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Diabetes limits the bodys ability to process
glucose normally. Type 1 diabetes which is
present from birth causes the pancreas to be
destroyed by the immune system, causing
glucose to build up in the bloodstream. Type 2
diabetes is developed over time causing the cells
to resist the effects of insulin, causing unhealthy
levels of glucose in the bloodstream.

This is caused when an individual consistently
has a blood pressure reading over 140/90. This
can be caused by diabetes, smoking, excessive
salt intake, obesity or kidney disease.

Signs and Symptoms:

Excessive thirst.
Increased urination (sometimes as often
as every hour)
Unusual weight loss.
Fatigue or tiredness.
Nausea, perhaps vomiting.
Blurred vision.
In women, frequent vaginal infections.
Prevention & Cure:
Proper diet and Exercise
Improve weight loss
Prevent smoking
Medication such as Metformin

Signs and Symptoms:

Headaches (particularly at the back of the
head and in the morning).
Tinnitus (buzzing or hissing in the ears).
Altered Vision.
Fainting Episodes.
Prevention and Cure:
Maintain normal body weight for adults
(e.g. body mass index 2025 kg/m2).
Reduce dietary sodium intake to <100
mmol/ day (<6 g of sodium chloride or
<2.4 g of sodium per day).
Engage in regular aerobic physical
activity such as brisk walking (30 min
per day, most days of the week).
Limit alcohol consumption.
Consume a diet rich in fruit and

This condition causes a decrease in bone mass
which can make the bones brittle and at higher
risk for damage.
Signs and Symptoms:
Back pain, caused by a fractured or
collapsed vertebra.
Loss of height over time.
A stooped posture.
A bone fracture that occurs much more
easily than expected.
Prevention and Cure:
Eat a balanced diet.
Calcium intake.
Protein supplements.
Avoid alcohol, caffeine and reduce salt
Stop smoking.
Medications such Glucocorticoid.

Alzheimer's is a type of dementia that causes
problems with memory, thinking and behavior.
Signs and Symptoms:
Getting lost.
Memory loss.
Difficulty managing daily tasks or
managing money.
Personality changes.
Loss of bodily control.
Prevention and Cure:
There is no cure for Alzheimer's disease, nor any
proven ways to prevent its onset. Treatment
focuses on support and managing symptoms.

Treating medical conditions that may

contribute to confusion or physical
decline eg: lung disease or anaemia.
Encouraging stimulating activities in order
to encourage the person to continue their
normal activities as much as possible.
Providing memory aids and memory
triggers such as calendars and written
Encouraging social interaction to help
prevent feelings of loneliness and
Contacting support groups that may be
able to offer family/caregivers assistance.
Encouraging regular routine to reduce
Not smoking.

Signs and Symptoms:

Uncomfortable pressure, squeezing,
fullness or pain in the center of your
Pain or discomfort in one or both arms,
the back, neck, jaw or stomach.
Shortness of breath with or without chest


Occurs when the blood flow to a part of the heart
is blocked by a blood clot.

Prevention and Cure:

Eat a healthy, balanced diet.
Avoid smoking.
Try to keep your blood pressure at a
healthy level.
Oxygen therapy.
Aspirin to thin your blood and prevent
further blood clotting.
Nitroglycerin to reduce your heart's
workload and improve blood flow through
the coronary arteries.
Treatment for chest pain.