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Group #:

Members:
14

Class Schedule:

Three (3)
Arellano, Lory Mae

Date Performed: 09-05-14


Date Submitted: 09-12-

Dagondon, Vanessa Olga


Jomocan, Christine Anne
TF 8:30 10:00

Experiment 1
MEASUREMENT
I. OBJECTIVE
To measure linear dimensions using different measuring devices, namely: the
straight rule, the Vernier caliper, and the micrometer caliper.
II. APPARATUS
Vernier Caliper
Micrometer Caliper
Ruler
Materials to be measured:
Hollow and solid cylinders
Metal balls
5 centavo coin
Rectangular block
III. Method:
Various instruments with Vernier scales and micrometer screws are examined. The
least count is determined and readings taken with each instrument. Vernier and
micrometer calipers are used to measure certain lengths. The relative errors made in
measuring a given length by various devices are estimated.
IV. PROCEDURE
1. Use the straight rule, the Vernier caliper, and the micrometer calliper to measure
the linear dimensions of different geometric objects as specified below. Tabulate
your data in the given tables.
A. STRAIGHT RULE
a. length, width, thickness of the metal block
b. height and diameter of the solid cylinder
c. outer height and outer diameter of the hollow cylinder
d. Inner diameter of the hollow cylinder
B. VERNIER CALIPER
a. length, width, thickness of the metal block
b. height and diameter of the solid cylinder

c. outer height and outer diameter of the hollow cylinder


d. inner height and inner diameter of the hollow cylinder
e. diameter of the metal sphere
C. MICROMETER CALIPER
a. length, width, thickness of the metal block
b. height and diameter of the solid cylinder
c. outer diameter of the hollow cylinder
d. diameter of the metal sphere
2. Compute for the volume of each object using the measurements of each device. Show
your computations below their respective tables
IV. DATA AND RESULTS
TABLE 1. METAL BLOCK
INSTRUME
LENGTH
NT
(mm)
STRAIGHT
48.0
RULE
VERNIER
48.00
CALIPER
MICROMET
n/a
ER
CALIPER
V=lwt
Calculations:

WIDTH
(mm)
24.9

THICKNESSS
(mm)
12.8

VOLUME
(mm3)
15298.6

25.00

12.70

15240

24.900

12.690

n/a

where: l = length,w = width, t = thickness

Volume
V straight ruler = (48.0 mm) (24.9 mm) (12.8 mm) = 15298.6 mm3
V vernier caliper = (48.00 mm) (25.00 mm) (12.70 mm) = 15240 mm3
Statistical Analysis
Mean =

Standard Deviation =

mean

Standard
deviation

Standard
conclusion
deviation of the
mean (s/(n)1/2)

width

24.93

0.15

0.03

No significant
differences

thickness

0.05

0.06

0.04

No significant
differences

TABLE 2. SOLID CYLINDER


INSTRUMENT
HEIGHT
(mm)
STRAIGHT
22.0
RULE
VERNIER
22.30
CALIPER
MICROMETER
22.200
CALIPER
V = r2 h
Calculations:
16.0
V straight ruler = () ( 2
V

vernier caliper = () (

micrometer caliper

VOLUME
(mm3)
1408

15.90

1409.42

15.850

1394.285

where: = 3.1416

r = radius

h = height

mm) 2 (22.0 mm) = 1408 mm3

15.90
2

= () (

DIAMETER
(mm)
16.0

mm) 2 (22.30 mm) = 1409.42 mm3

15.850
2

Statistical Analysis
Mean =

mm) 2 (22.200 mm) = 1394.285 mm3

Standard Deviation =

mean

Standard
deviation

Height

22.17

0.15

Standard
deviation of
the mean (s/
(n)1/2)
0.09

diameter

15.92

0.08

0.05

TABLE 3. HOLLOW CYLINDER


INSTRUME
OUTER
OUTER
NT
HEGHT
DIAMET
(mm)
ER
(mm)
STRAIGHT
61.0
19.0

conclusion

No significant
difference
No significant
difference

OUTER
VOLUM
E (mm3)

INNER
HEIGHT
(mm)

INNER
DIAMETER
(mm)

5505.3

n/a

9.0

INNER
VOLUME
(mm3)

RULE

VERNIER
CALIPER
MICROMET
ER
CALIPER

61.0

19.10

n/a

5563.35

19.10

40.80
n/a

9.40

901.27

n/a

Calculations:
Outer Volume
V

straight ruler

= () (

vernier caliper

19.0
2

mm) 2 (61.0 mm) = 5505.3 mm3

19.10
2

= () (

mm) 2 (61.0 mm) = 5563.35 mm3

Inner Volume
V

vernier caliper

9.40
2

= () (

mm) 2 (40.80 mm) = 901.27 mm3

Statistical Analysis
Mean =

mean

Outer diameter 19.07

TABLE 4. METAL SPHERE


INSTRUMENT
VERNIER CALIPER
MICROMETER
CALIPER
V = (4/3) r3
Calculations:

Standard Deviation =

Standard
deviation

0.06

Standard
deviation of
the mean (s/
(n)1/2)
0.03

DIAMETER
(mm)
19.00
19.000

where: = 3.1416

conclusion

No significant
difference

VOLUME
(mm3)
1143.17
1143.167

r = radius

4
19.00
= ( 3 ) () (
2

straight ruler

vernier caliper

mm) 3 = 1143.17 mm3

4
19.000
= ( 3 ) () (
2

mm) 3 = 1143.167 mm3

Statistical Analysis
Mean =

diameter

Standard Deviation =

Mean

Standard
Deviation

19.0

Standard
deviation of
the mean (s/
(n)1/2)
0

Conclusion

No significant
difference

QUESTIONS:
1) A scale whose smallest division is 1 cm is to be provided with a vernier scale
that will enable fifths of centimetre divisions to be accurately estimated. How
many vernier divisions should be used, and how long will each one be?
Based on the problem, there will be 5 divisions in the vernier scale.
Let

n be the number of divisions in the vernier scale


V be the length of one division on the vernier scale
S be the length of the smallest scale division

Given: S = 1 cm or 10 mm; n = 5
Find: Least count = S V = 1/n S
= (1/5) (10mm) = 2 mm or 0.02cm
Each division will be 2mm long.

2) A micrometer caliper has a zero error such that as the jaws are closed the zero
mark on the sleeve turns 0.05 mm past the zero on the main scale. The reading of
the instrument is 7.82 mm. What is the correct reading?
The uncertainty in the original reading is 0.05mm. Therefore, we can say that the
correct reading is 7.87 mm or 7.77 mm.

V. OBSERVATION AND DISCUSSION

A certain object has no exact measurement. However, this measurement can still
be identified if not exactly but accurately with the use of devices or instruments that can
measure objects yielding only a small value for its uncertainty (e. g. straight rule, vernier
caliper, micrometer caliper).
The task in the experiment was to measure four (4) objects (metal bock, solid
cylinder, hollow cylinder, and metal sphere) using three (3) different measuring devices
already mentioned above.
The first instrument used was a straight rule. The straight rule was 10 decimeters
long with 10 divisions measuring 1 centimetre each. The second instrument was the
vernier caliper. Values reported in the data were in tenths place. A vernier caliper is a
slide type measuring instrument that can measure the inside, outside and depth of a
certain object. Compared to that of the straight rule, it is much more flexible in
measuring other complex objects (e. g. hollow cylinder in the experiment). It is observed
in the tables above that there are boxes labelled as n/a. This is due to the limitations
of the measuring device used. As seen, there is no n/a under vernier caliper. This
proves its reliability in terms of measuring difficult objects than the other two measuring
devices. Values reported are in hundredths place. This makes this more accurate than
that of the straight rule. The third device used was the micrometer caliper. As the name
suggests, it can be deduced that it widely used to measure smaller objects, thus putting
a limitation on the objects it can measure. However, the measurement being reported
using this device is in the thousands decimal place and therefore, compared to the other
instruments, it is the most accurate.
Vernier caliper and micrometer caliper are examples of calipers. A caliper is an
instrument with two jaws, widely used to determine the dimensions of linear dimensions.
Both of these instruments uses two scales, one main scale and the vernier scale. These
two scales are related to each other and therefore would increase the reliability of the
estimate of the measurement. Usually, a vernier scale has ten divisions and nine
divisions on the main scale. To sum up, the vernier scale makes the reading of the
measurement accurate than common devices such as the straight rule that will give us
only the rough estimate.
Over the previous paragraphs, the differences between the three instruments were
being tackled. In the experiment however, the values being reported does not have a
significant difference. The standard deviation computed in every table yielded a value
close to zero thus proving that the instruments used in doesnt have that much
difference. Thus, the measurements tabulated are precise.

VI. CONCLUSION:
Accuracy in a measurement is very crucial in our daily life. Living in the world
without proper measurement is unbearable not to mention unimaginable. This is why
scientists keep creating instruments and devices that can measure an object accurately

and precisely. In the experiment, three instruments for measurements were introduced the straight rule, the vernier caliper, and the micrometer caliper. All of these instruments
are good estimate in determining the measurement of an object. However, it should
always be noted that these devices have their own limitations. For example, the
micrometer cannot measure the depth of hollow cylinder. In this dilemma, we should
always put into consideration the type of object measured and the kind of device used.

Sources: http://physics.bk.psu.edu/teaching/LabManuals/Physics211/Measurement
%20Instructions.pdf
https://www.physics.upenn.edu/uglabs/lab_manual/Error_Analysis.pdf