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http://earthobservatory.nasa.gov/Features/Deforestation/deforestation_update2.

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by Rebecca Lindsey design by Robert Simmon March 30, 2007


Stretching out from the equator on all Earths land surfaces is a wide belt of forests
of amazing diversity and productivity. Tropical forests include dense rainforests,
where rainfall is abundant year-round; seasonally moist forests, where rainfall is
abundant, but seasonal; and drier, more open woodlands. Tropical forests of all
varieties are disappearing rapidly as humans clear the natural landscape to make
room for farms and pastures, to harvest timber for construction and fuel, and to build
roads and urban areas. Although deforestation meets some human needs, it also
has profound, sometimes devastating, consequences, including social conflict,
extinction of plants and animals, and climate changechallenges that arent just
local, but global. NASA supports and conducts research on tropical forests from
space-based and ground-based perspectives, helping provide the information that
national and international leaders need to develop strategies for sustaining human
populations and preserving tropical forest biodiversity.

Impacts of Deforestation:
Biodiversity Impacts
Although tropical forests cover only about 7 percent of the Earths dry land, they
probably harbour about half of all species on Earth. Many species are so specialized
to microhabitats within the forest that they can only be found in small areas. Their
specialization makes them vulnerable to extinction. In addition to the species lost
when an area is totally deforested, the plants and animals in the fragments of forest
that remain also become increasingly vulnerable, sometimes even committed, to
extinction. The edges of the fragments dry out and are buffeted by hot winds; mature
rainforest trees often die standing at the margins. Cascading changes in the types of
trees, plants, and insects that can survive in the fragments rapidly reduces
biodiversity in the forest that remains. People may disagree about whether the

extinction of other species through human action is an ethical issue, but there is little
doubt about the practical problems that extinction poses. First, global markets
consume rainforest products that depend on sustainable harvesting: latex, cork, fruit,
nuts, timber, fibers, spices, natural oils and resins, and medicines. In addition, the
genetic diversity of tropical forests is basically the deepest end of the planetary gene
pool. Hidden in the genes of plants, animals, fungi, and bacteria that have not even
been discovered yet may be cures for cancer and other diseases or the key to
improving the yield and nutritional quality of foodswhich the U.N. Food and
Agriculture Organization says will be crucial for feeding the nearly ten billion people
the Earth will likely need to support in coming decades. Finally, genetic diversity in
the planetary gene pool is crucial for the resilience of all life on Earth to rare but
catastrophic environmental events, such as meteor impacts or massive, sustained
volcanism.
Soil Impacts
With all the lushness and productivity that exist in tropical forests, it can be surprising
to learn that tropical soils are actually very thin and poor in nutrients. The underlying
parent rock weathers rapidly in the tropics high temperatures and heavy rains, and
over time, most of the minerals have washed from the soil. Nearly all the nutrient
content of a tropical forest is in the living plants and the decomposing litter on the
forest floor.
When an area is completely deforested for farming, the farmer typically burns the
trees and vegetation to create a fertilizing layer of ash. After this slash-and-burn
deforestation, the nutrient reservoir is lost, flooding and erosion rates are high, and
soils often become unable to support crops in just a few years. If the area is then
turned into cattle pasture, the ground may become compacted as well, slowing down
or preventing forest recovery.

Social Impacts
Tropical forests are home to millions of native (indigenous) people who make their
livings through subsistence agriculture, hunting and gathering, or through low-impact
harvesting of forest products like rubber or nuts. Deforestation in indigenous
territories by loggers, colonizers, and refugees has sometimes triggered violent
conflict. Forest preservation can be socially divisive, as well. National and
international governments and aid agencies struggle with questions about what level
of human presence, if any, is compatible with conservation goals in tropical forests,
how to balance the needs of indigenous peoples with expanding rural populations
and national economic development, and whether establishing large, pristine,
uninhabited protected areaseven if that means removing current residents
should be the highest priority of conservation efforts in tropical forests.

Climate Impacts: Rainfall and Temperature


Up to thirty percent of the rain that falls in tropical forests is water that the rainforest
has recycled into the atmosphere. Water evaporates from the soil and vegetation,
condenses into clouds, and falls again as rain in a perpetual self-watering cycle. In
addition to maintaining tropical rainfall, the evaporation cools the Earths surface. In
many computer models of future climate, replacing tropical forests with a landscape
of pasture and crops creates a drier, hotter climate in the tropics. Some models also
predict that tropical deforestation will disrupt rainfall pattern far outside the tropics,
including China, northern Mexico, and the south-central United States.
Most of these climate predictions of decreased rainfall are based on a uniform and
virtually complete replacement of tropical forests with pasture and cropland.
However, deforestation often proceeds in a patchwork fashionclearings that
branch off roads in a fishbone pattern, for example, or deforested islands within a
sea of forest. On these local scales, deforestation may actually increase rainfall by
creating heat islands that enhance the rising and overturning of air (convection)
that leads to clouds and rain. Clouds and rainfall becomes concentrated over
clearings. Whether the localized enhancement of rainfall will persist as larger as
areas of forest are cleared is not currently known. Answers may come from more

sophisticated climate models that accurately represent the patchwork progression of


partially deforested landscapes.

2.0 ACQUISITION OF KNOWLEDGE

2.1 Task A
i.

Although deforestation meets some human needs, it also has profound,


sometimes devastating, consequences, including social conflict, extinction of
plants and animals, and climate changechallenges that arent just local, but
global.

Some is the adjective of quantity. This type of adjective is word that tells you how
much or how many. For example, there are few passengers left in the bus.
ii.

Cascading changes in the types of trees, plants, and insects that can survive
in the fragments rapidly reduces biodiversity in the forest that remains.

Cascading is the verb adjective. This adjective is ing verb used as adjectives to
describe a state/condition/usage. For example, the starving child.
iii.

If the area is then turned into cattle pasture, the ground may become
compacted as well, slowing down or preventing forest recovery.

Cattle pasture is the noun adjective. This is noun which is used as adjective to
describe other noun. For example, sweet shop.
2.2 Task B
i.

Forest preservation can be socially divisive, as well.

Socially is the adverb of manner. This type of adverb answers the question how. For
example, she screamed loudly when she saw a rat.
ii.

Whether the localized enhancement of rainfall will persist as larger as areas of


forest are cleared is not currently known.

Currently is the adverb of time. This type of adverb answers the question when. For
example, he posted the letter recently.

iii.

The edges of the fragments dry out and are buffeted by hot winds; mature
rainforest trees often die standing at the margins.

Often is the adverb of frequency. This type of adverb tells us how often an action is
carried out. For example, he always hands up his homework.
2.3 Task C
2.3.1 Compound Sentences
A compound sentence contains two independent clauses joined by a coordinator.
The coordinators are as follows: for, and, nor, but, or, yet, so. (Helpful hint: The first
letter of each of the coordinators spells FANBOYS.) Except for very short sentences,
coordinators are always preceded by a comma. In the following compound
sentences, subjects are in yellow, verbs are in green, and the coordinators and the
commas that precede them are in red.

A. I tried to speak Spanish, and my friend tried to speak English.


B. Alejandro played football, so Maria went shopping.
C. Alejandro played football, for Maria went shopping.

a. NASA supports and conducts research on tropical forests from space-based


and ground-based perspectives, helping provide the information that national
and international leaders need to develop strategies for sustaining human
populations and preserving tropical forest biodiversity.
b. Tropical forests are home to millions of native (indigenous) people who make
their livings through subsistence agriculture, hunting and gathering, or through
low-impact harvesting of forest products like rubber or nuts.
c. Hidden in the genes of plants, animals, fungi, and bacteria that have not even
been discovered yet may be cures for cancer and other diseases or the key to
improving the yield and nutritional quality of foods.

2.3.2 Complex Sentences

A complex sentence has an independent clause joined by one or more dependent


clauses. A complex sentence always has a subordinator such as because, since,
after, although, or when or a relative pronoun such as that, who, or which. In the
following complex sentences, subjects are in yellow, verbs are in green, and the
subordinators and their commas (when required) are in red.

A. When he handed in his homework, he forgot to give the teacher the last
page.
B. The teacher returned the homework after she noticed the error.
C. The students are studying because they have a test tomorrow.
D. After they finished studying, Juan and Maria went to the movies.
E. Juan and Maria went to the movies after they finished studying.

When a complex sentence begins with a subordinator such as sentences A and D, a


comma is required at the end of the dependent clause. When the independent
clause begins the sentence with subordinators in the middle as in sentences B, C,
and E, no comma is required. If a comma is placed before the subordinators in
sentences B, C, and E, it is wrong.
Note that sentences D and E are the same except sentence D begins with the
dependent clause which is followed by a comma, and sentence E begins with the
independent clause which contains no comma. The comma after the dependent
clause in sentence D is required, and experienced listeners of English will
often hear a slight pause there. In sentence E, however, there will be no pause
when the independent clause begins the sentence.

a. Although deforestation meets some human needs, it also has profound,


sometimes devastating, consequences, including social conflict, extinction of

plants and animals, and climate changechallenges that arent just local, but
global.
b. When an area is completely deforested for farming, the farmer typically burns
the trees and vegetation to create a fertilizing layer of ash.
c. After this slash-and-burn deforestation, the nutrient reservoir is lost, flooding
and erosion rates are high, and soils often become unable to support crops in
just a few years.
2.4 Task D
Tropical - /trp..k l/

Deforestation - /difr.ste. n/

Rainfall - /ren.fl/

Pasture - /ps.t r /

Equator - /kwe.t r /

Vulnerable - /vl.n r..bl/

3.0 MASTERY OF KNOWLEDGE

3.1 Task A
3.1.1 3 Yes/No Questions
a) Are there any bad impacts if deforestation occurs on the Earth?
Yes, there are many bad impacts such as on soil and biodiversity.
b) Does the native people just let it go when someone want to destroy the
forest? As if they are being provoked with money.
No, they certainly will not fall on that trick because they just do not let go what theirs.
Besides, they are the love-nature type of human.
c) Does the deforestation only affect the rainfall in the respective country
only? Why?
No, it will also affect the other country rainfall pattern. This is because there are
some models also predict that tropical deforestation will disrupt rainfall pattern far
outside the tropics, including China, northern Mexico, and the south-central United
States.
3.1.2 8 Information Questions (WH)
a) What are the types of impacts that are being discussed in the article?
The types of impacts that are being discussed were soil, biodiversity, social and
climate.
b) Where the deforestation occurs?
The deforestation occurs at the tropical region.
c) Why all the impacts can occur when deforestation occur?
It is because everything that lives and happens at the forest is related to each other.
So, when one of them is affected by deforestation, the others will be affected too.

d) When the deforestation does occur?

It occurs when we need to survive in the stream of urbanisation and modernisation.


So, it has occurred for a quite long period of time since Malaysia start to develop as
a new modern country.
e) Who is struggle with the level of human presence nowadays?
National and international governments and aid agencies are the one who struggle
question about the level of human presence.
f) Whose forest that become the issue when any party want to cut down
the trees?
It is the countrys forest but as the indigenous people have been stayed there since
they came here, it became an issue when there is any party that want to destroy the
forest.
g) Because of whom any violent conflict is triggered?
Colonisers and loggers are the main cause for any violent conflict that occurred
during deforestation.
h) How can we know if the deforestation of the tropics will also disrupt the
rainfall pattern of other countries?
We just can know that by using computer models of future climate.

3.1.3 4 Tag Questions

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a) Tropical rainforest is being destroyed, isnt it?


Yes, it is.
b) The biggest impact due to the deforestation is biodiversity, isnt it?
Yes, it is.
c) Soil is not unable to support any crop in just a few years if it is destroyed, is it?
Yes, it is.
d) Forest preservation cannot be socially divisive, can it?
No, it can.

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4.0 ESSAY
Deforestations Impact on Various Aspects
In this Millennium era, there are a lot of work that has been done in order to
compete with other countrys urbanisation and modernisation. Although it brings a lot
of advantages, it does also come out with a numerous type of disadvantages. The

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worst case scenario that we can see clearly is the deforestations impacts on many
aspects such as on soil, climate, social and biodiversity.
The impact on climate can be seen in smaller scopes which are on the rainfall
and the temperature. This is because most of rains that fall on Earth are actually
being recycled over and over by the rainforest. The evaporation process that occurs
during the cycle helps the environment to cool out. So, even when a few numbers of
deforestation occurs, the impact still can be seen because our biodiversity is related
to each other. For example, we will be feeling extremely hot during afternoon
although we are under a shelter. Even though, some deforestation will create a heat
island which will help the convection of heat to occur, thus making the number of
rainfall still the same, but the effect of heat on surroundings temperature is still there.
The other impact of deforestation is on biodiversity. For me, this is the biggest
impact because it changes the whole system of any living thing that lives there. In
fact, tropical forest only covers seven percent of Earths dry land but this is nothing to
be compared with because most species are inhabited there. Moreover, there are
also many species that are specialised to microhabitat that will be related to other
species also. So, when that certain species is endangered by deforestation, the
other species will also surely been endangered too. As a result of the cascading
changes, our biodiversity will remains unbalanced forever.

Social aspect is another aspect that being affected by deforestation. As we


know, most of tropical forests are home to the indigenous people thousands years
ago. If anybody wants to destroy our home, I think we will also become angry. That is
what the problem now, making forest disappear in front of them means that we are
destroying their home. So, it does make sense if they are very angry about our
action. Besides, deforestation by loggers and colonisers sometimes triggered violent
conflict towards the native people. The worst impact on this social aspect is that until

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it makes the government struggles about what level of human presence nowadays
as they need to decide which way is better for both parties.
Lastly is about the soil impact. Our soil is actually very thin and poor with
nutrients; hence it is easily being washed away if the forest who acts as the reservoir
is no longer there to support them. Therefore, the rate of river-flooding and soil
erosion would increase as years passes since there is nobody willing to cure the
illness. If the soils nutrients are very low, there is still an abundance of nutrients at
the forest. This is because, all the trees are where it is stored but while deforestation
is still occurring during this writing, I think the amount of nutrients cannot be the
same as they have been before or at least maintain for the unbalanced ecosystem.
Neither the soil nor the trees can be fully-saved if there is still lacks of awareness in
human being for this short period of time because the condition will become worsen
if they are being left for a long time.
In a nutshell, there is a lot more side impacts results from our deforestation. If
we cannot save anymore about what have been done, lets just preserve and
conserve what we still have for the better future and also for our young generation to
have what they really have actually. I know that many steps have been done by our
governments and organisations but the awareness of citizen is being the main issue.
So, I just can hope that one day, those people will realise about our great treasure.

5.0 REFLECTION
Alhamdulillah because I have already done this coursework to the fullest with
the criteria that is required. During working on this coursework, I have learnt many
things whether on academic site or not. For the academic, I have learnt many things
involving reading and transferring it into graphic organizer also about some of
Englishs grammar.

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Besides the academic, I have also learnt that the communication between
lecturer and student is very important in order to get a nice result on what had been
discussed together. I also realised that I must make some discussion among my
classmates, so, that I can improve my work and idea on this coursework.
As a conclusion, doing this coursework really makes me feel more confident
to communicate with others as it trained me to overcome my fear when there is
something that I want to ask to somebody especially in English. This coursework
also has given a lot of knowledge to me in order to understand more in English
language proficiency.

MUHAMMAD SAFWAN BIN SHUHAMI


921015-07-5125
1PISMP SN

6.0 BIBLIOGRAPHY
a) Book
Peggy Chan (2006). English Grammar A Malaysian Student Guide. Sasbadi Sdn.
Bhd.

b) Internet
http://www.englishpage.com/verbpage/futureperfect.html. Accessed on 20 March
2012.

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http://learnenglish.britishcouncil.org/en/english-grammar/verbs/presenttense/present-simple. Accessed on 1 April 2012.

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