th/fu IIUS/NA), 2I2

c. ill/P/I'l/mh/fu IIUSURT 2I2

Ibism, ou'unmp :u6 &%

1.a. 'Ill/'0'10R/F, UUSmRW (Artistic] 2I2

b. Ill/'07/1//0/#, IL3/III? 2I2

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c. Will/'0'1/l/i/%f, l8/NIST 2I3

Ibh/T, foll%llh/m &LIS/he

1. Ill/'0'10R/fu U.8/Tuw (Artistic] 2I3

428

Coinage of Cilician Armenia

Ibh/T, Pll'llh/l/ All-

Errors, oddities, etc.

1. Tupinnhoff, uusmt. [Cross (++-)

Rev. Inscription upside down.

Irregularities or errors in legend.

COPPER COINS - TANKS

lbf/1%, foll'UR/l/ Allh/18

I. Ch'ublil / MI'll!'}}, h Uhl/

2 dots on crown

5 dots on crown

5 dots on crown

and one curl

5 dots on crown

and two curls

6 dots on crown

6 dots on crown

and single curl

7 dots on crown

2.3.

b.

C.

d.

3.a.

b.

4.a.

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Chubill h fl'll RU h Uhl/

ChuBll h \ll'll!'}\, h Uhl/

Chlbl.l. h RII'll RU h Uh

Chubill h NITIQ-U h Uh

Ch'ubl.l. h UTURU h Uhl/

Ch'ubll h RUQUIRU h Uh

CFLll h RUTII:RU h Uhl/

[Cross with three steps]

. Ch'ubll h RII'll RU h Uh

Ch'ubll h RUQUIRU h Uhl/

. Ch'ubl.l. h QUT II'', h Uhl/

. Ch'ublil h QUT LIQU h Uhl/

. Ch'ubl.l. h QUT II'', h Uhl/

[Cross with six pointed star]

Ch'ubll h RUQUARU h Uh

. Chlll h QUT II'U h Uh

. Ch'ubll h \ll'll!'), h UU

. Ch'ubll h QUT II'', h U

. hlll h RII'll RU h Uhl/

. Chll h RUQUAR UPU

. publil / RUQUARU h Uh

7. Chubill h QUTII'', h Uhl/

2I3

2I3

215

217

217

217

217

217

217

217

2I8

2I8

2I8

2I8

2I8

2IS

2I8

2IS

2IS

2I8

Index of Legends

429

7 dots on crown 8.a. Ch'ubll h RII'll RU h Uhl/

and single curl b. Ch'ubl.l. h RUQUARU h Uh

8 dots on crown 9.a. 6Publil h MITU'4, h Uhl,

b. Ch'ubll h QUT II'', Uhl/

Ibh/T, Oll'}llh/l/ All&/18

5 dots on crown I. Ch'ubll h \ll'U'i, h Uhl/

5 dots and 2.a. Ch'ubll h RII'll RU h Uhl,

two curls b. Ch'ubll h RUQUARU h Uhl/

[Cross with six pointed star]

c. Chlll h RUQUARU h Uh

6 dots and single curl 3. GPublil / RUQUARU (?)

Ibh/", /ll'llh/l/ Allh/)

Ch'ubll h RII'll RU h Uhl/

. Ch'ubll h QUTIQU h Uhl/

. Ch'ubll h RII'll RU h Uh

Ch'ubll h QUITU'U h Uh

Ch'ubll h RII'll RU h U

Ch'ubll h QUTIQ-U h U

Ghull h /'ll'll/"U ht, h Uh

. Ch'ubll h RITU-RU h Uhl/

[Cross with one step]

. Chlll h RUQUARU h Uhl/

[Cross with two steps]

c. Ch'ubll h QUT LIQU h Uhl/

[Cross ornate with three steps]

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5 dots and 4. CPublil / RUTII:RU h Uhl/

one curl [Cross with six pointed star]

5. CFLll h RUTURU h Uh

5 dots on crown

22I,

22O

22O

22O

22O

22O

22O

220

22O

22I

22I

22I

22I

222

22I

22I

22I

222

222

222

222

222

6 dots on crown 6.a. publil / RUQUARU h Uhl,

b. Ch'ubll h NI'll'U h Uhl/

c. Ch'ubll h QUT II'', h Uhl/

d. Ch'ubll h RIITU-RU h Uh

e. Ch'ubll, h \ll'U%U h Uh

222

222

222

223

223

43O Coinage of Cilician Armenia

7.a. Chubul h Ru'll RU h Uhl,

[Ornate cross with three steps]

b. Ch'ubll h Qll'll'U h Uhl/

[Ornate cross with three steps]

c. Ch'ublil / RUQUIRU h Uhl/

[Cross with three steps]

6 dots and 8.a. Chlll h UTURU h Uhl,

one curl b. Ch'ubll h UTURU h Uh

6 dots and two curls 9. Ch'ublil / RUQUARU h Uhl/

[Ornate cross with three steps]

7 dots on crown Io.a. Ch'ubll h RII'll RU h Uhl/

b. Ch'ubll h RUQUARU h Uh

7 dots on crown II. Ch'ubll h RII'll RU h Uhl/

and two curls [Cross ornate with three steps]

lbh/", /ll'll R/l/ Allhl/

5 dots on crown I. Chubl h RII'll RU h Uhl/

6 dots and two curls 2. &hlbl.l. h RU'll RU h Uhl/

[Ornate cross with three steps]

Ibh/7, foll?-ll/-/l/ Allh

5 dots on crown I.a. Ch'ubll h RII'll RU h Uhl/

b. Ch'ubll h QUT LIQU h Uhl/

5 dots and one curl 2. & Publil h FUTURU h Uh

6 dots on crown 3. Chubill h fulllfu h Uhly

6 dots on crown 4.a. publil h RU'll RU h Uhl,

and one curl b. Ch'ubll h RU'll RU h Uh

c. Ch'ubll h FUTURU h U

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7 dots on crown 5. Chubill h Ru'll RU h Uh

and one curl

Forgeries.

223

223

223

223

223

224

224

224

224

224

224

225

225

225

225

225

225

226

226

226

Index of Legends

43I

HETOUM I

BILINGUAL TRAMS

HetoumKaikobad

a.

b.

&b/9/TRU /NIQUR/l/ 3UB/18

&b//mNU All'UR/l/ All&nd [with scroll]

HetoumKaikhusrew

Half trams

d.

&b/0/IRU (NIQUR/l/ 3UB/18

[UndatedEpigraphy similar

to Hetoum-Kaikobad]

&b//nhl/ /NIQUIR/T &llfl

A.H. 637

&b//nhl/ /NI'll R/T &ll3/18

A.H. 637 [Epigraphy intermediate between

Kaikobad and later Kaikhusrew]

. <b//nhl/ /NIQUR/l/ 3UB/18

A.H. 637

. <b/9/l/l/ /NI'll R/T &ll3/18

A.H. 639 [Mixed Epigraphy]

. &b//nhl/ /NIQUIR/m 2/8/18

A.H. 640

. <b/9/7AU foll'UR/T &LIS/18

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A.H. 64I

. <b//nhl/ /NIQUIR/T &LIS/18

A.H. 641

. &b//nhl/ /NIQUIR/h/ 3UB/18

A.H. 642

. <b/, /ThU" foll?-ll/-/n 4113/18

A.H. 642

. &b/0/1/.l/ /NIQUIR/m. All&/18

A.H. 643

. <b/0/1/l/ /NIQUIR/l/ 3UB/78

Date not completely legible

227

227

228

229

230

230

23I

232

232

232

233

233

234

234

HetoumKaikobad

HetoumKaikhusrew

234

235

432

Coinage of Cilician Armenia

HETOUMZABEL

TRAMS

Cross with starlion holding cross

till//.7/mh/,"hh'.", U3 b

a. *b/, /m/l/ /NIQUIR/T &ll3/18

b. *b/, /l/ /NIQUIR/m &ll3/18

"ill// '10R/-ph',', ll b

a. *b/, /mlil /NIQUIR/n 4113/18

b. *b/, //RU foll'UR/m. All8

c. *b/, /mhl/ Oll'UR/T &ll3/.

d. <b/0/1/.U. (NIQUR/T &llf

e. <b//nhl/ /NIQUIR/T &ll#

f. &b//nhl/ /NIQU/m &ll

'ill/'07/1//-hh'.", l8

a. *b/, /TRU /NIQUR/7 <ll3/18

'ill/010R/-FU, U.8/1 A

a. *b/, / Al/ /NIQUIR/m 2/18/

b. *b/, /l/l/ /NIQUIR/m. All

"ill/'0'1/l/r/.-Fl. U.8 k

a. *b/, /m/l/ /NIQUR/T (U.8/18

'ill/'07/1/i/ -hui, 8 b.

a. <b/0/IRU (NIQUIR/T &ll3/18

'ill//.7/mh/-h', l8 b.

a. *b/, /m/, // /NIQUR/7 <ll36

235

236

236

236

237

237

237

237

237

237

237

238

238

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236

Index of Legends

433

till/07/1/2-hRui, ll b

a. *b//nhl/ /NI'llh/m &ll3/18

b. &b/0/1/\l/ /NIQUR/T &ll3/.

e. &b//mN/ /NIQUR/n 4ll&f

d. &b/9/1NI (NI'll R/T &ll3

till// '100-hh'.", l8

a. *b/0/1/\l/ /NIQUIR/T &ll3/18

b. *b//nhl/ /NIQUR/T &ll3/.

'ill// '10/0hul, U3 b

. &b//nhl/ /NI'll R/T &ll3/18

&b//nhl/ foll'UR/T &ll3/1

&b/9/mhl/ All'ilhm &ll38

. <b/, /ThU" foll'UR/T &ll3/.

&b//nhl/ All'UR/T &ll3/

. 3b//nhl/ /NIQUIR/m. All

'ill/*10R/-hh'.", l8 b.

a. <b/NIRU /NIQUR/7 <ll3/18

b. &b/9/mhl/ /NIQUR/T &ll3/

till/PT/IR/-ph'u', ll

a. *b//nhl/ All?-ll/-/m 2/18/18

b. &b/9/mhl/ /NIQUR/m 2U8/1

c. &b//nhl/ /NI'll R/T &ll3

Cross with dotlion holding cross

till/I'l/mh/9-hh'.", l A

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. <b/9/7/l/ foll%ll R/T &ll3/78

&b//nhl/ /NIQUR/T &ll38

. &b//nhl/ /NIQUIR/T &ll3/.

&b//nhl/ /NIQUIR/m. Allf

. &b//nhl/ /NIQUR/T &ll3

238

238

238

238

239

239

239

239

239

239

240

24O

240

240

24I

24I

24I

24I

242

242

243

243

28

434

Coinage of Cilician Armenia

till/MIT/IR/-hh'.", Il

a. *b/, /mlil /NI'll R/T &ll3/18

b. *b/, /mlil /NI'll R/T &ll3/]"

c. 3b//nhl/ /NIQUR/p &ll3/.

d. <b/0/IRU (NIQUIR/T &ll

Will//.7/1/0hh'.", l8

a. *b/9/hl/ /NIQUIR/7 &ll#/18

b. *b/, / Alf All?-ll/-/m 2/18/)

c. &b/9/"RU /\ll \ll R/T &ll#8

d. <b/0/IRU All'UR/T &ll#

'ill//11/1/0hul, U3 h

a. <b/9/hl/ /NI'llh/7 <ll3/18

b. *b/, /m/l/ /NIQUR/T All8

c. 3b/2/hhl/ /NI'll R/T All?

till// ?/ ?0 hl, ll

a. *b/, /mlil /NIQUR/m &llfl6

b. 3b/9/1NI (NIQUIR/m &ll3/.

Transition dies

Cross with dotlion walking

till/'0'10R/-hh'.", U3/ 5

a. *b/, //RU' foll%llh/7 <ll#

Will//.7/k/.-hh'.", l k

. &b//nhl/ /NIQUR/T &ll3/18

&b//nhl/ /'ll'UR/T All/1

. 3b//nhl/ /NIQUR/T All&n

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&b//nhl/ /NIQUIR/m. Allf

. <b/9/l/l/ foll'UR/T &ll#

. &b//nhl/ /'ll'll R/T All

&b//nhl/ /'ll'UR/T &l

. &b//nhl/ /NIQUIR/n 4

243

243

243

243

243

244

244

244

244

244

244

245

245

245

246

246

246

246

246

246

247

247

247

Index of Legends

435

till/MIT/IR/-ph',', l8

a. *b/, /TRU' foll?-ll/-/m 2/18/18

Tll// ?/Th/-pu?, Il b

a. *b/, /TRU /NIQUIR/7 <ll#/18

b. *b/9/mhl/ /NIQUIR/n &ll3/.

c. 4B/9/hhl/ /NI'll R/T &ll#

d. <b/0/1/.l/ foll'UR/7 <ll

e. <b/0/1/l/ /NIQUR/7 <l.

f. &b/9/]hl/ /NIQUIR/l/ 3

'ill/'0'1/l/-/.hh'.", l8

a. <b/0/1/l/ /NIQUIR/7 <ll#

Ill//11/1/-/.hht, Il A

. <b/, //RU Oll?-ll/-/7 <ll3/1

. &b/o/IRU' foll'U.R/T Allf

. &b/9/h/l/ /NIQUIR/T &ll#

... <b/, /l/l/ /NIQUIR/T &ll

. &b/, /l/l/ /NIQUR/7 <l.

. <b/, //RU (NI'll R/T :

'ill//11/mh/hh", l8

a. *b/, /l/l/ /NIQUR/m. All

'ill/'0'1/l/-/.hu, U3 b

&b/, //RU' foll'UR/T Allm

. &b/, //RU />U'llh/m &ll3/)

. &b//lhl/ foll'UR/T &ll#f

&b//nhl/ /NIQUIR/m. All

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&b/, //RU' foll'UR/T &II*

. &b/, /l/l/ /NIQUIR/7 <ll

. &b/9/7/slf foll'UR/7 &L

&b/, //RU /NIQUIR/T 4

247

247

247

247

248

248

248

248

248

248

248

248

249

249

249

249

249

249

250

250

250

250

25I

436

Coinage of Cilician Armenia

'ill/I'l/Th0 hl, U.8 k

3.

b.

C.

<b/0/1/l/ /NIQUIR/m 2/13/

&B/9/mhl/ /NIQUIR/T &ll

<b/0/7AU" /NIQUIR/7 <l.

'ill/P/11/mh0 hut, l8

al.

b.

C.

d.

e.

f.

&b//nhl/ /NIQUIR/m &llf

&B//nhl/ /NIQUIR/T &ll#

&b//nhl/ /NIQUIR/n &ll I

&B/9/l/l/ /NIQUR/T &ll

<b/, /Thl/ /NIQUIR/n 4L

&b/0/1/\lf /NIQUIR/n 4

"ill//.7/mh/9.ht, UB :

. <b/0/1/.lf /NIQ-ll/-/7 &ll3/18

&b/9/hhl/ /NIQUR/T &ll#/.

. <b/, /mlil/ /NIQUIR/T &ll#/?

&b/, /m/l/ /NIQ-ll/-/n 4ll#

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. &b//nhl/ /\ll \ll//n 411"

. &b//nhl/ All QWIR/m &ll

. &b/2/hhl/ /NIQUIR/m &l

&b//nhl/ /NIQUIR/m &

'ill/'0'1/ 10.ht, l8

al.

b.

&b/, /l/l/ /NIQUIR/T &ll#

&b/0/1/l/ /NIQUIR/T &ll

'ill/I'l/m/,hh'.", Il A

3.

&b/, / Alf Pll?-ll/-/n &ll#08

&b//nhl/ /NIQUIR/m. All/1

&b//nhl/ /NIQUIR/m &ll3/.

&B/9/l/l/ /NIQUIR/T &ll3/.

<b/0/1/l/ /NIQUR/n 2U8

&b//nhl/ /NIQUR/T &ll1

&b/0/1/hi/ /NIQUR/m &II

&b/0/1/l/ /NIQUR/T &l.

&b//l/l/ /NIQUIR/T &

&b/, /l/l/ /NIQUIR/n 4

25I

25I

25I

25I

25I

252

252

252

252

253

253

253

253

253

254

254

254

254

254

b.

C.

d.

Index of Legends

437

"ill//.7/1/0Ful, Il A.

a. <b/0/1/\l/ /NI'll R/T &ll3/18

b. &b//nhl/ /NIQUIR/m. All&f

c. 3b//nhl/ /NIQUIR/T &ll?

d. <b/9/7RU /9IIQUR/m 2/

"ill// '100plit, U8 l;

a. <b//nhl/ /NIQUIR/T &ll

'ill// '1/1/9hul, U80 k

a. *b/, / Al/ /NI'llh/m &ll3

b. *b/, /mlil /NIQUIR/n 4

'ill/'0'1/1/9hul, ll0

. <b/, /l/U" /NIQUR/7 &ll#

. <b/0/1/l/ /NIQUIR/T &ll."

&b//nhl/ /NI'llh/m &ll

&b//nhl/ /NI'llh/m &

... <b//nhl/ /ll'll R/l/*

3.

'ill/'07/00 hl, U.8 k

a. *b/0/1/l/ /NIQUIR/7 &ll3/.

b. <b/0/ihl/ /NIQUR/7 &ll#

c. &b//l/l/ /NIQUIR/n 4

'ill//?'/9.ht, UB

a. *b/, /7RU Oll?-ll/-/7 <ll#f

b. <b/0/1/l/ /NIQUIR/T &ll

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c. 3b/o/IRU Oll'UR/T &L

'ill/'0'10"hh'.", l k

a. <b//7AU All?-ll/-/7 <ll#

'ill//11/lhput, U8 l;

a. *b/, / RU /NIQUIR/n 4ll3/

b. &b/0/7RU /NIQUR/T &ll#

257

257

257

257

257

257

257

257

258

258

258

258

258

258

258

258

258

258

259

259

438 Coinage of Cilician Armenia

Cross without dotlion walking

"ill/'0'10R/2-hRul, l k

a. *b/, /ihl/ /NI'llh/m &ll3/.

b. 3b/0/1/.U. foll?-ll/-/7 &ll3/

c. 3b/0/1/\l/ foll'UR/7 <ll#

d. &b/9/ThU" foll'UR/7 &ll

Tll//.7/mh/9hkul, ll

a. *b/3/RU /NI'll R/T &ll3/

'ill/'0'10R/-hui, l8 H

a. *b/, /l/l/ /NIQUR/7 <ll#f

b. 3b/0/IRU' foll'UR/7 <ll#

'ill/'07/1/2-hRul, ll3 h

a. *b/0/1/.U. foll%llh/7 <ll3/18

b. 4B/9/l/l/ foll'll R/T &ll#f

c. 25/2/h/l/ /NIQUR/T &ll#

d. &b//mhl/ /NIQUIR/m &ll

e. <b/0/1/l/ /NIQUR/7 &l

till/'0'.0/0hh', U8 l;

a. *b/, /m/l/ /NI'llh/m &ll3

'ill// ?/1/9Ful, ll0 k

&b//nhl/ /NI'llh/m &llf

. &b//nhl/ /NIQUIR/T All

. &b/o/IRU' foll?-ll/-/7 <ll

&b/, /l/l/ /NIQUIR/T &l

. &b/0/1/\l/ /NIQUIR/l <

f. &b/0/1/l/ /9II'll R/7/"

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'ill/'07/1/0hull, ll/)

a. *b/, //RU /NIQUIR/T &LIS/

259

259

259

259

260

260

260

26o

26o

260

26I

26I

26I

26I

26I

26I

262

262

262

262

Index of Legends

439

'ill/'07/1/9hull, l 5

a. <b/o/IRU' foll?-ll/-/7 <ll#

b. &b/0/1/l/ /NI'll R/T &II/

c. 4B/9/\hl/ /9II'llh/7 &ll

d. <b/9/hhl/ /NIQUR/T &L

"ill/'0'10/-/.hht.", Il

a. *b/o/IRU (NIQUIR/7 &ll#f

'ill/'0'10R/9/h), l k

a. *b/, /TRU Oll'}-ll/-/7 &ll3/.

b. *b/, /TRU /NI'll R/T &ll#

c. 3b//nhl/ /NI'll R/T &ll

d. &b/, /m/l/ /9/1%ll//7 <l.

e. <b//nhl/ foll?-ll/-/n 4

'ill/010R-0.hht, l8

a. *b/, /7RU /NIQUIR/T &ll#

b. 3b//nhl/ /NIQUIR/T &ll

c. &b//nhl/ /NIQUR/T &l

'ill/'07/Th0 hut, U8 l;

a. *b/, //RU /NIQUR/T &ll#/1

b. 3b/2/hhl/ /NIQUIR/T Allf

c. 3b//nhl/ foll'}-ll/-/n 4U.8

d. <b//nhl/ /9II'llh/m &ll

e. <b/o/IRU /NIQUIR/7 &L

f. <b//nhl/ foll'}-ll/-/n 4

'ill/P/17/lh0/iu, U3

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&b//nhl/ /NIQUIR/m. Allfl

&b//nhl/ /NI'll R/T &ll#f

. <b/, /l/l/ foll?-ll/-/n 4113

. &b/, /l/l/ /NIQUIR/m &II

&b/9/lhl/ /NI'll R/T &L

. &b/9/7/U" /NIQUIR/T &

262

262

262

262

262

262

263

263

263

263

263

263

263

264

264

264

264

265

265

265

265

265

265

266

266

440 Coinage of Cilician Armenia

"ill/I'l/m/-/.ht, Il A.

a. *b/, //RU /NIQUIR/7 &ll#f

b. &b/, /mlil/ /NIQUIR/m. All?

c. 3b//nhl/ /NIQUIR/T &ll"

d. &b//nhl/ /NIQUIR/m. All

e. <b/0//hl/ /NIQUIR/T &L

f. &b//nhl/ /NIQUIR/n 4

'ill/I'l/mhFul, ll k

a. *b/, //RU /NIQUIR/7 <l/

b. &b//nhl/ /NIQUR/T &ll3

Star under lionwith cross

till// '10R/-ph',', U3 #

a. *b/, //RU' foll?-ll/-/n 4ll#

b. *b/, //hi/ /NIQUIR/n 4

"ill/I'l/Th/*h,', l k

a. <b/o/IRU /9II'll R/T &ll#

Will/'07/1/-/.ht,", ll

a. *b/, /m/il/ /NIQUR/T &ll3/)

b. <b/9/mhl/ /NIQUR/m. All

c. &b/, /l/l/ /NI'll R/T &ll

d. <b/9/hhl/ foll?-ll/-/n 4

"ill/07/1/-/.ht, Il A

a. *b/, /ihl/ /NIQUIR/T &ll

b. *b/, /l/l/ /NIQUR/m &l,

c. &b//nhl/ /l/QUR/n 4

d. 3b/, //RU /NIQUR/l/ 3

266

266

267

267

267

268

268

268

268

268

268

268

269

269

269

269

269

269

269

269

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e. <b/9//hl/ /NI'llh/l/?

Index of Legends

44I

"ill// '100 hl, U8 H

a. <b/0/1/\l/ /ll'UA/l/ All

b. &b/9/7/l/ /NIQUIR/T. &

e. &b//nhl/ /NIQUIR/l/

'ill/'07/10 hl, l8

a. *b/0/ihl/ /NI'll R/l/ 3

b. *b/, / Al/ /NIQUIR/m/,

till/I'l/Th/9.ht, UB

a. <b/0/1/l/ /NIQUIR/l/ All

b. 3b/9/7/U /NIQUIR/T &l.

c. &b//nhl/ /NIQUIR/n 4

d. <b/0/1/l/ /NIQUIR/7

'ill/'0'1/)R/>ht, UB

a. 3b//nhl/ /NIQUIR/T 4

b. <b/9 l'll R/l/ All 5/78

Star under lionno cross

'ill/010R/0 hl, U8 H

a. <b/0/1/l/ /9II'llh/l/ 3

'ill/'0'100.ht, l A

a. *b/, //RU /NIQUIR/7 &

b. *b/9/mhl/ /NIQUIR/7/*

269

269

269

270

270

270

27o

270

270

270

270

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270

'ill/'0'1/lh0 hl, ll

a. <b//nhl/ /NI'llh/l/ 3

b. 3b/0/IRU (NIQUIR/7/"

'ill/P/I'l/-/.ht, ll

a. *b/, / Al/ /ll'UR/l/ 3

b. &b//nhl/ /NIQUR/l/

271

27I

27I

27I

27I

27I

442 Coinage of Cilician Armenia

'ill/I'l/)R/>ht, U.8 k

a. *b/, /m/l/ /NIQUIR/l/ 3

'ill/P/11/1h/?hl, ll

a. *b/, /m/l/ /NIQUIR/T &II?

b. &b//nhl/ /NIQUIR/m/,

No star and no cross

'ill/'0'10/-/.ht, Il A

a. *b/, /l/l/ /NIQUIR/l/ All/

b. <b/9//hi/ /NIQUIR/l/ 3

c. &b//nhl/ /NI'llh/1/

d. &b/9/mhl/ foll'UR/T

'ill/P/17/l/-/.ht, Il

&b/7/1U /NIQUIR/l/ &ll

&b//NJ' ('ll%llR/l/ &l

&b//nhl/ /NIQUR/l/ &

. <b//nhl/ /NIQUIR/m/,

. <b/9/NAU" /9II?-IIA/)

'ill/'0'100 hl, l is

a. <b/9/7/l/ foll?-ll/-/.

"ill/'0'1/10 hl, ll

a. *b/, /mhl/ /NIQUIR/l/ 4L

'ill// '1/lhp/R', ll

a. *b/, //RU' foll'UR/7/*

'ill//]",0R/>ht, U.8

a. *b/, /l/l/ /NIQUIR/l/ &l

271

27I

272

272

272

272

272

272

272

272

272

273

273

273

273

273

273

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b. *b/9/mhl/ /NIQUR/T

Index of Legends

443

HALF TRAMS

Cross with starlion holding cross

till/-/17/nh/-hhu", U.8

a. *b/, /TRU' foll?-ll/-/7 <ll3/.

till/P/I'l/m/,-hu, l8 l;

a. *b/, /TRU' foll?-ll/-/7 <ll68

'ill/P/11/1/0hh'.", Il

a. &b/0/IRU (NI'll R/T &ll3/.

b. 3b/9/mhl/ /NIQUIR/T All

Cross with dotlion holding cross

till//.7/l/i/ -ph'u', U8 b

a. *b/, /ihl/ /NIQUIR/T &ll3/18

b. *b/, /m/l/ /NIQUR/T &ll

Will/P/I'l/l/r/, /iu, l8 k

a. *b//nhl/ /NIQUR/T &ll3/18

'ill/'0'1/1/0hhu ll.8 k

a. *b/, /TRU Oll?-ll/-/m 2/18

'ill/P/I'l/1/3-p'u ll.8 k

a. *b/, /l/l/ /NI'll R/T &ll3/18

b. <b/0/1/\l/ foll?-ll/-/7 <ll#8

Cross with dotlion walking

"ill//.7/1/2-hful, l k

a. *b/, /l/il/ /NI'll//7 <ll#

'ill//7'100 hul, ll k

a. *b/, /m/l/ /9II'll R/T &ll

274

274

274

274

274

274

274

275

275

275

275

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273

444 Coinage of Cilician Armenia

"ill/'0'1/10 hu ll.8

a. *b/9/7/.l/ /NI'llh/7 <

till/'07/1//hl, ll

a. *b/, /TRU' foll?-ll/-/n 4

Cross without dotlion walking

till/P/11/10 hl, ll

a. <b/9//hl/ /NI'll R/T &ll#

b. &b//lhl/ /NI'll R/T 4

c. &b//nhl/ /NIQUR/m/

d. <b/0/IRU (NIQUR/n

No crossno star

'ill/'07/1//*p, ll

a. *b/, /]hl/ /NI'llh/m

"ill//.7/)/.ht, UB

a. *b/, //RU /9II'llh/7

COPPER COINS - TANKS

King seated on throne adorned with lions

&b/0/ihl/ All?llh/l/ 3UB/18

. Ch'ubll h NI'll!?", h Uhl k

. Ch'ublil h \ll'll!'}}, h Uhl/

. Ch'ubll h \ll'll!?", h UU

. Ch'ubll h \ll'll!'), h Uh

. Ch'ubll h \ll'll!'}\, h' U

&b//nhl/ /NIQUR/l/ Allfl:

a. Ch'ubll h QUT II'', h Uhl/

275

275

276

276

276

276

276

277

277

277

277

277

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275

Index of Legends

445

King seated on throne decorated with conventionalized lions

&b//nhl/ /NIQUIR/l/ Allm

. Ch'ubll h NI'll', h Uhl k

. Ch'ubll h QUTII'', h Uhl/

. &hlll h \ll'll!'), h UU

&hlbl.l. h "MI'll!'}}, h UUll

. Ch'ubll h NITI', h Uhly h

. Ch'ubll h NI'll!'), h Uh

. Ch'ubll h NI'll!?, h Uhly h

. Ch'ubll h QUIQ,'ll!'}; h Uhl/h

. &hlll h \ll'll!'}; h Uhl/pl/

. Ghull h NI'll!'}; h Uhl/hl/

. Chull h QUT II'', h Uhl/h

. Chull h QUT II'', h Uhl/

. Zhull h QUT II'', UUU

. Ch'ubll h RII'll Ru h Uh

o. Ch'ublil h RII'll R", h U

p. 6 publl h RIITU-R),

&b/9/7RU /NIQUIR/l/ All 80

al.

b.

C.

d.

hlbl.l. h "MI'll!'}}, h Uhl/x

Ch'ublil h \ll'll!'}}, h Uhl/

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Ch'ubll h QUTII?, h Uh

Ch'ubll h NI'll!'}\, h' U

King seated on throne having two legs on each side

&b/9/1Al/ /NIQUIR/l/ All3/18

al.

b.

C.

d.

Ch'ubll h NITU'k', h Uhl/

&hlll h \ll'll?", h Uhl/x

Ch'ublil h QUT II'', h UU

Chubl h QUT II'''), h Uh

&b//l/l/ /NIQUIR/l/ &ll3/):

d.

Ch'ublil h NI'll!'}}, h Uhl/

278,

278, 279,

278,

278,

28I,

28I,

28O

277, 278, 279, 28o

280

279

279

278

278

278

278

278

278

278

279

279

279

279

28O

28I

28I

28I

282

28I

446 Coinage of Cilician Armenia

&b//nhl/ /NIQUIR/l/ All

a. Ch'ubll h QUTII'', h Uhl/

b. Ch'ubll h QUT II'', h Uhly k

King seated on throne of one post on each side

3b//nhl/ /NIQUIR/l/ &ll08

a. Ch'ubll h \ll'll!?", h Uhl/

b. Ch'ubll h \ll'll!?', h Uhl/ ..

c. Ch'ubll h QUT II'', h Uh

&b/0/1/l/ foll'UR/l/ 3U.8:

a. Ch'ubll h QUTII'', h Uhl/

b. Ch'ubll h QUT II'', h Uhl/x

KARDEZ

King on horseback

3b//nhl/ /NI'llh/l/ Allm

a. Ch'ubll h \ll'll!'}}, h Uhl/

b. Ch'ubll h \ll'll!'}}, b Uh

c. Ch'ubll h \ll'll!?", h UU

&b/, /l/l/ /ll?IIR/l/ Allf):

a. Ch'ubll h NITII'', h Uhl/

&b//nhl/ /NIQUIR/l/ Alln

a. publl h MITU'', h Uhl/

b. Ch'ubll h QUT II'''), h Uhl):

c. Ch'ublil / QUT II'', h Uh

d. Ch'ubll h \ll'll!?", p U

&b/, //RU Oll'}llR/l/ All

a. Chlll h NI'll!'}'', h Uhl/

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b. Ch'ubll h QUT II'', h Uh

c. Ch'ubll h QUT II'', p UU

d. Ch'ubll h \ll \ll'', h U

282

282

283

283

283

283

283

283, 284

284

284

284

284, 285

285

284, 285

285

285,286

285,286

285

285

Index of Legends

447

&b/9//hi/ /NIQUR/l/ All

a. Ch'ubll h NITII'', h Uhl/

b. Ch'ubll h QUTII?, h Uh

King seated on benchlike throne

&b//nhl/ /NIQUIR/T &ll3/18

a. Chlll h RII'lll:Ru h Uhl/

b. Ch'ubll h \ll'll!?", h Uhl/

c. Ch'ubll h NITI', h Uh

d. Ch'ubll h QUT II'''), h U

e. &hlll h \ll'U't, h l

f. Chlll h QUT II'', h

&b/0/1/\l/ /9II'llh/7 &ll#/.

a. Ch'ubll h QUT II'', h l

b. Ch'ubl.l. h NITII?, h

&b/0/1/l/ /NIQUIR/m &ll3u

a. Ch'ubll h \ll'll!'}\, h' Up

b. Ch'ublil h \ll'I'''), h U

&b/, /l/l/ /NIQUIR/T &ll#

a. Ch'ubll h \ll'll!?", h Uh

&b/, /l/l/ /NIQUIR/T &ll

a. hlll h \ll'll!'}\, h' U

King seated on throne adorned with lions

&b/0/1/l/ /\ll'UR/l/ 3UB/18

a. Ch'ubl h . . . . . . I, U-U

&b/, /l/l/ /NIQUIR/l/ 3UB/7

286

286

286

286

286

287

287

287

287

287

287

287

287

288

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286

a. Ch'ubl h QUTII'', h Uhl/

b. CPUbl h NITI', Uhl,

288

288

448 Coinage of Cilician Armenia

c. Ch'ubl h \ll \ll', h Uh

d. Ch'ubl h NITU'', h UU

e. &hll h NITII?, h U

f. Ch'ubll h QUT II'', h UU

&b/, /ThU" foll?-ll/-/l/ 3UB

a. Ch'ubll h \ll'll!'}'', h U

b. Ch'ubl h \ll'll!?", h Uhl/

c. Ch'ubl h QUT II'', h Uh

d. Ch'ubl h QUTIQ,', h UU

e. Zhubl h \ll'll?", h U

&b/, /l/l/ /9II'llh/l/ All

a. Ch'ubl h QUT II'', h Uhl/

b. Ch'ubl h NITII'', h U

Errors, etc.

LEVON II

TRAMS

Hetoum-Zabel design coins with Ibh/1, inscription

'ill/'0'10/-/.ht, UB h

I.a. lbf/TL All?UR/l/ All/18 H

'ill//.7/)h/?hl, ll

I.a. Ibh/T, foll'UR/l/ All3/.

b. Ibh/", /NI'llh/l/ All

'ill/'0'l/lhR/.ht, ll

I.a. lbf/I'll foll?-ll/-/l/ &

Typical Levon II designLion turned left

Ib/7, foll?-ll/-/l/ Ill/'bullt, All 8U

288

288

288

288

288

288

289

289

289

289

289

289

290

290

290

290

290

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Chlbl.l. h "MI'll!?". Uhl h pl/RU U

spu232T /o xapur

6#7

G62

C6Z #62

C6Z t6z

#762

962

962

962

+762 962

962

z62

z62

z62

z6z

z6z

z62

z62

I6z

I6z

I6z

I6z

I6z

I6z O6z

1/1.1 milmil 'kill.il/, / Til{}^12 p

(110 ! T3. TLIl:/, / Til'?"12 o

"I (110 / "fill fly. I Til{}^12 q

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Ill (110 ! T:TLIl:/, / Tim'''12 B

//m2 Q9th/Q/Tim JUMIN, I'6/ QUTI

# 2010 / "fillilj 1 Til{}^12 p

I (1410 / ?:#TTLIl:/, / Til'? 'I', 'o

In "I (110 ! T:TLIl:/, / Til'''12 q

fl'If I 'TLIlf. I Til'? 'I', 'e

#112 Q9I47.(Tim JUMIN, Ikoy QUTI

milm I ?:#fllf. "1 Til'''12 "e

#112 Q971%). Tim JUMIN, Ikoy U-17

(110 ! :/TLIliff. I Til'?"I2 o

U/110 ! T3 ill.il/, / Til{}^12 q

(110 ! ?:#filily, 1 Til{}^12 "e

U8T12 1971??/Tim JUMIN, Ikoy U-Tl

/11/1 / ?:#Titly. "I Til'?"12 B

"...#112 Q9II'). Tim JUMIN, Iko/ QUT.

l milm 'l Q:#illily, 1 II'''12 q

In 1010 / .3.11bil:/, / Tim'''12 "e

(1911? Q9II'lfril JUMIN, Iko/ ?//17

Ill (110 ! Tillily, 1 Tim'''12 3

# Milm I ?:/Tully, 1 Til'?"I2 J

l (110 ! T:/TLIl:/, / TI'''12 a

"I (110 ! T'lTbil: "I Til'?"l? 'p

In Q3. Tliff. 1 Til'?"l2 o

MMT / Q.:#TLIl:/, / Tikr^42 q

/11/m I ?:#TTLIl:/, / Tim'''12 "e

U9/12 Q&T'MTim JUMIN, Iko/ ll/{Tl

6z

450

Coinage of Cilician Armenia

lbff, All'Alkm/ urbul, &u (..U)

. Ch'ubll h RUTII R', h Uhly hl/

. Ch'ubll h RII'll Ru h Uhly h

. Ch'ubll h RUQUAR, h Uhl/

. Ch'ubll h RUQUAR, h UU

. Ch'ubll h RII'll Ru h Uh

lbff, All?llRll/ U'bull3, 4U

a. Ch'ubll h RII'll Ru h Uhly h

lb/T, Pll'llh/l/ UU'bull&i, <

a. Ch'ublil h RUQUIRL h Uhly h

Ib/ri, All?AIR/l/ lll/'bull", ".

a. Ch'ubll h RII'll Ru h Uhly hl/h

b. Ch'ubll h RII'll Ru h Uhly h

c. Ch'ubll h RII'll Ru h Uhl/

d. Ch'ublil h RII'll Ru h Uh

Ib/T, All?llh/l/ IIII'b'Lll,

a. Ch'ubll h RII'll Ru h Uhl h

b. Ch'ubll h RIITU-R, Uhl/

c. Ch'ubll h RII'lll:Ru h Uh

Ib/T, All?llh/l/ lll/'bull&

a. Ch'ublil h RII'll RU h Uhl/

b. Ch'ubl.l. h RII'll Ru h Uh

Transitionmixed dies

Ib/), foll%UR/7/ III/'bullt, All&

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a. Ch'ubll h RUQUERL h Uhl/

lbf/T, 6/1%llh/l/ All&R/

a. Ch'ublil h RII'll Ru h Uhl/

295, 296

295, 296

295, 296

296

296

296

297

297

297

297

297

297

298

298

298

298

298

298

Index of Legends

45I

Ibh/7, foll'UR/l/ Alln

a. Ch'ubll h RII'll Ru h UU

Ibh/ri, All?llh/l/ AllU

a. Ch'ubll h RII'll Ru h Uhl,

b. Ch'ubll h Rll'lll:Ru h UU

c. Ch'ubll h RIITU-R UU

Lion turned right

Ibh/T, /NI'llh/l/ Allh/18

a., b. Ch'ubll h NI'll!'), h Uhl/

b. Ch'ubll h Rll'll Ru h Uhl/

c. Ch'ublil / RUITU-R), h Uhll:

lbf/1%, foll'llh/l/ All&R/

a. Chlbl.l. h RUQUIR, h Uhl/

lbf/T, All?IIR/l/ All&/18

a. Ch'ubll h RUTUR), h Uhl/

Ibh/1, f2lQUIR/l/ All 808

a. Ch'ubll h RII'lll:Ru h Uhl/

b. Ch'ubll h NI'll!?", h Uhl/

Ibh/T, /NI'llh/l/ Allll

a. Chlll h RIITU-R), h Uhl/

Ibh/7t, ANI'll R/l/ Alln

a. Ch'ubll h RII'll Ru h Uhl/

b. Ch'ubl.l. h "MI'll!'}\, h Uhl/

Ibh/7, All?llh/l/ Alll/

299

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299

299

299

299

300

300

300

300

3OI

3OI

3OI

3OI, 302

3OI, 302

a. Ch'ubll h RII'll Ru h Uhly h

b. Ch'ubll h RII'll Ru h Uhl/

302, 303

302, 303, 304

29

452 Coinage of Cilician Armenia

d. Ch'ubl h RUQUIR, h Uhl/

e. Zhu Bll h \ll'll', Uhl/ h

f. Chull h \ll'll'', h Uhl/

HALF TRAMS

Ib/Tuh (NIQUIR/m/

Ch'ubl h RII'll Ru Uhl/

lbf/ith /NIQUIR/l/

Uncertain

Struck with tram dies

COPPER COINS - KARDEZ

[Obv. LionRev. Cross]

Ibh/T, /NIQUIR/l/ 3UB/18U

a. Ch'ubll h RII'll Ru h Uhl/

Ibh/", /NI'll R/l/ &ll3/18/

a. Ch'ubll h Rll'll Ru h Uh

b. Ch'ubll h RII'll Ru h U

Ibh/T, PUQUIR/l/ All/18

a. publl h Rll'll Ru h Uhl/

b. Ch'ubll h RII'll Ru h Uh

c. Ch'ubll h RII'll Ru h U

Ib/7, foll'}ll/-/l/ All&/18

a. Ch'ubll h RII'll Ru h U

Ib/T, /NIQUIR/l/ All3UU

a. Ch'ubl.l. h RIITU-R), h Uhl/

303

3O4

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3O4

3O4

3O4

3O4

307

307

307

308

308

308

308

308

Index of Legends

453

lb/1%, 0ll?llh/l/ All&R/

a. Ch'ubll h Rll'll Ru h Uhl/

Ib/T, /NI'llh/l/ AllU/

a. Ch'ubll h RUQUIR), h U

lb/11, All?llh/l/ AllIU

a. Ch'ubll h RUQUIR), h U

Ib/T, All?llh/l/ AllU

a. Ch'ubll h RII'll Ru h Uh

b. Ch'ubll h RU'lll:Ru h U

lbf/1%, All'UR/l/ All&I)

a. Ch'ublil h RIITU-R), h

lbf/1%, All?llh/l/ All&Uhl/

a. Ch'ubll h RII'll Ru h Uhl/

lbf/1%, All?-ll/-/l/ 3UBU/

a. Ch'ubll / RU'lll:Ru h Up

lbf/1%, 0ll'UR/l/ All3U

308

309

309

309

309

309

3IO

3IO

a. Uncertain

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lh/7t, OU QUIR/l/ 3UB/

a. Ch'ubll h RUTII R', h U

lb/ft, All'UR/l/ &ll/

a. Uncertain

Ibnt, All'ilhm/ 38 (?)

a. publil / RU'll Ru h U

3IO

3IO

3IO

3IO

454 Coinage of Cilician Armenia

[Obv. CrossRev. Lion]

Ib/i/1", foll'll R/l/ All 808

a. Ch'ubll h RII'll Ru h Uhl/

b. Ch'ubll h RII'll Ru h Uh

lbf/1%, All?ll/m &ll/18

a. Ch'ubll h RU'lll:Ru Uhl/

lbh/", /NI'llh/l/ All

a. Ch'ublil h RU'll Ru h Uh

Ibh/T, PUQUR/l/ All&U (?)

a. Uncertain

150%, Pll'UR/ph &ll/18

a. AllSll h RII'll Ru h Uhl/

lb/7, foll'UR/l/ All/18

a. AllSll h RII'll Ru h Uhl/

Ib/7, foll%ll/7 <ll/18

a. AllStill h RII'll Ru Uhl/

Rare types

lub/, /NIQUIR/l/ Alll/

a. Ibh/Tu /\ll'.... <ll. . .

Ibh/T, 6/1%llh/l/ All/

a. Ibh/T, 0\ll \llh/l/ All3/18

Chlll h RUQUIR, U

a. . . . . . Tll:Ru h Uh

Lion turned right

Ibh/T, /NIQUIR/l/ All3/18

a. hlll h RII'll Ru h Uh

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3II

3II

3II

3II

3II

3II

312

3I2

3I2

3I2, 3I3

3I2, 3I3

3I3

Index of Legends

455

HETOUM II

BILLONS.

COPPER COINS - KARDEZ

King's head

&b//nhl/ /NIQUIR/l/ All&/18

a. Ch'ubll h \ll'll'), h Uhl/

b. Ch'ubll h QUTII?, h UU

c. Ch'ubll h NI'll!?", h Uh

&b/0/1/l/ /NIQUR/l/ 3UB/):

a. Ch'ubll h \ll'll'', h Uhl,

b. Uncertain

&B/9/7RU' foll'UR/l/ 3UB/)

a. Ch'ubll h \ll'll!?", h Uhl/

King seated

3I4, 3I5

3I5, 317, 319, 32O

315, 318

318

316, 318

316, 320

316, 318, 319, 320

b. Ch'ubll h \ll'll!?!, h UU 316

c. Ch'ubll h QUT II'', h Uh 316, 318,320

&b/, / Al/ /NIQUR/l/ 3UB:

a. Ch'ubll h QUT II'', h Uhl/ 316,319

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b. Ch'ubll h \ll'll?", h UU 316

c. Ch'ubll h NITI', h U 3I9

&b//nhl/ /NIQUIR/l/ All&

a. Ch'ublil h NI'll!?", h Uhl, 317, 320

b. Ch'ubll h QUTII'', h Uh 317

&b/7/7AU /NIQUR/l/ All

a. Ch'ubll h NI'll!'}'', h Uhl/ 317

b. Ch'ubll h QUT II'', h U 3I7

c. Chubill h NITI', h Uhuh (?) 317

d. Uncertain 320

&b//mhl/ /9IIQUIR/m. All

a. Ch'ubl h QUT II'', h Uh 32I

b. Ch'ubl h QUTIIQ. P U

32I

456

Coinage of Cilician Armenia

&b//nhl/ All?llh/m 2.

a. Ch'ubl h \ll \ll?, h Uh

&b//nhl/ /NIQUIR/m &

a. Ch'ubl h \ll'll!?, h U

<b//nhl/ /NIQUIR/m.

a. Ch'ubl h NI'll!?, h U

b. Ch'ubl h \ll'll!?. U

c. Ch'ublil h \ll'll!?.

d. Chlll h Uhl/

&b//nhl/ /NI'llh

. Ch'ubl h \ll'll!?, h

. Chlll h QUTIIQ.

. Ch'ubll h Uhl, QUIT.

. Ch'ubll h Uhly 'll

. Ch'ubll h Uhly Q.

f. Ch'ubll h Uhl/

3b//l/l/ /'ll'U'

a. Zhulill h Uhl/

b. 3b/9/7/.l/ foll'll

3b/3/RU /NI'll

. Ch'ubll h Uhl, NIT,

. Ch'ubl.l. h Uhly Qll

. Zhubill h Uhly Ql,

. Zhubill h Uhl/ Q.

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. Ch'ubll h Uhl/

. Ch'ubll h QUT II''}.

. Ch'ubll h \ll'll!?.

. Ch'ubl.l. h Uhl/h

. Ch'ubl h Uhl/

. <b/0/IRU foll'll/m/

&b/0/IRU (NIQ/7

l. 3b//nhl/ /NI'll

322,

322,

32I

32I

32I

324

323

324

32I

323

324

324

324

324

322

325

324

324

322

324

322

322

323

322

322

323

325

325

Index of Legends

457

&b//nhl/ /9II'l,

a. *b/, /mlil /NIQ.

&b/0/1/l/ /9II?.

a. Ch'ubll h Uhl/

b. Uncertain

&b//lhl/ /NIQ/7

a. Ch'ubl.l. h QUTII?.

SMPAD

[Levon I Tram Type]

UUTRIIS /NIQUIR/m &llm

a. Ill//.7/mh/?f, LIUS/IRI/

b. Ill/-/17/lh//, lll/S/IRI,

UU"RUS 0ll?/l/ 3U.8/18

a. Ill/'07/h/ full US/NAT/18

UUTRUS 01%llh/l/ All

a. Ill//.7/mk/fu IIUS/IRV/

b. Ill// ?/ R/2 ft, LIUSITT

UU'RUS 01%/m &ll3

a. Ill//.7/1/./9/#, IUS

UU'RIIS /NIQUIR/l/ Allfl

a. Ill//17/lh/9/#, IUS/IRT/18

b. 'ill/I'l/R//#, Ill/S/IR//

322, 325

323

323

325

326

326

326

326

326

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323

[King with cross in right hand and mace extending over left shoulder]

326

326

458

Coinage of Cilician Armenia

Ul/RIIS/NIQUIR/T &ll/18

a. Ill//.7/mh//, III/S/

Ul/RIIS /NI'll R/T &ll#/7

ill/P/17/lh/fi, UUSORT/18

ill//7/"R/8R, III/Smhn

ill//.7/Th/?f, lll/S/IRT

ill//.7/mh/f, Ill/S/NA

, Ill//.7/m/, //, UUS/

f. 'ill/P/17/nh/2,fu IIUS/

UUTRIIS /NI'll R/T All?

a. Ill// ?/ R//#, III/S/IRI/

Ul/RIIS /NIQ./l/ Allf)

a. Will/'0'1/l/i/%f, Ill/S/IRT

b. ill// '10R/8R, UIUS/T"

c. ill/I'l/mh/fi, IIIIS/NA

Ul/RIIS/NIQ/m &ll#/.

a. Ill// '10R/ fl. Ul/S/NA

Ul/RIIS /9/19/7 <ll3/

a. Ill/P/11/mh//, lll/S/IRT

b. Ill/P/I'l/lh/9/#, IUS/NA

UUALS /NIQ/7 <ll#

a. Ill/'0'10R/ full US/IR/l/

b. Ill//.T.M.R//ru IIIIS/NA

HALF TRAM

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Ul/RIIS/NIQUIR/m &

Uncertain

326

327

327

327

327

327

327

327

327

327

327

328

328

328

328

328

328

Index of Legends

459

COPPER COINS - KARDEZ

UUTRLIS/NIQUIR/l/ 3UB/7

a. Ch'ubll h RII'lll:Rh

b. Ch'ubl h RII'll R

URLIS/NIQUR/l/ All

a. Ch'ubl h RII'll R h Uh

b. Ch'ubl h RII'll RU

Ul/RIIS/NIQUIR/T &ll#0

a. Ch'ubl h RII'll Ru h UU

b. Ch'ubl h RII'll RU

c. Ch'ubl. RII'll R Uh

UUTRIIS foll'UR/T &ll/18

a. Ch'ubl h RII'll R /

UUTRIIS /NIQUIR/T &ll#

a. Ch'ubl h RII'll Ru UU

b. Ch'ubl h RII'll R Uh

c. Ch'ubl h RII'll Ru

328

328

329

329

329

329

329

329

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Ul/RIIS /NI'll R/T &II/7

a. Ch'ubl h RII'll RU

b. Ch'ubl fu'll R Uhl/

UU'RIIS/NIQUIR/T &ll

a. Ch'ubl RUTII R Uhl/

b. Ch'ubl h fl'll R h Uh/

c. Ch'ubl RLI'll R Uh/

d. Ch'ubl RU'll R Uh

e. &hlbl. RII'll R h U

329

329

329

330

33O

33O

330

33O

330

330

460

Coinage of Cilician Armenia

Ul/RIIS /\ll?-ll/-/n 4

a. Ch'ubl h RII'll RUU

b. Ch'ubl h RII'll R h U

c. Ch'ubl Kll'll RU

d. Ch'ubl h RII'll R h L

UUTRUS 0-l'Ilh/7

a. Ch'ubl RU'll R UPU

b. Ch'ubl RII'll R l,

UUTRLIS/NI'll// 3U

a. Uncertain

URLIS/NIQ/l/ &ll#/18

a. Ch'ubl h RII'll R h Uhl/

b. Ch'ubl h RII'll R Uhl/

c. Ch'ubl h RIITU-R Uh

d. publ. RII'll RU

UUTRIIS foll?.0/ 3UB/7

a. Ch'ubl h RII'll R Uh

b. Ch'ubl h RU'll R

Ul/RIIS foll?-fi/. All

a. Ch'ubl RUQUIf Uhl/

Ul/RIIS/NIQ/7 <ll3/18

a. Ch'ubl RII'll R Uhl/

b. Ch'ubl RII'll R h Uhl/

c. Ch'ubl. RII'll RU

330

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330

330

330

33I

33I

33I

33I

33I

33I

33I

33I

33L

332

UUTRLIS/NIQ/m 2/18/1

a. Ch'ubl RIITU-R Up

b. Ch'ubl. RII'll Ru h

332

332

332

332

332

Index of Legends

46I

UUTRIIS /NIQ/m &ll3

a. Ch'ubl Rll'll R Uhl/

b. Ch'ubl RU'll'R Uh

c. Ch'ubl RUQUIR U

UUTRIIS All?/m &ll'

a. Ch'ubl RUTII R Uhl/

b. Ch'ubl RII'll RU

c. Ch'ubl RII'll R /

UUTRUS 011%/m &ll

a. Ch'ubl RII'll f Uh/

b. Chll All'll R Uh

c. Ch'ubl. RII'll RU

Ul/RIIS /NIQ/m 2/

a. Ch'ubl h RII'll RU

UUTRIIS/NIQ/n 4

a. Ch'ubl RUQUIR Uh

b. Ch'ubl RLI'll R

URLIS/NIQ/n 4

a. Ch'ubl RII'll R U/

Rarity. Obv. & Publ Ru'll R Uh

Rev. Ch'ubl RIITU-R UPU

GOSDANTIN I

TRAMS

liml/Sl','khli,M//NIT All

a. Ill/07/1/./of, U.8 h/NIQ/7

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332

332

333

333

333

333

333

333

333

333

334

334

334

334

334

334

462

Coinage of Cilician Armenia

timuS/","kh", foll'Ulm &ll3/.

a. Ill//.7/mh/?fi, L H /NIQ/m

Timl/Sll","khli,M/ /'ll?/7 <ll6/18

a. Ill/P/17/nh/2,fu U8 l; All?/m

'imuS/","kh", /NIQ/m &ll08

a. Ill//.7/mk/ft, UB I Pll?/m

b. [ill/P/17/nh/2,fu U.8 k /NIQ.0/"

c. ill//.7/9.ht, Il A PUQUR/T

U//USUILT-Jill L/l/ /9/19/7 <ll/7

a. Ill//.7/k/fu II& B /NIQUIR/T

COPPER COINS - KARDEZ

U/USUI","khl. L/l/ /9'll 9.0

a. Ch'ubl Rll'll Ru h Uhl/

b. Ch'ubl %ll'll!?!, Uhl/

U/USII","khll L/l/ /9II?.

a. Ch'ubl RUTII R', Uhl. A

b. Ch'ubl %ll'll!'}}, Uhl h

II/7USUlt," hl) L/l/ /9II?./7

a. Ch'ubl QUT II'''), Uhly 5

LEVON III

TAKVORIN

Ibh/", /ll'llh/l/ All/18

334

335

335

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335

335

335

336

336

336

336

336,337, 338

337

a. Ch'ubll h RII'lll:Ru Uhl/ H.

b. Ch'ubll h RUQUIR, Uhl.

c. Ch'ubll h RII'lll:Ru Uhl/

d. Ch'ubl h RII'll Ru h Uhl/

337

338,339

Index of Legends

463

. Ch'ubl h RII'lllf: h Uhl/

. Ch'ubl h RII'll Ru Uhl,

. Ch'ubl KIITU-R), h Uhl/

. Ch'ubl h NI'll?", h Uhl/

. Ch'ubl h QUT II?. Uhl/

. Ghull h RII'll Ru h Uhl/

. Ch'ubll h RII'lll:Ru UFU

. Chlll h RII'll Ru Uh

. Ch'ubll h RU'lll:Ru U/

. Ch'ubll h RII'll Ru U

. Ch'ublil h RII'll Ru U.

lbf/n), /NI'll R/T All&/18

. Ch'ubll RU'll Ru h Uhly 5

. Ch'ubll h RII'll Ru h Uhl/

. Ch'ubll h NITII'', h Uhl/

. Ch'ubll fl!'ll Ru Uhl/

. Ch'ubll h RII'll Ru URU

. Ch'ubll h NITI', Uh

. Ch'ubll h RII'll Ru Uh

. Ch'ubll h \ll'll!'}\, U.

. Ch'ubll RUQUIR, UU

. Chubul. QUT.9%, UU

. Ch'ubll h RII'll Ru U.

lbff, Pll?llh/l/ &ll3/18

a.

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Ch'ubl h QUT II'', h Uhl/

lbf/T, /NIQUIR/l/ &ll/18

3.

b.

C.

d.

Ch'ubl h RUQUIRL h Uhl/

Ch'ubl h RITU-R), h Uh

Ch'ubl h RIITU-R), h UU

Ch'ubl h RUQUAR, Uhl/

lbh/1%, 0.1%ll R/T &ll/18

d.

b.

Ch'ubl h Kll'll Ru h Uhl/

Chubill h QUTU94, Uhly 5

339

339

338

339

339

339

337

338

337

337, 338

337,338

34I

340

340

340, 34I

340

340, 34I

340

34O

34I

34I

340

339

34I, 342

34I

34I

342

342

464 Coinage of Cilician Armenia

c. Ch'ubll h NI'll!?:, Uhl/

d. Ch'ubl h \ll'll!'}}, Uh

Ibh/T, Pll'NIR/l/ All#0

a. Ch'ubll RU'll't Uhl/

Ibh/", /NIQUR/T &ll3/]"

a. Ch'ubll h RII'll Ru Uhl/

b. Ch'ubll h RII'll Ru (RU

c. Ch'ubll h RII'll Ru Uh

d. Ch'ubll h RII'll Ru U

lbf/T, Oll'll R/T &ll{}M

. Ch'ubll h RII'll Ru h Uhl/

. Ch'ubll h Rll'll Ru Uhl/ /

. publl h RIITU-R), UPU P.

. Ch'ubll h NI'll'), Uhl/

Ch'ubll h \ll'U'i, Uh

. Ch'ubll, h \ll'll?-, U.

. Ch'ublil / RU'll!?:, U

. Ch'ubll h RII'll R b UU

. Ch'ubl h RII'll R h Uh

. Ch'ubll h QUTL17, U

k. Chull h \ll'll',

Ibh/T, foll'UR/l/ All?"

. Ch'ubll h \ll'll!'}}, Uhl/

. Ch'ubll h NITU'), URU

. Zhubill h RII'll Ru (RU

. Ch'ubll h \ll'll!?:, U.

342

342

342

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. Ch'ubll h \ll'U'i U

343

343

343

343

343

344

343

344

344

344

344

344

344

344

345

Ibh/7t, foll?-ll/-/7 <ll,

a. Ch'ubll h RII'll Ru UFU

b. Ch'ubll RII'lll:Ru Uhl/

345

345

345

345

345

345

345

Index of Legends

465

Ibh/7, ANIQUIR/T All

. Ch'ubll h RUQUIR, h Uhl/

. Ch'ubll h RII'll Ru Uhl/

. Ch'ubll h QUTL1%), Uh

. Ch'ubll h RU'lll:Ru Uh

. Ch'ubll h RU'lll:Ru U

lbf/it, foll'UR/l/ &ll

a. Ch'ubl h Rll'll Ru Uhl/

Ibh/T, Pll'UR/l/ All/

a. Ch'ubl RU'll Ru h Uhl h

b. Ch'ubl h RII'll Ru h Uhl/

Raritieserrors

Ibh/T, /NIQUIR/l/ All115 /

a. Ch'ubl h RII'll Ru h Uhl/

lbf/T, Pll'UR/l/ All/18

a. Ibh/", /NI'll R/l/ 4ll3/18

lbf/17, foll?-ll/-/l/ All 5/7/8

a. 4II'll h RII'll R. h Uhl,

346

346

346

346

346

346

347

347

347

347

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346

COPPER COINS - KARDEZ

Ibh/7, All?llh/l/ All?

a. Ch'ubll h \ll'll!?.

b. Ch'ubl.l. h "MITU's,

Ibh/7%, foll'UR/l/ All

a. Ch'ubll h \ll'll',

b. Ch'ubll h \ll'll!?.

c. Ch'ubll h QUT II'

d. Ibh/T, /NIQUIR/m/

350

350

347, 348

347, 348

347

35I

30

466

Coinage of Cilician Armenia

Ibhpt. All?AIR/l/ 4

a. Ch'ubll h \ll'll!?.

b. Ch'ubll h \ll \ll"

c. lbf/T, /ll'll R/l/

lbf/T, Oll'll R/m/

. Ch'ubll h \ll'll!?.

. Ch'ubl Rll'lll . . .

lbh/TL /NI'll R/l/ All&

lbf/it, foll'UR/l/

. Ibh/T, All?llh/l/ 3

Ibh/TL /9/19/IR/)

a. Ch'ublil h NITU9, U(?)

b. Chlbl. RII'lll . . .

Ibh/ri, /NI'll R/T &ll3

a. Ch'ubll h \ll \ll?",

Ibh/", /NIQUIR/T

a. Ch'ublil h \ll'll!?.

b. Ch'ubll h NI'll"

c. Ch'ubll h \ll'.

348

348

352

348, 349

35I

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352

352, 353

352

348

35I

349

d. Ch'ubll h \ll'llll,

e. Ibh/TL All?IIR/l/

Ibh, All?llji/n 4118

a. Ch'ubll h \ll'll!?, h U

b. Ch'ublil / NI'll

Ibhi, Pu'uk (?)

a. Ch'ubl h RII'lll:R

b. Qup/rimh/f, UU (?)

349

349

349

349

353

349

350

350

353

Index of Legends

467

Ibh/1%, All?llh"

a. Ch'ubll h RU'll Ru h

b. Ch'ubll h \ll'll

c. Ch'ubl . . .

lbf/I'l All?ll/

a. Ch'ubl . . .

OSHIN

TAKVORINS

Coronation trams

IIRhl, foll'UR/7/ 3U.8/18

a. Ill/'07/mh/?f Ilm

b. Ill/'07/mk/fu lltrim

c. ill/010R/ full& 5

d. Will/'0'10A/0/#, Ill/S/

e. Ill// 'lmk/fu lll/S

f. Ill//.7/mh/9R, LIV/

llhhl, /NI'll R/T &ll6/18

a. [ill/07/Th/?fu l'O/18

Ilhhl, foll'Uh/n 418/

a. Ill//.7/mh/9R), l0/0

350

350

350

35I

353

354

354

354

354

354

355

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354

Takvorins

UACh'u /NIQUIR/l/ 3UB/78

a. Ch'ubll h RU'lll:Ru Uhly 5

b. Chull U R p RII'll R Uhl/

c. Ch'ubll h RII'll Ru Uh

355

355

355

30

Coinage of Cilician Armenia

UACh'i, foll%llh/7 &ll3/18

a. Ch'ubll h RII'll Ru Uhl/ 355

b. Ch'ubl h RII'll Ru Uhl/ 355

c. Ch'ubll h RII'll RUFU 355

d. ? h UTUR Uh 356

e. Ch'ubll, RII'll Ru Uhl/ - 356

f. Ghull", h RII'll Ru Uhl/ 355, 356

g. Chult, h fulllfi, b UPU 356

h. Ghul h fil'll Ru Uhl/ 356

UACh'i, foll%llh/7 <ll#0

a. Ch'ubll h RII'll R Uhl/ 356

b. Ch'ubll h RII'll RUFU 356

c. Ch'ubl h RII'lll:Ru Uhl/ 356

d. Ch'ubl h RII'll R Uhl h 356

e. Chul h RII'll R Uhl/ 356

UACh'i, /NIQUIR/7 <ll#/.

a. Ch'ubll h NITU'), Uhl, H. 358

b. Ch'ubll h RII'll Ru Uhl/ 357

c. Ch'ubll h RII'll Ru U. 357

d. Ch'ubll h RIITU-R Uhl, 357

e. Ch'ubll h Rll'll RUFU 357

f. Ch'ubll h RII'll R Uh 356

g. Chult, h fulllfi, Uhuh 357, 358

h. Chull'O' h KUTVIR, Uhl/ 357, 358, 359

i. Chull"I h RII'lll:Ru Uh 357, 358, 359

j. Ghult, h fulllf, U 358, 359, 360

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k. Chull, h UTURL h 359

1. Chull, h h RII'll R Uhl/ 357

m. Chull" | H RUQUERL Uhl/ 358

n. Chull, H H RUQUIR U. 357

o. Chull'O' h h RII'll Ru Uh 358

p. 6 Pult, h RUQUER UPU 358, 359

q. Ch'ult, h fulllf. Uh 359

r. Chull, h RII'll RUU 359

Index of Legends

469

S.

t.

U1.

V.

W.

Ghull", h NITI', Uhly

Ghull", h QUTIQ,' UU

Chull, h QUTIIQ. Uh

Ch'ubl h RII'll Ru Uhl/

Chl h RII'll R. Uhl/

UACh', /ll'}llR/7 <ll3/?

. Ch'ubll h Rll'lll:Ru Uhl/

. Ch'ubll h RII'll Ru U.

. Ch'ubll h RII'll R Uhl/

. Ghull" | H RUQUER UPU

. Chull, k h RIITU-R), Uh

. Chull" | H RUTII:f UUh

. Ghult, h RIITU-R), Uh

. Ch'ubl h RII'll Ru h Uhl/

. Ghull h RIITU-Ru Uhl/

. Ch'ulty h UTII:R U.

llhhl, All?-ll/-/7 <ll3/

a. Ch'ublil h RII'll R Uh

llhhl, /NI'll R/7 <ll#

. Zhu Bll I RII'll Ru h U

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. &hlll h RII'll R Uhl/

. Ch'ubll h RII'll Ru Uh

. Ch'ubl.l. h RII'll Ru U

. Ghull, k h RII'llf. Uhl,

. Chull" | H RUQUAR, Uh/

. Ghull, H H RUQUAR, Uh

. Ghull" | H RUQUERL U.

. Chull"; h RII'll Ru Uhl/

. Ghull, h RII'll Ru Uh

. Ch'ult, h RII'll Ru U.

. Ch'ult, h RII'll Ru U

. Chull", h RII'll R Uhl,

359

358

359

359

357

361

360

360

360

360

361

360, 361

360

360

36I

36I

363

362

362

362,363

362

362

362

362

361

36I, 362,363, 364

362, 364

363

36I, 363

470

Coinage of Cilician Armenia

n. Ghull, h RII'll R Uh

o. Ch'ubl h RII'll Ru Uhl/

p. 6 publ h RUTII R, IRU

q. Chull h RUQUAR, Uhl/

UACh'i, /NIQUIR/7 <ll

a. Ch'ublil h RII'll Ru Uhl,

b. Ch'ubll h RIITU-R), U

c. Chull, h RII'll R Uh

d. Chull, h RITU-R UU

Oshin Takvorins with Arabic surcharge

COPPER COINS - POGHS

Ulhht, foll'}-ll/-/l/ All 808

a. Ch'ubll h RUTII R', Uhl/

Ulhht, /NIQUIR/7 <ll#

a. Ch'ubl h RII'll RU

b. Chull h \ll'll!?", h

UACh', foll'UR/7 &ll

a. Ch'ubll RU'll'R U.

b. Ch'ubll, RII'll RU

c. Chult, k h fulllf (?)

d. Ch'ubll h . . . . .

e. Ghull # h RIITU-R),

uRh, Pll'UR/T (?) &/

363

362

362

364

364

364

364

368

365

367

367

365

365

365

367

367

366

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362

a. . . . . . . UTL1%', Uhl/

Ulhht, /ll'}llh/7 <

a. Ch'ubl h \ll'll!?. U.

b. Chull.W. A h RUTIIf:

c. Chull'O' h . . . . .

367

366

368

Index of Legends

47I

UACh'L /9II'll R/7

a.

b.

Chull.W. H. RITU-R U

Chull" | RIT, UU

LEVON IV

TAKVORINS

lbf/I', All?llR/T &ll&R/18

a.

Ch'ublil h RII'll Ru h Uh

lbf/I', 'NI'll R/l/ All 8/16

a. Ch'ubll h RUTII Ru h U

lbf/n), /NIQUIR/T &ll3/18

. Ch'ublil h RIITU-R), h Uhl/

. Ch'ubll h RUTII R', h Uh

. Ch'ubll h RII'll Ru h U

. Ch'ubll h RII'lll:Ru Uhl/

. Ch'ubll h RII'll Ru UU

. Ch'ubll h RUQUIR, U

. Ch'ubll h RIITU-R Uhl/

. Ch'ublil RII'll Ru h U

lbf/1, Pll'UR/T Alln

. Ch'ubll h RUTII R', h Uhl/

. Ch'ubll h RII'll Ru h U

. Ch'ubll h RU'lll:Ru Uhl/

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. Ch'ubll / RUITU-Ru U.

. Ch'ubll h RU'lll:Ru U

. Ch'ubll h RU'll R Uhl/

. Ch'ubll h RII'll RUU

. Chull, h fl'll R Uhl/

366

366

368

368

368, 369

368

369, 370, 372

368, 370, 372

368

370

368, 369

369

37I

370, 37I, 372, 373

370, 37I

372

373

370

372

373

472 Coinage of Cilician Armenia

Ibh/", All?UR/T &Il

a. Ch'ubll h RII'lll:Ru h Uh

b. Ch'ubll h RII'll Ru h U

c. Ch'ublil RII'lll:Ru h U

d. Ghull U h . . . . . . . . .

Lion turned left

COPPER COINS - POGHS

Ibh/]", Pll'llh/l/ All&/18

a. Uncertain

lbf/", foll'UR/l/ All&n

a. Ch'ubll h RU'll R

Ibh/1, foll'UR/l/ All3

a. Ch'ubll h RII'll R h Uh

b. Ch'ublil h RII'll R h

c. Ch'ublil h QUT II'',

Ibh/TL /NIQUR/l/ All

a. Uncertain

Ibh/", foll%llh/l/ 3

a. Ch'ubl h Rll'lll:R

b. Ch'ubl h \ll'll!'}},

c. Ch'ubll h RII'll f:

d. Ibh/1%, 0\ll \llh/m/,

Ibh/TL /NIQUR/l/

a. Ch'ubl h RII'll Rh

b. Ch'ubl h RU'll RU

Ibh/1%, 0ll'UR/T &ll3/18

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a. Uncertain

373,

375,

374

373

374

374

374

374

377

378

378

378

378

377

375

378

38o

378

375

378

Index of Legends 473

lbh/1%, All'll R/T &ll3/.

a. Ch'ublil h RU'll Ru h Uhl/ 379

b. Ch'ubll h RII'll Ru h UU 379

c. Ch'ubll h RUTII R', h U 379

d. Ch'ubl h \ll'll!'}}, h Uhl/ 375

e. Ch'ubl h \ll'll!?, h Uh 375

f. Ch'ubl h RU'll R Uh 376

g. publ RUTUR LAU 376

h. Ch'ubl.l. h RITU-R

lbh/1%, All?-ll/-/n 4113

a. Ch'ubll h RII'll Ru h U 379

b. Ch'ublil h NITU%), 377

c. Ch'ubl h RII'lll:Ru . . . . . . 377

d. Ch'ubl h fil? If h Uh 376

e. &hlbl. RIITU-R), U 377

lbh/1%, foll%ll R/T &ll

a. Ch'ubl h \ll \ll', Uh 376

b. Ch'ubl h RIITU-R Uhl/ 376

c. Ch'ubl h RII'll fl. 377, 379

d. Ch'ubll h \ll'll UFU 377

lbh/77, ANIQUA/7 <

a. Ch'ubl h Rll'll Ru 377

b. Chubill h fulllfu (?) 377

Ibhn, 0.1%uhm (?)

a. Ch'ubl RU'll Ru Uh 376

b. Uncertain 38o

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lhl, foll?-ll/-/7 <ll#/7

a. Ch'ubll h RII'll Ru h UU 38o

Ch'ubll h All? . . .

a. Chub. . . . . . IITU-R h 380

Levon IV Takvorins with Arabic surcharge 380

474 Coinage of Cilician Armenia

GUY

TAKVORINS

Th /NIQUR/l/ Allm

. Ch'ublil h RII'lll:Ru Uhl/

. Ch'ubll All'll fu h Uhl/

. Ch'ubll h RII'lll:Ru Uh

. Ch'ubll h RII'll Ru U

. Ch'ublil h fulllf, h U (?)

f. Ch'ubll RII'll Ru Uh

lih All?-ll/-/7 <ll8/18

a. Ch'ubll h Rll'lll:Ru Uhl/

b. Ch'ubll h RII'll Ru Uh

c. Ch'ubll h RU'lll:Ru UU

d. Ch'ubll h RII'll Ri U

Gh All?AIR/l/ 3UB/)

a. Ch'ubll h RII'll Ru Uh

th Pll?-ll/-/7 <ll#/.

a. Ch'ubll, RII'll Ru Uhl/

b. Ch'ubll h RII'll Ru Uh

COPPER COINS - POGHS

Uh Oll?-ll/-/m &ll#/.

Ch'ubll, RII'll Ru

GOSDANTIN III

TAKVORINS

Struck in Tarsus

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ly/7USU L'h', foll'}/7

Ch'ublil RII'll!", SU.

38o

38o

381

381

381

381

381

381

38I

381

381

382

382

382

382

Index of Legends

475

Tifi'l/SU L'kht, /9'll'."

Ghull RU'... Sl/"

li/TUSII'). H', /9II?-f)

Chull RUQUIRS/

q/ml/S",' ht, /NIQ/

Ghulll . . . . . SU/?

'iml/S/L7/5, /NIQ.

Ch'ubl h RII'll R SI/

'i/1US/','k', . . . .

Chubill h RII'll Ru h S/

H/NIST,'..ht, /9'll

- - - - 'RUQUIR, SII/

H/TUSL'h', /9/7

Chull RUT, SII/

li/NUS),ht, /9'll'.I)

Ghull RUQUIR Sl

li/TU"). Lhl, fNIQ./7

&hlll h RITU-R SII

/71/7. LPL /9II?, ?

Ghul.(?) fulllf, Su/"Un

Struck in Sis

li/TUSU'L'.ht, foll', 3R8

&hlll RUTII R, Uh

II/7USU L'/'t, foll'. I

Ch'ublil RII'll Ru Uh/

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Ch'ubll, RII'll Ru Uh

Ch'ubl. RII'll R Uh

382

382

383

383

383

383

383

383

384

383

384

384

384

384

Coinage of Cilician Armenia

'i/NJSU","kh", /79, 38/18

Ch'ublil RII'lll:Ru Uh/

Ch'ubll RII'lll:Ru Uh

Timl/SU,7/5, /9% 4/18

& Publl RUQUIR, Uh

Chbll RUQUIR, h

limljSl!","kh", /3% &h

Ghull RUQUIR, Uh

li/TUSll","kh", /3%. I

Ch'ublil RII'll R. Uhly h

Ghull RII'll R. Uh/

Ch'ublil RIITU-R Uh

10USULT ht, /9%. 8

Chull h RUTII R', Uh

'i/1US('L'khl, All?, 4

Uncertain

'i/US/","kh", AlI'll

&Pubul fuTufu (?)

'iml/S/","kh", /NIQ/m

Ch'ubl RUQUIR, Uh

'i/1US!","kh", /NIQ.

Ch'ubl I RUQURL UU

'i/ml/S/"L'h', '6%ll

Ch'ubll h KUTUR

Timl/S/"L'h', /9%/m

& Publil h RUQUIf, h

384

384

384

385

385

385

385

385

385

385

386

386

386

386

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384

Index of Legends

477

'imuSgt."ht, 4. Alln (?)

Ch'ubll, RII'll Ru Uh

'iml/SC,' hu / 38/18

&hlbl.l. h RII'll Ru Uh

'imus','kh, 0%. 380 (?)

Ch'ubl h RUTII R' U

W/US("L'h', 7, 28

Chubill h TURL Uh

'iml/S/L7.ht, / Q. All

Chubul RuTuft, h U (?)

Ch'ublil RII'll Ru h

Chull RUTII R', Uh

q/ml/S("L'h', 7, h

Uncertain

'iml/Sou%h", "Q &

Ghull (?) RII'll Ru U

Chull h RUQUIf:

li/Il/ST'Lht, foll'). 3/

Ch'ublil h RUQUAR), I

Chull h RUQUIR h U

'i/NIS('L', 6%/n 48

Ghull h Rll'll Ru U

"iml/S/L', /7/7 &

Chull h fl!?II:f U

386

386

387

387

387

387

387

387

387

387

388

388

388

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386

478

Coinage of Cilician Armenia

timl/S/L', All?/)

Ch'ubll h Rll'lll:Ru h

II/NIS','l', A7, 48

Chull h RII'll RU

Ghull RUTII:R Uh

Unl/ST.J.", foll'}llh/l/

Ch'ubll, RII'll Ru h L

timS," ht, /*k/m/

Ghull h RII'll Ru h U h

limS("L'h', / 9:0

&bull h fulf. Up (?)

timSt","kh". All?.

Ghull RU'll RU

limS(L'h', /*}. 48

Ghull h RII'll Ru Uh

Ch'ubl RUTII: Uh

limSou%h, O'Q.

Ch'ubl h RII'lll:R

&bull Ru'luf h (?)

th/S","kh", foll%llh/7 <ll

Ch'ubl h RII'll Ru h Uh

/NS","kh'L /9II'llh/7/?

- - - - - - *II'll R. Uh

388

388

388

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388

389

389

389

389

389

389

389

389

389

Index of Legends

479

*if S\,'kh", foll%llh/7 48

Chubill h KUTVIR, Uh/

Ch'ubll h Kll'll Ru U

'Scu'.ht, Pu'ukm 48 (?)

Ch'ubl fulllf, Uhly h (?)

WS/","kh", /*} <ll3/18

Ch'ubll RU'lll:Ru Uh/

Ch'ubll RUTII R', Uh

"S","kh", . . . 4/18

Uncertain

li/TS/\,'k', /9% &ll#08

Chull h RUTII R', U

'insaw", " 48 (?)

Ghull h RuTuft, (?)

/MS,74, foll?IIR/7 &ll

Ch'ubll RUTII R, Uhl/

/"S",'', foll?-ll/-/n 48

Chubul h fuTufu (?)

Ghull h RUTR, Uh

- - - - - 'RUTII:R, h Uhly

Ch'ubll RUTII R', Uh

'inst", "I'll//n 4(?)

- - - - - RUQUERL h Uhl/

Chull RU'lll:Ru Uhl/

Chubill fTU-R), U

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390

390

390

390

390

390

390

39I

39I

39I

39I

39I

39I

39I

39I

39I

480

Coinage of Cilician Armenia

/TS",'", All", 28

Ch'ubll h RII'll R h Uh

unsu", fou'll R/T (?)

Chubill h RII'll R Uh

U/TSQ,\, f^*} <ll#/18

Chubill h RU'll Ru U

&publil h RIITU-Ru Up (?)

unug,', (4/m 28

Ch'ubl RUQUIR, Uh

U/USQ (NIQUIR/7 <ll3

Chubill RII'll Ru h Uh

U/TU"). ONIQUIR/7 <3

Ch'ubll RII'll Ru h Uh

unus(?,'?)P, All&nd

Chubill h RU'll-Ru Uhl/

Chubull h II'll Ru Uh

th/nl/S'', foll'. All 8

Chubl RLITU-R / Uh

US0%, P.T. 2U808

Ch'ubll RII'lll:Ru Uh

Ch'ublil RII'lll:Ru U

Ch'ublil h RII'lll:Ru Uh

Ch'i,. . . RII'll RU

39I

392

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392

392

392

392

392

392

392

393

393

393

393

Index of Legends

48I

COPPER COINS - POGHS

Struck in Tarsus

II/NISII","kh", foll'.

Ch'ubl h RII'l SI/

Struck in Sis

li/TUSU'L'.ht, /9% &ll#/18

Ch'ubl fl'II'f'', Uh

'iml/S("L'h', /9%. 3

Ghull RUQUIR, U

'iml/S/"L'h', / Q.

- - - - - 'RITU-R . . .

S/"L'kht, foll'll R/m/

Uncertain

'S/"kh", /37/n 4

Ch'ubll h RUQUIR, U

'i/Sv% (?) 0.1%llR/n 4

Ch'ubll RUTII R' U

'i/?USI. . . . . . . .

Uncertain

'I/7U. . . . . . < . . /9'll?.

hu. . . . . . . . .

393

393

394

394

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394

394

394

394

395

31

482

Coinage of Cilician Armenia

LEVON THE USURPER

TAKVORINS

Ibsl/I'l, All'll R/T All&/18

Chull h KUTII:ft, h Uhl/

Ch'ubll h RII'll Ru h Uh

Ch'ubll J, RII'lll:Ru h Uh

Ch'ubll h RII'll Ru h U

Ibslf", foll'll R/T Allm

Ch'ubll h RII'll Ru h Uh

Ch'ubll h RII'll Ru h U

Ibslf", All?ll//m &ll/

Ch'ubll h RUTII:R, h Uh

Ibslf", Pll'll R/T &ll3

Ch'ubll h RII'll Ru h Uhl/

Ch'ubl h RII'll Ru h Uh

&hlbl.l. h RII'll Ru h U

Ch'ublil h RII'll Ru h /

Ch'ubl RII'll Ru h U

Ch'ubll h RII'll Ru h

Ibslf", /NI'll R/T &ll/

Ch'ubl h RUTII), h Uhl/

Ch'ubl h RU'll Ru h Uh

Chubu h RUQUIR, h U

Ch'ubl h RII'll Ru h U

396,

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396,

395

395

395

396

396

396

396

397

397

397

397

397

Ibsl/), foll'NIR/T &ll

Ch'ubl h RII'll Ru h Uhl/

Ch'ubll h RUQUAR), Uh

Ch'ubll h RII'll Ru h U

Ch'ubl h RIITU-R), Uh

Ch'ubl h RII'll fu h U

397

397

397

397

397

397

397

398

396

Index of Legends

483

<