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Line-out is the first activity involved in constructing any type of civil structure in a project. It is
to be done very carefully and accurately. Location of a single structure with respect to the total
project is so important that if it is not done accurately then it shall have an effect on all other
structure and other works, such as roads, storm water drains, lighting etc.
Instruments & tools required for line-out

Leveling Instruments
Steel tape
Ranging rods
Wooden pegs, wire nails, kg hammer
line Dori
Total Station

Accuracy of the Instruments

Theodolite and leveling instruments shall be calibrated by an approved Agency before start of
every project. If they are calibrated for the previous project, they are to be again calibrated
before the start of the next project.
Normally, permanent bench mark and coordinates are available on projects like refinery,
fertilizers, and petrochemicals and such like project on all Irrigation and hydro-electric project.
This preliminary survey is done by Public works departments and contractor has to carry out
survey for their works from these established points.
However, if they are not available (for smaller projects) then convenient base line is
established for the location of the structures. Location of all structures shall be with reference
to the base line. Similarly arbitrary bench is established in one of the corners of the plot at safe
place so that it does not get disturbed by the movement of the workers and vehicle. Pillars are
constructed for the base line and bench mark and the point for the base line and BM are
established on the top of the pillar with very good finishing on the top of its surface. Area of
the pillars shall be sufficiently large so that coordinates and BM can be written over it with

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Coordinates of the various structures are shown in the layout drawing of the project. From the
permanent established bench mark, temporary bench mark is established nearer to the
particular part of the project at a convenient place so that it is not needed to transfer the bench
mark for establishing the different levels for the particular structure. Similarly temporary
coordinates are also established .Care is to be taken in establishing those temporary points so
that they are marked accurately without any error.
Establishing the centre line pegs for particular structure
Following is the typical example.

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Centre line pegs are established at a convenient distance from the edge of the excavation line
so that they are not disturbed while doing excavation. (Refer below sketch).

Sketch showing wooden peg with wire nails with approximate size and length.
Pegs are driven in the ground to the extent they are not getting movement by hand. After
driving the pegs center line is established on the peg as shown in the sketch and 1 long wire
nails is fixed over it keeping above the top of the peg so that while checking line dori can
be tied in between two such pegs. Alternate pegs shall be checked diagonally by calculating the
diagonal by Pythagoras theorem.

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Every stage of works such as checking the excavation, marking the area of PCC, checking the
shuttering for footing, marking the location of column over the footing already cast, checking
of centre line by hanging the plumb bob from the crossing of the line dori as shown in the
below sketch shall be carried out.

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2.1 Basic knowledge of the trade:

The Earth work is a preliminary activity which involves large quantum of work as compared to
the other activities in construction projects. The earthwork can be divided into the following
main categories.
1. Excavation
2. Embankment.
3. Back filling
4. Filling.
5. Area Grading
These are the major categories of earthwork.
Excavation: This is mainly required to rest the foundation of structure to reach to a level
where required bearing capacity is available. Man excavation is required for reservoirs
swimming pool etc.
Embankment: Raising the ground to reach the required level such as for railways, roads,
earthen dam etc. Level is being raised by filling earth with slopes varying from 1:1 to 1:2.
Backfilling: Filling the gap by earth between the line of excavation and line of foundation is
known as backfilling .Suppose a pipeline of water supply is laid at about 1.5m from ground
then first excavation is done , then line is laid there after the trench is filled by earth is known
as backfilling.
Filling: Normally building floor level is kept at about 500mm to 600mm above the
surrounding ground level then depth between the ground level and floor level is filled by earth
is known as filling.
Area-Grading: The plot where the building or factory is to be constructed is having ups and
down at ground level. Secondly the plot is also required to be kept at a little higher level than
the surrounding areas and a nominal slope is also required to be given so that rain water or
spillage in the foundation can be easily drained out. This is called area grading where if the
level is higher at a particular location than the required level then it has to be excavated and if
any depression is there it is required to be filled up by earth.
The knowledge about this activity particularly from the execution point of view is essential for
synchronizing other activities to follow.
The excavation work is carried out in soils and rock. The planning for the excavation of this
activity in a particular area depends on the following factors:

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1. Type of soil / Rock
2. Depth of excavation
3. Quantum of work
4. Sub-soil Water table.
The correct analysis and interpretation of these factors coupled with proper resource planning
and method of working will provide the desired output.
2.2 Soil Classification:
The classification of soils based on density and texture for execution purpose is as under:


-(less than 1.44 g/cm3) muck, and humus.


- (1.44 g/cm3 to 1.6 g/cm3) loose sand, silty sand, silt etc.


- (above 1.6 g/cm3) clay, clayey silt, dense sand etc.

The material to be excavated shall be classified as follows unless otherwise specified:

Soft/Loose Soil - Generally any soil which yields to the ordinary application of
picks and shovel, or to phawra, rake or other ordinary digging implement; such as
vegetable or organic soil, turf, gravel, sand, silt, loom, clay peat, etc

Hard/Dense Soil Generally any soil which requires the close application of
picks, or jumpers or scrifiers to loosen; such a stiff clay, gravel and cobblestone.

Mud A mixture of soil and water in fluid or weak solid state.

The type of soil can be identified by visual inspection and laboratory test results.
2.3 Field Method for soil identification:

Take a small soil sample

Place it on your palm
Add few drops of water
Mix it thoroughly and rub it between fingers.

Sandy soil Gritty sensation and non sticky, if squeezed in hand when dry will fall apart
when pressure is released
Silty soil Some residual colour due to partial sticking of soil and less gritty sensation can be
rolled into threads between fingers but crumbles when it dries.
Clayey soil No gritty sensation, soft and sticky.

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2.4 Rock classification:
1. Soft Rock Hard murrum, Kankar, disintegrated rock, sand stones
Soft rock can be excavated with less effort using pickaxe and crowbar etc.
2. Hard Rock
- Rock not requiring blasting (NRB)
- Rock requiring blasting (HRB)
3. Hard rock (NRB) is generally weathered, disintegrated, laminated rocks. Necessary
precautions should be taken while excavating to avoid sliding and collapse. The excavation
in such rock can be done either manually or using hydraulic excavator
4. The rock which cannot be excavated by above means fall in the category of HRB
The excavation in such rocks is in the following sequence:
1. Drilling
2. Loading with explosive material (like gelatin ,gun powder) and detonators (ED & OD)
3. Blasting
4. Removal of muck using hydraulic excavation / tipper combinations
Table: Safe bearing capacity of soils & Rock:
Sr. No.

Soil type
Very soft, wet pasty clay
Black cotton soil
Red soil / Yellow soil
Loose gravel
Soft rock
Hard rock

Safe bearing capacity in tons / sqm

0 to 5
4 to 10
10 to 20
15 to 25
25 to 45
40 to 90

2.5 Material required

Lime, Shoring material, blasting material.
2.6 Tools
Pick axe, spade, ghamelas, crow bar, chisels, hammers, line dori, and template
2.7 Machinery and Equipments:
For Heavy Earth work (up to 40,000 m3 per month target)
1. Hydraulic excavator with suitable bucket capacity

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Tippers / Dumpers
Dozers capacity / model D-180. D-80, D-50
Water tankers
Vibratory rollers
a. Smooth wheel rollers
b. Sheep foot rollers

For medium Earth work (up to 10,000 m3 per month target)


Hydraulic excavation with 0.5 cum & 0.3 cum bucket capacity
Tippers / dumpers
Dozers capacity / model D-50
Water tankers
Road rollers 8 to 10 tone capacity

For Light Earth work (up to 5000 m3 per month target)

1. JCB excavator / loader or manual
2. Tractor with hydraulic tipping trolley
3. Light rollers up to 3 MT capacity / Earth compactors/rammer
2.8 Labour planning:
Depending upon the quantum of work and types of machineries available, the site incharge
should judge and employ labour force so as to complete the task in scheduled time.
In excavation work labour requirement is governed by the following factors:
1. Type of soil and nature of work
2. Dewatering requirement
3. Quantum of work to be executed per day
4. Labour working capacity
5. Available working space required for each excavation labour
Record of work done per day and the resources engaged for the work shall be recorded and
shall be compared with the derived work per day as per the work schedule and efforts shall be
made to get the derived progress. One has to analyze and found out how to improve upon if
derived progress is not being achieved.

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Table: The norms for Labour output:



(Eight hours shift)





Excavation in soft soil

Excavation in hard soil

Excavation in soft rock
Excavation in hard rock
Flow Chart for Resource Planning


Data Available
1. Target Qty. (Q)
2. Target Time (T)
Labour output per
day (O)

Work to be executed per Day

(W) = Q/T

Machine output per

day (O1)

Number of labours / machinery required per day

N = W/O or N = W/O1

If Not OK
Availability of labours
Feasibility of working
Deploy labour (go in for
manual execution)


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2.9 Method of excavation.
Method of excavation depends upon the type of soil and quantum of excavation involved. Type
of soil can be divided in the following groups.
Group I (Very soft soil, Black cotton soil, Red/yellow soil, loose gravel, Murrum)
Soil as per group I can be excavated manually by pick axe and spade or by mechanical devicemass excavation such as excavation for underground water tanks, swimming pool, then now
days it is being excavated by engaging hydraulic Excavator with suitable bucket size of 0.5 m 3
& 0.9 m3. 0.5 m3 bucket can do 300 to 400 m3 per day and excavation with 0.9 m3 per day can
do 600 to 800 m3 per day. When the earth is to be dumped by the sides of excavation no casting
arrangement are required just as excavation for pipe line but when the earth is required to be
casted at a specific distance then tippers/dumpers are required . Number of Tippers or dumpers
shall depend upon the distance to be casted. Small excavation for column footings or trench for
wall foundation etc can be excavated by excavators.
Black cotton soil
This is grayish black in colour with a clay contents with unreliable quality, swells when wet
and shrinks when dry. Wide cracks are developed when dry and termed as poor soil for
foundation. Hence the depth foundation has to go beyond the depth of black cotton soil by
about 300 mm when it interacts with yellow soil having bearing capacity of at least 10 to 15
ton/m2 . Such type of soil is available beyond karjan and toward south in Gujarat.
Excavation in black cotton soil is to be done carefully because of its properties as explained
above. Proper slope in excavation is to be given and a berm of about 300 mm to be given when
the depth of the soil is more than 1.5m. If this slope is not properly maintained lumps of soil
may collapse. In such cases shoring & strutting is required to be done as shown in the figure.
Existing Ground level
1.5 m

300 mm

1.5 m

1.5 m
300 mm

4.5 m
600 mm

2.0 m

Formation Level
Sketch showing excavation details for RCC retaining wall for a depth of 4.5m below
ground level.
Group II (Soft Rock)
Excavation in soft rock may be done by excavators and some times by pavement breakers
which are operated by pneumatic air through compressors.

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Group III (Hard Rock)
When the rock is hard enough and is not coming out by pavement breakers then series of holes
are drilled in rock with jack hammers which are operated by pneumatic air and then holes are
loaded with dynamite (gelatin) and electric detonators. To have this blasting procedure
effective rock face is developed by removing over burden of murrum & soft rock, so that hard
rock is fully exposed.

Layer of Soft Rock

Holes drilled for blasting

Hard Rock
Face has to open
From one side

Cut holes

Drilling Pattern
Holes are to be drilled to form a wedge which will make easier to blast effectively which will
give more output with less explosive. Explosive is the costliest operation in rock cutting. SiteEngineer by his experience can develop the drilling pattern in such a way that with minimum
consumption of explosive maximum output shall be obtained with 32 mm drill rod. Holes are
drilled by jack hammer then gelatins along with detonators are inserted in the hole. All
detonators wires are joined in series and then wires are taken out at a safer distance and then
connected with exploder which on by charging manually explodes and rock is blasted to
pieces. About 100 Rmt is the radius of this blasted zone. Utmost care is required to be observed
so that the blasted pieces dos not hit any human being and the other materials lying

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near by are not damaged. Warning by whistling is given in advance and red cloth is provided if
any road is crossing the area. Traffic is not allowed to pass through till the whole blasting
operation is completed. Formerly this was being done by using gunpowder & fuse coil. By
using gelatin & electric detonators blasting operation has become safe
2.10 Work operations:
2.10.1 Excavation



Check the gridline and dimensions of the trench/foundation with the drawing provide
allowance for working space as per requirement. Dont allow to disturb the pit during
Take proper care to check R.L. of bottom of pit / foundation grade
Ensure removal care of all loose earth, roots of plants / trees etc.
Check the dimensions at bottom of foundation pit before proceeding to the next activity
Provide sufficient working space for workman when work is to be executed from outside.
Maximum 600mm working space is sufficient for shuttering of R.C.C. walls basement,
UGT, waterproofing etc. For more excavation depths, adequate side slope / berms must be
considered to retain the sides. Get this extra working space requirements approved by site
engineer for payment purpose
Take care to dump the excavation earth away from the edge of excavation or to suit the site
Proper barricading, shoring, shuttering must be provided for safety where ever required
Ensure technical safety, by maintaining proper slope of cut depending upon the soil
Any kind of water flooding near the pit is to be avoided

Mass and Deep Excavation like Basement.

For Basement, swimming pool etc. Strata is not the only criteria for deciding the depth of
excavation, the formation level plays the important role and leads to mass or deep excavation
This type excavation needs special attention
1. The Quantity being large, more than one gang can be engaged for the job.
2. Allocation of work to different gangs should be such that maximum output in minimum
time is achieved.
3. Levels should be taken prior to and after the completion of work for billing purpose.
4. If the excavation goes below the ground water table, adequate arrangement should be
done to pump out the water.
5. For lifting out the excavated material either ramps or steps should be provided at the
time of excavation only.
6. One corner pit is excavated for further more depth than require, to collect all the water
at one place only.
7. De-watering pump required in such cases is of higher capacity with long suction and
delivery hose pipes, as shifting from place to place is not possible .
Excavation by well point method where very heavy flow of subsoil water occurs.

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Excavation Area

Water table

Formation Level

If the excavation depth is below the ground water table and seepage water is not controlled by
the dewatering pump then this method is adopted. Here bore or bores are drilled outside the
excavation area and below the formation level.

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Jet Point


A well point is a perforated pipe about 1m long and 5 cm in diameter. A jetting nozzle is
provided at its lower end. The spacing of the well points depends upon the type of soil and
depth of water, generally it varies between 1 to 3 m.Well points are generally installed by
jetting. Water is pumped through the riser pipe in downward direction. As it discharges through
the nozzle, it displaces the soil below the tip till required penetration is achieved. Pumping is
started after well points have been installed. Well points are suitable for lowering the water
table by 5 to 6 m in soils.
Riser Pipe
Water table
Well Point
2.10.2 Earth Filling Under Floor & In Plinth.
From Sources within the Site.

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1. The earth for filling shall be free from salts, organic or any other foreign materials, roots,
grass, rubbish and oil.
2. Lumps and clods exceeded 80 mm in size shall be broken. Each layer shall be 300 mm thick
or as directed by Project Manager. Breaking of clods and watering shall be done along with
ramming and consolidation.
3. The consolidated earth filling within the plinth, which has been leveled and sloped shall be
dressed to about 25 mm lower than the required finished earth level and thoroughly soaked
with water for about 24 hours. While still wet, surplus or discarded building materials,
available at site of work like cinders, gravel, stone or brick ballast , set cement or cement
concrete , etc all broken into pieces not exceeding 40 mm shall be spread on the fill and
rammed well till a uniform surface at required level is obtained.
4. The surface of the finally finished area shall be neatly dressed with a thin layer of clean
sand to fill up the depressions and hollows, keeping in view the slopes required.
5. The work shall be taken up after the building has reached up to the plinth level or up to the
floor level, as the case may be. The space between the walls shall be first filled in with the
earth in layers and consolidated with an iron rammer. Filling in basement, over the raft
foundation shall also be included under this item. The measurement shall be for depths after
consolidation. The earth, as approved, shall first be obtained from the directly excavated
earth of the foundations of from a source within a 30 meters lead. If the leads are more than
30 m, extra payment shall be made. Whereas the available earth is black cotton soil, the
same should not be used as a filling unless permitted by the project Manager. Sand, gravel
or cinder if specified shall be used, and shall be measured and paid separately. The slopes
shall be kept as required.
Earth Brought From Outside
1. If the earth has to be brought from outside the job site, the rate shall include the purchase
cost of the earth, its carting from the outside source to site, octroi, levy, royalty or any other
form of tax (es) as per prevailing rules, loading, unloading, screening as necessary, and
filling and/or spreading in 300 mm thick layers or as directed by project Manager and
watering, ramming and/or consolidating.
2. The measurement shall be for depths after consolidation. If the original levels of the area to
be filled are uneven, the depth between the top or the filled up and consolidated earth and
the average original level shall be used for the volume calculations.
3. If the floors as specified are to be provided with proper slopes, as directed, for easy and
quick disposal of water the required slopes shall be provided for fully in the plinth earth
filling or in the sand filling itself. It shall be the full responsibility of the agencies to ensure
that this has done before concreting of the floor. If slight adjustments of slopes are required
to be done, the same shall be allowed in the floor concrete but at the agencies cost. This
shall mean that the thickness of the floor concrete shall be measured and paid for a uniform
thickness or as directed, without any consideration to increased thickness, if provided by
the agency for adjustment of slopes.

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Filling Flow chart
(Hyd. excavator)
(Tipper / Dumper)
(Surface preparation)

(Water Tanker)

Compaction (Vibratory / Static Roller)

2.11 Provision of Transport to take away excess soil

1. Estimate the excavated stuff to be re-utilized in filling, gardening, preparing roads, etc.
2. As far as possible try to carry excavation and filling simultaneously to avoid double
3. Select and stack the required material in such a place that it should not obstruct other
construction activities.
4. The excess or unwanted material should immediately be carried away and disposed off by
employing any of the following methods.
Department labour
2.12 Preparation of embankment:
1. The surface should be thoroughly stripped off vegetation, bushes, shrubs etc and
thoroughly cleaned, scarified and watered before starting the new filling / embankment
2. The earth is excavated using hydraulic excavation from the defined source outside the
working area or within the working area having usable earth for disposal
3. The excavated earth is directly loaded in the dumpers/tippers and transported to the
disposal point. The dumping of earth should be done systematically to avoid formation of
large heaps and should be distributed within the area so as to have the specified thickness
of layer when spread over by the dozers

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4. The spreading of earth will be followed by using suitable capacity to get the earth layer of
required thickness. For mass earth work layer thickness up to 500mm is allowed in IS and
reduces the layer thickness up to 150mm for smaller works
5. The uniformly leveled earth layers will then be adequately sprinkled with water to obtain
Optimum Moisture Content.
6. This would then be followed by compacting the earth layer by using suitable compactors /
rollers to achieve the desired Maximum Dry Density normally 95% dry density needs to be
achieved by proper consolidation procedures
7. The number of passes by the rollers may be decided by trial and error in the initial stage of
8. The edges of the earth for each layer has to be at least 200mm to 300mm more on either
side than the required width at that level. This is required so that the edge of the wheel of
the roller can go up to the edge of the required width for that level. After the final level is
reached edges are required to be dressed to get the correct slope.
Extra Width

Theoretical line
2.13 Dewatering:
In some cases during excavation, subsoil water is encountered at intermediate stage of
excavation due to the depth of water table being higher than the required depth of excavation
In such conditions the inflow and outflow of water is to be balanced in order to have proper
conditions conducive to excavation activities. The percolation of water while excavation
depends on two factors:
Permeability of soil
Hydraulic gradient
So, above factors must be considered to calculate the quantity of water coming out per minute.
Discharge can also be estimated using field method of estimating.
Following points should be attended, while dewatering:

Select the pump of adequate capacity (Suction and delivery)

Provide suction and delivery pipes as specified
Check the availability of fuel or electricity

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Provide gate valves for proper control

Provide a suction pit at suitable location so that water inflow is diverted to the small pit
where suction is planned. This can give dry surface for excavation work
Check the working of foot valve. Clean it before use
Cover the foot valve with chicken mesh as a filter media
Install the pump on proper foundation
Check the electric connection and earthling
Do not run the pump dry
Priming should be done if needed

2.14 Safety:


Proper barricading should be provided around the excavated pit and caution sign/boards
should be placed reflecting the on going activity
Proper access should be provided by means of ladder / steps in cutting in deep excavation
Proper grading should be provided according to the soil condition e.g.: In cohesive soil
steep slope can be allowed whereas noncohesive soils requires relatively flat slope or
even berms
Adequate berms should be provided in case of expansive dis-integratable soil.
Proper shoring and strutting should be provided in case of sandy soil or water inflow is
Helmets should be provided to labours working.
Sufficient lighting arrangement should be made to carry out work at night.
Adequate measures to be taken to see that the excavation operations do not damage the
adjoining structures or dislocate the services like water supply pipes, sluice valves,
chambers, sewage pipes, manholes, drainage pipes & chambers, communication cables,
power supply cables etc. met within the course of excavation , shall be properly
supported and adequately protected , so that these services remain functional.
Excavation shall not be carried out below the foundation level of the adjacent buildings
until underpinning shoring etc. is done.
Blasting work: For the safety of persons red flags shall be prominently displayed around
the area where blasting operations are to be carried out. All the workers at site, except
those who actually ignite the fuse, shall withdraw to a safe distance of at least 200 meters
from the blasting site. Audio warning by blowing whistle shall be given before igniting
the fuse. Blasting shall not be within 200 metes of an existing structure, unless
specifically permitted.

Check points before / during / after Excavation:


Is excavation area checked against?

a. Any under ground cabling?
b. Any under ground piping?
c. Any under ground gas line or plumbing line or sewage?


Is excavation checked for?

Slope / step cut / shoring?

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b. Approach / stair way?
c. Safe barricading?
d. Disposal and stacking method?

Are mobile equipments checked for?

a. Competent operator with valid license?
b. Light horns, back lights, reverse horn, brakes etc.?
c. Properly maintained and fit for use?


In case of dewatering pump, is it checked for?

a. Proper earthing mechanism?
b. Safe connections/ improper joints / Improper splice cable / switches etc.

5. Is proper lighting arrangement done in case of night work or darkness?

6. Are proper PPE being used by the workers?
7. For Blasting operation :
a. Is license obtained from the competent authority for undertaking blasting work as well as
for containing and storing the explosives as per the latest Explosive Act Rules 1983?
b. Are Explosives, Fuses, and Detonators etc. are purchased from licensed dealer.
c. Transportation & storage of explosive at site shall confirm to the Explosive Act &
Explosive rules. Fuses & detonators shall be stored separately and away from Explosives
Termite Proofing
Destroy termites before they destroy your house.
Termite Control of buildings is very important as the damage likely to be caused by the termite
is huge. Wood is one of the cellulosic materials which termite damage, cellulose forming their
basic nutrient. They also damage materials of organic origin with a cellulose base, household
articles like furniture, furnishings, clothings, stationery, etc. Termites are also known to
damage non-cellulosic substances in their search of food. Rubber, leather, plastics, neoprene, as
well as lead coating used for covering of underground cables are damaged by termites. The
widespread damage by termites, high constructional cost of buildings have necessitated
evolving suitable measures for preventing access of termites to building.
Chemicals and rate of Application
Basic Principle:
Chemicals toxic to subterranean termites may be used effectively to check termite infestation
in the soil. These are useful in the treatment of new building sites and may also be used to
eradicate existing infestation in buildings and to prevent reinfestation. The effectiveness and/or
residual activity depend upon the choices of the chemicals, the dosage adopted and the
thoroughness of application. The chemical solutions or emulsions are required to be dispersed

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uniformly in the soil and of the required strength so as to form an effective chemical barrier
which is lethal and repellent to termites.
Mound Treatment:
If termite mounds are found within the plinth area of the buildings these should be destroyed
by means of insecticides in the form of water suspensions or emulsions which should be
poured into the mounds at several places after breaking open the earthen structure and making
holes with crow-bars. The quantity to be used will depend upon the size of the mound. For a
mound volume of about 1 m3 , 4 litres of an emulsion in water of one of the following may be
a. 0.25 percent aldrin.
b. 0.25 percent heptachlor.
c. 0.5 percent chlordane.
Soil Treatment
Treating the soil beneath the building and around the foundations with a soil insecticide is a
preventive measure. The purpose of the treatment is to create a chemical barrier between the
ground from where termites come and woodwork or other cellulosic materials in the building.
Any one of the following chemicals conforming to relevant Indian Standards in water emulsion
is effective when applied uniformly over the area to be treated.
Relevant Indian Standards Concentration by Weight,%
Aldrin emulsifiable
IS : 1307-1988
Heptachlor emulsifiable
IS : 6439-1978
Chlordane emulsifiable
IS : 2682 - 1984
Time of Application:
Soil treatment should starts when foundation trenches and pits are ready to take mass concrete
in foundations. Laying of mass concrete should start when the chemical emulsion has been
absorbed by the soil and the surface is quite dry . Treatment should not be carried out when it is
raining or when the soil is wet with rain or subsoil water. The foregoing requirement applies
also in the case of treatment to be filled earth surface within the plinth area before laying the
sub grade for the floor. Once formed, treated soil barriers shall not be disturbed. If, by chance,
treated soil barriers are disturbed, immediate steps shall be taken to restore the continuity and
completeness of the barrier system.
Site preparation
The removal of trees, stumps, logs or roots from a building site reduces the hazards from
subterranean termites. Similarly, the sub floor area should be kept free from all debris in which
new colonies of termite might be established. In order to ensure uniform distribution of the
treating solution and to assist penetration, some site preparation may be necessary.
Heavy soils and sloping sites:

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On clays and other heavy soils where penetration is likely to be slow and on sloping sites
where run off of the treating solution is likely to occur , the surface of the soils should be
scarified to a depth of at least 75 mm.
Sandy or porous soils:
On loose, sandy or porous soils where loss of treating solution through piping or excessive
percolation is likely to occur, preliminary moistening to fill the capillary spaces in the soils is
Leveling, Excavation and filling:
All sub floor leveling and grading should be completed ; all cuttings, trenches and excavation
should be completed with backfilling in place; borrowed fill must be free from organic debris
and should be well compacted. If this is not done supplementary treatments should be made to
complete the barrier.
Concrete formwork:
All concrete formwork, leveling pegs, timber off cuts and other builders debris should be
removed from the area to be treated.
Treatment for R.C.C Foundations and basement


Any one of the chemical emulsion described above shall be applied uniformly at the
prescribed rate in all the stages of the treatment. A suitable hand operated compressed air
sprayer or watering can should be used to facilitate uniform dispersal of the chemical
emulsion. On Large jobs, a power sprayer may be used to save labour and time.
In the event of water logging of foundation, the water shall be pumped out and the
chemical emulsion applied when the soil is absorbent.
In the case of R.C.C. Foundations, the concrete is dense, the termite are unable to penetrate
it. It is therefore unnecessary to start the treatment from the bottom of excavations.
The treatment shall start at a depth of 500 mm below the ground level except when such
ground level is raised or lowered by filling or cutting after the foundations have been cast.
In cases, the depth of 500 mm shall be determined from the new soil level resulting from
the filling or cutting mentioned above, and soil in immediate contact with the vertical
surfaces of R.C.C foundations shall be treated at the rate of 7.5 lit/sq.m. The top surface of
the consolidated earth within plinth wall shall be treated with chemical emulsion at the rate
of 5 litres /sq.m of the surface before the sand bed or sub grade is laid.
If the filled earth has been well rammed and the surface does not allow the emulsion to
seep through, holes up to 50 to 75 mm deep at 150 mm centers both ways may be made
with 12 mm diameter mild steel rod on the surface to facilitate saturation of the soil with
the chemical emulsion.



2.15 Mode of Measurements (for detail refer SP 27 -1987)

Unless otherwise stated, hereinafter all the work shall be measured net in decimal system, as

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Each dimension shall be measured to the nearest 0.0 1m, where any dimension is more
than 25 m it should be measured to the nearest 0.1 m.


Areas shall be worked out to the nearest 0.01 m2.and


Cubical contents shall be worked out to the nearest 0.01m3


The measurement of earthwork shall be done in cubic meters, unless otherwise

mentioned. The measurements to be taken shall be those of the authorized dimensions
from which soil has been taken out and shall be measured without allowance for increase
in bulk.


Lead The distance for removal shall be measured over the shortest practicable route and
not necessarily the route actually taken. Distance not exceeding 250 m shall be measured
in units of 50 m. Distance exceeding 250 m and not exceeding 500m shall be measured
as a separate item.


Lift - Lift shall be measured from ground level. Excavation up to 1.5 m depth below
ground level and depositing excavated material on the ground shall be included in the
item of earthwork for various kinds of soil. Extra lift shall be measured in unit of 1.5 m
or part thereof. Obvious lift shall only be measured; that is lifts inherent in the lead due to
ground slope shall not be measured except for lead up to 250 m.

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Water Rating Chart
Out Put in Liters of water per minute
Speed 2880 RPM
No KW / Size
HP of Sucsiom
motor x
Total Head in meters from all causes
in mm
12.5 15
17.5 20
700 670 615 550 450 340
960 940 810 650 400 300
910 860 775 650 510 250
1080 1040 1000 990 875
825 810 775
5.5/7.5 75x62
5.5/7.5 75x75
1275 1230
5.5/7.5 62x50
10 7.5/10 75x62
11 7.5/10 75x75
12 7.5/10 62x50
13 2.2/3
760 700 660 600 550
Speed 1440 RPM
14 3.7/5
1260 1230 1165 1030 900
15 3.7/5
1380 1250 1115 930
16 5.5/7.5 100x75
1770 1680 1560 1440 1260
17 5.5/7.5 100x100
1790 1700 1580 1460 1280
18 7.5/10 100x75
2300 2175 2000 1840 1600
19 7.5/10 100x100
2340 2200 2040 1860 1620
Conversation Factor : 1 gallon 4.54 liters. 1 meter 3.28 feets







1300 1285


660 410
1080 810
1100 830










37.5 40












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3.1 Brief knowledge of the trade:
Concreting is one of the most important activities in the construction activities, hence utmost care is
required to get good quality of concreting. The quantum of concreting depends on the size of work but
the quality does not depend on the size of work. Everybody expects good quality of concreting even for
a small work. For economy and good quality, Design Mix should be used instead of Ordinary mix
i.e. volumetric mix. Aggregate size and grading plays a major role for good and homogeneous concrete.
Concrete is the most widely used man made construction material in the world and is adopted in the
construction works like:a) Industrial
b) Bridges
c) Dams
d) Canal Lining
e) High rise Buildings
f) Public Building Hospitals, Town-halls, Hotel, educational institutes,
g) Underground and overhead water Tanks
h) Road
i) Beautiful And Artistic Buildings
It shall therefore be realized that how much is the importance of this trade in Civil Engineering. Design
Engineers has to design the structure economical as well as good enough to take all the loads necessary
for which the structure is to utilize. It is to be design as per the locally available materials.
Concrete as a product made out of cement, coarse aggregates, fine aggregates and water. Product can be
moulded to any shape as per the requirement of designer / architect. With addition of reinforcement to
supply needed tensile strength, it has become the foremost structural material. Fine aggregate (sand) is
filled up in the voids of coarse aggregates, held together by a hardened paste of hydraulic cement and
water upon hydration of the cement by the water, concrete becomes stone like in strength and hardness
with utility for much purpose as explained earlier. With different proportions of binding material
(cement) we get a desired strength of concrete.
3.2 Standard of consumables:
Cement, coarse aggregates, fine aggregates, water, admixtures
3.2.1 Cement:
Cement is a well known building material and has occupied an indispensable place in Construction
Industries. The function of cement is first to bind the sand and coarse aggregates together, and second to
fill the voids in between sand and coarse aggregate particles to form a compact mass. There are different
types of cement to be used under certain conditions due to its special properties. Followings are some of
the special cements.

Portland cement For massive construction

Sulphate Resistance Cement For use in sulphate soils and water
Pozzolona cement Introduction of Pozzolonic materials to reduce cost
Rapid Hardening cement

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Good Qualities of cement

1. The colour should be uniform.
2. Cement should be uniform when touched. Cement should be cool when felt with hand. If a small
quantity of cement is thrown into a bucket of water, it should sink.
3. Cement should be free from lumps.
4. Cement mortar at the edge of three days should have a compressive strength of 11.5 N/mm 2 and
tensile strength of 2 N/mm2. Also, at the age of seven days compressive strength should not be less
than 17.5 N/mm2 and tensile strength should not be less than 2.5 N/mm2.
5. When ignited, cement should not loose more than 4 percent of its weight.
6. The weight of insoluble residue in cement should not be grater than 1.5 percent.
7. The specific surface of cement as found from the fineness test should not be less than 2250 mm2/gm
8. The initial setting time of cement should not be less than 30 minutes and the final setting time shall
be around 10 hours.
9. The expansion of cement should not be greater than 10 mm when soundness test is conducted.
Precaution in storage of cement.
1. Use cement of approved quality as per specification and ensure that it is fresh and not older than 90
2. Cement must arrive rite from the production Unit in the shortest time with minimum numbers of
3. Store cement bags in a completely water proof go down, free from moisture content.
4. Issue & consumption of cement bags shall be on First come & first go basis.
5. In case cement bags are required to be stored in open as a temporary requirement, ensure that they
are stacked on a dry platform made of wooden planks or railway sleepers resting on a brick
masonry / concrete / dry sand / aggregate platform about 150 mm above the ground. The number of
bags must be just sufficient for days consumption.
6. Stacking of cement bags should not touch the wall of the godown.
7. A godown has to be leak proof. During monsoon moisture enters the go downs then heater shall be
provided .Ensure that entire stack is covered by tarpaulin or polythene sheet, with an adequate
overlap. This procedure is to be adopted during cloudy or rainy season.
8. Gangways shall be provided horizontally and vertically in between the stacks of cement.
3.2.2 Aggregates (Coarse aggregate & Fine aggregate):
The size of the aggregate used in concrete range from few centimeters or more down to a few microns.
According to size the aggregate is classified as fine aggregate & Coarse Aggregate.
Fine Aggregate Aggregate most of which passes through 4.75 mm IS sieve and contains only that
much coarser materials as is permitted by the specification.

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Sand is generally considered to have a lower size limit of about 0.07 mm. Material below 0.06 is
classified as silt and still smaller particles are called clay. The fine aggregate may be one of the
following types.
1. Natural sand Fine aggregate resulting from the natural disintegration of rock and which has been
deposited by streams or glacial agencies.
2. Crushed stone sand Fine aggregate produced by crushing hard stone
3. Crushed Gravel sand Fine aggregate produced by crushing natural gravel.
Coarse Aggregate Aggregate most of which is retained on 4.75 mm IS sieve.
The coarse aggregate may be one of the following types.
1. Stones are being quarried and are crushed to much smaller sizes and screened to sort out different
sizes as 63mm, 40 mm, 12mm etc
2. At Places different sizes of gravel ranging from 75 mm to 125 mm or even some times 160 mm are
available on the bank of river. Here crushers are installed very near to bank of river. Gravels are
transported to crusher from the bank of a river and are being crushed to have smaller size as 63 mm,
40 mm, 12mm etc. Here one operation of quarrying is eliminated and subsequently quarrying cost is
3. Gravels of much smaller size are available on the bank of a river. Hence screens are installed on the
bank of a river, and available gravels are screened to have coarser aggregates of various sizes as
63mm, 40 mm, 12mm etc. Here two operation of quarrying and crushing are eliminated and the
coarse aggregate cost is further reduced..
All-in-Aggregates Material composed of fine aggregate and coarse aggregate.
Good Qualities of Aggregate
1. Aggregates shall comply with the requirement of IS 383. As far as possible preference shall be given
to natural aggregate.
2. Use aggregates which have been tested and approved by Q.C. labs
3. Aggregate shall consist of naturally occurring (crushed or uncrushed) stones, gravel and sand or
combination thereof.
4. Aggregate should be chemically inert , hard , strong, dense, durable of limited porosity, clear and
free-from veins and adherent coating ; and free from injurious amounts of disintegrated pieces,
alkali, vegetable matter and other deleterious substance. As far as possible, flaky, scoriaceous and
elongated pieces should be avoided.
5. It should contain no organic or other admixtures that may cause corrosion of the reinforcement on
impair the strength or durability of the concrete. Refer IS 383.

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Size of Aggregate
1. Size of the coarse aggregate shall be 20 mm and below, well graded for concrete which normally
we come across. This means that size of the aggregate shall pass through 20 mm x 20 mm sieve
(screen). i.e. Sizes shall be from 20 mm to 4.75 mm. the proportion of different sizes ranging
from 20 mm to 4.75 mm shall be uniform i.e. well graded. Here suppose particles below 12.5
mm are not available in required proportion, grit is being added in such conditions, to till up the
voids below 12.5mm. This can be decided by performing sieve analysis. Suppose grit I not added
then voids shall be filled up by (sand) and cement and as such not only consumption of sand and
cement shall be on higher side. And concrete produced shall not be that compact as produced by
adding grit.
2. The nominal maximum size of coarse aggregate should be as large as possible within the limits
specified but in no case greater than one-fourth of the minimum thickness of the member,
provided that the concrete can be placed without difficulty so as to surround all reinforcement
thoroughly and fill the corners of the form. In concrete elements with thin sections, closely
spaced reinforcement or small cover, consideration should be given to the use of 10 mm nominal
maximum size.
3. For heavily reinforced concrete members as in the case of ribs of main beams, the nominal
maximum size of the aggregate should usually be restricted to 5 mm less than the minimum clear
distance between the main bars or 5 mm less than the minimum cover to the reinforcement
whichever is smaller.
4. Coarse and fine aggregate shall be batched separately .All-in-aggregate may be used only where
specifically permitted by the engineer-in-charge.
5. Adequate quantity of aggregate is required before start of work
6. Necessary correction for bulking of sand to be done on day to day basis.
Shape of Aggregate
The particle shape of an aggregate is generally classified as rounded, irregular, angular, or flaky.
Experience indicates that angular aggregate do not produce as smooth and workable a mixture as
materials having more rounded and smooth particles grading and other conditions being similar. The
sharp angular fragments of crushed rock required more sand and more cement to produce workable
concrete, where coarser grading can be used with gravels with consequent decrease in mortan

Uniform Size more Voids

Various size less voids

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3.2.3 Water:
1. Ensure that potable water for construction is available.
2. Water used for mixing and curing shall be clean and free from injurious amount of oils, alkali, salts,
sugar, organic materials, or other substances that may be deleterious to concrete or steel.
3. In case of doubt regarding development of strength, the suitability of water for making concrete shall
be ascertained by the compressive strength and initial setting time of cement.
4. The sample of water taken for testing shall represent the water proposed to be used for concreting,
due account being paid to seasonal variation. The sample shall not receive any treatment before
testing other than that envisaged in the regular supply of water proposed for use in concrete. The
sample shall be stored in clean container previously rinsed out with similar water.
5. Average 28 days compressive strength of at least three 150 mm concrete cubes prepared with water
proposed to be used shall not be less than 90 percent of the average of strength of three similar
concrete cubes prepared with distilled water. The cubes shall be prepared, cured and tested in
accordance with the requirement of IS 516.
6. The PH value of water shall be not less than 6.
7. Water found satisfactory for mixing is also suitable for curing concrete. However, water used for
curing should not produce any objectionable stain or unsightly deposit on the concrete surface. The
presence of Tannic acid or iron compound is objectionable.
3.3 Basic Tools required for Concreting:
Concrete mixer machine (min. 3nos of blades and 15 to 20 rpm.) weigh-batchers, measurement box (30
cm x 30 cm x 38 cm), Vibrators, Needles, Electric Pump motor set, Cube moulds, Slump cones Shovels,
Ghamellas, Gumboots, Hand gloves, Buckets, halogens, Hand lamps, garden hose pipes, barrels, D.G.
Set if required, etc.
3.4 Work Procedure:
3.4.1 Batching:
1. Do not overload a batch.
2. Carry out batching of materials by weight. If it is required to batch materials on volumetric basis,
make use of measurement boxes in units of 0.035 m3 equivalents to 50 kg cement bag. Weight to
volume can be worked out suitable boxes can be made for doing the volumetric batching.
3. Batching of cement must be done by weight considering 50 kg per bag.
4. Exact measured quantity of water to be added to the batch as per w/c ratio.
5. Apply necessary correction for bulkage of aggregate.

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6. Carry routine checks of weights as well as sensitivity of balance.
7. Addition of admixtures Ensure addition of recommended admixtures in specified proportion.
3.4.2 Mixing:

Hand Mixing
This method of mixing concrete manually is almost not adopted now a day except for small
buildings where quantum of work is of very small magnitude such as casting of lintels, coping etc.
There may be occasions when the concrete has to be mixed manually. Particular care and efforts are
necessary as in this case uniformity is more difficult to achieve. Aggregate should be spread in
uniform layer on a hard and clean surface. Cement is then spread over this surface of aggregates and
the dry materials are mixed by turning over from one end of the heap to another and cutting with a
shovel until the mix appears uniform the water is gradually added and the mix is turned over until
homogeneous mixture and consistency is obtained generally extra cement of 10% of the volume is
added here to overcome the difficulties in mixing as recommended by I.S


Mixing by mixer Machine

Different capacities of mixers are available one bag mixer, two bags mixers, four bags mixers.
Capacity of a mixer to be deployed on the project depending upon the quantum of works at a time
and on frequency of such quantum. Concrete mixers are either diesel driven or electrical driven.
Ingredients that is cement and aggregates either measured by volume or weight (depending upon the
mix design) are placed in hopper and thereafter it will go to mixing drum here required quantity of
water is added and the mixtures rotates in the drum which has got the blades for mixing. Drum is
continuously rotating and mixture is taken out from the drum by tilting the drum. Mixture is allowed
to rotate for about one and a half to two minutes @ 15 to 20 RPM

Precautionary measures to be taken to take care of mixer machine.

1. Machine should be properly leveled by giving supports from the firm ground by providing
wooden logs of size 10 x 5 in such a way that wheels of the machines remains free from the
ground so that load in either empty condition or loaded condition is not transferred to ground
through the wheel.
2. Hopper and drum should be absolutely clean i.e. free from dry set mortar.
3. Check fuel and engine oil before the start of the concrete.
4. See that proper grees is applied to the gear of the drum and to the wire rope of the
5. Provide sand bags on the ground where the hopper is resting on the ground for
loading the aggregates and cement.
6. Provide experienced driver.
7. After concreting is completed wash the mixing drum in such a way that inner
surface of drum and the blades for mixing are free from coating of mortar.
8. See that there is no dry mortar left in the hopper after concreting is completed.
9. When mixer machine is used check for rpm of mixer, number of blades inside the drum, discharge
chute and hopper, breaks and tilting of drum.

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10. Get the mixer machine checked by the machine once in a week.
This is very important and the Site Engineer has to see that the persons deployed by the management to
perform above duties are following. This shall definitely reduce the maintenance cost and sudden break
down of machine during concreting, ultimately helping in achieving time schedule.
3.4.3 Handling transporting and placing in position of concrete.
Through carelessness or ignorance in manufacturing and placement of concrete, fails to give the
services that can be expected. It is the responsibility of those in charge of construction work to make
sure that concrete is of uniformly good quality. The extra effort and care required to achieve these
objectives are small relation to the benefits. Good engineering dictates acceptance of only the best when
the best is procurable at no greater cost. Understanding of the basic principles of making good concrete
is to be provided during construction practice.
Initial setting time of concrete is 30 minutes. Mix therefore should be placed at the placing points within
this period. Placing point may be either in horizontal direction at the ground level or in vertical
direction. Proper and leveled walkway shall be provided for the labours to walk safely to avoid slipping.
Incase of vertical directions platforms at different levels shall be provided for easy lifting and
transporting of Ghamelas. Appropriate safety measures shall be provided to labours so that they are very
much comfortable. Site engineer should see that accident does not take place. Mix shall be placed in
such a manner that segregation of the mix does not take place. Experience worker at placing point will
place the mix properly from Ghamelas. Requirements to be fulfilled during transporting and placing
concrete in position:
a) No segregation or separation of materials
b) Concrete delivered at the points of placing should be uniform and of proper consistency
If the distance of placing point is far from the mixer, transportation of concrete shall be by following
a) Wheel barrows and handcart.
b) Tippers and lorries
c) Truck mixers and agitators lorries Transit mixer
d) Conveyer belts
When the concrete is to be placed much below the general ground level a wooden or steel chute may be
used for chuting the concrete to level and then placing in position manually.
If the vertical height is more than 5 meters transportation shall be by using hoist.
Method of placing concrete in its final position has an important effect on its homogeneity. The same
which has been used to secure homogeneity in mixing and the avoidance of segregation in transporting
must be exercised for placing also.
To secure good concrete it is necessary to make certain preparation before placing
a) Forms (work) must be examined for correct alignment and adequate rigidity to withstand the
weight of concrete, impact loads.
b) Forms must be checked for tightness to avoid loss of mortar which may result in honey combing.
c) Forms from inside shall be cleaned and treated with a release agent to facilitate their removal
when the concrete is set.

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d) Any coating of hardened mortar on the forms should be removed. Coating of the mortar of
previous poured concrete on reinforcement shall be removed and rods to be exposed clean to get
proper bond between reinforcement and concrete.
e) The reinforcement should be checked for proper binding with binding wire so that it does not get
displaced while pouring concrete. It should be free from rusting, oil etc.
f) Reinforcement should be checked weather it is provided as per detail engineering drawing
g) Reinforcement should also be checked for proper cover as per drawings.
h) Please check that proper lap length is provided.
i) The surface of the previously poured concrete shall be cleaned and mortar layer shall be
provided over it before pouring the fresh concrete.
j) Concrete in walls of thinner section and beam of larger depths, concrete shall be provided in
3.4.4 Compaction and consolidation
The objective in consolidating concrete is the elimination of voids within concrete. Well consolidated
concrete is satisfactorily free of rock pockets and bubbles of entrapped air and it is in close contact with
form work, reinforcement, and other embedded parts such as insert plates, pipe sleeves etc.
Accomplishment of this objective is easier if segregation and slump loss are avoided during
transportation and deposition of concrete.
The presence of 5 % voids in hardened concrete left due to incomplete compaction may result in a
decrease in compressive strength by about 35 %.
Compaction is achieved by using vibrators. The principal advantage of vibratory compaction is that it
allows the use of stiff mixes. In addition, the vibratory compaction of concrete has following

The concrete produced is more impermeable and dense.

Bond between steel and concrete is improved.
Shrinkage and creep are reduced.,
An increase in the speed of placing is possible by the ready flow of vibrated concrete into
difficult position.
e) A better finish is imparted to the surface of the concrete.
f) Vibrators are petrol driven, electrical driven or pneumatically driven. They are immersion type or
form vibrators.
Immersion type vibrators- needle of 25 mm, 40 mm or 60 mm is coupled through flexible shaft and
when the machine is operated needle vibrates. Vibrators are being operated at an oscillation frequency of
at least 7000 vibrations per minute when immerse in the concrete. Window is also provided in the
shuttering at particular place/height to immerse needle of the vibrator of the section & height to be
concreted is not accessible from the top. Vibrators should be inserted vertically at points 450 mm to 600
mm apart and slowly withdrawn.
In shallow concrete needle has to be sloping on horizontal positions. Vibration period of 5 to 15 seconds
for each penetration are usually sufficient. Systematic spacing of the points at vibrators should be
established to ensure that no portions of the concrete are missed.

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Steps to ensure good results from vibration of concrete
a) All forms to be as tight as possible to avoid leakage of mortar and consequent honey combing.
Form to be rigidly braced to prevent displacement resulting in bulging g of concrete.
b) Vibration must be carefully controlled.
c) In order to avoid air being trapped, the lift of concrete should be as shallow as practicable.
Damage of trapping air increases with depth, and a 60 cm layer is the maximum advisable.
d) The vibrator should be used only to aid compaction. It should never be used to push concrete
laterally in the forms as this may lead to segregation
e) The vibrator should be allowed to penetrate of its own weight and should be withdrawn quite
f) The vibrator should be immersed through the entire depth of freshly deposited concrete and into
the layer below, if this is still plastic or can be brought again into a plastic condition. In this
manner a plane of weakness at the joint between the two layers can be avoided and monolithic
concrete can be obtained.
g) The vibrator should be used not less than 10 cm to the form surface in order to obtain uniform
h) Please see that no over vibration is done when over vibrations occurs, the surface concrete not
only appears very wet, but it actually consists of a layer of mortar containing practically no
coarse aggregate.
Please mind that efforts to avoid over vibrations often results inadequate vibrations.
3.4.5 Finishing:
Finishing is carried out after a little stiffening of concrete has occurred with suitable tools
Provide green cut immediately after finishing a particular layer of concrete by using wire brush and
small brooms and clean it thoroughly. In case of preceding concrete surface being old, chipping must be
done with 10-15mm depth and should be thoroughly cleaned using air or water jets before placing the
subsequent layer of concrete. Cold joints can be formed with cement slurry spraying or with cement
slurry spraying or with bonding agent
3.4.6 Removal of form work
From the point of view of curing and the protection of concrete at early ages it is advantageous to leave
forms in place as long as possible. Under normal circumstances where temperatures are above 20 oC and
ordinary Portland cement is used forms may be struck after expiring of the following periods:

Vertical sides of slabs, beams, columns and walls

24 to 48 hours
Slabs (props left under)
3 days
Beam soffits (props left under)
7 days
Bottom of slabs to a span of 4.5 meters
7 days
Bottom of slabs above 4.6 meter span
14 days
Bottom of beams up to 6.0
21 days
With rapid-hardening cement, three-sevenths of the above period will suffice except for the
vertical sides of the slabs beams and columns for which the forms should be retained for at least
24 hours.

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3.4.7 Curing
The purpose of curing is twofold. Firstly, it is required to prevent or replenish the loss of water which is
essential for the purpose of hydration for hardening. Secondly it prevents the exposure of the concrete to
a hot atmosphere and to drying winds which would lead to a quick drying out of moisture in the concrete
and subject it to contraction stresses at a stage when the concrete would not be strong enough to resist
them. Loss of water by evaporation from the surface affects hydration to proceed in the interim
members. Therefore curing of water is highly desirable.
Methods of curing.
a) Application of water directly to the concrete or by means of continuously saturated covering with a
layer of soaking Hessian materials.
b) By Ponding water
c) Membrane curing in which proprietary compounds are sprayed to form an impervious film on the
surface of concrete or where the concrete is covered with polyethylene sheet or water proof paper.
d) Surface application of calcium chloride which not only absorbs moisture from the atmosphere but
also prevents the evaporation of a part of the mixing water.
Period of Curing
As per IS 456: 2000 concrete to be cured for at least 7 days. This requirement applies to ordinary
Portland cement and if rapid hardening cement is used the period may be reducing to half. With low heat
cement this curing period should be extended to 21 days.
1. The permeability of surface layers increases five to tenfold when curing is inadequate or interrupted
2. Curing sensitivity of concrete increases with water cement ratio.
3. Blended cement with high % of replacement of cement ( more than 50 % slag, 15 % fly ash or 8 %
silica fumes) hardened slowly initially but gains strength later on .Such cement require greater care
in curing than OPC. However when properly cured, blended cement results in concrete of lower
permeability and better protection cover against chloride penetration than OPC. Concrete is like
baby in its early days as it is very delicate. Curing helps to protect the concrete and also help in
developing a strong surface.
As hydration of cement proceeds (assuming that water is supplied as necessary) gel development
reduces the size of the voids and there by generally increases the water tightness of the concrete. For this
reason prolonged and thorough curing is significant factor in securing impermeable water tight concrete.
3.4.8 Cover:
Keep various thickness cover blocks ready as per the requirement of the structural drawings well in
advance. Use proper mould and mortar mix for casting the cover blocks of various thicknesses with a
two legged binding wire. Cover blocks needs to be strong enough so that it is not crushed after placing

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3.5. Testing for Concreting
The most common test for hardened concrete is the compressive strength, at particular period of
time, from the time of casting the concrete cubes. The concrete strength is generally specified by
compressive strengths and the structural design is worked out on that basis.
It is very important for the Engineers and Technicians to obtain accurate results of compressive
strengths of concrete. Compressive strength over the period of time also indicates the extent of
Quality control being exercised at site.
a) Parameter Affecting Compression Strength
It is extremely important to know the significance of the various parameters that can lead to low
compression strength of concrete or result in failure minimum specified strength.
The most significant parameters are as under.
i) Cement
Chemical Composition
Fineness of cement
Variation in compressive strengths of concrete can also occur to a considerable extent if
the supply of cement is received from different brands or from different production units
of the same brand. Therefore cement shall be obtained from the same sources.
ii) Water
Water cement (W / C) ratio by weight plays a VERY significant role in concrete strength and
DURABILITY Lower the ratio higher is the strength and durability. Slight variation in W / C
can cause considerable reduction in strength and very significant reduction in durability.

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iii) Cement Storage & Transportation

To be stored in such a manner it does not come in contact with moisture or water.
Stack of cement should not touch the wall of godown.
Stack of cement should not directly rest on the floor. Wooden planks resting on wooden
sizes to be provided below the stack of cement.
Godown has to be leak- proof. During monsoon if moisture enters the godown then
heater shall be provided
Cement must arrive at site from the production unit in the shortest possible time with
minimum numbers of handling.
Gang-ways to be provided in between the stacks of cement .
iv) Cement Packing
Packing Material should not be very porous.
v) Aggregate
Size of the aggregate
Larger the maximum aggregate size lesser is
the cement pastes required
Shape of the aggregate
Rounded aggregate have lesser surface area
than crushed cubical aggregate. Aggregate should
not be flaky.
Grading of Aggregate
Presence of finer fines causes increase in
Surface area.
Porous aggregate may crush when compressive loads are
applied before the failure in the mortar bond
between the aggregate can occur.

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Transportation & Placement

b) Sampling
Samples from which the test specimens are moulded be representative of the concrete
entering the structure. Following points must be considered.
i) Samples must be taken at random to ensure that each concrete batch shall have a reasonable
chance of being tested. Sampling should be spread aver the entire period of concreting. Each
sample shall contain 3 Nos. of cubes to be tested for 28 days or of 6 Nos. of cubes if 7 days
test are required to be tested.
ii) Frequency
The minimum frequency of sampling of concrete of each grade as recommended by IS
456 2000 shall be in accordance with the following.
Quality of concrete
In the work cum.
1 to 5
6 to 15
16 to 30
31 to 50
51 and above

Number of Set

Of samples
4 plus one additional
addition 50 cum. Or
iii) Cube mould for Test Samples are either made up from steel or C.I. They are in three parts.
Two halves which constitutes the vertical sides of cube and base plate. Two halves are bolted
and then fixed on the base plates by clamping inside face of these units must be planed and
machine finished to high degree of accuracy.
iv) Cubes as cast, most commonly have sides 15 cm each the standard cylinder specimen is 15
cm in diameter and 30 cm in height.
v) Mould to be filled in 3 layers of about 5 cm and its top leveled off with a trowel.
vi) Compaction by hand is carried out by tamping each layer with a rod. The number of strokes
to be applied to each layer shall 35 for 15 cm size cube mould.
Vibratory compaction is also carried out with either electric of pneumatic hammer.
vii) The tamping rod shall be of MS rod of 16 mm dia. 60 cm long with bullet nosed end.
viii) After finishing, the concrete cube mould should be immediately covered with damp
Hessian cloth & transferred to room where relative humidity is 90% and temperature is 27+
ix) Coding / marking / identification This shall be given on the surface of the cube so that
sample can be easily correlated to the concrete mix, casting date.
x) Strip the mould after 16 to 24 hours gently without damaging the edges of surface or
xi) Submerge the specimen in the curing tank containing clean water till such time it is due for

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xii) At least three cubes of the same batch be tested at a time and average of test results be
considered for the compressive strength. Individual test results should not vary by + 15%
from the average. If more, the test results on the sample are invalid as per IS 456-2000
3.6. Grade of Concrete
The concrete shall be in grades designated as under as per IS 456. Specified characteristics.
Grade Designation
M 10


Specified Characteristic compressive strength at 28



M refers to mix and number the characteristic compressive strength of 15 cm cube at 28 days
expressed in N/mm2


M5 and M7.5 grade of concrete used for lean concrete bases and simple foundations for masonry
wall. These mixes need not to be designed.


Grade of concrete lower than M20 shall not be used in reinforced concrete.

3.7. Workability
IS 6461 (Part VII)-1973 defines workability as that property of freshly mixed concrete or mortar
which determines the ease and homogeneity with which it can be mixed , placed , compacted &
Workability has been defined as the ease, with which a given set of materials can be mixed into
concrete and subsequently handled, transported and placed in position with minimum loss of
Homogeneity. The importance of plasticity and uniformity are emphasized because these essentials
to workability and appreance of finished structure.
Workability is dependent on the proportions of the ingredient materials. The degree of workability
required for proper placement and consolidation of concrete is governed by the dimensions and
shape of the structure and by the spacing of reinforcement.
Consistency or fluidity of concrete is as important component of workability and can be measured
with reasonable accuracy by means of the slump test. The slump of mass concrete is usually
restricted to maximum of 2 inches. If concrete cannot be placed without exceeding specified slump
limitations then it may be concluded that the mix proportions are in need of adjustments. The
minimum slump that can be used, commensurate with desired workability requires the least amount
of cement and water.
The use of entrained air has minimized the effect of harshness in a concrete. It reduces bleedings and
segregation and facilitates the placing and handling of concrete reduced bleeding permits finishing

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of concrete surfaces earlier and usually with less work. Each percent of entrained air permits with
some improvement in workability and with no loss of slump. Workability can be enhanced by adding
Concrete Admixtures Plasticizers
There are essential forms of ingredients in concrete i.e coarse aggregate, fine aggregate, cement and
water. However, to improve certain properties of concrete both in plastic and bonded state, it is
necessary to add the fifth ingredient in the cement mix. This fifth ingredient can be a chemical
There are several types of admixtures but the most popular and most often used one is the plasticizer.
Plasticizers is also called water reducing admixtures and are classified as follows:
c) Ordinary water reducing plasticizers which enable upto 15 percent of water reduction.
d) High range water reducing super plasticizers which enable upto 30 percent of water reduction.
Some plasticizers also cause air entrainment in concrete. Plasticizers are generally used to
achieve the following
In fresh concrete:
a) Increase workability and/or pump ability without increasing the water / cement ratio.
b) To improve cohesiveness and thereby reducing segregation or bleeding
c) Improve to some extent set retardation.
In hardened concrete
a) Increase strength by reducing the water / cement ratio, maintaining the same workability
b) reduce permeability and improve durability by reducing the water cement ratio
c) Reduce heat of hydration and drying shrinkage by reducing cement content.
3.8 Durability
Since prevention is better than cure, sufficient attention should be paid at the design stage (structural
as well as architectural), and ensure high quality construction by adopting good engineering
concreting practices. There is no substitute for well compacted, dense concrete of adequate strength
in order to ensure durable structure with long service life.
A durable concrete is one which will withstand in satisfactory degree, the efforts of service
conditions to which it will be subjected such as weathering chemical action and wear.
a) Weathering Resistance
Disintegration of concrete by weathering is caused mainly by the disruptive action of freezing
thawing and by expansion and contraction under restraint .Concrete can be made that will have
excellent resistance to the efforts of such exposures if careful attention is given to the selection of
materials and to all other phases of job control. The entrainment of small bubbles of air has
helped to improve concrete. Provision is made for adequate drainage of exposed concrete
surfaces. Freezing and thawing is affected by water tightness because the free water within the
pores by capillary action inflow under pressure on the extent to which the pores have been filled

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with water at the time each freezing occurs. The more watertight the concrete the more difficult
for water to gain entrance and to fill the voids.
b) Resistance to chemical deterioration
Concrete deterioration attributable in whole or in part to chemical reactions between alkalis in
the cement and mineral constitutes of concrete aggregate is characterised by the following
observable conditions.
3.8.1 Cracking, usually of random pattern on a fairly large scale.
3.8.2 Excessive internal and overall expansion.
3.8.3 Cracks that may be very large at the concreting surface
3.8.4 Gelatinous exudations and whitish amorphous deposits both on the surface and within the
surface and within the mass of concrete, especially in the voids and adjacent to some affected
pieces of aggregates.
3.8.5 Peripheral zones of reactivity, alternations or in-filtration in the aggregate particles opal and
certain types of acid and intermediates volcanic rocks.
3.8.6 Lifeless chalky appreances of the freshly concrete.
Durability of concrete depends on its resistance to deterioration and environment in which it is
placed. The resistance of concrete to weathering chemical attacks, abrasion, fire, frost and depends
largely upon the quality and constituent materials. Susceptibility of corrosion of the steel is governed
by the COVER provided and the permeability of concrete. The cube crushing strength alone is not a
reliable guide to the quality and durability of concrete. It must also have adequate cement content
and low water cement ratio. One of the main characteristic influencing the durability of any concrete
is its permeability.
To achieve suitably low permeability of concrete following factors are required to be taken high

strong dense aggregates

Low water cement ratio
Ensure thorough compaction of the concrete
Ensuring sufficient hydration of cement through proper curing methods
Adequate workability.

c) Resistance to erosion
The principal causes of erosion of concrete are
Movement of abrasive materials by flowing water ( Example: Dams, Bridges Piers & Abutment)
ii) attrition friction (Traffic on concrete surface, Industrial floor , Bridge Deck)
iii) Impact of traffic
iv) Wind blasting
v) Impact of floating ice and cavitations
Cavitations is one of the most destructive of these causes and use to which concrete offers very little
resistance regardless of its quality
High velocity flow on obstruction abrupt change in surface alignment.
Zone of sever sub atmospheric pressure shall be formed against the surface
This zone is promptly filled with turbulent water.

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Cavitations may occur in clear water flowing at high velocities when divulgence between the natural
path and the surface of the channel or conduit is too abrupt or when there is an abrupt projections or
depression on the surface if the channel may occur due to poor formwork or inferior finishing at the
concrete cavitations may occur on horizontal or sloping surfaces over which water flows or on vertical
surface part which water flows.
Here critical areas are sometime protected by facing with metal or other appropriate materials which
have better resistance to cavitations than concrete.
Use of concrete of increased strength and wear resistance offers some relief against the forces of erosion
brought by movement of abrasive materials by flowing water, attrition and impact of traffic,
sandblasting and impact of floating ice.
Example IPS with Ionite, steel linging where velocity of water and head is very high, proper design,
construction and operation of the concrete structure.

Recommendations for Durability of concrete

Durability should be considered as a part of structural design and construction rather than as a separate
parameter. The former is generally known as holistic approach, and is increasingly adopted. The later is
termed reductionistic (system) approach and does not appear to be as effective as the former.
The following recommendation may be adopted to ensure safe and durable structures with trouble free
long service life.
1. Concrete protects steel from corrosion only under controlled conditions. Good quality concrete mix
with lowest water to cement ratio compatible with practical placement and finishing techniques
should be used. Concrete should be properly placed, consolidated and CURED. Overstressing of
structures should be avoided.
2. Application of flexible coating to concrete surfaces which can effectively control the ingredients of
chlorides, sulphates, carbon dioxide, oxygen and moisture can be considered as an effective
corrosion control measure. However, the coating should be applied before structural deterioration
occurs, and not afterwards, to be effective.
3. Corrosion of rebars can be effectively controlled by exercising adequate care at every stage of
planning, analysis, design and construction for the exposure conditions. (i) Corrosion reluctant steel
(ii) Coating for concrete and cathodic protections enhance durability of structures , However, there is
no substitute for well designed and well compacted Concrete cover of adequate thickness to ensure
durable structures.
4. The performance of structures should be monitored regularly from the stage of commissioning.
Assessment of damage is the first step in a structural repair project. A successful programme of
damage assessment is often the key to cost effective repair system.
5. The response of the structural system to the changes due to the repair must be understood for
successful rehabilitation programme. It is not possible to generalize rehabilitation schemes. Each
system has merits and demerits.
6. Trained Supervision, workable specification, speedy decision and enough working area should be
made available for satisfactory, timely, and efficient repair.

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7. For structures in non-corrosive environment, grouting is usually adequate for rehabilitations. Surface
coating may be necessary to protect concrete in corrosive environment.
8. There is no reference to polymer modified concrete, mortars or other construction chemicals in
Indian codes of practice.
9. A holistic approach should be adopted for structural system, wherein structural design and durability
are considered together rather than as separate entities.
3.9 Water tightness
Hardened concrete might be completely watertight if it were composed entirely of solid matter.
However, it is not practicable to produce concrete in which all spaces between the aggregate particles
are filled with solid cementing materials. To obtain workable mixes, non water is used than is required
for hydration of the cement. This excess water creates voids or cavities which may be interconnected
and form continuous passages.
As hydration of cement proceeds) assuming that water is supplied as necessary, gel development reduces
the size of the voids and thereby greatly increases the water tightness of the concrete.
For this reason prolonged thorough curing is a significant factor in securing impermeable water tight

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3.10. Strength of Concrete
The strength of concrete increases with age. Although the increase in concrete strength may
continue for wall over a year the basis of design is taken as the strength at 28 days after placing.
Approximate percentages of strength of ordinary Portland Cement Concrete t different ages in
comparison with the strength at 28 days are
1 day
3 days
7 days
28 days
3 months
6 months
1 year

Strength %

3.11. Construction Joints

Concreting shall be carried out continuously up to construction joints. The position and
arrangement of which shall be indicated by designer.
1. When the concrete has to be resumed on a surface which has hardened, such surface shall be
roughened. It shall then be swept clean and thoroughly wetted. For vertical joints neat
cement slurry shall be applied on the surface before it is dry. For horizontal joints the surface
shall be covered with a layer of horizontal joints the surface shall be covered with a layere of
mortar about 10 mm to 15 mm thick composed of cement and sand and in the same ratio as
the cement and sand in concrete mix. This layer of cement slurry or cement mortar shall be
freshly mixed and applied immediately before placing of concrete.
2. Where the concrete has not fully hardened all laitance shall be removed by scrubbing the wet
surface with wire. Care being taken to avoid dislodgement of particles of aggregate. The
surface shall be thoroughly wetted. The surface shall than be coated with neat cement slurry
and subsequently a layer of concrete not exceeding 150 mm in thickness shall first be placed
& rammed; thoroughly the work shall proceed in the normal way.
Summary for making Good Concrete
The following points pertaining to materials and workmanship are important.
1. Cement: a.Use cement of approved quality as per specification and ensure that it is fresh and not
older than 90 days.
b. Cement shall be stored in go-down free from moisture content.
c.Stack of cement bags shall not be rested directly on floor. Wooden planks resting on
wooden sizes (sections) to be provided.
d. Issue of cement should be on 1st come & 1st go basis.
e.In case if cement is required to be stacked in open, then the member of bags must be just
sufficient for days consumptions.

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f. Ensure that entire stack is covered by Tarpolins or Polythene sheet with an adequate
overlap, when stacked in raining season.
2. Aggregate: - use well graded aggregates, free from silt, organic matter and other undesirable
3. Batching : - Batching materials on weight basis is preferable rather than volume batching.
4. Mixing
: - use a mixer machine / ready mix concrete. Avoid hand mixing. Where it is
unavoidable it should be done on an impervious platform and add 10 % extra cement.
5. Quality of mixing water: Use the minimum quantity of water consistent with the degree of
workability required to enable easy placing and compaction of concrete
6 Transportation: - Avoid dry out, segregation and setting on water
7. Placing
: - Place concrete in its position before setting start, avoid segregation of material
and disturbance of the form avoid segregation of material and disturbance of the form. Lay
concrete in layers without any break of continuity.
8. Compaction: - Use proper hand tools or vibrant, avoid over vibrations.
9. Finishing : - Finish after little stiffening.
10. Curing
: - Keep concrete moist for minimum of 10 days
11. Formwork: - use formwork which is rigid and closely fitted having sufficient strength to
support the wet concrete.
12. Reinforcement: Make sure that reinforcement used is free from rust, oil, paint, mud etc
Important Tips for Good Construction Practices at Site
1. Check the reinforcement, electrical layouts etc. before concreting.
2. Ensure that shuttering and scaffolding is firm and proper so that it can withstand pumping
load and load of man and material movement on slab.
3. Seal all joints in formwork with tape or aluminum foil or putty of used grease and cement
(50:50) in order to avoid slurry leakage at the time of casting.
4. Check that vibrator is in working condition, and adequate labour is available.
5. Ensure sufficient light arrangements in case of late evening concreting.
6. Clear the site of unwanted material and keep enough space for pump placement and Transit
Mixer Movement.
7. Permission from concerned traffic police authorities to be taken to avoid last minute hassles.
8. Maintain proper cover to reinforcement and ensure that concrete cover blocks are not
distributed during concreting.
9. The concrete should be placed as fast as possible, but not faster that the rate of compaction.
10. Do not add water to concrete at the time of pumping as it may deteriorate the quality of the
11. Ensure adequate compaction of concrete by pin / pan vibrators. Fully compacted concrete is
dense, strong, durable and impermeable.
12. Avoid over compaction of slab as it may lead to bleeding of concrete and shrinkage cracks.
13. The curing of concrete must be done religiously in order to replenish the loss of water from
the concrete surface on account of absorption and evaporation, thus maintaining sufficient
water for cement paste to hydrate and gain strength. Moist curing must be started within 3-5
hours of placement of concrete depending on the environment temperature or slab must be
covered by gunny bags to prevent loss of water.
14. Early curing help in reducing the plastic shrinkage cracks that occur due to loss of water
from the concrete surface.

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15. In case of rain, cover the slab with tarpaulin sheets to prevent washing off of slab or dilution
of concrete quality due to excess water.
16. Incase of high winds and hot temperature, cover the slab with tarpaulin, gunny bags etc to
prevent loss of moisture from the slab.
17. Do not allow the drastic drying of green concrete to avoid plastic shrinkage cracks.
Golden Rules for Quality Control
1. TOPMOST man in the organization must be convinced that quality must be had.
The great Mr. F. R. Macmillan in the forward to the first edition of his famous concrete
primer had written, Many who have been interested in the case of better concrete have noted
the difficulty of making any real progress untill someone in the authority has been convinced
that good concrete CAN be had, that it SHOULD be had, and having been so convinced, had
sent out the word that it MUST be had.
2. The reporting system of Q.C department must be direct to the TOPMAN and not through the
persons or persons in any manner connected with the Project Management.
3. Everyone is aware of the Q.C system and inspection procedures as every worker in the
project team plays a vital role in the Q.C.
4. Quality must be always given preference over speed and economy. Time consuming repairs
and modifications due to poor quality delay the job and cause additional financial impact on
the project.
5. Timely inspection and timely corrective action key to successful QC system. Delays in
these two activities are the main cause of failure of Q.C.
6. Good Quality construction can be achieved by poor quality makers, but poor quality
construction cannot be achieved by good quality makers.
7. Learn from mistakes but mistakes should never be allowed.
8. Quality control inspector should be skillful to give suggestions to resolve Non-confirmative.
9. Ignorance, negligence, carelessness has failures. Inspector must be having good technical
knowledge, very watchful, alert, honest and high integrity.
10. Reject concrete member found to be unacceptable.
11. Testing of essential material.
Good engineering dictates acceptance of only the best when the best is procurable at no greater
3.12 Labour Control / Utilization / Organization:
For all concreting works planning is essential.
The planning of labour should be taking into consideration the lead distance / height, the labour
delivering efficiency, the output from mixer machine otherwise it will lead to poor quality of
concrete eg. In case of extra labour : period of mixing will be reduced due to pressurization by
the standing labour to deliver the concrete earlier. In case of less labour : the dumped concrete
from mixer will start setting due to shortage of the labour
For eg. Assuming following data
Single Mixer machine (10/7),
Lead distance 25mts
Level ground

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Speed of labour 15m/min
Capacity of one thagara 0.5 cft
Time period taken by one batch avg. 3mins
Traveling time = time taken towards pour place + placing + time taken to come back to mixer
= (25/15 + 1.5 + (25/15)
= 5 mins
Idle time = 1 min
Total time = 6 mins

Place of work

25mt lead distance

(28 labours)


(2 labour)

Mixer m/c
(1 labour)

(2 labour )

(4 labour)

No. of labour required to deliver one batch = 7 / 0.5 = 14 labours

As per assumption each batch is coming at 3 mins interval
No. of labour required for delivering the concrete to poring place: 2 gangs of 14 labours
= 28 labours
Total number of labours = 28 + 1 + 2 + 2 + 4 = 37
Conclusion: Hence the above calculated numbers of labours are require for timely delivery of
concrete to pouring place
Note: The above example is for illustration purpose only. At site one must consider other
variable factors like size of work, height of placing, cost of execution, labour efficiency etc.
3.13 Cost part related to out put
It should be always remembered that the quantity of work done by the labourers should be
proportionate to the labour force engaged for the purpose and to ensure this, the supervisor
should have knowledge of the output of the skilled/unskilled workers and such knowledge can be
gathered by sincerely observing the output of the different categories of labour on work of
different agencies. He should be aware of the target to be achieved per day or per week

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3.14 Material Wastage Control:
1. The cement bags should be stored properly to avoid contact with moisture otherwise it will
lead to hardening of cement
2. The cement should be planned such that it is consumed in 90 days. The bags must be ordered
taking into consideration its scheduled consumption. Also due consideration must be given to
the preplanned schedule (ie. holidays, rainy, season)
3. Only required number of cement bags must be brought from store to the place of work.
4. To avoid wastage of aggregates, planning should be done to dump aggregates directly on the
place of work. Avoid over ridding of trucks / tractors on aggregate dumps
5. The coarse aggregates if mixed with sand soil and other debris should be screened and
washed before using. Screened residue of sand can be used in back filling
6. The measurement box be filled in with just adequate amount of aggregate, over filling of the
boxes will lead to spillage while handing
7. Water spillage spoils the building material if not controlled from time to time
8. Requirement of each material for the particular work targeted for the day.
3.15 Safety

Employees working in concrete should wear gumboots, gloves and helmets

The pin of the lift bucket/trolley if not property fitted will lead to fall and cause accidents
Wrong signaling to lift may lead to miss-operation and cause accidents
Proper walkways, proper palak, railing should be provided
All electrical wires / cables to have proper earthing and no joints, to avoid short circuiting
Water logging / spillage of water may create unsafe working condition

3.16. Mode of Measurements (for detail refer SP -1987)


Dimensions shall be measured to nearest 0.01m except for the thickness of slab which shall
be measured to nearest 0.005 m.
Areas shall be worked out to nearest 0.01m2.
Cubic contents shall be worked out to nearest 0.01m3
No Deduction shall be made for the following :
a) Ends of dissimilar materials, for example, beams, posts, girders, rafters, purlins, trusses,
Corbels and steps up to 5000 cm2 in cross-section.
a) Opening up to 0.1 m2 or as specified;
b) Volume occupied by reinforcement;
c) Volume occupied by pipes, conduits, sheathing, etc, not exceeding 100 cm 2 each in crosssectional area or as specified;
d) Small voids not exceeding 40 cm2. each in cross-section;
e) Moulds, drip moulding, chamfers, splays rounded or covered angles, beds, grooves and
rebate up to 10 cm in girth ; and
f) Stops, mitres, returns, rounded ends, junctions, dishings, etc, in connections with linear or
super labours.


In calculating area of an opening, the thickness of any separate lintel or sill shall be included
in the height. No extra labour for forming such openings or voids shall be measured.

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Masonry may be defined as the construction of building units bonded together with mortar. The
building units commonly known as masonry units may be stone, bricks or precast blocks of
concrete. Masonry has built itself great reputation as one of the premier traditional materials of
building. Even though new principles of construction and new material become prominent in
building construction practices, masonry has got the highest importance in building industry. The
basic advantage of masonry constructions lies in the fact that in load bearing structures; it
performs a variety of functions such as.

Supporting load.
Subdividing the space.
Providing thermal and acoustic insulations.
Providing Fire and weather protecting etc.

This in a framed structure has to be provided separately. Masonry is normally used for
construction of foundations, in RCC frame structure where walls are non structure members,
wall, partitions, columns, steps, arches and other structural components of the building.
1. Trowel
also for cutting
2. Spirit levels
3. Plumb
brick walls.
4. Masons Square
5. Line and Pins
6. Bolster
bricks and dressing out
7. Steel tape
8. Mallat
9. Float
10. Ghamela
11. Phavada


Used for lifting and spreading mortar,

For getting horizontal surface, also used for

Used for checking verticality of the

Used for checking right angles.

Used for maintaining alignment of course.
Used for accurate cutting of soft


Used for measurement.

For cutting the bricks
For spreading to required level
For transporting & mixing mortar
For mixing.


Bricks, stones (dressed and undressed), Blocks (solid and hollow), cement, sand, bricks, Cement
Concrete blocks , Light weight blocks, Stone, Rubble, etc.
Materials for Brick/Stone masonry

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Mortar may be made out of
(i) clay, mud etc which cause adhesion when dried from wet plastic state
(ii) Cementations ingredients such as cement, lime or combination of these two choice of mortar
and grade for binding masonry units is governed by several combinations such as type of
masonry, situation of use, load durability requirement and other special consideration like
fire resistance, insulation, rate of setting, hardening etc.
Mortar made out of clay, mud etc normally used for entirely temporary structure, if mud mortar
is used , the mud should be prepared from carefully selected soil of tenacious nature of sand
content not less than 35 % and plasticity index 8-10 for clayey soil and 6-10 for silty soil. In case
suitable soil is not available, the blender of sand with clayey soil or vice-versa may be done in
suitable proportion, so as to achieve the above physical characteristic of soil.
Consistency of mortar
The quantity of water to be added to the mortar should be such that working consistency is
obtained. Excess water should be avoided.
The working consistency of mortar is usually judge by the mason during application. The water
should be just enough to maintain the required fluidity of mortar during application
Cement Mortar
Nowadays cement mortar is mostly used. With cement as an ingredient it should be used as early
as possible within half an hour from the time of mixing. Cement mortars are generally more
suitable for making high strength mortars.
Bricks are obtained by moulding clay in rectangular block of uniform size and then by drying
and burning these blocks. Generally Constituents of clay i.e. good brick earth are
20% to 30% -Plasticity
50% to 60% -Prevents
Wrapping helps in getting uniform shape.
Small quantity is desirable in
a finally powdered
State 1- 2% - Prevents shrinkage of raw bricks.
Oxide of Iron
5% to 6% - Lime to fuse sand-imparts red
Small quantity-decrease shrinkage
As bricks are of uniform size, they can be properly arranged and as they are light in weight, can
be handled conveniently. Brick is the oldest building material and it is extensively used as a
leading material of construction because of durability, strength, reliability, low cost, easy
availability. Bricks are either made by hand, or machine moulded from suitable clay and properly

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burnt in Kilns. Brick wall in masonry may be Solid wall (230 mm, 350 mm, etc) , Partition wall (
Half brick wall), Cavity wall.

Test of Bricks:

weight if


Crushing Strength


Presence of soluble -

Should not absorb water more than 20% by

Immersed in water for 16 Hrs.

Minimum crushing strength should not be less then
When soaked in water for 24 hrs. Should not show
Deposits of white salts when allowed to dry in shade.

Size of the bricks:

Bricks are prepared in various sizes. Customs in the locality is the governing factor for deciding
the size of Brick. However bricks in common use vary in size from 8.5 to 9, long by 4.5 to
4.38 in thick. The length of a brick should be twice its width.

Frog Qualities of Good Bricks

1. Bricks should have perfect edges, well-burnt in kilns, copper coloured, free from cracks with
proper rectangular shape and of standard size (19 x 9 x 9 cm).
2. Bricks should give clear ringing sound when struck with each other. intensity, degree of
exposures to weather, bond and
3. Bricks must be homogeneous and free from voids.
4. The percentage absorption of water by weight should not be greater than 20 percent for first
class bricks and 22 percent for second class bricks when soaked in cold water for 24 hours.
5. Bricks should be sufficiently hard, i.e, no nail impression must be present when scratched.
The average weight of bricks should be 3- 3.5 kg.
6. Bricks should not break when dropped from a height of 1 m.
7. Bricks should have low thermal conductivity and should be soundproof.
8. Bricks should not show deposits of salts when immersed in water and dried.
9. The minimum crushing strength of bricks must be 3.5 N/mm2.

JMC Projects (I) Ltd. Bonds in brick work:
Bond is the interlacement of bricks, formed when they lay (or Project beyond) below or above
them. It is the method of arranging the bricks in course so that individual units are tied to-gather
and the vertical joints of the successive course do not lie in the same vertical line. Therefore
bricks used should be all of uniform size. If they are not arranged (or bounded) properly,
continuous vertical joints will result an unbounded wall, with its continuous vertical joints has
little strength and stability. Bonds help in distributing the concentrated load over a large area.
Bonds are of mainly two types, English Bond and Flemish Bond.
English Bond: It is the most commonly used Bond, for all thickness. This bond is considered to
be the strongest. The bond consists of alternate course of headers and stretchers. In this bond the
vertical joints of the header course come over each other, similarly the vertical joints of the
stretcher course also come over each other. In order to break the vertical joints in the successive
course, it is essential to place queen closer after the first header, in each heading course.
Alternate course of various thickness of wall are as under.( Refer sketch)
Flemish Bond: In this type of bond, each course is comprised of alternate headers and stretchers.
Every alternate course starts with a header at the corner. (i.e. quoin headers). Quoin closers are
placed next to the Quoin header in alternate courses to develop the face lap. Every header is
centrally supported over the stretcher below it. Flemish bonds are of two types. (Refer sketch)

Double Flemish bond: In the double Flemish bond, each course presents the same
appearances both in the front face as well as in the back face.
Single Flemish bond: Single Flemish bond is comprised of double Flemish bond facing and
English bond backing and hearting in each course. This bond thus uses the strength of the
English bond and appearances of Flemish bond.

Exposed Brick Work

Facing Bricks
The facing bricks made from suitable soils shall be free from cracks, flows, nodules of free lime
warpage and organic matter. These shall be thoroughly burnt and shall have plane rectangular
faces with parallel sides and sharp straight right angled edges. Facing bricks shall have uniform
colour and even texture. Unless otherwise specified, facing bricks shall be machine moulded.
Selected hand moulded bricks may also be used as facing bricks where specified. As far as
possible, total requirement of facing bricks for a work shall be arranged from the same kiln.
Bricks with chipped edges and broken corners shall not be used.
The permissible tolerances shall be as under:
190 or 225
90 or 111
40 or 44

Tolerance (For Machine

moulded bricks) mm

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Note: Tolerance and Dimensions for selected hand moulded bricks 4mm in length and 3mm
in width and thickness
Physical Requirements
Facing bricks shall be of class designation 75 unless otherwise specified. Average compressive
strength shall not be less than 7.5 N/mm2, water absorption shall not exceed 20 per cent by
weight and efflorescence rating shall be nil when tested in accordance with the procedure laid
down and tolerance n dimensions shall be checked as per the procedure laid down in Appendix
Joints in the exposed brick work shall be truly horizontal and vertical and kept uniform with the
help of wooden or steel strips.
Exposed brick work in face using machine moulded bricks and selected hand mouIded bricks
shall be measured separately.
(a) Labour for selecting bricks and wastage of bricks where use of selected hand moulded brick
is specified.
(b) Leaving uniform horizontal and vertical grooves of specified depth and providing joints of
required thickness using wooden or steel strips as the work proceeds.
Work procedure
Brick masonry construction is a great art since laying must be systematically done with respect
to bonding, jointing and finishing. Brick laying for wall construction is done in the following

Ensure to have information regarding specifications of cement mortar. Bricks should have
min. 35 kg/cm2 compressive strength, square edged, required size, produce ringing sound.


Bricks shall be thoroughly soaked in water till its full saturation so that it does not absorb
moisture from the water, otherwise the mortar gets dried and hydration of cement and water
shall not happen and subsequently the joints become weaker.


Mixing of mortar must be done properly and thoroughly with adequate water on an
impervious platform.


Bricks shall be laid with adequate gap between them on their bed with frog pointing
upwards so that mortar gets key between the two layers of bricks.


Fill the joints between the bricks properly. Ensure to carry out RADO at every 4 th layer :
Supervise line, level, right angle and plumb from time to time during the days progress


When the mortar is green, the face joints should be racked to a depth of 12mm to 19 mm in
order to have proper key for plastering or pointing. The mortar joint should have be struck
flush and finished if no plastering or pointing is to be done.

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Proper hacking of R.C.C. surface in contact with brick masonry for proper bond is essential.


Courses must be truly horizontal with suitable bound pattern to break the vertical joints


Corners must be truly horizontal with suitable bond pattern to break the vertical joints.
English bond is preferable.

10. Suitable tooting or grooves or stepping to be provided for subsequent further continuation of
brick work
11. Thickness of joint must be uniform and not more than 13mm
12. Specified cement mortar must be placed within 30 minutes after addition of water
13. Bricks on edge must not be used unless specified Brickbats should not be used unless
unavoidable either to adjust the length or to break the joint.
14. Masonry may be raised up to 150 cm in a day. Raising with all connected brick work be
carried out at one level
15. For 230 mm thick wall, maintain one face in line. This face can be preplanned to take all
kinds of single coat plasters. For higher thickness walls both faces should be in line.
16. First mark up layer of brick work needs to be laid in direct supervision for door / window /
any other openings to be kept accurately as per the drawings or layout.
17. The buttress, counter-forts, corners, junctions should be built simultaneously, maintaining
proper bond with main wall and not added after wards
18. Curing must be done for at least seven days or as laid down in specification
19. Old or dry surface must be thoroughly cleaned and wetted joints raked before starting new
20. As far as possible masonry work has to raise uniformly .Variation in maximum & minimum
level should not be more than one meter.
21. In order to carry out brick work at higher level, double scaffolding should be used; single
scaffolding results in holes being left in masonry which is not recommended as it can cause
subsequent leakages
4.4.2 Hollow and Solid Concrete Block Masonry
Hollow and solid concrete blocks
Shall conform to the requirements of IS :2185. Specification for hollow and solid concrete
blocks except with regard to the mix of cement concrete and sizes of aggregates which shall be
as indicated. Hollow blocks shall be sound, free from cracks, broken edges, honey combing and
other defects that would interfere with the proper placing of block or impair the strength or
performance of construction.

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Dimensions and Tolerances
1 Concrete masonry building units shall be made in sizes and shapes to fit different construction
needs. They include stretcher, corner, double corner or pier, jamb, header, bull nose, and partition
black and concrete floor units.
2 Concrete Block-hollow (open or closed cavity) or solid shall be referred to by its nominal

The nominal dimensions of concrete block shall be, as follows


: 400, 500 or 600 mm

: 200 or 100 mm
: 50, 75, 100, 150, 200, 250 or 300mm.

In addition, block shall be manufactured in half lengths of 200, 250 or 300 mm to correspond to
the full lengths.
The maximum variation in the length of the units shall be not more than 5 mm and maximum
variation in height and width of unit, not more than 3 mm.
The face of masonry units shall be flat and rectangular, opposite face shall be parallel, and all
arises shall be square. The bedding surfaces shall be at right angles to the faces of the blocks.
1. Hollow (open and closed cavity) Concrete Blocks.
The hollow (open and closed cavity) concrete blocks shall conform to the following three grades:
(a) Grade A These are used as load bearing units and shall have a minimum block-density of
1500 kg/m. There shall be manufactured for minimum average compressive strengths of 3.5,
4.5, 5.5 and 7.0 N/mm2 respectively at 28 days (See Table 3).
(b) Grade B These are also used as load bearing units and shall have a block density less than
1500 kg/m but not less than 1000 kg/rn3 These shall be manufactured for minimum average
compressive strengths of 2.0, 3.0 and 5.0 N/mm2 respectively at 28 days (See Table 3).
(c) Grade CThese are used as non-load bearing units and shall have a block density less than
1500 kg/m but not less than 1000 kg/m These shall be manufactured for minimum average
compressive strength of 1.5 N/mm at 28 days (see Table 3).
(d) Grade DThe solid concrete blocks are used as load bearing units and shall have a block
density not less than 1800 kg/m These shall be manufactured for minimum average
compressive strengths of 4.0 and 5.0 N/mm respectively (See Table 3).

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Physical Requirements
1. Compressive Strength: The average crushing strength of eight blocks, when determined in
accordance with IS: 2185 shall be not less than as specified in table given below.


Hollow (open & A (3.5)

cavity) A (4.5)
load bearing unit A (5.5)
A (7.0)
B (2.0)
B (3.0)
B (5.0)
closed C (1.5)
cavity) non-load
bearing units
Solid Load
bearing units
D (5.0)
D (4.0)

Density of Block

Not less

Strength of Units
than 3.5

Strength of
Individual Units

Not less than 2.0

1500 but not less 3.0
than 1000


Less than 1500 1.5

but not 1000


Not less


than 5.0

2. Drying Shrinkage: The drying shrinkage of the block (average of three blocks), when
unrestrained, shall be determined in accordance with IS 2185 and 1[not exceed] 0.1 per cent.
3. Moisture Movement: The moisture movement (average of three blocks), when determined in
the manner described in IS : 2185 shall not exceed 0.09 per cent.

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4. Water Absorption: The water absorption (average of three blocks), when determined in the
manner described In IS 2185 shall be not more than 10 per cent by mass.
5. Face shells and webs shall increase in thickness from the bottom to the top of the unit.
Depending upon the core moulds used, the face shells and webs shall be flared and tapered or
straight tapered, the former providing a wider surface for mortar. The thickness of the face shell
and web shell be not less than the values given in Table below.
Nominal Block width

Face Shell Thickness,


100 or less
Over 100 to 150
Over 150 to 200
Over 200


Thickness of Web,

Total Web Thickness

per Course in any 200
mm length of Walling

Blocks with special faces shall be manufactured and supplied as directed by the Engineer-inCharge.
Curing and Drying
The blocks shall be cured in an immersion tank or in a curing yard and shall be kept
continuously moist for at least 14 days. When the blocks are cured in an immersion tank, the
water of tank shall be changed at least every four days.
After curing, the blocks shall be dried in shade before being used on the work. They shall be
stacked with voids horizontal to facilitate through passage of air. The blocks shall be allowed to
complete their initial shrinkage before they are laid in wall.
Construction of Masonry
For single storeyed buildings, the hollows of blocks in foundation and basement masonry shall
be filled up with sand and only the top foundation course shall be of solid blocks. But for two or
more storeyed buildings, solid concrete blocks shall be used in foundation courses, plinth, and
basement walls, unless otherwise indicated. If hollow blocks are used, their hollows shall be
filled up with cement concrete 1:3:6 using 12.5mm nominal size aggregates.
Wetting of Blocks
Blocks need not be wetted before or during laying in the walls. In case the climate condition so
require, the top and the sides of the blocks may only be slightly moistened so as to prevent
absorption of water from the mortar and ensure the development of the required bond with the

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Intersecting Walls
When two walls meet or intersect and the courses are to be laid up at the same time, a true
masonry bond between at least 50% of the units at the intersection is necessary. When such
interesting walls are laid up separately, pockets with 20 mm maximum vertical spacing shall be
left in the first wall laid. The corresponding course of the second wall shall be built into these

Rendering shall not be done to the walls when walls are wet. Joints for plastering or pointing as
specified shall be raked to a depth of 12 mm.
Joints on internal faces, unless otherwise indicated, shall be raked for plastering. If the internal
faces of masonry are not to be plastered the joints shall be finished flush as the work proceeds or
pointed flush where so indicated.
Points to Remember in Hollow-Block-Masonry
Cement concrete is largely used for construction purposes on account of its numerous advantages
over other building materials.
Hollow units may be defined as those units which have core void area greater than 25 % of
their total area.
Advantages of hollow block masonry construction are:
1. These hollow blocks permit adoption of thinner walls which ultimately results in
increased floor space.
2. As the air space in the block is 25 % of the total area of block, it means there is saving of
3. As the weight of block is less it results in rapid execution of work.
4. The hollow space in the blocks enables the masonry to have good insulating properties
against sound, heat and dampness.
5. As the blocks are precast, the surface is smooth and hence less plastering material is
The common sizes of hollow blocks are:
39cm x 19cm x 30cm , 39cm x 19cm x 20cm and 39cm x 19cm x 10cm.
Blocks shall have water absorption less than 10 %.
To make use of blocks in the construction, the overall length and height of wall should be fixed
accordingly as to make use of one block or half length blocks possibly. (Refer Fig )
1. Preparation for Block Masonry work
Following points should be observed before starting masonry work.
1. Study of drawing in details.

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2. In case of combination of block and brick masonry,
3. From drawings check wind/ rain direction to decide whether bricks or blocks to be used
because south / west walls are more affected by rain water.
4. Study of drawing with respect to sizes of doors & windows
5. Stack all required blocks on each floor before starting any work and get it soaked before
using for masonry work. Also stack 5 % to 10 % half blocks Refer Fig
6. Clean all floor area.

2. Checking of line our (PERNI) for Masonry

1. Mark line & level on each column throughout the floor area so that same level will be
maintained all over.
2. Check face of block for plumb with respect to face of beam of the upper floor.
3. Check the diagonals of room
4. Check the top of perni blocks to be in one level.
5. Keep door opening 50 mm (2 ) more than the size of actual opening , for provision of
plaster as per drawing in perni. (Refer Fig)
6. Give first preference to plumb with R.C.C and then check room dimensions.
7. For room sizes a difference of +/- 25 mm (+/- 1) is permissible, provided you dont have to
adjust for plumb.
8. Always do perni from one end to another end & after completion of 100 % perni, start wall
work of that floor.
9. Formula for checking diagonals in masonry is

D = (L2 + B2) Where L= Length, B=Breadth, D = Diagonal measurement.

3. Actual work Procedure for masonry


Before use, ensure that the blocks are semi-dry. They should not be soaked in water at the
time of use, because fully blocks repel the water, which spoils the quality of mortar as
cement slurry flows away.
Blocks of successive courses should be laid in such a manner that vertical joints are
staggered.( Refer Fig)
The joints should be 5 to 10 mm thick and should be uniform.
The mortar used for blocks construction wall should be in 1: 6 proportion.
The blocks used for masonry walls should have water absorption less than 10 %.
For better workmanship and practical convenience of masonry, it is always preferable to
finish lower floor external masonry work and then proceed for upper floor masonry work;
otherwise there will be a gap in between the top layer of masonry work and beam bottom. It
is a most dangerous thing because it causes leakage, so get it filled with grit and cement
mortar properly on external side from upper floor slab. Only then proceed for upper floor
masonry work.
For 10 mm (4) thick brick masonry RCC band ( patli) 100 mm ( 4 ) thick is must at
every three feet height and for openings in masonry provide band at sill level. (Refer Fig)
Once the masonry work of brick is finished. Raking should be done with the help of
wooden batten or M.S rod. Then remove all excess mortar with the help of Kathya. So
while plastering it will give extra grip for plaster. (Refer Fig)

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In one days work allow mason to do the masonry work up to 1 meter height only.


On hilly areas generally rubbles are available in plenty and then stone masonry becomes cheaper
than brick masonry and as such there stone masonry is adopted. By the operation of drilling and
blasting by dynamites stone are being quarried and then broken to small pieces which are then
transported to site of works. Nasons further breaks/dress it to the size as required depending
upon the size of the wall. It is not practicable to construct wall for less than 350 mm with stone
masonry. If 230 mm or 115 mm partitions walls are required it is being constructed by brick
work. Classification of stone masonry

Rubble Masonry

In the rubble masonry, the blocks of stone that are used are either undressed or comparatively
roughly dressed. Hence if stone are of irregular sizes, the masonry has wider joints.

Random Rubble Masonry

This is the roughest and cheapest form of stone masonry. In this type of masonry, the stones are
of widely different sizes. Since the stones are not of uniform size and shape, greater care and
ingenuity have to be exercised in arranging them in such a way that they adequately distribute
the pressure over the maximum area and at the same time long continuous vertical joints are
avoided. Transverse bond is obtained by the liberal use of headers. This type of masonry is also
known as uncoursed rubble masonry.

Random Rubble Course Masonry

The method of construction is the same as above except that the work is roughly leveled up to
form courses varying from 30 to 40 cm thick. The entire courses are not of the same height
Course Rubble Masonry with Khanki Facing
Here the face stones are dressed in such a manner that all the face corners are at right angles.
Such stones are quarried by skilled persons who are known as tapkers. After quarrying they are
dressed properly such stones are called Khankis. After every two or three such stones next stones
shall be header as shown in fig

Ashlar Masonry

Ashlar masonry consists of blocks of accurately dressed stones with extremely fine bed and end
joints. The blocks may be either square or rectangular shape. The height of the stone varies from
25 to 30 cm. The height of the blocked in each course is kept equal but it is not necessary to keep
all the course of the same height. Qualities of Good Stone

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1. The crushing strength of stone should be greater than 100 N/mm 2. All igneous rocks have
strength around 100 N/mm2 and some of the metamorphic rocks also satisfy this requirement.
Sedimentary rocks have a lower strength.
2. Stones must be decent in appearance and be of uniform colour. Light coloured stones resist
weathering action in a better way and hence preferred.
3. Stones must be durable. For the stones to be durable, their natural bed must be perpendicular
to the direction of pressure.
4. Stones should be such that these can be easily carved and dressed. This property is opposed
to strength and hardness but this depends upon the situation in which the stone is used.
5. For a good building stone its fracture should be sharp and clear.
6. If the stone is to be used in road work, it should be hard enough to resist wear and tear.
7. A good building stone must have a wear less than 3 percent. If it is equal to 3 percent, it is
just tolerable while if it is more than 3 percent it is not satisfactory.
8. Stones must be fire resistant, i.e. these must retain their shape when fire occurs. Limestone
resists fire up to about 800 0C. Sandstones can resist fire in a better way. Argillaceous stones
are poor in strength, but resist fire to some extent.
9. A good stone should not contain quarry sap which is nothing but moisture present in the
10. A good building stone must have a specific gravity greater than 2.7.
11. A good stone must have a compact, fine, crystalline structure, strong and durable.
12. A good stone should not absorb water more than 0.6 percent by weight. It must be capable of
withstanding effects of atmosphere.
13. A good building stone must be acid resistant and free from any soluble matter.

Rubble must be as per specification. It must be hard, durable and tough. The stones must be
soaked before use. It must be roughly dressed and uniformly coloured and of pretty equal
There should not be hallow space inside the wall.
The masonry work will be carried out as far as possible at one uniform level throughout, but
where breaks are unavoidable the joint will be make in good long steps so as to prevent
cracks between old and new work.
Through stones must be staggered at regular intervals.
The stones must be arranged to break joints as much as possible and long vertical lines must
be avoided in face work
Through stones ( headers) should be used in successive layers at 1.00 m (3 to 5) to 1.5 m
apart both ways.
Use artificial header ( R.C.C) in case of more widths
Care should be taken to secure a good mortar bond throughout the masonry. ( approx. 20
mm i.e. 3/4 )
Corner stones are prepared from masons hammer.
The joints should not be too smooth to avoid sliding actions in stones.
The wall should be truly vertical i.e. in plumb.
Minimum 12 mm (1/2) margin should be provided in columns external face and masonry to
avoid the offset of rubble in plinth masonry after plaster.
Old work should be cleaned and watered before starting of new work on it.
Keep expansion joints at 15 m interval, in case of compound wall.

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15. Lay some vertical stones in masonry for better bonding of 1st and 2nd days work/layer of
rubble masonry.
16. The curing for masonry should be done for minimum 2 weeks.
17. The through stones should have the length at least thrice the depth.
18. The joints should be pointed after proper curing and racking for at least 25 mm (1) depth
19. Spauls are to be used wherever necessary to avoid thick mortar beds for joints and shall not
exceed 20 per cent
20. The use of wooden mallet must be carried out to hammer down stone in the position and
solidly bedded in the mortar
21. Iron templates are to be used to compact the mortar in joints
( Refer fig )
Comparison of U.C.R. And B.B.M


(Uncoursed rubble masonry)
Natural Source
Stronger & durable than BBM of the same
Gives better architectural appearance.
Need no damp proof course.
More water tight.
Gives less interlocking and bonding than
BBM, through stones at rate of 1 No / m2 of
surface area is required.
Requires more quantity of mortar.
Requires more time and labour for dressing
and construction.
Cheaper than BBM where stones are easily
Requires pointing.
Absorbs more heat and less fire resistance.
Under certain atmospheric conditions the
stones are not suited and hence careful
selection is required to suit local climate
Minimum thickness can be 380mm (15)

B. B. M.
(Burnt Brick Masonry)
Artificial Source
Less strong and durable than UCR of
same thickness.
Gives less architectural appearance.
Requires DPC to avoid dampness.
Less watertight.
Gives more interlocking and bonding
than UCR as header is there after every
Requires less quantity of mortar.
Requires less time for construction, easy
to work
Costlier than U.C.R.
Requires plastering for avoiding
Absorbs less heat and more fire resistance
Good bricks can stand the effect of
weather and the acid the atmosphere.
Minimum thickness can be 100 mm (4)

Check-List for Block/Brick Masonry Work


Check-List Items
Cleaning of entire floor before starting the lineout of

Checking Observations

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The level of RCC band marked on the Column (patli) with

due consideration of layer thickness.
Dimensions and diagonals of room checking after first
layer (rangat / perni)
First layer checked with beam top/bottom edge, offset,
plumb etc.
Openings to be provided for doors, at first layer, for
windows and A.C. units at sill level.
Screening of sand and mortar proportion.
Erection of door and window fames with necessary number
of holdfasts.
Fixing of holdfasts to frames and to R.C.C columns (if
Racking of joints and Surface cleaning after completion of
day to day work.
Verticality of walls and corners.
Thickness of joints
20mm [3/4] metal chips filling with mortar [1:2] in the
RCC / masonry Junction.
Starter for other walls.
Adjustment In size palti @ 7 levels to ensure that, last
layer touches the beam bottom. Dont leave a gap more
than 12mm (1/2) to 20mm (3/4) as far as possible.
Checking of room.
Check for any extra amenities.

Pointing is done
7. To improve appearance of whole structure.
8. To protect the exposed mortar joints from the effect of atmospheric actions.
9. To rectify defective workmanship.
Method of pointing
1. For pointing the raking of joins should be done for BBM (Burnt brick masonry) at least 20
mm ( ) and for UCR 25 mm ( 1 ).
2. The dust from masonry joints is removed by brushes.
3. The surface is washed by clean water and kept wet for few hours.
4. The mortars of 1:2 cement sand proportion is carefully inserted in joints with a small trowel
and slightly pressed to bring close contact with new and old matter.
5. Then the surface is well cured for the period of at least 10 days.
Types of pointing (Refer Fig)

Vee pointing: In this type of pointing the steel rod bar is used to obtain the
required shape of joints as shown in fig.

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Flush pointing : In this type of pointing the excess mortar is removed and the
joint is flushed with the surface of stone. It doesnt give a good appearance , but is
Sunk Pointing: In this pointing the mortar is pressed with a proper tool. This
gives a very good appearance.
Raised Pointing: In this pointing the projection of pointing is formed.
4.5 Labour & Material requirement
The following table gives the requirement of labour for masonry work based on task work per
day of different category labour
Sr. No.

Brick work in foundation and plinth

10 cum

Brick work in superstructure

10 cum

Coarse Rubble stone masonry

10 cum

Ashlar dressed stone masonry

10 cum

Brick layer 06 nos
Mazdoor - 15 nos
- 02 nos
Brick layer 08 nos
Mazdoor - 20 nos
- 02 nos
Brick layer 10 nos
Mazdoor - 18 nos
- 01 nos
Brick layer 13 nos
Mazdoor - 25 nos
- 01 nos

Consumption of materials in Brick masonry

1. Numbers of brick required for cubic meter of brick masonry shall be approximately 450 in
2. Sand required to do one cubic meter of masonry shall be 0.3 m3 per cubic meter of brick
3. Sand shall be screened through 4.5 mm sieve to remove particles (such as gravel etc) more
than 4.5 mm.
4. Proportion of mortar depends upon specifications. However normally 1:6 cement mortar is
5. Partition wall i.e. 115 mm thick brick wall is constructed with 1:4 cement mortar.
4.6 Material Wastage control

Place of stacking of bricks must be predecided so that the transfer involved is minimum to
avoid breakages
Throwing of bricks must be allowed while stacking/placing at the work place.
The cement bags should be stored properly to avoid contact with moisture otherwise it will
lead to hardening of cement
Only required number of cement bags must be brought from store to the place of work
To avoid wastage of sands, planning should be done to dump it directly at the place of work

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The mortar should be prepared on water tight platform

Only required quantity of mortar should be prepared at a time so that it get consumed in
maximum thirty minutes
Keep watches on the labour doing masonry for his method of application of mortar. The
mortar thickness should be uniform throughout the masonry work. There should be
minimum wastage of mortar through spillage. This spilleted mortar should be reutilized

4.7 Safety

Proper scaffolding must be provided and should be ensured that it is placed on firm ground.
Protective equipments such as gloves, safety shoes and helmets must be used.

4.8. Mode of Measurements. (For detail refer SP 27 - 1987)

4.8.1. Brick work
All work shall be measured net in the decimal system, as fixed in place, as given below:

Dimensions shall be measured to the nearest 0.01m.


Areas shall be worked out to nearest 0.01m2.


Cubic contents shall be worked out to nearest 0.01m3.


Walls one brick thick and less shall each be measured separately in square meteres stating


Walls exceeding one brick thick but not exceeding three bricks in thickness shall be
measured in multiples of half-brick which shall be deemed to be inclusive of mortar joints.
Where fractions of half-brick occur due to architectural or other reasons, measurement
shall be taken as follows;

Up to brick actual measurement, and

Exceeding brickfull half-brick


For walling which is more than three bricks in thickness actual thickness of wall shall be


No deduction or addition shall be made on any account for the following;

a) Ends of dissimilar materials (that is, joists, beams, lintels, posts, girders, rafters, purlins,
trusses, corbels, steps, etc); up to 0.1 m2 in section.
b) Opening up to 0.1 m2 in area.
c) Wall plates, bed plates, and bearing of slabs, chhajjas and the like, where thickness does not
exceed 10 cm and bearing does not extend over the full thickness of wall;
d) Cement concrete blocks as for holdfasts and holding down bolts;

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e) Iron fixtures, such as wall tiles, pipes up to 300 mm diameter and holdfasts for doors and
windows; and
f) Chases of section not exceeding 50 cm in girth.

4.8.2. Stone Masonry

All work shall be measured net in the decimal system, as fixed in place, as given below:

Dimensions shall be measured to the nearest 0.01m.


Areas shall be worked out to nearest 0.01m2.


Cubic contents shall be worked out to nearest 0.01m3.

No deduction or addition shall be made for the following;
a) Ends of dissimilar materials (that is, joists ,beams, lintels, posts, girders, rafters, purlins
,trusses ,corbels, steps, etc ) ; up to 0.1 m2 in section;
b) Opening up to 0.1 m2 in area.
c) Wall plates, bed plates, and bearing of slabs, chhajjas and the like, where thickness does not
exceed 10 cm and bearing does not extend over the full thickness of wall;
d) Cement concrete blocks as for holdfasts and holding down bolts;
e) Iron fixtures, such as wall tiles, pipes up to 300 mm diameter and holdfasts for doors and
windows; and
f) In calculating area of an opening, any separate lintel or sill shall be included with the size
of the opening but end portion of lintels shall be excluded and extra width of rebated
reveals, if any, shall also be excluded.

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Basic knowledge of the trade:

Plastering is the process of covering rough surfaces made out of concrete masonry of walls,
columns, ceilings and other building components with thin coat of plaster mortars to form a
smooth durable surface. The coating of plastic material (in mortar) is termed as plaster.

A. Objects of plastering
1. To protect the external surfaces against penetration of rain water and other atmospheric
agencies and should be able to weather uniformly.
2. To give smooth surface in which dust and dirt content lodge
3. To give decorative effect and should also be pleasing in appearance
4. To protect surfaces against varmint. These properties depend upon materials used,
composition of mix, and degree of mechanical bond between the plaster and the backing
surface and workmanship.
B. Requirement of good plaster
1. It should remain adhered during all variations in seasons and other atmospheric
2. It should posses good workability.
3. It should be effectively check penetrations and moisture.
4. It should be hard and durable.
C. Cement mortar
Cement mortar is the best mortar for external plastering work since I is practically non
absorbent. One mix proposition (i.e. cement sand) may vary from 1:4 to 1:6 sand used for
plastering should be clean, course and angular. Before mixing water, dry mixing is
thoroughly done. When water is mixed, the mortar should be used within 30 minutes of
mixing, well before initial setting takes place.
D. Methods of plastering
1. For plastering new surfaces, all masonry joints should be racked to a depth of at least 10
mm in brick masonry for providing key to the plaster. Lack of bond with the backing,
cracking crazing of surface and discoloration are principal defects in plastering.
Sufficient care has to be taken to overcome these defects.
2. All mortar droppings and dust should be removed with the help of stiff wire brush.
3. Any unevenness is leveled before rendering is applied.
4. The surface should be washed with clean water and kept damp uniformly to produce
optimum suction.

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5. In no case the surface should be kept soaked with water so as to cause sliding of mortar
before it sets or kept less wet to cause strong suction.
6. If plaster is to be applied on old surface, all dirt, scool, oil, paints etc. should be cleaned
off. Sufficient care has to be taken to overcome these defects
7. It is always desirable to provide double scaffolding for plaster work.
8. If single scaffolding is used, the masonry is often punctured or broken to fix the scaffold
and give it stability. These punctured holes are filled up in an incorrect manner and the
holes plastered in one go as the scaffold is removed. This results in weakness in masonry
and also results in leakage and ultimately shows dampness on the painted surface looking
9. To make the plaster perfectly in vertical plane, first markings with plumb bob at an
interval of one meter, staggered in alternate rows, are taken. So that it becomes easy and
convenient for the mason.
E. Bonding
Cement mortar has two types of bonds with its backing. One is being mechanical in which
the mortar squeezes into the irregularities and gets interlocked when hardened and other due
to the adhesive property of Portland cement on hardening. The degree of bond will therefore
depend on the roughness of surfaces to be treated and the quality of mortar cement and sand
1. Concrete surface
All monolithic concrete walls should be roughened by hacking at close intervals with
brush hammers or with a chisel and hammer and then washed thoroughly with water to
remove all dirt and loose particles. Monolithic concrete can be roughened with a heavy
wire brush or a special scouring tool if forms are removed early. i.e. RCC, column, walls,
footings, sides of beams etc.
Forms for concrete, that is to receive plaster, should not be given excessive mould oil
coating as it is likely to remain on the concrete, interfacing with the bond special care
must be taken to remove the mould oil coating before plaster is applied. Curing
compound if used should also be removed completely before commencing the plaster
2. Brickwork and stone masonry
There are excellent bases for direct application of cement plaster. The surface should be
hard rough and clean. The joints should be racked 12 mm deep. It may be desirable to
roughen with a pick on a similar sharp tool if the surface of stone is too smooth.
F. Suction
Suction needs careful control. Very strong suction withdraws the moisture from the plaster
and makes it weak, porous and friable.
Too much water makes it impossible to keep the mortar in position till it sets. Uniform
suction is obtained by soaking the background with clean water to such a degree that a slight
amount of moisture is retained on the surface. It is preferable to do that plaster on shady side
of the buildings whenever possible to avoid drying of the surface.
G. Crazing & drying shrinkage
Crazing is the appearance of numerous criss-cross lines which May developing into cracks.
Plaster tends to shrink due to loss of moisture and subsequent reduction in volume. Lean and
dry mixes shrink less than rich and wet ones. Mortar appears harsh; workability can be

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obtained by using a plasticizing agent like finally powdered hydrated lime or suitable
chemical admixture.
If material used for mortar has entrained air or have water retention property, shrinkage is
considerably reduce cracking of plaster.
It should be noted that the practice of applying plaster in successive coats reduce a great deal
of the skin tension in the last coat. It also helps seal the crack if any, on the base coat
H. Discoloration.
The usual cause of discoloration in plaster is due to the following reasons:1. Variation in the cement and water content of mortar from place to place.
2. Uneven suction of the backing and non uniform curving
3. Inadequate mixing of the materials resulting in leakage uniformity.
I. Curing
Plastered surface should be kept damp continuously for at least five days. When plaster is
done during the cold weather, longer curing periods are necessary. Normal curing period of 7
to 10 days is sufficient. If plaster is done in hot/or warm weather in windy conditions and or
low humidity then curing should commence as soon as the mortar shows evidence of setting.
Curing helps in reducing cracking and crazing on concrete surface.
4.10 Standard consumables
Cement, sand, lime, water, wire mesh, etc.
4.11 Basic tools
Trowel, tacha, plumb bob, Aluminium hollow box section, spade, mortar pan, measurement box,
curing pipes, M.S. corners, line dori, patti for making groove, measuring tape, wooden float,
M.S. Drum, straight edge (patti), Right angle etc.
1. Gauging trowel

Used for gauging small quantities of materials for applying

mortar to moulder corners etc. with pointed or bull-nosed

2. Float

Used for applying and spreading mortar on the surface.

Made either of metal or wood. Metal float made if thin
tempered steel, is known as laying trowel.

3. Floating rule

Used for checking the level of plastered surface between

sucessive screeds.

4. Miscellaneous tools

These includes spirit level, set square, straight edges

brushes, scratches etc.

5. Plumb bob

This tool is used in forming the layer of plaster perfectly in

a vertical plane. This also helps in controlling the thickness
of the plaster.

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4.12 Types of plaster Finishes


Smooth plaster
Mala Plaster
Sandfaced plaster
Washed aggregate plaster
Exposed aggregate plaster
Stone crete plaster
Cholia plaster
Waterproof plaster

a) Smooth plaster:
When no neeru is desired, the mix should contain lime. The recommended proportion of
cement, lime and sand in the mortar vary from 1:1:6 for exposed surface to 1:1:9 for
protected ones.
Type of finishing for smooth plaster
Neeru finish
Sagol finish
Cement finish
b) Mala Plaster:
Smoothness is achieved only by rubbing the steel master only. Here no puning is
Single coat
Double coat
c) Sandfaced plaster

Using spraying device

Using sponge
Using gutka

d) Aggregate Plaster
1. Washed aggregate Plaster
Type of chips
Size of chips (Number)
2. Exposed aggregate Plaster/Pebble-Dash Finish
It is the most durable of all finishes and is generally free from defects. This gives a rough
texture and is obtained by means of small pebbles or crushed stones, graded from 12.5 mm
to 6.3mm being splashed on to the fresh coat of mortar and left exposed. It is also known as
pebble dust finish.

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e) Stone crete plaster -

f) Textured finish

Type of chips
Size of chips
Section of colour of plaster surface

Special effects can be obtained by scraping the surface of the rendering with a straight edge.
By crushed blade or with the edge of a steel trowel. Some judgment is needed for the time
when to scrap. Period may vary from an hour to a day depending both on the type of mix
and climate conditions.
g. Rough Coat Finish
- Suitable for rural or coastal areas and for severe condition of
exposure . This is finish which is splashed on to the surface as a wet mix and left rough .
The maximum
4.13 Labour requirement
The following table gives the labour requirements for plastering work
Plastering 12mm or 12.5mm thick with any mortar

100 sqm

Cement pointing deep variety

100 sqm

Cement pointing flush

100 sqm


- 10 nos.
- 10 nos
- 02 nos.
- 10 nos.
- 10 nos
- 01 nos.
- 05 nos.
- 05 nos.

4.14 Work procedure:


Find out type of plaster, number of coats, thickness required and cement mortar proportion
from specification


Take care to properly water the brick wall before start of plastering


Ensure that the measurement box is ready for usage


Deep and close hacking of the R.C.C. surface for purpose of plastering


Chicken mesh at brick wall and R.C.C. member must be provided


Ensure that proper dry mixing of cement and sand is done on impervious platform

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Holes provided for scaffolding while executing brickwork must be plugged or use double


Level marking must be done in advance (plaster thiya). Supervise line, level, right angle and
plumb from time to time before plaster starts setting.


All the necessary tools required for execution of work must be available with the mason

10. To match the plaster line, level and plumb/chip off concrete surface if required provide
suitable groove at junctions of different material
11. Gaps around door window frames must be filled properly
12. Check the base coat of plaster prior to application of finishing coat of neeru, sagol or cement
13. While execution final coat of sand faced plaster or aggregate plaster due care must be taken
as to where the joints are to be provided at the end of days work
4.15 Check Points
4.15.1 Smooth Plaster
1. Whether before starting the plastering activity proportion of the mortar to be used is checked
with the tender item?
2. Whether proper tools for plastering activity like metal/wooden trowel, Patti (perfect in
Shape) corner tool, sponge, right angle, plump etc. are available with masons?

Is the sand to be used in the plaster coarse, screened and free from foreign bodies? (lumps,
vegetation etc)


Whether sand is of uniform grain texture for sand faced plaster?


Were the lime / Neeru / Sagol prepared in advance at least 24 hrs before starting of work?


Were lime / Neeru / Sagol screened before use?


Has hacking of R.C.C. surface done closely to avoid falling of plaster?


Whether proper overlap of chicken mesh at brick and R.C.C. junction is provided?


Whether proper mixing of sand and cement over M.S. sheets is done?(Min 4 times)

10. For obtaining designated thickness of plaster, whether levels (thaiyas) with cross mark one
day in advance have been provided?
11. Were lime / Neeru / Sagol applied in proper thickness?
12. Were proper precautions taken to minimize wastage or mortar during work?

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4.15.2 Sand Faced Plaster

1. Was the method for providing finished coat predecided?
2. Were the equipments to be used decided before work?

Use of wooden gutka

b) Use of sponge

Use of spraying device

3. Was the sample prepared after method was decided for approval of texture of finish?
4. Was the decision about grooves/tapak, etc. taken beforehand?
4.15.3 Aggregate Plaster
1. Was the method of executing this type of plaster predecided?

Exposed aggregate plaster

b) Washed aggregate plaster

2. Were suitable skilled masons identified beforehand?
3. Was approval of materials carried out before starting the activity?
4. Was the dampness in the wall dried up before the start of activity?
5. Was the base coat completed atleast one month before application of final coat?
6. Was the aluminum patti for providing groves is of good quality and heavy type?
4.15.4 Mala Plaster
Was the type of plaster predecided ?

Single coat

b) Double coat

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Was the level upto which wall plaster is to be done decided before execution of wall


Were the skilled masons decided beforehand?


Whether level of lintel sill, right angles of all corners of openings with door/window frame
etc is checked before final tari or second coat is started?


Check the plastering surface by plumb and patti to have even and plain surface?


Is proper care exercised in line level for grooves/tapakis in plastering?


Whether proper motar filling between the gaps behind the door/window frames with rich
motar is done?


Whether proper care in finished of jambs and sills is taken?


Whether wrongly fixed door/window frame is removed and rectified before starting
plastering activity?


Whether first coat of sand faced plaster in perfect line/level/plumb is checked before
second coat of sand faced layer (6 to 8 mm thickness) is applied?


Does mason give good result? (Remove the mason not having plastering skill)


Whether proper attention is paid to the curing as initial curing is most important

4.15.5 Typical defects in plaster and its remedies for the same



Defect Observed


Remedies / Care to be taken

Swelling of small This is due to faulty slacking of The lime / sanla should be
patches in plastering lime / sanla
properly stacked before use.
Slacked lime should be left for
some week to cool before use
Cracks on plastered
a) Movement of background
a) Proper mixing of mortar
b) Shrinkage movement of b) Control on mix proportion
plastering mixes
of mortor
c) Excessive trowelling
c) Avoid excess trowelling
d) Varying thermal expansion
d) Suitable control over
variations in temperature
subsequent to plastering
Falling of plaster
a) The adhesion / key of the a) To ensure proper key by
plaster to the background is
racking out joints and
not perfect
roughening of background
b) Excessive
material on base coat
b) Watering of base coat

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Rapid drying of successive

d) Absorption of water from c)
mortar which is turn loose
the strength of mortar

Stalatite (Whitish
a) Presence of salt in lime, a)
crystalline substance
cement, sand, bricks or water
on plastered surface)
used in plastering


Cracks on plastered
a) Background surface not
surface within few
being properly prepared
b) Movements in the backing
either on account of the
thermal expansion or due to
shrinkage caused by the
drying of the backing
c) Movement in the plaster
itself on account of the
expansion (in case of lime
sand plaster) during drying
d) Excessive
plaster due to application of
mortar in thick coats or very
rich cement mortar with fast
setting cement 53 grade
e) Poor
method of application of the




atleast one day before

Fresh surface should be
kept wet and cool for
atleast 7 days
Surface should be kept
semi wet as per exact
Only washed sand to be
Burnt bricks and clean
water (free from salt) to be
Small proportion of alum
and salt soap to be added
in mix
Damp proof coat should
be provided
Preparation of surface
should be done properly
Backing surface should be
semi dry before plastering
Keep plaster cool which is
directly exposed to sun
heat during its young age
by the help of wet gunny
bags or by sprinkling
water over it.
During preparation of
chiseling should be done
in accordance with level
dots before plastering
Improve the workmanship
by training programmes

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Long term cracks on

plaster observed after
long period
a) Crack at junction
of masonry &
beam / column
b) Cracks due to
excessive silt
content in sand
c) Cracking in the
form of closed net
honeycomb form
d) Structural


Peeling off ceiling This is due to bond failure Closely hacking (tacha) @
between ceiling concrete & coat Nos. notches / sft (500 nos. /
of plaster
m2) & cleaning the ceiling for
making it free oily substances
will sort out the problem


Rust stains




These cracks appear due to a) Chicken mesh is applied

the different coefficients of
on junction after carefully
thermal expansion of two
sealing the joint by rich
mortar & khadi maal is
R.C.C. & masonry. Also
applied at junctions
poor joint filling at junction b) If the silt content in
leads to cracking
sand is mare than 7%
b) These cracks appear due to
wash the sand before
movement of excessive silt
after repeated dry & wet c) Correctly mix the
ingredients &
c) This is due to excessive
consider bulkage of
cement content in
plastering mortar
d) This is due to unequal
settlements in foundation

These appear on surface when Tight fixing of chicken mesh &

plaster is applied on chicken cutting the excess projections
mesh which is loosely placed
of the mesh which are coming
out of plaster will sort out the
This is due to excessive Keep minimum thickness of
dampness at certain points which plaster & wash the san
make it soft. Reason of such
softness is undue thickness of
the finishing coat, presence of
deliquescent salts & excessive
suction of the undercoat
Uneven surface of
Poor workmanship of the work
Improve the quality of
workmanship & train the
masons for good work
Peeling off top finish a) Bad quality of sanla may a) Carryout all the quality
of internal
lead to peeling off the top
checks on sanla before
using it
(Sanla / Neeru finish) b) If neeru finishing is done b) Immediately apply the
after setting of base coat
neeru on the base coat
c) Excessive thickness of top
before setting of mortar
finished layer
c) Keep minimum thickness
of top layer

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4.16 Material wastage control:

Use of measurement box to achieve exact proportion of cement sand mortar

Collect and reuse left over mortar under the wall / ceiling

Mixing of mortar on clean surface, M.S./ GI sheet

Removal of all debris before starting plastering work

4.17 Safety Precautions:

Scaffolding should be rigid & firm

Provision of hand railing on scaffolding


Mode of Measurements (for detail refer SP27 -1987)

4.18.1. Plaster
1. Grooves and drip moulds (pane Patti).Vertical & horizontal edges of columns, beams & slabs
to measure in r.m or rft.
3 Plastering in isolated widths or in widths not forming part of general plastering work ( as in
bands, cornices , sunk, panels, etc ) and in chamfers , rounded angles exceeding 80 mm in
girth shall be measured as below
a.30 cm or below in widths/ girth, in running metres ; and
b. Widths/ girth above 30 cm in square metres.
4 Plastering at height greater than 10 m above ground / datum level shall be measured
separately in stages of 5 m height except interior plastering in case of building which shall
be measured separately for each storey.
5 Ceiling shall be measured between between walls or partition and dimensions before
plastering shall be taken. Width covered by cornices or covers, if any shall be deducted.
6 Measurement of walls plastering shall be taken between walls or partitions (dimensions
before plastering being taken) for length and from top of floor or skirting to ceiling for
height. Depth of cornices or covers, if any, shall be deducted.
7 Plastering on roofs, ceilings and walls shall be measured separately.
8. For jambs, soffits, sills, etc, for opening not exceeding 0.5 m 2 each in area ; for ends of joists,
beams, posts , girders, steps, etc, not exceeding 0.5 m 2 each in area ; and for openings
exceeding 0.5 m2 and not exceeding 3 m2 each, deductions and additions shall be made in the
following manners.

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8.1 No deduction shall be made for end of joists, beams, posts, etc, and openings not exceeding
0.5 m2 each, and no addition shall be made for reveals, jambs, soffits, sills, etc, of these
openings nor for finish around ends of joists , beams posts , etc.
8.2 Deduction for opening exceeding 0.5m2 but not exceeding 3 m2 each shall be made as
follows and no addition shall be made for reveals, jambs , soffits, sills, etc , of these
9. In case of openings of area above 3 m2 each deduction shall be made for opening on
each face but jambs, soffits and sills shall be measured.

4.18.2. Pointing
1. Proportion of materials shall be described .Various types of pointing shall be measured
separately. Pointing of different types of walls, floors, roofs, etc, shall be measured. Type
and material of surface to be pointed shall be described.
2. Pointing in single detached joints as for flashings shall be measured in running metres.
3. Pointing brick and tile work with mortars of matching shades shall be measured
4. Pointing shall be measured in Square metres.
5. For jambs, soffits, sills, etc, for opening not exceeding 0.5 m 2 each in area ; for ends of
joists, beams, posts , girders, steps, etc, not exceeding 0.5 m 2 each in area ; and for
openings exceeding 0.5 m2 and not exceeding 3 m2 each, deductions and additions shall
be made in the following manners.
5.1 No deduction shall be made for end of joists, beams, posts, etc, and openings not
exceeding 0.5 m2 each, and no addition shall be made for reveals, jambs, soffits, sills,
etc, of these openings nor for finish around ends of joists , beams posts , etc.
5.2 Deduction for opening exceeding 0.5m2 but not exceeding 3 m2 each shall be made as
follows and no addition shall be made for reveals, jambs , soffits, sills, etc , of these
6. In case of openings of area above 3 m2 each deduction shall be made for opening on
each face but jambs, soffits and sills shall be measured.
7. Rackingout joints shall be measured in squares metres of alternatively included in
description of items.
8. Pointing on honey- comb work shall be described and measured in square meters on the
basis of overall superficial area without deducting openings.

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5.1 Basic knowledge of the trade:
Now a days in modern houses scope of carpentry works is limited to door shutter fixing, as door
frames are readily available in market. Normally carpentry labour contractor takes the job on
item rate basis, such as fixing of door shutters, fixing side batten (lipping patti) to shutter, fixing
cover moulding, fixing door fittings etc.
5.2. Doors & windows manufactured using





Type of wood to be used.


Teak wood (Tectona grandis)

It is the outstanding merit in retention of shape and durability. The heart wood is one of the
most naturally durable woods of the world. It usually remains immune to white ant attack
and insect attack for very long periods. It is, however not always immune from fungus
attack (rot).Taken as a whole, good quality teak wood is durable. It is relatively easy to saw
and work. It can be finished to a fair surface and polish well. It is generally used for
making furniture, Doors, windows.

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Deodar Wood
It is the strongest of the Indian conifers, its weight and strength is 20 % less than teak. It is
easy to saw and works to a smooth finish. It is not, however a suitable wood for polish or
paints work as the oil in the wood and especially near knots, always sleeps through such
finishes and discolor them. It is used for house building , furniture, shuttering as bottom in
R.C.C Beams.


Non-Coniferous timbers other than teak wood


Coniferous Timber other than Deodar.


Quality of wood
Timber shall be free from decay, fungal growth, boxed heart, pitch pockets or streaks on
The exposed edges, splits and cracks. Knots should be avoided over specified limits.


Seasoning of wood
Process of drying timber under controlled conditions is called Seasoning of timber. Timber
shall be air seasoned or kiln-Seasoned and in both cases moisture content of seasoned
timber shall be minimum. Kiln seasoning of timber, where specified, shall be as per I.S.
1141 in a plant approved by Engineer-In-Charge.




M.S. rolled z-sections for D/W as per IS standards

Cold rolled steel (C.R.S.)
M.S. Rolled section such as angles, channels, etc.




Aluminium extruded Arch. D/W sections variety of thickness are available

Natural anodized
Colour anodized
Powder coated


PVC (Poly vinyl chloride)


Frame & shutter of PVC material

Coating of PVC on frame & shutter of wood etc.


FRP (Fiber reinforced plastic)


Frame and shutter of FRP material

Coating of FRP on frame & shutter of wood etc.

5.3. Types of Doors & Windows

Windows can be:

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Openable (single or double shutter)
Side hung
(b) Top hung
Louvered (Fixed or openable)

(c) Pivoted

Doors can be:


Single shutter
Double shutter
Sliding folding

5.4. Flush Doors

Flush Doors are most popular and widely used for residential and commercial buildings, as these
are readily available in hollow or cellular core type and Solid core type in standard sizes.
5.4.1. Hollow or cellular core type
It consist of a skeleton or hollow frame with top, bottom intermediate rails and stiles. This frame
is covered on both sides by sheets of plywood. Some times this hollow core may be filled with
light materials.
5.4.2. Solid Core Type Flush Door Type
The simplest solid core flush door would be a piece of block board. It is however the general
practice to have frame of stiles and rails all round the core for holding the core battens for giving
smooth edges and also for strengthening the edges for fixing hinges and locks.
5.4.3. Advantage of flush doors

Pleasing appearance
Clean and uniform fininsh
Better thermal and acoustic comforts
Most economical use of decorative timber
Can be prepared and supplied on bulk quantity in scheduled time.

5.4.4 Checking Point in Flush door


Size of the flush door shutter

Make and the brand of the flush door with ISI mark.
Thickness of the flush door shutter.
Stiles and rails for frame cum lippings
Straightness and uniform of surfaces

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Smooth finishing of edges

Whether hot pressed/manually pressed
Classification of flush door-bonding resin, B.W.P etc
Marking for lock rails

5.5. Work procedure

5.5.1. Doors / Windows (Wooden)

Ensure that wood used for the works is as per quality specified


BOQ of wood sizes should give adequate allowance for cutting and smoothening BOQ
needs to be double checked with carpenters before ordering


Only approved fixtures to be used


Check whether vertical of door frames are minimum 50mm below finished floor level


With bottom spacer Patti fixed surface of window/door frame coming in contact with brick
work / concrete needs to be painted with the material specified before fixing of the frame


The frame hold fast must be grouted with cement concrete rigidly


Ensure that the glass is free from waves, bubbles and other defects. Check the thickness of
glass before fixing


Check that doors / windows frames are erected in plumb, line, level and diagonals. Location
and level needs to be rechecked with drawing


Ensure that the work of painting / oiling is started after approval of completed wood work

10. Glazing must be fixed with out play with suitable wooden beading


Check-List Items

Checking Observations


Alignment of frames for plumb/bend/level.
Right angle and equality of diagonals
of frame.
Joining of door/window frame member.
Horns of frame.
Fixing of hold Facts, and chharppati (if any).

If any.

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Anti termite paint or coal tar to hidden site.

White primer to exposed sides (except for
Polish door frames).
Top level of frame.
Groove margin in doors to accommodate
required size of shutter.
Screwing of hold fast with screw-driver.
Bottom M. S. angles straightness and grouting
in Concrete.
Check whether side, earlier and middle supports
are intact.
Any termite attack
Provision of plaster margin, projecting 12mm
(1/2) out of wall/lintel.
Check-List for Wooden Door Frame Fixing Work before Plastering

5.5.2. Doors/Windows (Steel)

Fixing of M.S Windows
Now a days M.S windows are very important in all types of buildings. Z-section and t-Section is
required to fabricate these windows. Z-section is available in Ahmedabad type, Bombay Type,
Nagpur Type etc.
Commonly adopted specifications of M.S Windows
1. Uniform size and weight. Z-section should be used for the M.S Windows. Z2.
Section should be of size 25 mm (1) deep with 20 mm (3/4) wide flanges.
M.S square bars 10 or 12 mm size should be used as guard bars @ 100/120 mm. ( 4-5)
Railway type locking arrangement is better than normal handles.
All welding joints should be proper.
For long shutters T-Section should be welded to divide the span of glass.
All vertical and horizontal members of the M.S windows and shutters should
not have any bend.
Hinges of the window should be of heavy type. Holdfast of at least 100 mm ( 4 )
length should be provided
Red oxide shouldbe thoroughly applied
10. M.S stay should be of specified type and guage.
11. 25 mm (1) cleat as a spacer at all four sides of windows should be welded , to keep gap
between wall and windows for plaster margin. To ensure smooth working of windows even
after plaster.
12. Holes for glass clips to be at minimum 230 mm (9) c/c.

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Work Procedure

Suitable standard rolled sections or sheet metal to be used as specified


Dimensions of doors/windows must be as per drawings & checked by the engineers before
ordering. Sample needs to be checked


Only approved fixtures must be used


Ensure that the slots for tower bolts, locks are as per drawings and specifications


Check whether verticals of door frames are minimum 50mm below finished floor level, with
a bracing tie to be embedded in the floor in case of steel door frame


Surface of window / door coming in contact with brick work must be painted with the
material specified


The frames hold fast must be grouted with cement concrete rigidly


The corner joints of frames must be free from welding clots


Ensure that the glass is free from waves, and other defects. Check the thickness of the glass
before fixing

10. Check that doors/windows frames are erected in plumb, line, level and diagonals. Location
and level needs to be rechecked with drawing
11. Ensure that the work of painting/oiling is started after approval
12. Glazing must be fixed without play with suitable beading
Check List of M.S Windows at Site.
Following points should be checked for M.S windows.

Check- List Items


Check all welding/grinding spots of the window.

Check the quality of red oxide coat.
Check sizes and diagonals of the windows.
Check the straightness of all the sections
Check the spacing of guard bars as per
Check the operation of locking system.
Check holdfasts for length & quantity.


Checking Observation
Initial Observatio Final Observation
after rectification if

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Check T-section of the shutters and holes for

fixing clips which hold the glass panes.
check for smooth opening of the windows
Check the smooth working and quantity of
Check the quality and position of fixtures for
holding the stay in position.
Check the quality of Z-section and manufacturing
mark on it
Check whether cleat for spacer is welded at all
four sides.
Check the design of windows as per drawing and

Once the checking of the windows is over, tie all the shutters of the windows to central member
with the help of binding wire tightly.

5.5.3. Doors/Windows (Alluminium)

In Modern houses, aluminum is widely used for windows. These windows are attractive, light in
weight, easy to fix, handle & maintain. Aluminum windows can be classified as
On the basis of the Surface finish.
Aluminum windows are available with surface powder coated. Powder coating can be done in
different colours. Aluminum windows without powder coating are also extensively used.
On the basis of the function/operation
Aluminum windows with big spans can be made from three tracks or four tracks depending on
the number of shutters used for the windows. Aluminum louvered windows and top hung
windows are generally used for toilets. For doors and French windows aluminum openable
windows/ doors can be used instead of sliding one.
Work procedure.

Aluminium section shall be as per the sectional drawings provided or as specified in the
items. Each member of the D/W shall be well defined for its size, shape, weight per metre,
profile and finish surface

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Fabricator shall approve the fabrication drawing before starting the work


Aluminium sections shall be defined for manufactures like, Indal, Jindal, Hindalco or


Aluminium sections to be used for fabrication shall be well defined for anodizing (Matt
finish or Glossy finish), natural or colour anodizing, section with powder coating in different
colour etc.


Aluminium doors and windows shall be specified for panel material like Glass / Laminated
boards / Box type aluminium lamination etc.


Only approved hardware fixtures shall be used as per specification and tender items


Finished opening sizes should match perfectly with prefabricated D/W sizes. To ensure
about the exact dimensions, make up sample or templates (either from wood material or
M.S. material) shall be used


In case, dimensions doesnt match with the material supplied, opening shall be rectified


Arrangement for all approved hardware fittings as per the drawing shall be ensured before
fixing of the material

10. Glazing shall be fixed to the extruded sections by means of extruded Aluminium beading.
Glass panes shall be provided with rubber lining before fixing
11. The Aluminium frames shall be fixed to the masonry by means of Aluminium lugs fixed to
the frame (by counter sunk galvanized machine screws) and grouted with M-15 grade
concrete in the hole in the masonry as per drawing in case of concrete wall, the frames shall
be fixed by 96mm long, 12mm dia metallic fasteners. Any steel material coming in contact
with Aluminium shall be galvanized
12. The windows / ventilators / doors shall be checked to ensured smooth operation, perfect
level and plumb
13. All Aluminium D/W section should have protection film or coating. This film or coating can
be removed only at the time of handing over (on completion of all civil works including
Checklist for Aluminum windows fixing work.

Check- List Items


Right Angle of the window

Diagonal of the window
Details of tracks as per drawings

Checking Observation
Initial Observation

Final Observation
after rectification if

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Gaps between the windows and the

Holes in the tracks are inside or outside
Operation of the shutters
Provision of screws to all four sides of
the windows
Cleanliness of the track
Any damages, cracks, dents, etc.
Covering paper
Sealant filling in gaps
Thickness of the glass
Quality and defects of glass
Quality and operation of rollers
Handles & locking system
Intactness of rubber packing all around.

Aluminium Sheet (28 Gauge)

It is provided to the W.C., Bath & toilet doors for protecting them from water. Aluminium sheet
is also provided to balcony doors for protecting them from rain water. Refer Figure
Work Procedure for Door Shutter Fixing
1. Work when to start the door shutter fixing work?
Door shutter fixing should be done almost at the end of all internal finishing work. Mainly floor
tiles fixing and final polishing should be completed before fixing of door shutters. Also it is
advisable that one coat of oil paint is applied to shutters before fixing hinges.
2. Actual work procedure
a. Before plastering take actual measurements ofeach and every door frame. Check plumb from
inside and outside, for both the stiles. Rectify the frames before plastering if found out of
plumb or bend.
b. For making the door frame in plumb from outer side loosen its hold-fasts which are anchored
in wall & then hammer it either from top or from bottom to make it in plumb and line .
(Refer Fig.)
c. For making the frame in plumb from inner side use of wooden wedge is done .(Refer Fig.)
d. Once frame gets in plumb from inside & outside, ensure for inside measurement same as top,
bottom & at mid span, then do the plastering.
e. Fix T.W. beading patti 12 mm thick on all the sides of the door shutter. (Refer Fig.)
f. Fixing of beading patti should be without head pannel pins hammered at closer distance.
g. After fixing the beading patti, make the marking of hinges & fix it with just one screw of
required size.
h. Care should be taken to apply wood primer and one coat of oil paint to beading patti before
fixing hinges.

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i. It should be noted that screws are fixed with screw driver and not by hammering into
j. Generally four hinges are recommended for main door while three for internal and other
doors.(Refer Fig.)
k. The door shutter should be checked for easy operation with minimum equal gap kept on all
l. The shutter should be moulded with smoothing plane if operation is not proper between the
frame grove and shutter side.
m. Once the shutters are temporarily fixed in their position, no banging of the shutter with frame
due to wind should be observed.
n. After fixing the shutter to frame, primer coat & first coat of oil paint should be applied
before fixing the door fittings in their position.
5.5.4. Rolling Shutter

Check that the dimensions and gauge of the material used for the shutter are as per
drawings. Normally shutter gauge, guide rails gauge, hood gauge needs to be specified.
Only approved vendor to supply for maintenance of free service


Check whether the welding done is perfect and junctions are properly grooved


Ensure that inserts, bolts, fixtures, fastening fittings are fixed in their position accurately
and in alignment


Painting must be done by quality paint and number of coats should be as specified


Before procurement or indent check the following:


Brick work opening size

Minimum 9 brick columns on both sides
Rolling shutter is to be fixed from inside or outside
Gear operation system for more than 10m2 size
Top shaft fitting eg. Springs, bearings, bush, gear warm
Adequate clearance above lintel for fixing top shaft and hood cover

5.5 Details to be given while placing requirement of D/W/V


Opening size


Frame size


Nos required


Opening left or right with sketch indicating inside & outside for doors


Details of hardware


Elevation of door/window/Ventilator

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Details about sections to be used


Thickness of panel & type of panel to be used


Method of fixing panel

10. Whether the units are to be fixed in brick masonry, stone masonry or R.C.C.
11. Type of hinges required
12. For rolling shutters
a) Location of hood inside or outside
b) Sketch showing location of rolling shutter with details about wall thickness,
length of brick cola beside shutter, location, size etc of R.C.C. column in vicinity
of R.S.
c) Type of Rolling shutter Push & Pull type
- Gear operated from one side/both sides
- Motorized
d) Details of R.C.C. lintel/tie with size and section above RS.
5.6. Stacking of the Door Shutters
Generally door shutters are received on site in bulk at a time. These shutters are never utilized
immediately; hence they have to be stored in proper & careful manner.
Door shutters are stacked size wise & quality wise in horizontal position resting on wooden
battens, one above the other in heaps, at least 15 cm above the ground. In no case the shutters
should be stacked vertically or in inclined manner as they get bend.
The store of the door shutters should be locked & sealed as shutters are costly & can be stolen
5.7. Standard work output
1. Fixing of one main door with all fittings including night latch -- 1.5 Carpenter and 2 helpers
are required
2. Fixing of internal doors with fitting per unit -- 0.5 carpenter and 1 helper required
3. Cutting and fixing of G.I. Sheet for W.C/bath/toilet per 100 sft.2.5 carpenter and 2.5
4. Fixing of cover moldings per 100 rft.1 carpenter and 1 helper required.
5.8. Necessary precaution to be taken for door/window frame fixing work:
1. Take care that all temporary supports of door frames remains intact till door frame fixing
work is completed
2. For M.S. window all shutters should be firmly locked and tied with binding wire while
fixing. Same way for M.S. door / HMPS doors

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3. The fixing of holdfast should be done in concrete block and shuttering should be done if
4. If side masonry becomes loose during door / window fixing, then necessary repairs should be
carried out immediately. To fix holdfast on R.C.C. surfaces drill machine for drilling the
holes to insert the coach bolts
5. Do proper curing after completion of such fixing and repair work
6. If the wall is with window opening then, all necessary window sizes should be confirmed
during masonry stage itself. Opening in masonry should be such that we will get 10mm to
15mm w.r.t. Plaster thickness clear margin from all four sides of window after it is fixed.
The opening should be in proper plumb. If improper opening is left and while fixing window
any masonry is involved, then it remains a weak joint as proper homogeneity cannot be
developed with old masonry
7. After all masonry, plaster and painting work windows and doors should be cleaned
Necessary Precautions to be taken while fixing door shutters.
1. Door frames should be in proper plumb & level.
2. Quality of door shutters should be good. Warping of surface i.e formation of wave pattern
on the surface of shutter & broken edges of the shutters should not be allowed to use.
3. Bend shutters at corner place should be rejected.
4. All hinges & others door fittings should be fixed only by screws. Hammering of nails
should be avoided.
5. Primer, putty & first coat of oil paint should be completed before fixing any fittings on
6. Once the shutter is fixed there should be only nominal gap between shutter & frame
which is required for working tolerance.
7. Beading should be fixed to three sides before fixing the shutter.
8. No joint should be provided to cover moulding except for the corners
9. All visible dents, scratches, unevenness etc. should be properly repaired by applying
putty made from wood dust & resin. It should be properly scraped by using sand paper.
10. As soon as the door shutter if fixed, fix at least one aldrop per shutter for locking , so that
shutter will not bang on door frames due to wind.
5.9. Flow Chart for Sequence of Door Shutter Fixing Activities
Floor Tiles Fixing &
Polishing Complete

Making Frames in plumb & line

of required

Beading Patti to three sides of

shutter and applying primer &
first coat of oil paint to all sides
of shutter

Final coat of oil paint to all the

Checking the operation of the
door shutters & its fitting after Fixing of fittings from shutters & cleaning of the door
fittings with thinner.
all thedoor
of external side as well as from
internal side.
adjacent tohinges.
wall with help of

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5.10. Mode of Measurements (for detail refer SP-27 -1987)

5.10.1. WOOD WORK

Unless otherwise stated all works shall be measured net in decimal systems, as fixed in

Length and width shall be measured to the nearest 0.01m. Width of single or
detached planks shall, however, be measured to the nearest 2mm. Thickness shall be
measured to the nearest 2 mm.


Scantlings, battens, and baulks shall, however, be measured to the nearest 2mm in
each cross-sectional dimensions.


Areas shall be worked out to the nearest 0.01m2.


Cubical contents shall be worked out to the nearest 0.001m3


Description and type of the wood to be used shall be stated; each kind of wood shall
be measured separately.


The worked shall be measured separately for, fixed and framed & fixed. Framed
and fixed work shall be that which involves mortice and tenon or dove-tailed joints.

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All work shall include nails. Work secret fixed , fixed with screws or fixed with
screws and cups or fixed with bolts and washers shall be so described measured
separately. If screws are of other than ordinary steel, they shall be so described.


Plugging to walls for planks, etc, shall be described and measured in running
meters per row stating the spacing of plugs. Plugging to walls for fitting or detached
work, etc, shall be described and enumerated.


Circular or segmental portions shall be measured net separately.

10. Scantlings, battens etc, in sections other than rectangular shall be measured as the least
rectangle from which the section can be obtained.
11. In case of scantlings, battens etc, with varying sections, largest section shall be
12. Mitred pieces shall be measured along longest length.
13. Unless specifically mentioned a tolerance of 1.5 mm shall be allowed for each wrought


1. Various Kinds of sheets for glazing like glass and other materials shall be described and
shall be measured separately. In the case of wired glass, design or pattern of
reinforcement shall be described and in case of frosted glass it shall be stated whether it
is on one or both sides.
2. Work in wood, metal concrete and the like shall be measured separately.
3. The method of glazing shall be described and measured separately under the
Following classification. The type and putty shall also be described:
a. Front and back putty and sprigged or fixed with glazing pins;
b. Bedded in putty and fixed with beads; and
c. Bedded in rubber or velvet and fixed with beads ( wherever required)
4. Circular cutting shall be measured as extra over in running meters. The terms circular
shall be deemed to include any form of curve.
5. The dimensions of each pane shall be clear dimensions of opening plus width of rebates
of structural member of window/door. The pane other than rectangular or square shall be
measured as there smallest rectangular area from which pane can be cut. Straight cutting
shall be deemed to be included in the item.

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6. Glass and sheet louvers shall be described and enumerated.
7. Hacking-out old broken glass and preparing for new glass shall be measured in squares
8. Holes drilled in work shall be enumerated stating diameter of the hole, type and thickness
of the glass/sheet and size of the plane.
9. Grinding, polishing and rounding off edges of glass or glazing sheet shall be described
and measured in running meters.


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Requirements for Fabrications Work

Working Platform

Sufficient Elec.

Approved Shop

Structural Steel

for Fabrication


Transport System
for Fabricated

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6.1 Basic Knowledge of Trade
6.1.1. Structural Section Commonly used
1. Angle I.S.A

Equal Angle - 50 x 50 x 6 , 65 x 65 x 6 , 75 x 75 x 6
Unequal Angle - 75 x 50 x 6

2. Channels -


Light Channel
Medium Channel
Heavy Channel

3. Beams


Light Beam
Medium Beam
Heavy Beam

4. Plate Identified

5 mm thk - Cheq Plate

6 mm thk Plain/Cheq Plate
8 mm thk Plain plate/Cheq Plate
10 mm thk Plain plate
12 mm thk Plain plate
16 mm thk Plain plate
25 mm thk - Plain Plate

6.1.2 Welding
Essential for Proper Welding Procedures

Correct Electrode size 2, 2.5, 3.15, 4

Correct current
Correct arc length or voltage
Correct travel speed
Correct electrode angle

Type of Weld
1. Fillet Weld
2. Groove Weld (Butt)
Welding Position for both filet weld and butt weld 4 positions

Over Head

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6.1.3. Weld Symbols (I.S.813 1986)
Most commonly Weld-Symbols for our type of structural steel work are:
Fillet Weld
Butt Weld
Position of symbols on drawings
To be welding on the Arrow side
Dimensioning of Weld: a

To be Welded on other side of Arrow


a Throat
5 -Throat dimension
To be welded on the Arrow side
300 Length of weld in mm

6.2 Basic Tools Required

6.2.1 Fabrication

Single or Multiple operator welding Transformer

Welding generator
Manual Electrode Holder
Welding service cable and connectors
Welding Hood with minimum No. 10 filter
Hand gloves
Gas cutting torch
Pug cutting M/C
Drilling M/C
Measuring , steel Tape
Grinding M/C

6.2.2 Erection

Chain pulley block
Guy Ropes
Manila Ropes
D - Shackles
Drilling Machine
Welding set

6.3 Std. Consumable used in the trade

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Oxygen Gas
Acetylene Gas

Classification of Electrode (I.S. 814: 1991)






Covered Electrode
Type of Covering (Basic)
Strength characteristics (UTS=510-610 N/mm2 and YS = 360N/mm2 (Min.)
Elongation and impact properties (Elongation = 20% min. and Impact =27 J
min. At 30o C
Welding position (All positions except vertical down)
Welding current and voltage condition (D + AND A 70)
Hydrogen controlled electrodes (15 ml max.)
Increased metal recovery (110-129%)
Radiographic quality electrode

Hence complete classification is EB 5426H2JX

Once classification of electrode is decided for particular work, same electrodes shall be used
for entire work.
6.4 Welder Qualification Test
All welders shall be qualified and their welders qualification test shall be carried out,
Qualified welders shall be issued identity card (with photograph) indicating name of welder
and qualification details.
Welding procedure shall be prepared & approval shall be obtained from client/consultant
Engineer .
6.5 Work Procedure

Estimate numbers of welding set / Transformer required and accordingly estimate the
power requirement for peak quantum of work


Ensure availability of sufficient space for fabrication yard and adequate lighting
arrangement for night work

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The platform for fabrication is to be prepared before starting the work .Platform should be
of such a size that line-out can be done conveniently


Platform should be strong enough to take the load of the structure for required size of
assembly while doing fabrication.


The approach road for unloading of the material and carrying the fabricated materials to
the site has to be proper and prepared in advance. Size of the store shall be sufficiently
large to accommodate one month consumables.


The site office and store space for fabricator must be completed in advance. Suitable
distribution board for power supply above to be provided


Estimation of quality of the structural steel must be carried out from approved shop
drawings. Carry out the analysis for cutting lengths to reduce the wastage


Skilled qualified and well experienced welders, fitters, gas cutter & technicians be
recruited for the job, so that the wastages produce is within limit


The welding, gas cutting, grinding etc. procedure must be approved before the start of

10. The welding rods must be of approved make & quality, suitable for type of fabrication
adequate stocks to be maintained for all consumables
11. The layouts are to be checked and the zig is to be approved after assembling
12. The centerlines are to be checked before erection and the erection sequence & procedure is
to be approved before start. Civil foundation shall be checked /compared with respect to
structural drawing. Any deviation if required can be done before fabrication in
consultation with clients/consultant engineer.
13. The members are to be properly aligned with proper tightening of bolts bracings sagrods,
ties etc. to be erected simultaneously before alignment
14. Grouting of the base is to be carried out after erection & alignment. Grouting holes to be
provided in base plates
15. Sample must be collected for establishing rolling margins weight difference & is required
to be recorded. Average 3 samples from every incoming lot of steel must be collected.
16. Dimensional differences in rolled sections to be pointed out & recorded (if more than
tolerance level is found in material supplied). This is very important for accounting of
reconciliation of material.
17. BOQ for nut & bolts for connections to be prepared and indented .Time procurement of
the same shall be done

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18. Safety measures to be strictly followed
6.6 Check Points for Quality Welding
1. Use only high quality welding machine, electrodes, welding accessories
2. Know the base material that you are working on
3. Select the proper welding process to give the highest quality welds
4. Select the proper welding procedure
5. Select the correct electrode
6. When preheating is specified or required make sure that the temp. requirements are met
7. Clean the base metal of all slag, paint, grease, oil, moisture and any other foreign
8. Remove weld slag and thoroughly clean each based prior to next pass
9. Do not weld over cracks or porous tack welds
10. Be particularly alert to obtain roof fusion on the first pass
11. Inspect your work and immediately remove any defective weld
12. Observe the size of each weld done and make sure that it is meeting design requirement
13. Make sure that the finished appearance of the weld is smooth
6.7 General Defects and preventive measures

Preventive measure
1. Excessively long or short
1. Maintain proper arc
arc length
2. Welding current too high
2. Use proper welding
3. Insufficient or damp
shielding gas
3. Increase Gas Flow-rate
4. Too fast travel speed
& Check gas purity
5. Base
4. Reduce travel speed
covered with oil, grease,
5. Properly maintain and
moisture, rust, mill scale
store electrode
6. Wet, unclean or damaged

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Cracked Welds


1. Insufficient weld size

2. Excessive joint restraint
3. Poor joint design and / or
4. Filler metal does not
match base metal
5. Rapid cooling rate
6. Base
covered with oil,
grease, moisture, rust,
dirt or mill scale
1. Faulty
2. Welding current too high
3. Too long an arc length
4. Too fast travel speed
5. Arc blow


1. Improper tack welding

and / or faulty joint
2. Improper set up and
3. Excessive weld size



Lack of Fusion


Arc blow
Welding current too high
Too long an arc length
Wet, unclean or damaged

Improper travel speed

Welding current too low
Faulty joint preparation
Too large on electrode
5. Magnetic arc blow
6. Wrong electrode angle

1. Adjust weld size to part

2. Reduce joint restraint
through proper design
3. Select the proper joint
4. Use more ductile filler
5. Reduce
through preheat
6. Properly clean base metal
prior to welding
1. Pause at each side of the
weld bead when using a
weaving technique
2. Use proper electrode
3. Use
current for electrode size
and welding position
3 Reduce arc length
4 Reduce travel speed
5 Reduce effects of arc
1. Tack weld parts with
allowance for distortion
2. Use
3. Tack or clamp parts
4. Make welds to specified
1. Attempt to reduce the
effect of arc blow
2. Reduce welding current
3. Reduce arc length
4. Properly maintain and
store electrodes
1. Reduce travel speed
2. Increase Welding current
3. Weld design should allow
electrode accessibility to
all surfaces within the
4. Reduce
5. Reduce
magnetic arc blow

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1. Too slow travel speed

2. Incorrect electrode angle
3. Too large and electrode

Poor Penetration

1. Travel speed too fast

2. Welding current too low
3. Poor joint design and / or
4. Electrode diameter too
5. Wrong type of electrode
6. Excessively long arc

Magnetic Arc Blow

1. Unbalanced
field during welding
2. Excessive magnetism in
parts or fixture


1. Incomplete slag between

2. Erratic travel speed
3. Too wide a weaving
4. Too large on electrode
5. Letting slag run ahead of
6. Tungsten spitting or

6. Use proper electrode

1. Increase travel speed
2. Use proper electrode
3. Use a smaller electrode
Decrease travel speed
Increase roof opening
or decrease roof face
Use smaller electrode
Reduce arc length
1. Use alternating current
2. Reduce welding current
and arc length
3. Change the location of
the work connection on
the work piece
1. Completely remove slag
between passes
2. Use a uniform travel
3. Reduce width of weaving
4. Use a smaller electrode
size for better access to
5. Increase travel speed or
change electrode angle or
reduce arc length
6. Properly prepare tungsten
and use proper current

6.8 Check norms for fabrication/erection (light to heavy)

Check Points
Is the layout of jig checked previously?
If yes, mention the Ref. Drawing No.
Is the jig approved after assembling?
Is the welding procedure approved before start of work?



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Are the welding rods to be used are of approved make?
If yes, mention the make
Is the Center lines of Civil foundation checked / Compared with the shop
drawing of structural work before the fabrication work & lay out.
If yes, mention the Ref. Drawing No.
Are the main members properly aligned with proper tightening of bolts and
tying after erection?
Is the member ready for grouting? Before Grouting the base plate check
weather check nut is provided to the foundation bolt.
Are the bracings, sag rods & ties properly aligned with proper tightening of
bolts and tying after erection?
6.9 Safety
While storage, handling and use of oxygen and fuel-gas cylinders storage
1. Cylinders shall be kept away from radiators and other sources of heat
2. Inside buildings, cylinders shall, be stored in a well-protected, well-ventilated, dry
location, well away from highly combustible materials, such as oil or excelsior
3. Cylinders containing oxygen and combustible gases, such as acetylene and hydrogen
should not be stored in the same room. Under unavoidable circumstances, they should be
kept far apart. Acetylene cylinders shall always be stored upright
4. All cylinders shall be protected against excessive rise in temperature
5. Cylinders stored in the open shall be screened against the continuous direct rays of the sun
in localities where extreme temperatures prevail
6. Empty cylinders shall have their valves closed
7. Valves protection caps, when provided for, shall always be in place, hand-tight, except
when cylinders are in use or connected for use
6.10. Precautions
4.10.1 Handling
1. When transporting cylinders by a crane or derrick, Slings or electric magnets shall not be
used for this purpose
2. Cylinders may be moved by tilting and rolling them on their bottom edges; dragging and
sliding shall be avoided,. Cylinders shall not be dropped or struck, nor shall they be
permitted to strike each other violently

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3. Valve-protection caps shall not be used for lifting cylinders from one vertical position to
4. Cylinder valves shall be closed before moving cylinders
5. Cylinder valves shall be closed when work is finished
6. Cylinders shall be kept sufficiently far away from the actual welding or cutting operations
so that sparks, hot stag or flames might not reach them. Also acetylene cylinders shall
always be kept with the outlet facing upwards
7. Cylinders shall never be used as rollers or supports, whether full or empty
8. Empty cylinders shall be marked empty or MT and promptly returned to the supplier
with valve-protection caps in place
9. If an acetylene cylinder is heated accidentally or becomes hot due to excessive or serve
back fire from use of faulty equipment, it shall be dealt with promptly as follows

The valve shall be shut

Regulator or other fittings shall be detached
The cylinder shall be taken outdoors
It shall be immersed in water or water shall be applied copiously
The valve shall be opened and the cylinder kept cool in water until empty

6.10.2 Oxygen cylinder

The following important precautions shall be observed
1. Oxygen does the burn, but supports and accelerates combustion and therefore causes oil
and other similar materials to burn with great intensity
2. Cylinders, cylinder valves, couplings, regulators, hose and apparatus shall be kept free
from oily or greasy substances. Oxygen cylinders or apparatus shall not be handled with
oily hands or gloves
3. Strong-Oxygen cylinders shall not be stored near (a) highly combustible material,
especially oil and grease; (b) reserve stocks of calcium carbide, and acetylene or other fuelgas cylinders; (c) any other substance likely to cause or accelerate fire; and (d) in an
acetylene generator compartment
6.10.3 Welding
1. Each welder is responsible for containing sparks and slag

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2. All leads, grounds, clamps, welding machines, hoses, gauges, torches, and cylinders shall
be inspected before use
3. All fittings, couplings and connections shall be leak-free
4. Remove the rod from the electrode holder when laying it down. Discard the sub ends in a
metal container
5. Shield all arcs and post warning signs in operating areas
6. Turn the machine off at the end of each workday or when not using it for extended periods
7. Wear an approved welding hood. Use no less than a No. 10 filter with a safety lens on both
sides of the filter. Hard hat-hood combination shall be worn at hard hat areas
8. Electric welding is prohibited from a metal ladder
9. Welding leads shall be adequately insulated from the machine to the electrode holder
10. Before connecting regulators to cylinders, carefully crack open the cylinder valve to
blow out any foreign particles. Close the valve. After the regulator is connected, ensure that
the second stage of the regulator is closed. Stand to one side and open the cylinder valve
11. Never use oxygen in pneumatic tools, to pressurize a container, to blow our lines, or as
substitute for compressed air or other gases
12. Place cylinders and hoses where they are not exposed to sparks or stage from a burning
13. Lift cylinders to upper levels with approved methods only. Do not use slings or lift a
cylinder by the protective cap
14. Do not strike an arc on cylinders
15. Do not use cylinders as rollers
6.10.4 While installation and operation of arc welding and gas cutting equipment
1. Arc welding apparatus shall be of suitable quality
2. Earthing of Welding Machine Case The frame or case of the welding machine shall be
efficiently earthed
3. Before starting operations, all connections to the machine shall be checked to make certain
that they are properly made. Work lead should be as short as possible

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4. Electrodes shall be removed from holder when not in use to eliminate danger of electrical
contact with persons or conducting objects
5. Turn the machine off at the end of each workday or when not using it for extended periods
6. Welders and welding supervisors shall check their equipment regularly to see that electrical
connections and insulations on the holders and cable are in good order
6.10.5 Welding service cable and connectors
1. All welding cables shall be of the completely insulated, flexible type, capable of handling
the maximum current, requirements of the work in progress, taking into account the duty
cycle under which the welder is working
2. The cable shall be free from repair or splices up to a minimum distance of 3.0 m from the
electrode holder
3. When it becomes necessary to connect or splice of the cable to another substantial insulated
connectors of a capacity at least equivalent to that of the cable shall be used
6.10.6 Electric shock
The following precautions shall be taken to prevent electric shock
1. Voltages required for-arc-welding are low and normally would not cause injury or severe
2. These voltages are, nevertheless, sufficiently high that under certain circumstances they
may be dangerous to life. This danger is particularly marked in very hot weather, when the
welder is sweaty or when he is wet
3. He shall never permit the metal part of an electrode, the electrode coverings, or any metal
part of the electrode holder to touch either his bare skin or any wet coverings on his body
6.10.7 Gas cutting equipment
1. Before connecting regulators to cylinders, carefully crack open the cylinder valve to
blow out any foreign particles. Close the valve. After the regulator is connected, ensure that
the second stage of the regulator is closed. Stand to one side and open the cylinder valve
2. When lighting a torch (1) open the fuel gas valve, (2) light the torch, (3) then open the
oxygen valve, use an approved spark lighter. Do not use matches, cigarette lighter or
cigarettes to light a torch.
3. Do not exceed 15 psi on the torch side of the gauge when using acetylene

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4. Wear approved burning goggles; use at least a No 3 filter with a safety lens on both sides of
the filter
5. One 2-A; 40-B;C (as a minimum), UL-rated fully charged fire extinguisher shall be
provided within 30 feet of any welding, burning or open flame work
6.11 Wastage control
1. Cutting of sections, plates should be planned in such a manner that, it results in
optimum utilization of the material
2. Ensure proper storage of welding rods ie. It should not come in contact with moisture
otherwise it will lead to wastage of rods
3. Maximum length of the electrode should be utilized in such a manner that the last
remaining piece is used for tack welding
4. More over the welder should have the aptitude for the job and he should have the
attitude for maximum utilization of material

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6.12 Basic knowledge required

The Sloping intersection of a roof surface with a part of structure which rises
above it.


The lower edge of an inclined roof


The part of a wall above the general eaves level at the end of ridged or partially
happed roof


Any form of roof-water channel


The angle of inclination with the horizontal of the rafters or substructure surface
on which the roof covering is laid


The line or intersection of two inclined roof surface at the apex of a roof


The re-entrant raking angel formed by the intersection of two inclined roof


The free edge of a roof surface finishing at a gable

The types of roofing material are:

1. AC Sheet
2. GI Sheet
3. Metacolor Sheet / Pre-coated sheet
Dimensional data of AC Sheet

Standard lengths

:1.5, 1.75, 2.0, 2.25, 2.5, 2.75, 3.0M








Covering efficiency



Average weight


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6.13 Standard Consumables
Roofing Sheets, nuts and bolts (J bolts / L bolts), hooks, washer, ridge copings, ride finials,
apron, flashing pieces, eaves filters, barge boards, expansion pieces, ventilators, roof lights,
6.14 Basic Tools
Rope, hooks, spanner, wood saw, drilling machine, car ladder etc.
6.15 Labour requirement
For 10m2 AC sheet roofing one carpenter and one mazdoor
For 10m2 GI sheet roofing one smith and one mazdoor
6.16 Work Procedure
1. The design aspect should be properly considered. The purlin spacing and the length of
sheets should be checked to ensure that arrangement of sheets will provide required end lap
and specified over hang at the eaves and at the ridge
2. The wind direction is to be considered before start of sheeting. Placing of sheets should be
such that smoother side faces the weather and corrugations run at right angle to the purlin
3. The painting of the sheets if required should be done prior to the erection
4. Asbestos Cement Corrugated Sheets are normally laid from left to right starting at the
eaves. The first sheet should be laid uncut, but the remaining sheets in the bottom row
should have the top left hand corner cut or mitered. The sheet in the second and other
intermediate rows should have the bottom right hand corner of the first sheet cut all other
sheets except the last sheet should have both the bottom right hand corner and top left hand
corner cut. The last or top row sheets at ridge should all have the bottom right hand corner
cut with the exception of the last sheet, which should be laid uncut. Depending upon the
prevailing direction of wind, if the sheets are laid from right to left, the whole procedure
should be reversed
5. The miter described above, is necessary to provide a snug fit where four sheets meet at a
lap. It is cut from a point 150 mm (or whatever the length of the length end-lap may be)
up the vertical side of the sheet, 40 mm along the horizontal edge (or whatever the width
of the side lap may be). This cutting can be done with an ordinary wood saw at site.
6. All the fixtures (ie. hook bolts, nuts, washers, etc) must be as per specifications
7. The holes must be drilled with suitable drill bit and not punched
8. The number and the spacing the bolts and self tapping screws must be as per specification
9. End lap and side lap must be as per specification and the free overhangs must not exceed
Specified length
10. Safety measures to be strictly followed

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6.17 Check norms
Check Points
Are the fixtures accessories as per specifications? (i.e. Hook Bolts,
nuts, washers etc.)
If yes, mention the relevant specification
Is the number of bolts or self tapping screw spaced as per specification?
If yes, mention the spacing
Are end lap and side lap as per specifications?
If yes, Mention the lap width


6.18 Material wastages control:

1. Sheets should be handled and stored carefully to prevent the breakage or damage of sheets
2. Optimum usage and handling of bolts and nuts

6.19 Safety
1. Do not allow to work in poor weather condition
2. Proper and strong walking arrangement like cat ladder should be provided. Labour should
be provided with safety belts while working at higher level
3. As far as possible movement should be limited only to purlin
4. While working at higher level material & tools should be carefully handled to ensure the
safety for people moving or working at lower level. Restrict the movement of people to
minimum in the working area with the help of caution board (poster)

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6.20. Mode of Measurement (for detail refer SP -1987)
6.20.1. Measurements for fabrication.

Unless otherwise stated all work shall be measured net in decimal system, as fixed
in its place.





Thickness of plate shall be measured to nearest 0.001 m.

Areas excluding cross-sectional measurement shall be worked out to nearest
Weights shall be worked out to nearest 1 kg.
Mill tolerance shall be ignored when the weight is determined by calculation.
Priming coat shall be described and included in items of fabrication.
The weight of steel sheet, plate and strips; rolled steel sections, steel rods, and
steel strips; forged steel , steel castings and steel tubes shall be taken from
relevant Indian Standards
Unless otherwise specified, an addition of 2.5 percent of the weight of structure
shall be made for shop and site rivet heads in riveted steel structures.
Unless other specified, in case of welded steel structures no allowance shall be
made for the weld metal.
Wedging up, under stanchion bases or steel grillages shall be described and

6.20.2. Measurements for Roofing.

Unless otherwise stated hereinafter all works shall be measured net in

decimal system, as fixed in its place.



Dimensions shall be measured to the nearest 0.01m.

Areas shall be worked out to the nearest 0.01m2
Work executed in the snow shall be measured separately
Any opening not exceeding 0.4m2 shall not be deducted and forming such
openings requiring cutting shall be enumerated.
Any opening exceeding 0.4m2 shall be deducted and cutting required shall be
measured in running meters.
Cutting across corrugations shall be measured on the flat and not girthed.
No addition shall be made for laps cut through.
Sheeting curved or bent to curvature shall be measured separately.

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7.1. Basic knowledge of the trade
Painting is the final finishing touch to any structure and as such is a vital activity at the end of
the construction and therefore it demands proper attention ( in the industrial buildings, this
work is neglected by the supervisory staff). The painting imparts final appearance to the
structures and hence it should be done in workman like manner by well trained painters under
strict supervisor
There are various types of paints available today in the market and selection of paint to be
applied to the particular surface in a given time and budget requires good knowledge and
experience of this trade. However, normally the painting scheme is decided by the consultants
and the clients together and then the instructions are passed on to the executors to carry out the
work. The executors then make the planning to complete this work in a given time and start
The standard paints for domestic and industrial use today are oil bound distemper, acrylic
emulsion paint, synthetic enamel paint, flat oil paint (for external and internal use), cement
based paint (ext), rubber paint, epoxy paint etc. The procedure for the use of paints is written
on the pack of the paint or it is available with the dealers. Apart from the use of paint the
preparation of surface to which the paint is to be applied is very important. The old surfaces
which are to be re-painted need more care and experienced workmen and supervisors
7.2. Standard Consumable used in Trade
Putty, linseed oil, turpentine, paints thinners stretchers (pigment) etc.
7.3. Basic tools required
The basic tools for painting work are brushes with spring able bristles, sand papers, scrapers,
patti-pana, and ladders, light scaffolding, canvas for straining, blow lamps etc.
7.4. Labour requirement and planning of labour force.
According to the sequence of different operations i.e. scraping, cleaning, application of patti,
painting etc. the labours of different categories should be deployed at different stages to avoid
idling of skilled/unskilled labours. There should be strict supervision to see that the labours do
not waste their time and for this purpose proper allocation of work should be planned. Their
out put should be checked by frequent visits to the place of work and required materials and
tools should be supplied in time. Area where painting is to be done must be made available to
workers so that they need not have to wait unnecessarily
7.4.1Standard labour requirement
White washing or colour washing 3 coats for 60 sqm one white washer, one mazdoor
White washing or colour washing 2 coats for 80 sqm one white washer, one mazdoor

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White washing or colour washing 1 coat for 140 sqm one white washer, one mazdoor
Distemper 2 coats with one priming coat on new surface for 100 sqm, five painters, and five
7.5 Work procedure
7.5.1 White wash
1. The wall to be painted must be thoroughly scrapped with sand paper
2. The first coat of white is to be done within 7 days of plaster
3. The staked lime must be screened through coarse cloth and the adhesive must be added as
specified. Lime must be soaked for 24 hours in advance
4. Application by spray, brush, coir brush to be decided in advance
5. Lime coat must be applied with a brush and the desired sequence must be as under:
One stroke of brush from downwards and another from bottom upwards over the first,
similarly one stroke from right and other from the left over the first before the first dries
6. Brush application needs criss-cross painting to avoid brush marks
7. Machines, Doors, windows, floors etc shall be covered from being splashed upon
8. The cracks and holes are required to be filled with proper adhesive after the first coat
9. Small quality of ultra marine is to be added in last two coats of white wash
10. Three coats are to be applied over the plastered surface
11. Subsequent while wash is to be applied only after the preceding coat has become
sufficiently dry

7.5.2 Colour Washing

1. Follow steps 1 to 11 as white wash
2. The wash shall be prepared by adding required quality of colour pigment to the lime wash
prepared under the head white wash
3. The mineral colours not affected by lime shall be added to white wash

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4. The colour wash shall be done after preparation of a sample of colour wash
5. The surface to be colour washed shall be first treated with a priming coat of white wash
6. Minimum two to three coats of colour shall be applied to attain uniform shade over the
whole surface
7.5.3 Cement Paint
1. Get the cement paint & shade approved
2. The surface should be thoroughly cleaned and all loose materials be removed
3. The surface should be watered thoroughly and should be allowed to drain off before
starting the cement painting. Application is by brush in criss-cross direction till uniform
colour shade is obtained
4. The second coat shall be started after 24 hours of the first coat
5. The entire surface shall be moist cured for seven days
6. Grey & Blue pigments tends to fading off so discuss with customer & clarify
7.5.4 Sandtax Paint
1. Get the sand tax paint and shade approved
2. Follow the points 2, 3, 4 of cement paint as mentioned above
3. 1st coat of cement paint can be applied as an primer coat or apply recommended primer
coat by manufacturer
4. 2nd & 3rd coat of tax is applied over 1st coat which does not required moist watering
5. These paints are more durable, non fading, thicker coating, greater opacity, high degree of
flexibility & strong adhesive properties. Hence more suitable for intermixing of shades is
possible to obtain intermediate shades
7.5.5 Preamble for Decorative Paints
Preparation of surface
1. The plastered surface shall be thoroughly brushed from dust, dirt, grease, mortar dropping
and other foreign matter and sand papered smooth

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2. New plaster surface shall be allowed to dry for atleast four months before applications of
distemper or one coat of white wash with white cement shall be done prior to painting
3. All unnecessary nails, hooks etc. shall be removed. Pitting in plaster shall be made good
with plaster again and papered with a fine grade sand paper and made smooth
4. A coat of paint shall be applied over the patches. The surface shall be allowed to dry
thoroughly before the regular paint is applied. The surface affected by moulds, moss, fungi,
algae lichens, efflorescence etc. shall be treated
5. A priming coat of cement primer of approved manufacture shall be applied over the plaster
surface in case of new work
6. The primer shall be applied with a brush on the clean, dry and smooth surface Horizontal
strokes shall be given first and vertical strokes shall be applied immediately afterwards.
This entire operation will constitute one coat
7. A coat of putty (lapi) shall be applied to the entire surface. Putty shall be prepared by
mixing whiting chalk, primer/paint in required proportion as directed by the Engineer-incharge and Architect. The second coat of primer and putty shall then be applied and it shall
thereafter be allowed to dry for atleast 48 hours. Fine sand papering is required for both
lapi coats

Painting is not recommended to be applied within four months of the plastered surface.
Any moisture in plaster will create problem of pealing off or swelling. Due cautioning to be
given to clients/consultant if they insist on painting to start during initial four months of

7.5.6 Oil bound distemper / Water bound distemper / Acrylic bound distemper Application
1. The distemper shall be diluted with mineral turpentine oil or any other prescribed thinner in
a manner recommended by the manufacturer only, Sufficient quality of distemper for a
days work shall be prepared
2. On any surface, after the primer coat has dried for atleast 48 hours, the surface shall be
lightly sand papered to make it smooth for receiving the distemper, taking care not to rub
out the priming coat
3. All loose particles shall be dusted off after rubbing. Minimum two coats o distemper shall
be applied with brushes in horizontal strokes followed immediately by vertical strokes
which together shall constitute one coat. The subsequent coats shall be applied after a time
interval of at least 24 hours between 2 consecutive coats, to allow proper drying of the
preceding coat. The finished surface shall be even and uniform without patches, brush
marks, distemper drops etc.

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4. Sufficient quality of distemper shall be mixed to finish one room at a time. The application
of a coat in each room shall be finished in one operation and no work shall be started in any
room which cannot be completed on the same day
5. 15 cm double bristled distemper brush shall be used. After a days work brushes shall be
thoroughly washed in hot water soap solution and hung down to dry. Old brushes which are
dirty and caked with distemper shall not be used on the work Protective measure
The surface of doors, windows, ventilators, articles of furniture & machines etc. and such
other part of the buildings which are not to be distempered shall be protected from being
splashed upon. On completion surface shall be cleaned of distemper splashes, if any
7.5.7 Plastic Emulsion Paint Application
1. Before pouring paint into containers for use of applying, the paint shall be stirred
thoroughly in its container. Also, the paint shall be continuously stirred in the smaller
container, so that its consistency is kept uniform
2. The paint shall be laid on evenly and smoothly by means of crossing and laying off. The
crossing and laying off consists of covering the area over with paint, brushing the surface
hard for the first time over and then brushing alternately in opposite directions two or three
times and then finally brushing lightly in direction at right angles to the same. In this
process, no brush marks shall be left after the laying off is finished. The full process of
crossing and laying off will constitute one coat. No hair marks from the brush or clogging
of paint puddles in the corners of panels, angle of moldings etc. shall be left on the work.
3. The paint shall be applied with brush for first two coats and final finishing shall be done
with roller. Precautions
1. Old brushes if they are to be used with emulsions paints, shall be completely dried to
turpentine or oil paint by washing in warm soap water. Brushes shall be quickly washed in
water immediately after use and shall be kept immersed in water during break periods to
prevent the paint from hardening on the brush
2. In the preparation of walls for plastic emulsion painting, no oil base putties shall be used in
filling cracks, holes etc.
3. Splashes on floors etc. shall be cleaned out without delay as they will be difficult to remove
after hardening

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4. Washing of surface treated with emulsion paint shall not be done with in 3 to 4 weeks of
7.5.8 Enamel Paint Glossy, Flat, Pearl luster and Matt as Desired Application
1. Brushing operation is to be adjusted to the spreading capacity advised by the manufacturer
of particular paint. The paint shall be applied evenly and smoothly by means of crossing
and laying off. The crossing and laying off consists of covering the areas over with paint,
brushing the surface hard for the first time over and then brushing alternately in opposite
directions two or three times and the finally brushing highly in direction at right angles to
the same. In this process no brush marks shall be left after the laying off is finished. The
full process of crossing and laying off will constitute one coat
2. Each coat shall be allowed to dry completely and lightly rubbed with very fine grade of
sand paper and loose particles brushed off before next coat is applied. Each coat shall vary
slightly and shall be got approved from Architect and Engineer-in-charge before next coat
is started
3. Each coat shall be lightly rubbed down with sand paper of fine pumice stone and cleaned
off dust before the next coat is applied. No hair marks from the brush of clogging of paint
puddles in the corners of panels angles of mouldings etc. shall be left on the work
4. Special care shall be taken while painting over bolts, nuts, rivets, overlaps etc. Precautions
1. In the preparation of walls for enamel painting no oil base putties shall be used in filling
cracks, holes etc.
2. Splashes on floors etc. shall be cleaned out without delay as they will be difficult to remove
after hardening
3. The surface of doors, windows, ventilators, articles of furniture & machines etc. and such
other part of the buildings which are not to be painted shall be protected from being
splashed upon. On completion surface shall be cleaned of distemper splashes, if any
4. Washing of surfaces treated with enamel paint shall not be done within 3 to 4 weeks of
7.6 Painting of Structural Steel
7.6.1 Surface Treatment

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1. All the surfaces of steel work to be painted shall be thoroughly cleaned of all loose mill
scale, rust, grease, dirt and other foreign matter. All welding, blurs, drilled holes, Gas cut
edges needs proper surface cleaning
2. Oil and grease removal shall be carried out either by solvent cleaning or by using alkali
type degreasing agents. To remove grease material the surface shall be cleaned with
solvents containing emulsifier
3. Derusting and escaling of steel shall be carried out either manually, mechanically or
Manual or Hand Tool Cleaning
Loose mill scale rust and loose paint shall be removed by wire brushing, scrapping, chipping,
rubbing with abrasive paper or steel wool. This method shall not be employed when the surface
has firmly adhering mill scale. After hand tool cleaning, the surface shall be rubbed with sand
paper so as to ensure that no loose material exists and the surface shall be dusted off
Mechanical Cleaning
Power Tool Cleaning
This shall be carried out by employing power operated wire brushes. Power tool cleaning shall
be resorted to only of sand/shot blasting is not possible /permissible and high quality of surface
preparation is required.
7.6.2 Sand Blasting and Shot Blasting
Sand/shot blasting shall be resorted to only after removal of grease, oil and other contaminants.
The work shall be carried out by impinging under pressure of air, a jet of sharp sand or
granulated steel (steel grits) on to the metal surface. The process shall ensure complete removal
of rust and firmly adhering mill scale. Special care shall be taken on weld areas to remove flux
and spatter. Blasting shall ensure an even colour of the surface and the surface shall have silver
grey colour. Precaution shall be taken when sand or shot blasting of light gauge steel surface to
ensure that bucking does not occur due to continues impingement of sand or steel shouts under
high velocity
Sand/shot blasting shall be adopted for structures which are exposed to corrosive conditions for
which superior paint protection is to be adopted
7.6.3 Primer Paint

Anti-corrosive primers shall be either lead based or lead free types.

Primer and finish paints shall be compatible with each other to avoid cracking and wrinkling
7.6.4 Painting

1. Painting shall be carried out only on thoroughly dry surface

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2. No painting shall be done frosty/foggy weather or when the humidly is high enough to
cause condensation on the surface to be painted
3. The application of paint film shall serve the twin purpose of protecting the steel from
corrosion and giving the decorative appearance. A paint which gives the steel adequate
protection over a long period together with good appearance shall therefore be adopted.
Procure only approved paint product and also the approved colour shade
4. Structural steel surfaces shall be given the first coat of primer at shop and the second coat
after it is erected in position. Further, any abraded surfaces of the first coat during transport
from shop to site and during erection shall be provided with a touch-up coat of the primer.
Any field welding done during erection needs to be attended with primer coats.
5. Application of finishing paints shall be carried out within the shortest possible time interval
after primer since the primer coats are too thin to give adequate corrosion protection of the
steel surface over a long duration
6. Painting shall be carried out either by brushing or by spraying. Contractor shall procure the
appropriate quality of paint for this purpose as recommended by the manufacturer
7. At least 24 hours shall elapse between the applications of successive coats. Each coat shall
vary slightly in shade and this shall be got approved by the engineer

Minimum dry film thickness of each coat of finish paint of synthetic enamel shall be as
specified in the respective item of work (average 40 microns)
9. Surface inaccessible after assembly shall receive two coats of primer prior to assembly
10. Surface inaccessible after erection, including top surface of purlins supporting sheeting or
top surfaces of floor beams supporting grating or chequered plate shall receive one
additional coat of finish paint over and above the number of coats specified prior to
11. Contractor shall provide suitable covering as necessary to prevent paint from splashing on
equipment, Floors, Walls, Doors, Windows, and Fittings etc.

7.6.5 Defects in Painting



Poor Surface treatment

Painting over moist surface
Finishing coat over bare steel

Brush marks


Paint too thick

Too strong brush strokes
Painting by unskilled labour



Presence of moisture
Application in damp weather
Inadequate ventilation for indoor painting

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Disintegration of binder
Use of inferior pigments in strong sunlight



Surface contamination with grease or oil

Top coat not compatible with previous coat

Flaking or Peeling


Painting over improperly cleaned surface

Overcoat interval too long

Loss of gloss


Painting in the rain and in humid conditions

Painting on greasy surface



Application of excessively thick coat

Excessive thinners added to paint
Improper use of spray gun

Slow Drying


Painting on oily or waxy surface

Painting in humid conditions
Insufficient drying of previous paint coats
Possibility of drier absorption on long storage



Paint applied too thickly

Fresh quick drying paint exposed to strong sunlight or

7.6.6 Material Wastage Control

1. Generally in painting work the wastage of sand papers, scrapers, brushes, thinners,
turpentine and even paint while straining or taking out from the big pack in to the smaller
tins is very common
2. With the use of improper brushes also the paint is wasted by falling on to the floor during
3. Sometimes, when the tin is not properly hooked to the scaffolding it turns downward and
paint falls on the floor even splashing on the adjoining surfaces. This involves extra cost
for cleaning the surface, floors in addition to the loss of paint
This wastage can be avoided by supervising the work more closely and with interest
7.6.7 Safety Measures
1. Safety measures like wearing safety shoes, safety belts, helmets, hand gloves etc. must be
ensured and without these wares, the workers should not be allowed to work
2. Proper scaffolding should be erected and its stability should be ensured. Thin bamboos
should not be allowed if scaffolding is erected in bamboos

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3. Paints should be carefully stored in such a place where there is no risk of catching fire.
7.6.8 Cost Part related to out put
1. The consumption of paint should conform with the standard consumption as per
manufactures instructions.
2. The supervisory staff must work out roughly the out put of the workers and the cost of
labours deployed. These two costs should then be compared and it should be seen if the
labour component is going up and if it is so, it should be found out why it is going up and
corrective measure should be taken immediately with the help of the seniors/site-in-charge.
If it is found that the labour is inefficient that may be warned / replaced. The output of the
labours should be monitored regularly
Still there is lot many things to know in the trade which you should try to learn and gain at site
and discussing the problems with you superiors and even with experienced workers.
7.7 Mode of Measurement (for detail refer SP 27 -1987)
1. Deduction for opening
Greater than 0.5 sqm
Less than 0.5 sqm

Full Deduction
No Deduction

To be given
Not to be given

2. Distemper/white wash/ oil bond/cement paint etc. as per measurements of plaster.

Jams and soffits to be included in measurement. Doors and window openings to be
deducted full
3. All pipes and steel poles to be measured in running metre inclusive of fitting.
4. Oil paint to wooden or M.S surface to be measured from one face and apply
multiplying factor to get painting area for billing purpose..
Sr No

Paneled door
Flush door
M.S window
Grill (design)
Rolling shutter
Corrugated sheets
Collapsible door

Multiplying Factor
2.50 times
2.25 times
1.50 times
0.50 times
1.00 times
3.00 times
3.00 times
3.00 times

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In case of rolling shutters, no separate measurement will be given for cover
7.8 Flow Chart for Internal Painting Work

Application of Donga after

curing period is over

After drying of putty rubbing

by polish paper of 80.No.

Preparation for door

frame,door shutters.
M.S. windows


Door frames/
doors shutters

Checking by
engineer as per
check list

Putty filling for cracks minor

dents and depressions

of primer

Dry distemper with

primer and putty

Second coat of

Application of
Red oxide

First coat of distemper

First coat of

Final coat of floor polishing

and acid wash for floors

rubbing by polish paper
to receive first coat

Cleaning of glass
panicles door fittings,
floor electrical fittings

Preparation for

Putty application on wall in

all cracks dents and

First coat of
oil paint


Instructions to painter for minor

work rectifications and getting
done as per checklist

Completion of other
works upto tile polishing
third coat

Polishing to
main door

Final N.O.C. to contractor

to clear off his payments

Glass fixing
for windows

Final coat of

First coat of oil-paint

to door shutters

Final coat of oil paint to

doors and windows

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8.1 Basic Knowledge of the trade

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Flooring is the finishing part on any hard base of compacted soil, lime concrete or cement
concrete. The flooring is subjected to ware and tear and heavy loading especially in industrial
buildings and type of flooring varies from user to user. It also depends upon the taste of the
users and his requirement. The flooring is the finishing item and as it imparts ultimate show
and shape to the floor, it has to be done in perfect workmanlike manner
There are various type of floorings in use to-day in residential and industrial buildings such as
Tile flooring (marble tiles, mosaic tiles, ceramic tiles)
Polished kota stone flooring (P.K.S.)
Marble/granite stones flooring
IPS flooring
Tremix concrete
PVC flooring
Terrazzo (Marble chips) flooring.
8.2 Standard materials used in the trade
Flooring material (tiles, stones, precast blocks, chips, etc.), cement (grey, white, coloured)
sand, metal, floor hardener
8.3 Basic Tools Required
Level tube, bubble tube, patti with straight edge, line dori, right angle, hammer, measure tapes,
sharp chisels for cutting and dressing, tiles/stones cutting machines, polishing machines
wooden float, steel trowel, wooden mallet, concrete mixers, tremix system, ghamelas, powaras
8.4 Work Procedure
Before taking up the flooring work in hand base has to check for its compaction. Base can be
made hard by providing a layer of about 200 mm thick soling by stone of size varying from 75
mm to 150 mm thoroughly backpacking with quarry spauls and filling the voids with good
yellow soil, murrum or by sand and thorough watering and consolidating the layer. If possible
road roller shall be used for consolidation .Layer of soling is provided in industrial buildings
where very heavy material is to be handled. In residential and other buildings consolidation is
normally done by providing good quality of earth or murrum, by watering and thorough
ramming. Procter density test shall be performed to check the perfection of consolidation.
If consolidation is not done properly then during the course of time settlement may take place
and flooring gets cracked & becomes very difficult to rectify it. On principal of prevention is
better than cure, consolidation of base for flooring shall be done thoroughly.
8.4.1 IPS
IPS is done over a layer of 100 mm to 150 mm layer of M150,M200, M250 grade of plain or
reinforce concrete which is over length of 50 mm or 75 mm thick PCC. Thickness of IPS is
generally 40 mm depending on the specification.

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Refer Sketch showing chequered sequence or casting in alternate panel.
Base concrete shall be provided with the slopes required for the flooring. Flooring in verandah,
courtyard, kitchens & baths shall have slope varying from 1:48 to 1:60 depending upon the site
conditions and location of final outlet point for disposal floors in water closet portion shall
have slope of 1:30 to drain of washing water
Flooring for IPS shall be commenced preferably within 48 hrs of laying base concrete. The
surface shall be roughened with steel wire brushes without disturbing the concrete.
Immediately before laying the flooring, the base shall be wetted and a coat of cement slurry at
2 kg of cement spread over an area of one sq.m, so as to get a good bond between the base and
concrete floor. Shuttering to cast in alternate panel shall be provided by MS angle for required
thickness of IPS. Shuttering to be removed only after 24 Hrs Casting .
1. Scrapping cleaning & washing of the surface is must
2. Panel size & panel to be frozen on plan. No panel dimension to exceed 2.0 m x 2.0 m
3. Dividing strips of PVC/Glass/MS to be fixed as per the panel layout to correct line & level
as per specification. Top of the strip to match with the required slope & finished floor level.
Strip fixing can be done with mortar at least one day in advance
4. At the wall & floor junction suitable size of skirting with at least 4 wide floor IPS residue
strip to be planned
5. Casting of the IPS panels to be done in Chequered sequence only. Diagonally opposite
panels (alternate) to be casted on first day and other panels on next day.
6. Base coarse concrete of given thickness to be finished rough in first stage. Top 10 to 12
mm thick second layer concrete needs a richer mix with zero fines (i.e. rich mix as
specified with only from 6mm aggregate, cement & hardener if recommended. No sand to
be used). Floor hardener is used generally in industrial floors where it has to withstand
heavy wear and tear.
Cement concrete Flooring with Metallic hardener topping Use of floor hardener shall
be avoided as far as possible by using rich mixes of concrete unless metallic hardener is
specified on the basis of cost. Where metallic hardener topping is used it shall be 12 mm
thick. Hardening compound shall be of approved quality consisting of uniformly graded
iron particles, free from non ferrous metal particles, oil, grease, sand etc. 12 mm thick layer
shall consist of mix 1:2 (1 cement: 2 stone aggregate 6 mm nominal size) by volume or as
otherwise specified with which metallic hardening compound is mixed in the ratio of 1:4
by weight (1 metallic hardener compound: 4 cement). Metallic hardener shall be dry mixed
thoroughly with cement on a clean dry pacca platform. Just enough water shall be added to
this dry mix as required for floor concrete. This shall be laid on concrete floor within 2 to 4
hours of its laying .It shall be firmly pressed into the bottom of concrete so as to have good
bond with it. After the initial set has started, the surface shall be finished smooth and true to
slope with steel floats.

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7. W/C ratio to be controlled in top layer to achieve manual trovelling. While trovelling
cement slurry & excess water floats on the surface which dries off with continuous
trovelling within 3 to 4 hours. But in no case dry cement spraying should be allowed.
Masons have to continue trovelling till surface hardens on its own & top finish is achieved
8. Masons have to patch up the depressions in the panels, if any, during finishing operation.
Also ensure edges & corners are properly finished
9. Normal curing by ponding water, sprinkling water is done for 7 days.
8.4.2. Tremix Flooring
1. Initial suitable layout of construction joints & isolation joints to be concluded before
starting of Tremix flooring
2. Keep the surface of the guide channels (on which the surface vibrator is supported), clean
from concrete. Align the guide channels to true required level. Panel casting layout to be
strictly followed as per step 1
3. concrete shall be placed and distributed evenly and as near the final level as possible
4. Concrete is vibrated with an immersion vibrator in front of screed vibrator. Avoid heaping
of concrete in front of screed vibrator
5. Ensure that the areas close to channels and stop ends are carefully vibrated. Do not
distribute the concrete with the poker vibrator as it would create a risk of over vibration and
6. Surface vibration should start as soon as there is enough concrete in front of the screen
vibrator. Screed Vibrator is to be pulled from both ends.
7. The filter pad + top cover unit together called as suction mat is connected with suction hose
to avacum pump. The normal atmosphere pressure in the pump is reduced by normal
atmospheric pressure in the pump is reduced by 80% and 80% of the atmospheric pressure
compresses the concrete. Concrete is submitted to a pressure of air pressure 1.00 kg/cm2
Depression 0.2 kg/cm2, effective pressure 0.8 kg/cm2
This pressure of about 0.8 kg/cm2 compressses the concrete and compacts the aggregates.
At the same time the excess water which is not necessary for the hydration process of the
system is extracted from the concrete and continuously discharged with this air. Vaccuming
thime is about 1 to 2 min/cm of thickness of concrete slab. Immediately after vacuum
dewatering, the surface is power floated with a skim-floater. For achieving a smooth
surface the surface is trowelled with the same machine provided with trowelling blades.
The floating and trowelling operation take place within one hour from concreting.
Place the filter pads as soon as the sufficient concrete surface is vibrated, vacuum
dewatering process must start within 30 minutes from the time of starting concrete pouring

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8. The filter pads are placed in such a way that there is at least 100 mm (4) fresh concrete
visible around the filter pads on all four sides. Filter pads should be overlapped with each
other by at least 250 mm (110)
9. Suction pad must be rolled open over the filter pads & dewatering must then start. Extent
of dewatering is related to thickness of floor concrete i.e. Average 4 min. per inch thickness
or physical check of dewatered surface which should not give foot print while walking to
be seen. Excess/less dewatering not advisable. Reduction of water content in concrete is by
20-25 %
10. While repeating dewatering process subsequently, suction pad to be rolled out at least 300
mm over the vacuum dewatered area. Before spreading the suction pad on dewatered area.
It is essential to give one pass of skim floater (with the disc) along the edge of the
dewatered concrete
11. Connect the central pipe of the suction pad to the suction house which in turn is connected
to the vacuum pump. When the pump is started, vacuum will be created between the top
cover and filter pads. Excess water from the concrete will be taken into the vacuum pump
tank and discharged through a pipe away from fresh panel
12. After Vacuum Dewatering, scrapping operation is to be made diagonally in two direction
over the concrete surface
13. The concrete which is collected during scrapping is to be used for adjusting small surface
irregularities of the vacuum treated surface
14. The first finishing operation is floating with the skim floater attached with a disc
15. The second finishing operation is toweling with skim floater attached with the toweling
blades. Normally, toweling is to be continued till the smooth surface finish is achieved
without floater marks
16. Curing can be done by ponding, covering with plastic sheets or gunny bags. Curing must
be done for at least 7 days
17. Groove cutting for construction joints or isolation joints to follow the sequence of tremix
flooring without much time lapse, preferably within 48 hrs.
18. Groove filing can be done with any elastomeric material subsequently. Groove cleaning &
drying needs to be ensured.
8.4.3 Polished Kota Stone flooring (P.K.S. )
Slabs shall be hard and machine cut. Slab shall have top ( exposed) polished before being
brought to site. Slab shall be confirmed to the size required. Thickness of slab after it is

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dressed shall be 20, 25,30 or 40 mm as specified tolerance of 2 mm shall be allowed for
the thickness. In respect of length and breadth of slabs tolerance shall be 5 mm for hand
cut slabs and 2 mm for machine cut slabs.
1. Polished Kota stone shall be selected from good quarry (source) where stone available is
uniform in shade, hard & homogenous in texture, lamination less, Machines polished at
source & of required size & thickness
2. Making of FARMA in true size & right angle should be approved by the engineer with zero
3. Average out the size, from the supply & make suitable FARMA for getting maximum size
and for rationalization of sizes to at least 3 FARMAS to be concluded jointly with the
4. Hand dressing OR machine cutting of the edges can be planned as per the requirement.
Hand dressed stones to be grinded in suitable channel with fine sand for sharp, straight
5. Initial check for colour shade by washing the surface in yard itself to be followed & stack
the finished stone with at least 3 different mark I/II/III. While laying due care should be
taken to use assorted stones in different rooms. By this way color variation is adjusted in
room/area wise
6. All broken edges/corner stones to be suitably used
7. Area to be scrapped/cleaned/washed before starting the mortar bedding, conclude the
flooring pattern
8. Preparation of mortar to the required proportion with min. water is the first step. Make the
thiayas to required level & slope well in advance. Laying of mortar to suitable thickness
keeping reference thiayas in line dori to be supervised from time to time
9. Neat cement paste is spearheaded over mortar bedding & cement paste to the edges of the
stone. Then stone is fixed close to the previous stone to have a hair line joint. Stone surface
is pressed tapped gently with the wooden mallets till the stone is in true line & level.
Cement paste at the edges will try to come out from joints which should be scrapped off.
Again joints to be filled up with neat cement paste to fill up the gaps. Suitable colored
pigment to be used for joint sealing to match with the stone color
10. Flooring to continue at least 10mm inside the wall plaster line
11. Any irregularities (othas) due to natural bends in stones should be restricted to 2mm at
12. Curing of flooring for 7 days by sprinkling water or by wetting
13. Polishing activity to follow only after adequate curing. Sequence of polishing:

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1st cut with rough emery stone 80 No. to polishing m./c (heavy) which should even out
all irregularities (othas) plus OR minus. Normal cut of 2mm is achieved with this emery
Floor is washed & ragada is removed to check the joints. All joints to be regrouted with
cement paste. Allow to set for atleast 2 days

b) 2nd & 3rd cut with finer emery stone 120/220 No. Joints qrouting to be attended for every
cut of polishing, normally 1mm cut is achieved. Now surface is fairly in level & without
any scratch or chakkar lines of the machining
c) Final light coast of polishing to be done with masala (Oxalic Acid) to get the scratch less
finished surface. (No waxing to be done for shining). Light polishing coat can continue till
the acceptable result is achieved
8.4.4. Marble / Granite flooring

Marble / granite stone shall be selected from good quarry (source) where stone available is
uniform in shade, hard & homogenous in texture, lamination less. Machine polished at
source & of required size & thickness


Making of FARMA in true size & right angle should be approved by the engine with zero


Marble / granite stone slabs are machine cut at the edges for required size (No hand


Initial check for color shade by washing the surface in yard it self to be followed & stock
the finished stone with atleast 3 different mark I/II/III. While laying due care should be
taken to use assorted stones in different rooms. By this way color variation is adjusted
room/area wise


All broken edges/corner stones to be suitably used


Area to be scrapped/cleaned/washed before starting the mortar bedding, conclude the

flooring pattern


Preparation of mortar bedding to the required proportion with min. water is the first step.
Make the thiayas to required level & slope well in advance. Laying of mortar to suitable
thickness keeping reference thiayas in line dori to be supervised from time to time.
Average thickness of bedding mortar shall be 20 mm and thickness at any place should not
be less than 12 mm.


Neat cement paste is spearheaded over mortar bedding & cement paste to the edges of the
stone. Then stone is fixed close to the previous stone to have a hair line joint. Stone
surface is pressed tapped gently with the wooden mallets till the stone is in true line &
level. Cement paste at the edges will try to come out from joints which should be scrapped

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off. Again joints to be filled up with neat cement paste to fill up the gaps. Suitable colored
pigment to be used for joint sealing to match with the stone color

Flooring to continue atleast 10mm inside the wall plaster line

10. Any other due to natural bends in stones should be restricted to 2mm at joints
11. Curing of flooring for 7 days by sprinkling water or by wetting
12. Polishing activity to follow only after adequate curing. Sequence of polishing
a) 1st cut with rough emery stone 80 No. to polishing m./c (heavy) which should
even out all irregularities (othas) plus OR minus. Normal cut of 2mm is achieved
with this emery
Floor is washed & ragada is removed to check the joints. All joints to be regrouted
with cement paste. Allow to set for atleast 2 days
b) 2nd & 3rd cut with finer emery stone 120/220 No. Joints qrouting to be attended for
every cut of polishing, normally 1mm cut is achieved. Now surface is fairly in level
& without any scratch or chakkar lines of the machining
c) Final light coast of polishing to be done with masala (Oxalic Acid) to get the
scratch less finished surface. (No waxing to be done for shining). Light polishing
coat can continue till the acceptable result is achieved
8.4.5. Mosaic Tiles flooring
Refer Sketch showing skirting margin provision.
Procedure :

Prepare cement slurry by using ration approximately 1.5 bag 100 litrs of water and start
fixing tiles from the reference line and reference tiles diagonally.
Cement slurry of honey like consistency shall be spread over the mortar bed over as
much area as could be covered with the tiles within half an hors.
Match all the four corners of the tiles properly with the help of wooden mallet.
Fix the mosaic tiles in particular sequence for better result and fine joints.
Complete the flooring of units in one-day for better bonding, uniform work and quality
work. Clean floor and do not allow anybody to enter the flat for atleast 24 Hrs on the
next day do the gap filling/joint filling between the tiles with cement slurry. Slurry shall
be properly mixed with water. It should be homogeneious.

Surface preparation before tiling work Sketch on page no. 459 of Practical Building

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1. Mosaic tiles are factory made, hydraulically pressed, hence laying of tiles in any pattern
start immediately after mortar bedding is ready to receive tile. Surface should be cleaned
and leveled. There should not be any cement mortar lumps on slab and corner of the room.
2. Selection / approval of the tile sample is the first step. Thickness of the tile shall be
3. Normally tile size, thickness, colour and chip size are the parameters for selection. Reliable
vendor (manufacturer) only to be ordered who can guarantee the final result as per the
sample approved
4. Area to be scrapped / cleaned / washed before starting the mortar bedding, conclude the
flooring pattern. Skirting margin should be sufficient from the surface level generally it
should be 230 mm from the slab surface.
5. Preparation of mortar to the required proportion with min. water is the first step. Make the
thiayas to required level & slope well in advance. Laying of mortar to suitable thickness
keeping reference thiyas in line dori be supervise from time to time. Keep it set for at least
12 hrs. Thickness of mortar bedding shall not be less than 12 mm and it should not be more
than 40 mm
6. Flooring to continue at least 10mm inside the wall plaster line
7. Any irregularities (othas) due to natural bends in stones should be restricted to 2mm at
8. Curing of flooring for 7 days by sprinkling water or by wetting.
9. Mosaic Skirting
After joint filling fixing of skirting work shall be done as per the following sequence.
Wooden farma should be prepared out if wooden batten. With the help of this wooden
farma, skirting tile is fixed projecting only 8 mm from the wall plaster.
Fix skirting tiles at two ends of wall with farma then in between skirting tiles are fixed.
Please see that skirting is in one line. Line dori has to be fixed at the two ends of the wall is
to guideline for line.
Curing for skirting & flooring is done for 14 days.
10. Polishing activity to following only after adequate curing. Sequence of polishing:
a. 1st cut of rough emery stone 80 No. to polishing m/c (heavy) which should even out all
irregularities (othas) plush OR minus. Normal cut of 2mm is achieved with this emery.
Floor is washed & ragada is removed to check the joints. All joints to be regrouted with
cement paste. Allow to set for atleast 2 days

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b. 2nd & 3rd cut with finer emery stone. 120/220 no. joint grouting to be attended for every
cut of polishing, normally 1mm cut is achieved.
Now surface is fairly in level & without any scratch or chakar lines of the
c. Final light coat of polishing to be done with masala (Oxalic Acid) to get the scratch less
finished surface, (No waxing to be done for shining). Light polishing coat can continue
till the acceptable result is achieved.
8.4.6. Ceramic / Glazed / Granamite title
1. Preparation of rough ground in plaster in true line, level plumb and right angle is must
2. Line marking on plastered surface as per the given pattern, it needs skill for adjustment of
3. These tiles can be fixed in dado / floor which do not need any polishing. All concealed
works have to be completed and tested before starting the tile work
4. Tiles are fixed with neat cement paste and fixed with wooden mallate in such a way that
cement paste is uniformly spread on the back of the tile
5. At the end of the days work, all joints are to be sealed with suitable coloured / while
cement neatly and excess pate is to be wiped off
6. Right angle corners needs tani joint very skillfully done to give straight edge. Tile cutting
grinding is done with special tool. Ensure the good condition of the tools before use
7. Curing is required for few days. Tiles shall be flat, and true to shape and free from blisters
craziness, chips, walls, crawling. Shall be as per IS 777. Tiles shall be square; rectangle of
nominal size 150 x 150 mm. 100 x 100 mm, 100 x 200 mm. Thickness of the tile shall be 5
mm or 6 mm as specified. The length of all four sides shall be measured correct to 0.1 mm
and average length breadth shall not very more than 0.8 mm from specified dimension.
8. Tiles shall be soaked in water, washed clean and shall be fixed in the grout one after
another over the mortar bedding neat grey cement slurry of honey like consistency shall be
spread at this rate of 3.3 kg of cement per sq meter over such as would accommodate about
20 tiles. The joints shall be kept as thin as possible and in straight line or to suit require
9. After tiles have been laid surplus cement slurry shall be cleaned off.
10. This joint shall be cleaned off the grey cement slurry to a depth 2 mm to 3 mm wire or
coin brush. All dust and loose moisture shall be removed joints shall than be flush pointed
with white cement added with pigment if required to mark the colour of the floor. The

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finish floor shall not sound hollow when tapped with wooden mallet. The floor shall then
kept wet for seven days. After curing the surface shall be washed and finished clean.
8.4.7. PVC flooring
PVC flooring material is normally used for covering floor from decorative point of view in
residential and non residential building. This gives a resilient and non-porous surface which
can be easily cleaned with a wet cloth as dust and ------ do not penetrate the surface. Normally
this is adopted where instrumentation panel or motar control system in the form of panel is
provided as the room shall be dust proof. A.C. is also provided.
It shall be laid over a base which is finished even and smooth otherwise unevenness or
undulations in the base will be liable to damage the PVC sheets/tiles.
PVC flooring material may be in the form of tiles, sheets or rolls. It shall consist a thoroughly
blended composition of thermostatic binder, filler and pigments. The thermostat binder shall
consist of substantially of one or both of the following.
a) Vinyle chloride polymer
b) Vinyle chloride copolymer
Material shall be compounded with suitable plasticizer and stabilizer. Thickness of PVC tiles
for normal flooring covering shall be 1.5, 2.0,3.0 or 4.0 mm.
Before laying PVC tiles it is to be ensured that the base is thoroughly dry and damp proof.
Moisture slowly damaging the adhesive (which is used for fixing PVC flooring) resulting in
PVC sheet being separated from the base and curled up. In case of new work a period of 4 to 8
weeks shall be allowed for drying the sub floor.

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8.4.8. Terrazzo (Marble Chips) Flooring Laid in Site
Under layer
Cement concrete of specified mix shall be used and as per the specifications of concretes.
Panels shall be of uniform size not exceeding 2 sq.m in area or 2 mm length for inside
situation. In exposed situation the length of any side of the panel shall not be more than 1.25
meters. Cement slurry @ 2.00 Kg per sqm shall be applied before laying of under layer over
the cement concrete / base.
Fixing of strips
4 mm thick glass strip or 5mm thick plain asbestos sheet or 2mm thick PVC strips / aluminum
strips / brass strips unless otherwise specified shall be fixed with their top at proper level to
required slope. Strips of stone or marble of any other material of specified thickness can also
be used if specifically required.
Top Layer
The mix of Terrazzo toping shall consist of cement with or without pigment, marble
powder, marble aggregate (marble chips) and water.
The cement and marble powder shall be mixed in the proportion of three points of
cement to one point of marble powder by weight.
For every point of cement marble powder mix, the proportion of aggregate by volume
shall be in the following table.
Grade No

Size of




aggregate Proportion
of Minimum thickness
aggregate to binder of top layer (mm)

The marble chips shall be white or pink makwana, black Bhainslana, Chittoor black,
Jaisalmer yellow, Baroda Green, Dehradun White, Chittor pink, yellow Patan cherela
(Madras), grey Gadu (Surat), Chittoor green and yellow and alwar black as specified. It shall
be hard, sound, dense and homogenous in texture with crystalline and coarse grains. It shall
be uniform in colours.
Where aggregate size is larger than 10 mm the minimum thickness of topping shall not
be less than 1.5 times the maximum size of the chips.
Cement to be used shall be ordinary grey cement, white cement, cement with admixture
of colouring matter of approved quality in specified ratio to get the required shade colouring
materials where specified shall be mixed dry thoroughly with the cement and marble powder
and then marble chips are added mixed as specified.

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The full quantity of dry mixture of mortar required for a room shall be prepared in a lot
in order to ensure a uniform colour. This mixture shall be stored in a dry place and well
covered and protected from moisture.
The dry mortar shall be mixed with water in the usual way as and when required. The
mixed mortar shall be homogeneous and stiff and contain just sufficient water to make it
The terrazzo topping shall be laid, while the under layer is still plastic, but has
hardened sufficiently to prevent cement from rising to the surface. This is normally
achieved between 18 to 24 hours after the under layer has been laid.
A cement slurry perfectly of the same colour as the toping shall be brushed on the
surface immediately before laying is commenced. It shall be laid to a uniform thickness
slightly more than that specified in order to get the specified finished thickness after
The surface of the top layer shall be trowelled over, pressed and brought true to the
required level by a straight edge and steel float in such a manner that the maximum amount
of marble chips come up and are spread uniformly over the surface.
Polishing, curing and finishing:
1. Polishing shall be done by machine. About 36 hours after laying the top layer, the surface
shall be watered and ground evenly with machine fitted with special rapid cutting grit
blocks (corborundum stone) of coarse grade (No 60) till the marble chips are evenly
exposed and the floor is smooth.
2. After the first grinding the, surface shall be thoroughly washed to remove all grinding
work and covered with a grout of cement and colouring matter in same mix and proportion
as the topping in order to fill any pin holes that appear.
3. The surface shall be allowed to cure for 5 to 7 days and then rubbed with machine fitted
with fine grit blocks (No. 120).
4. The surface is cleaned and repaired as before and allowed to cure again for 3 to 5 days.
5. Finally the third grinding shall be done with machine fitted with fine grade grit blocks (No
320) to get even smooth surface without pin holes.
6. The finish surface should show the marble chips evenly exposed.
7. After final polish, oxalic acid shall be dusted over the surface @ 33 gm per sq. meter
sprinkled with water and rubbed hard with a namdah block (Pad of woolen rags).
8. The following day, the floor shall be wiped with a moist rag and dried with a soft cloth and
finished clean. Curing shall be done by suitable means such as a laying moist sawdust or
ponding water.
Flooring in lavatories and bathrooms shall be laid after fixing of water closet and squatting
pans and floor traps. Traps shall be plugged, while laying the floors and opened after the floors
are cured and cleaned.
Refer Fig of Section of terrazzo flooring.

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8.5 Check Norms
8.5.1 Flooring with Tiles / P.K.S. / Marble / Granite
Check Points
Whether the subsurface is cleaned & wetted thoroughly and mortar
bedding below tile is line, level, slope and grade specified?
If yes, indicate the R.L. and slope
Was the pattern freezed prior to fixing?
Whether thick neat cement paste is spread evenly on the bedding
and clean wetted tiles are used on it?
Was minimum thickness of the bedding observed?
If yes, indicate the minimum thickness of the bedding adopted
Whether the corners and junctions are finished true to the level and
Was proper colour mixed with cement, if required for the purpose
of joint filling?
Whether all finishing activities like final painting, etc. over prior to
finish of final polishing?
Whether tiles are finally cleaned and polished by using oxalic acid
and sufficient quality of water used during polishing?
Was adequate curing carried out?


8.5.2 Tremix Flooring

Check Points
Whether the bed surface is leveled and saturated with water before
starting flooring work?
If yes, indicate the R.L.
Whether adequate mixing of concrete carried out in the concrete
Were channel adequately strengthened by proper bedding mortar
one day in advance?
Was the panel pattern defined prior to start of work?
Was proper care taken while removal of channels to ensure no
breaking of edge?
Was groove cutting of construction joints carried out within seven


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8.6. Labour Control/Utilization of Labour Force
Maximum utilization of labour is important aspect in construction including as underutilization
of labour directly affects the cost of construction. It is important to work out the fair
requirement of labour for a particular job and to engage the labour accordingly to avoid waste
of excess labour and money. It is the responsibility of the supervisory staff to extract fait
amount of work from each labour engaged on job
Efforts should be made to engage sufficient labour to complete the installation of tiles in the
rooms by the end of the day. It is nor advisable to leave rooms partly done as the incomplete
areas or the last row of tiles fixed will have their edges exposed, resulting in not only the edges
getting damaged but also the tiles becoming loose and sounding hollow if some one were to
step on then. Under no circumstances should other rooms be taken up for the installation unless
the rooms already taken in hand for installation are ready
In large areas such as halls, auditoria etc., and endeavor should be made to complete the work
on the same day by engaging the required labour. However, in spite of this, it is quite likely
that work may not get completed. Thus at the end of the day the exposed tiles should be
protected by bricks or weak mortar. The next day a cement wash should be given to the edges
of the exposed tiles before taking up the installation of tiles in the balance areas. The cement
wash is a must as there is every likelihood of the joints of exposed tiles opening at a later stage
Standard labour requirement:
For concrete flooring 10m2 two masons, three mazdoor, one bhisti
8.7 Cost Part Related to Output
It should be always remembered that the quantity of work done by the labourers should be
proportionate to the labour force engaged for the purpose and to ensure this, the supervisor
should have knowledge of the output of the skilled/unskilled workers and such knowledge can
be gathered by sincerely observing the output of the different categories of labour on work of
different agencies
Uncontrolled / hap-hazard work will have an effect on the scheduled activities like fixing of
door/window frames and other finishing works. Our loss will be reflected as indirect loss as it
will affect the time schedule
8.8 Material Wastage Control
Aggregates should be properly stacked and as far as possible the location of the stacks should
not be changed. The aggregates spreader around the stacks should be heaped at the end of the
days work
Tile-boxes should be carefully handled and the tiles should be cut with cutting machines to
avoid wastage. The area to be applied must be measured. The area covered by one tile must be
worked out, from this data the number of tiles should be worked out and were the cut pieces

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In case of marble and kota stone the stone must be from a good quarry with less laminations
other wiser it will lead to more breakages
Once installation is completed at a particular work site, the tendency of the worker is to leave
unutilized tiles lying ground. These tiles are even thrown into the kitchen / bathroom etc. No
attempt is made by workers to gathers these tiles and stacks them separately batch wise, so that
these tiles can be utilized in other rooms, where the quantity required is sufficiently met from
the unutilized tiles. The site supervisor should be given strict instruction to utilize these tiles
wherever possible
There is a tendency on the part of the labour to make a pathway of tiles during monsoon time
and also utilize these lying at the site for making chulas (cooking place) and/or as a bed for
sleeping and/or as a playing surface for children. A lot of wastage occurs on account of this.
8.9 Safety Pre-cautions:
1. The electric power connection to the cutting and polishing machines of all the wires/cables
must be properly supported and insulated. Proper earthing must be provided. Wires must be
inserted in sockets with plugs. Improper jointing of wires must not be permitted
2. Use of Gloves is must. Helmets must be worn in case some activity is being carried out
3. House keeping is essential. Broken chips must not be discarded hap-hazardly but neatly
stock piled and then disposed or put into alternative use
Concluding the above I may assure that if the facts, discussed, are followed the work will be
fair, economical and satisfying the users and ourselves
8.10 Mode of Measurement (for detail refer SP 27 -1987)
1. All work shall be measured in square metres unless otherwise stated. Deduction for ends of
dissimilar materials or other articles embedded shall not be made for areas not exceeding
0.1 m2.
2. Dimensions shall be measured to the nearest 0.01 m and Areas shall be worked out to
nearest 0.01 m2
3. Work in isolated width not matching with the general finish shall be measured as below:
a.Width 30 cm and below in running metres ( the description to include for cutting to edges if
any) , and
Width above 30 cm in square meteres.
4. Expansion and dummy joints shall be described and measured separately in running metres
stating depth and width of joints. The filler shall be described and included in the
description of item.
5. Work in repairs shall be so described and preparation of old surfaces to receive such work
shall be included in the description.

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6. Work in isolated areas not exceeding 1 m2 each shall be so described stating the nature
7. Work to a pattern or in more than one colour shall be so described stating the nature
8. Curved work, conical work and spherical work shall be described separately stating the

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8.11 Flow chart for flooring work
Material checking for quality /
quantity one week in advance

Preparation for tiling

work 3 days in


Chiseling floor for

fair surface, &
skirting margin in

Side cut pieces fixing

with cutting machine Next
and joint filling

Fixing tiling in
floors & checking
fro levels/lines etc.

Checking by engineer
for preparation and
O.K. clearance to
Contractor one day in

Lime mortar

Level line marking

on doors & walls


Making thyyas over

Same daythe unit / flat

Laying and marking

checking with line
from all corner


considering drop &

level diff. etc.

Next day

Skirting fixing & Next

its joint filing

14 day

Butt Finishing of


Curing for 14 days


Polishing 1st coat by 60 No.

stone with checking of
stone for proper No. &
quality by engineer

Hand polishing
for skirting with
scrapping patti
2nd coat of
polishing with 120
No. polish stone & Next
checking by

Curing for grouting by

spreading of water for
minimum 4 times a day

3 day

Cleaning, washing &

grouting with dense
cement slurry


Next day

Checking of tiles for

cracks, colour
variations & defects

Re-checking due any

gaps in tiling & if Next
found re-grouting day
for that porting only
& curing for one day

3rd coat with 320 no.

polish stone with
checking of stone No. &
quality by engineer

Keep daily cleaning

by wet clothing till
final handing over
of unit

Complete all
balance cement
work & all other
work in flat
Cleaning and Acid
washing with oxalic acid
in power/crystal from

Complete 1st
coat of painting

Day day

4th coat with 600 No.

Polish stone with checking
of stone No. & quality by

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Water proofing can be considered as the most important process to maintain, and to increase
life of structure. For the first few years new building rarely give trouble of leakages, Due to
uneven expansion and contraction , especially in India where there is much variation in
temperature between night hrs and day hrs. As for example in summer night temp. Varies (22
to 26 oc) and the day temp, is (38 to 43 oc). During the course of time good concrete forms
cracks in the RCC slab (Though much care is taken while casting) and water starts leaking.
Hence the RCC should not be exposed but that shall be covered by waterproofing treatment.
9.1. Basic knowledge of the trade:
To carry out better water-proofing work one must be careful about the selection of best quality
of material and beast workmanship. In residential Building we spent major amount for
finishing items, furniture, food grains etc. If any thing is wrong with water proofing, will
damage the above items. Similarly in industrial construction, we know that clients spend major
amount towards their plant & machineries and after commissioning of project, if any thing is
wrong with water proofing will damage costliest plant & machineries and give adverse effect
to the production. Hence utmost care is required to be taken in the procedure of waterproofing.
9.2 Type of Water Proofing for Roof

India water proofing or equivalent cement based water proofing

Water proofing with bituminous felt Hession base self finished
Boxtype water proofing
Chemical water proofing
Water proofing with fibre glass tissue Type 2. Grade 1
Permaguard and Water Proofing
Water Proofing of Roofs with Brick Lime Concrete and Pressed Flat Tiles.

9.2.1. Indian Water Proofing:

General: This treatment can be carried out over

RCC terrace slab

Chajja and sloping roofs with or without cut-outs
Inverted beams
Pipe lines

Materials Required:

Water shall be of Potable type

Sand shall be of medium coarse sand
Brick bats shall be from good quality brick source and without any dust
Cement shall be of Good quality i.e. fresh
Suitable hoisting arrangement to lift material

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Surface Preparation

1. The surface should be cleaned of all foreign materials like loose mortars, concrete, local
humps, bare metal and other unwanted material
2. The surface to be treated shall be hacked with tacha to remove loose mortar, scalings and
3. The surface should be rubbed vigorously to remove all dust and with the help of wire brush
/ brooms
4. The surface should be cleaned to have proper bound with the water proofing treatment to
be laid
5. The surface thus prepared shall then be washed with clean potable water before laying
water proofing treatment
6. The construction joints, cracks, honey combing, if any, shall be located and shall be treated
with Water Proofing compound, injection, grouting etc. to seal off the cracks, air holes,
honey grouting etc.
7. Prepared surface shall be then watered again thoroughly
8. Cement slurry shall be prepared by adding one bag of cement in hundred litres of water.
Stir the mixture to get consistent cement slurry. Spread this slurry on terrace and allow it to
penetrate uniformly over the cleaned surface
9. The brick bats of required size and shape are then laid to proper levels and slope not flatter
than 100 mm. Brick bats shall be well soaked in water before use.
10. Over cement mortar bedding 25mm thick in C.M. 1:4 mix with water proofing in
specialized manner with brick bats partly projected above the mortar bedding and fully
secured at bottom with atleast 15mmm gap between the brick bats. Slope of 1 in 150 shall
be provided with minimum 65mm at the lowest point i.e from rain water down take pipe.
11. Any seepage / dampness noticed under side the ceiling should be treated.
12. The finishing layer shall be of cement mortar 1:4 with water proofing compound not less
than 1% of wt. of cement should be added and this layer is to laid to desired slope and
13. The layer so laid should be joint less, well compacted and trowelled vigorously till it
becomes hard

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14. This surface is then marked with false square of 300x300 mm or left smooth.
(Refer Fig)
1. The curing shall be done by ponding for at least 48 hrs. Curing shall be done without
interruption. Water proofing compound shall be mixed in the mortar at every stage.
2. The treatment shall be continued along the inner sides of parapets of a jointing wall upto
height of 300 to 375 mm in shape of parabolic vata
3. Construction joints shall be taken at the ridges and shall be made properly water tight and

The total thickness of treatment shall be averages 115 mm thick with at least 50 mm
thickness at drain points

5. In case of large area, additional layer of b.b. coba is laid

6. Well defined cracks other than hair cracks in the treated surface shall be cut into V shape,
cleaned and then filled up flush with cement sand slurry or with bitumen
7. Enough Nos. of Drain outlets shall be suitably placed W.V. to the gradient to ensure rapid
drainage and prevention of local accumulation of water on treated surface i.e., water shall
be drained and no accumulation and without heading of water.
8. Masonry drain mouth shall be widened sufficiently and rounded with cement mortar.
Proper finishing near traps and spouts shall be done .
9. For C.I. drain out lets, a groove shall be cut all-round to touch the treatment
10. When pipe passes through roof on which water proofing treatment is to be laid, cement
concrete angle fillet shall be built around it and the water proofing treat shall be taken over
the filled.
11. In case of parapet wall over 450mm ht., for tucking in the water proofing treatment, a
horizontal grove 25mm vide and 65mm deep at min. ht of 150 mm above roof level shall
be left in the vertical face at the time of construction. Horizontal face of groove shall be
shaped with cement mortar 1:4
12. At the junction between the roof and vertical face of the parapet wall, a fillet 75mm in
radius shall be constructed
13. Out let at every dividing wall about less than 300 mm in ht. shall be rounded smooth and
corners founded off for easy application of water proofing treatment.
(Refer Sketch )
9.2.2. Water Proofing with Bituminous felt:

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Materials Required:
1. For regarding of roof surface suitable cement mortar incorporating a clean medium coarse
2. Bitumen primer
3. Tarfelt Type 3 Grade 1
Shalimar tar products pack 20 mt. long roll & 1 mt. width with ISI mark.
Bitumen felt is one of the materials used for water proofing of roofs. Water proofing treatment
with bitumen felt is adopted not only in the case of buildings and structures, but also in the
case of railway coaches, bus bodies, etc. This standard is one of a Indian Standards dealing
with damp-proofing and water proofing using bitumen felts and covers the laying operation.
The general features relating to damp-proofing and water proofing with regard to design detail,
surface preparation, drainages etc are covered in IS 367 :1988 and this standard is intended to
cover only to cover only the execution part of the work relating to application of bitumen felt
in water proofing of roofs. Waterproofing treatment to be efficient and lasting, has to carefully
carried out from the time the surface is prepared to received the felt to the finishing of the
treated surface. Special attention and supervision has necessarily to be paid to proper
overlapping in felts, treatment around drainage opening in the roof and treatment of the parapet
walls. The sticking of the felt to the roof by means of hot bitumen also requires skill, if the job
is to be done economically and to give good results
Storage of felt is to be done in neat and clean place and to be kept away from sharpen material
to avoid any damage
Sequence of Operation:
1. Preparatory works
2. Collecting and storing of materials and tools
3. Cleaning of surface of foreign matter
4. Water Proofing treatment
i. Treatment of main roof
ii. Treatment of flashings and projecting pipes
iii. Top dressing i.e. by gravel or grit, fixing or laying of tile or concrete
protection or paints or emulsion
5. Rolls of Tarfelt should be laid over the hot bitumen and pressed properly to avoid air
6. Cleaning and removal of surplus material

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It may further subdivided into two groups

Five layer treatment

Seven layer treatment Method for five layer treatment:


Cleaning of roof surface completely


Grading with cement mortar or cement concrete to be carried out to provide required
slope and allow them to set and dry completely. The surface to be provided shall have a
minimum slope of 1 in 120. This grading shall be carried out with cement concrete with
coarse sand, 12 mm thick and down below coarse aggregate with the proportion of 1:2:4
to the average thickness required and finished smooth. Minimum thickness at the outlet
point should not be less than 65mm. Hence outlet drain pipes shall be fixed previously so
that min 65 mm thicknesses is available for grading.


Surface of roof, part of parapet, gutters, drain mouths over which treatment is to be
applied to be cleaned of all foreign matter like fungus, moss, dust etc. by wire brushing
and dusting. This procedure is repeated after providing grading as per above point.


The felt is normally laid in length at right angles to the direction of the run-off gradient
and to be commenced at the lowest level and working upto the crest to avoid obstruction
to the flow of water


Apply bitumen primer thoroughly by brush and give time to dry


Bitumen bonding material shall be prepared by nearing to the correct working

temperature and conveyed to the point of work in the bucket or pouring pan


Cut the felt to the repaired length, brushed clean of dusting materials and laid out flat on
roof and allowed to soften


This serves to eliminate curls and subsequent stretching


Each length of felt prepared for laying as described above shall be laid in position and
rolled up for a distance of half its length


The hot bitumen bonding material shall be poured in the roof across the full width of the
rolled felt as the latter is stradily rolled out and pressed down


The excess bounding material is squeezed out at the ends and is removed as the laying


When first half of the strip of felt has been bounded to the roof, the other half shall be
rolled up and then unrolled on the hot bounding material in the same way

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Minimum overlaps 100mm and 75mm shall be allowed at the end and sides of the strips
and shall be firmly bonded with hot bitumen

Drain Mouths:
1. Drain mouth with a bell mouth entry shall be fixed and properly set to allow the water to
flow into it
2. Felt generally laid as on the other porting of roof and treatment shall be carried inside the
drain pipes with at least 100mm over lap
3. If possible, a grating cap should be properly provided over drain mouth to prevent levels,
stones etc.

Priming Coat
Hot Bitumen layer
Layer of felt followed by ;
Successive layer of bonding material @ 1.45 kg/sq. m.
Finally painted with a coat of hot bitumen at 1.5 kg/sq.m.

Surface Finish:
1. Two coats of bituminous paint at rate of 0.l lit/SQM per coat or single coat of Bituminous
emulsion at rate of 0.5 lit/SQM shall be applied
2. In case of cell roof 2 coats of bituminous aluminium at rate of 0.1 lit/SQM per coat or one
coat of bituminous emulsion at rate of 0.5 lit/SQM or acrylie basd coating at rate of 0.3
litre/SQM per coat.
Care to be taken for Junction of Parapet Wall and Roof:
1. Felt to be laid as flashing with overlaps of 100 mm
2. Lower edge of flashing shall overlap the felt laid on the flat portion of roof and the upper
edge of the flashing shall be tucked into grooves made in the parapet on the vertical face of
the wall
3. Each layer shall be so arranged that joints are staggered with those of the layer beneath it
4. After all the layer laid and flashings properly bonded, the groove shall be filled up with
cement mortar (1:4) and filling to be cured at least for four days
5. It is essential to apply a cement mortar of 1:4 along the wall and floor juncture

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1. The felt layers laid separately in the gutter shall be over lapped with corresponding layer on
the roof properly
2. Overlap 100 mm
3. If one side wall grooves shall be out at reasonable height and felt tucked into grooves and
to be filled with C.M. after completion
Normal Treatment Five courses for moderate conditions:

Primer at the rate of 0.27 I/SQM, Min

Hot applied bitumen at the rate of 1.2 kg/SQM, Min
Hessian-base self finished felt. Type 3 Grade 1 or glass fibre base Type 2, Grade 1
Hot applied bitumen at the rate of 1.2kg/SQM, Min and
Pea-sized gravel devoid of fine sand at the rate of 0.0026 m3/SQM Seven Layers:

In case of seven layers,
The laying of the second layer of felt shall be so arranged that the joints are staggered with
those of the layer beneath it
Expansion joint:
It shall be designed to suit the requirement of each roof coverage of same may be of Zinc or
lead sheet or of bituminous felt
Care to be taken During Bubble Formation:
If bubbles occur during execution of treatment then,
1. Remove the gravel execution of treatment
2. Cut, open and squeeze out the trapped vapour by firm pressure applied by hand
3. Sent the bitumen felt so lifted, back on the surface by applying additional bitumen
4. Seal the cut with pieced of bitumen felt with bitumen application
5. And apply the gravel to look the surface uniform with test
Inspection & Maintenance:
Arrangement to be made for a detailed inspection of waterproofing preferably prior to the
advent of rainy season with a view to repairing any apparent defect and to ensure complete
water proofing \
Normal Treatment Seven courses for moderate conditions:

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Primer at the rate of 0.27 I/SQM, Min

Hot applied bitumen at the rate of 1.2 kg/SQM, Min
Hessian-base self finished felt. Type 3 Grade 1 or glass fibre base Type 2, Grade 1
Hot applied bitumen at the rate of 1.2kg/SQM, Min
Hessian-base self finished felt. Type 3 Grade 1 or glass fibre base Type 2, Grade 1
Hot applied bitumen at the rate of 1.2kg/SQM, Min
Pea-sized gravel devoid of fine sand at the rate of 0.0026 m3/SQM

The laying of the second layer of felt shall be so arranged that the joints are staggered with
those of the layer beneath it
9.2.3 Box Type Water Proofing
1. For providing & laying Box type waterproofing treatment to floors and external surface of
under ground structures, the treatment comprise of waterproofing layer, average 50/100mm
thick for floors, using layers of kotah stones placed diagonally with staggered joints
2. Rough kotah stone shall conform to specification
3. 100 mm thick waterproofing layer consist of the following layers:
a. 15 mm thk 1:3 cement mortar bedding with approved waterproofing chemical
b. 20 mm thick rough kotah stone laid diagonally with staged joints shall be sealed by
1:1 cement mortar with approved waterproofing chemical
c. Repeat in the same manner as described above in (a) & (b) to form 2nd level
d. The final layer of 30 mm thick I.P.S. shall be laid with approved water proofing
chemical having desired finish as directed

Box type waterproofing treatment to external vertical surface of under ground structures,
the treatment shall comprise of rough coat of water proof plaster to walls. Allow to set at
least for 3 days. Thin rough stones (@20mm) are fixed with neat cement paste in
horizontal layers with open joint of 25mm (approx) 2nd & 3rd layer above is fixed in same
way with staggered joint pattern. All joints are grouted with 1:1 cement mortar. Next day
pressure grouting is done in the cavity between the rough wall plaster & the stone in
vertical plane. Top is sealed with CM 1:1.


Corner laps vertical & horizontal plane needs proper overlapping of the stone


On final completion of stone fixing smooth water proof cement plaster in done over the
rough stone


Proper watering for 7 days required.

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9.2.4 Chemical Water proofing
Now a days water-proofing chemicals are extensively used all over the country.
The water-proofing compounds can be basically bifurcated as follows.
1. Tar /bitumen based compounds
2. Inorganic compounds with little percent of chlorides and sulfates.
3. Acrylic based compounds
4. Epoxy resins
5. Polusulphides
6. polyurethanes
7. silicons
Cost wise Tar based compounds are cheaper but we cannot fully rely on them. The silicon
based compounds are almost 100 % reliable but cost wise these compounds are on a very
higher side. All other compounds are in between these two. Waterproofing chemicals which are
to be applied superficially (from top) are better for the local use but cannot stop the leakages of
complete structure by these chemicals.
Some of the chemicals are recommended to be mixed with cement at the time of concreting
itself. Still in India the traditional method of brickbat coba is the most popular water-proofing
method, Waterproofing compounds are generally available inn powder and liquid form as it
performs dual purpose of water proofing and heat insulating

Surface Preparation:
a. Ensure Concrete surface are structurally sound and have been cured for at least 28 days
b. If surface laitance is found this must be remove by acid etching, using a mixture of 1
part Muriatic Acid to 3 parts water by volume
c. The acid solution should be scrubbed into the surface with a stiff broom while it
effervesces (approximately 2 minutes). Hose off and broom the acid solution and slurry
residue thoroughly with fresh water and allow to dry completely


The substrate must be completely dry


A coat of recommended primer should be applied prior to application of water proofing



Water proofing compound should be stirred well and then applied by means of a wide fine
hair brush or a short nap roller in 2 (two coats at a minimum spreading rate of 0.5 litre m 2
per coat with an interval of about 24 hours in between coats


At perimeter cuve or other areas where vertical walls meet horizontal slabs, water proofing
membrane should be turned up at least 300mm and finished in a groove

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In accessible areas, where pedestrian traffic conditions are expected the membrane should
be sandwiched by providing a suitable cover to prevent it getting physically damaged

9.2.5. Water Proofing with Fibre Glass Tissue Reinforcement Felt


The roof slab shall be scrapped cleaned of all dust, dirt, rubbish etc. It shall be made
reasonably smooth either by chipping of projects by applying a thin coat of cement mortar
if slab surface is too rough


Over the hardened and finished surface of the roof slab, a thin layer of approved bitumen
primer shall be first brushed over the roof surface and allowed to dry.


The felt shall be first cut to the required lengths and laid out flat on the roof in position at
right angles to the direction of run-off gradient and shall be brushed clean of dusting


Each length of felt thus laid in position shall be rolled up for a distance of half of its length


Then the bonding material heated to correct temperature shall be poured on to the roof
across the full width of the rolled felt as the latter is steadily rolled out and pressed down


Excess bounding material shall be squeezed out at the ends and removed as the laying


When the first half of the strip of felt has been bonded to the roof, the other half shall be
rolled up and then unrolled on to the hot bonding material in the same way


Minimum overlaps of 100 mm shall be allowed at the end and the sides of strips of felt.
All overlaps shall be firmly bounded with hot bitumen


The laying of the second layer of felt shall be so arranged that the joints are staggered with
those of the layer beneath it

10. More No of layers are recommended depending on the requirement (3 layer, 5 layer,
7 layer is regular pattern)
11. On completion of felt layers, 6mm & down geade Grit or river shingles are spread over the
surface for protection.

9.2.6 Permaguard and Water Proofing

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1. Permaguard is an aluminium foil/strip laminated with polythene film on both sides. The
edges of the strips are overlapped and sealed by a heat-sealer or hot molten bitumen to
make it a continuous sheet
2. As a part of surface preparation, scrapping, cleaning & washing of terrace slab is must.
Cement mortar plaster/screeding to be done for proving water run off the slope & smooth
3. A coat of molten bitumen of desired temperature is then applied on the area equal to the
width of he permaguard strip to be laid subsequently
4. If the Permaguard strips are to be heat-sealed, then the overlaps are kept free of bitumen.
Otherwise, molten bitumen is also applied over the overlaps before pressing the strips
tighter Permaguard strips are laid so that the first strip of Permaguard is laid along the
bottom of the slope. The subsequent strips are laid in the same manner, ensuring that the
lower edge of the second strip overlaps on the upper edge of the first strip, overlap width
being min. 50mm. wide. These overlaps are sealed with heat-sealer or molten bitumen to
make a continuous sheet of Permaguard
When there is a parapet wall, a groove/niche shall be made (50mm. in depth & 125 mm
above roof level) all along the parapet. While laying Permaguard, leave an extra 175 mm.
(both lengthwise and widthwise) after the end of the roof. Apply molten bitumen all along
the parapet wall covering the area upto the groove and the groove itself. Insert the 50mm.
(of 175mm.) of Permaguard into the groove and press the remaining 125 mm onto the wall.
Seal the groove with cement concrete 1:2:4.
5. For laying Permaguard near/around drain pipes
a. Make a circular tube of Permaguard overlapping one over the other
b. The tube should approximately be of the same dia. as that of the pipe. Insert this tube
into the pipe leaving 100mm projection out, keeping the lap joint of the tube on top.
Cut this 100mm at right angles to each other to make 4 strips
c. 3 of these are flushed on the parapet wall and the 4 th into the roof with hot molten
bitumen. The 125 mm
d. Permaguard pressed onto the parapet wall shall have a hole cut slightly smaller than the
opening for drain pipe so that the opening of the drain pipe so that the pipe is not
blocked and the materials is flushed into the pipe over the already laid Permauard tube
with hot molten bitumen
e. Lastly brush the month of the pipe liberally with hot molten bitumen
6. Over the Permaguard apply molten bitumen using sprinkler and brush. Sprinkle coarse
sand evenly on top of the bitumen layer. This will help to bond the Permaguard to the top
finishing layer of either screed concrete or any other desired finish

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9.2.7 Water Proofing of Roofs with Brick Lime Concrete and Pressed Flat Tiles
1. The exposed surface of the roof slab shall be thoroughly cleaned
2. A layer of brick lime concrete shall be laid over the cleaned surface
3. Brick lime concrete shall be 1:2:4 by volume using 20 mm down graded brick bats
4. The slope of the lime concrete layer shall be 1:100 and the minimum thickness shall be
50mm. The slope of the draining surfaces shall e formed on all the sides as necessary
5. Care shall be taken to check the quantity of water. The quantity of water shall be so as to
make the concrete just workable.
6. Cement sand mortar 1:3 with 2% mixture of approved equivalent water proofing agent
shall be laid over the under bed to a thickness of 20 mm
7. Pressed flat tiles are set over the mortar and painted with cement mortar 1:3 with 2%
approved equivalent water proofing agent
8. The surface level shall be such as to allow quick draining of water without leaving any pool
9. The finishing course shall be fully secured and shall have an even density. There shall not
be any bubble formation or crushed or squeezed insulation or underbed
9.2.8. Water closet water proofing
Water proofing to water closet is most important as if this is not done properly and with great
care it may start leaking beneath the slab and shall affect to the down below flat. Dampness to
the slab & walls appear in the worst case. Dripping of sewer water starts with smell and it shall
be very much affected to the persons who are staying on that floor. It shall be very difficult to
prevent such leakages. Hence considering prevention is better than cure, proper waterproofing
shall be done to Water closet as explained below.
1. Completion of internal plaster of walls , leaving the margin of 450 mm from the final floor
level of W.C Unit
2. Completion of grooving / chasing for concealed G.I Piping panel, C.I piping for sewer line
3. Removing all the debris from W.C and chiseling extra mortar to expose slab completely.
4. Completion of making holes in external walls for connecting nanhi trap, P-trap, Floor trap
etc. to external services and plugging the holes properly.

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5. Please see that joints of all sewer lines are properly sealed to avoid leakages from joints.
Normally appropriate care is not taken, ultimately sewer line starts leaking and after putting
into commission .
6. Provide 25 mm to 40 mm thick cement mortar base coat in proportion of 1:4 with a slope 1
in 100 from entrance door towards water escape pipe.
7. Carry out this base coat on walls upto the height of 450 mm above toilet finished floor
8. Carry out further treatment as previously explained for terrace water proofing.
(Refer Sketch )
9.3 Check Norms
Check Points
Were the parapets, walls plastered before application of water proofing
Before starting this activity, whether proper slope and level was checked
for drainage?
If yes, indicate the R.I. and the slope provided
Whether the construction joints grouted with appropriate filler material?
Whether the finished surface si smooth and of desired pattern?
Whether openings, sleeves, drain, pipes etc. are treated carefully to make
sure that they are sufficiently water tight?


9.4 Material Wastage:

At site supervision level following care is required:
1. Felt overlaps to be strictly observed it shall not be more or less than specified
2. Cutting of felt to be done by very careful to avoid wastage
3. Wastage of Bitumen while heating transportation & laying to be restricted
4. Fuel or wooden pieces for fire to be restricted for uses as per requirement only
5. For brick bats required quantity only to be lifted at terrace
6. Water proofing compound to be stored in dry and clean place
9.5 Labour Control/ Utilization of Labour Force:
Maximum utilization of labour is important aspect in construction including as underutilization
of labour directly affects the cost of construction. It is important to work out the fair
requirement of labour for a particular job and to engage the labour accordingly to avoid waste
of excess labour and money. It is the responsibility of the supervisory staff to excess fair
amount of work from each labour engaged on job

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9.6 Safety Measures:

Helmet, Gum boots, Hand gloves, to be used when working with hot bitumen
Safety belts when work is being done at higher level
Adequate and safe working space while performing the job
While working at higher levels take proper care to handle the tools, materials etc, to ensure
safety of personnel working at lower level

9.7 Cost Part Related to Output:

It should be always remembered that the quality of work done by the labourers should be
proportionate to the labour force engaged for the propose and to ensure this, the supervisor
should have knowledge of the output of the skilled/unskilled workers and such knowledge can
be gathered by sincerely observing the output of the different categories of labour in work of
different agencies
Uncontrolled / hap-hazard work will have an effect on the scheduled activities like fixing of
door/window frames and other finishing works. Our loss will reflected as indirect loss as it will
affect the time schedule.
The Rate shall include the cost of all labour and materials involved in all the operations
described and the particular specifications given under the different items.
9.8. Mode of Measurement
1. Length and breadth shall be measured correct to a cm. The area shall be calculated in
squares metres correct to two places of decimal
2. Measurement shall be taken over the entire exposed area of roofing and flashing treatment
including flashing over low parapet walls, low dividing walls and expansion joints and at
pipe projections etc. Overlaps and tucking into flashing grooves shall not be measured.
3. Vertical and sloping surfaces of water proofing treatment shall also be measured under the
four or six course treatment as the case may be, irrespective of the fact that the final course
of grit or pea sized gravel is replaced by bitumen primer.
4. Primer or saturated felt underlay, where provided, shall also be measured in the same
manner as the water proofing treatment and paid for separately. No deduction in
measurement shall be made for either openings or recesses for chimney stacks, roof lights
and the like, for areas upto 40 square decimeter (0.4 sqm) nor anything shall be paid for
forming such openings.For similar areas exceeding 40 sq. decimetere deductions will be
made in measurement for full opening and nothing extra shall be paid for forming such

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10.1 Basic knowledge of the Trade
We just cannot think a house without plumbing and sanitary arrangements. Regular and
adequate supply of potable water, disposal of the waste by way of efficient system is a must for
every residential building. This can be achieved by proper planning and designing of the
plumbing and sanitary system to serve hygienic requirements of the occupants. Plumbing and
sanitary is necessary for satisfying the hygienic requirement of the occupants. Plumbing and
sanitation is therefore the important branch of the building technology. Approximately 8 % of
the total construction cost of the building is involved in plumbing and sanitation work
Plumbing and drainage involved three categories of work.

For water supply to building - which shall carry potable water for drinking & cooking
purpose and secondly for bathrooms and flushing for drainage of sewer lines. Pipes used
are G.I Pipes or PVC Pipes.


For sanitation purpose which is either connected to sewer system of the town if
available or to the septic tank and soak pit .C.I sewer line , PVC lines or stoneware pipes
are used within the building and outside the building and up to the corporation point.


For Rain Water Which is connected to storm water line of the town if available or either
to natural gradient of the surrounding area and ultimately to near by nala. C.I lines or
PVC lines are used of diameter 75 mm or 100 mm depending on design from top of
terrace/roof to ground level, then it goes as per slope of ground to the corporation storm
water drain.

All the above three arrangements are the basic requirements for the health of inhabitants who
are residing in the particular town/place.
d. Fire fighting system for high rise building.
Basic Qualification
It is very essential that a plumbing work contractor should be license holder issued by local
municipal authorities. Authority will issue the license after having examined him for his
experience and knowledge of the subject and knowledge of the prevailing rates and regulation.
Contractor should have a team of skilled workers.
10.2 Preamble

The type of pipes used for plumbing are G.I Pipes or P.V.C Pipes.
a. P.V.C pipes are the modern method of using it. They are available with different
capacity of pressure and as per the design specified by the consultant.

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b. G.I pipes are also of three grades A Light, B Medium, and C Heavy. Manufactures
applies different colour bands for identification of the grade. Yellow strip is for light
class (A), Blue strip is for medium class (B) and red strip for heavy class (C).
c. Sources of water supply are Municipal corporation / Local Authority, Bore well at site,
Open well at site. Water from the above sources should be tested to fulfill the standard
requirement of potable water. Normally the municipal water is supposed to be potable
and no separate tests for the same are required
d. Drinking water Tapping: Normally corporation mains are running parallel to roads of
C.I Lines of diameter ranging from 75 mm to 150 mm depending on the design. From
these lines tapping for individual house is given which may be 25 mm, 20 mm or 15
mm as per individual demand and corporation rule. This tapping is connected to the
overhead tank of the building if required pressure is available or to underground storage
tank. Which is again pumped to overhead tank and from their it is distributed to other
areas of the building such as kitchen, bathroom and toilet. Normally 25 mm connection
is drawn from the overhead tank, and 15 mm taping is taken to kitchen, 25 mm tapping
is further extended to toilet for flushing.

Ensure that the pipe layout and alignment is in accordance with the drawings and the grade
of pipe is as per specification. The trench must be cut to correct levels as given in
longitudinal plan and the bottom must be carefully dressed. The gradient should be
constant between the gradient changed point


Before laying, the pipes are to be checked for any visible damage (broken edges, cracking
or spalling of pipe etc.)


All pipes and fitting shall be fixed truly vertical and horizontal. Pipes to be fixed on wall
will be done with help of suitable holder clamps. When it is found necessary to conceal the
pipes, chasing may be adopted. Use wooden wedges for leveling pipeline and remove
them when back-filling is done. Do not use stones or hard materials


The sides and undersides of pipeline should be packed with the same material used for bed
making. Well rammed layer by layer filling should continue till a covering of about 200
mm is obtained on the pipeline. Rest of the trench can be filled with any available material


In case of subsoil water or if flooding of trench is feared, never leave the laid pipeline
without covering it with topsoil. The pipeline may get dislodged by upward floating thrust.
If covering with topsoil is not possible can be left after filling it with water


The pipes are to be tested in the following manner:

a. Only moderate length of pipeline should be tested at a time to avoid long stretches of
unfilled trenches
b. To prevent any movement of the pipeline under pressure, heap topsoil on each pipe

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c. After blanking off ends with plugs or blind flanges, provide an air vent at the highest
point and a cock for filling water and for connection to pump and pressured gauge
d. Support the ends of the pipeline with timber or concrete blocks resting against the
trench wall an insert jacks at the ends to compensate for the settling of supports when
the pressure is applied. Air should be completely removed before the pressure is applied
e. After laying and jointing, the pipes and fittings shall be inspected under working
conditions of pressure and flow. Any joint or fitting, found leaking, shall be redone.
And all pipes which are leaking shall be removed and replaced, without any extra cost
f. The pipes and fittings shall be tested to a hydraulic pressure of 6 Kg/cm 2. The pressure
shall be maintained for 2 hours and the pressure drop at the end of the period shall not
exceed 0.5 Kg/cm2. The pipe shall be slowly and carefully charged with water,
allowing all air to escape and avoiding all sock and water hammer the draw off takes
and stop cock shall then be closed and subsequently, the specified hydraulic pressure
shall be applied gradually. The pressure gauge must be accurate. The pipes and fittings
shall be tested in sections, as the work of laying proceeds, keeping the joints exposed
for inspection during the testing
8. Usually the refilling shall be done after successfully testing the pipes. Medium sand in 200
mm depth on all if the trenches shall be provided and leveled as directed
10.3 Major Material for various plumbing and sanitation works
It is split up into two categories viz. material required for internal plumbing and sanitation
work, material required for external plumbing and drainage works. All such material should be
as per relevant IS codes
10.3.1 Galvanized Iron (G.I) Materials
G.I Pipes and fittings are available in various sizes i.e 15 mm, 20mm 25mm, 32mm, 40mm etc
Elbows ,tees , unions ,sockets, plugs ,stop cocks, bends, double nipples, gate valves, etc.
reducers of various sizes, tag, habak, hold tight.
10.3.2 Cast Iron (C.I) Materials
C.I Pipes, Single/double sockets, Single socket/double socket connectors, Plain/plug tees,
Plain/plug bends, Single/double Y in the length of 300 to 450 mm, Nahani traps a in diameters
of 75, 100, 150 mm. C.I Chambers covers, C.I gully trap covers.
10.4. G.I. Pipes (Open)
Standard consumables
Pipes as per specification, fixtures, Teflon tape, hession rope, standard adhesive, cement, sand.

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Standard tools
Adjustable wrench, pipe dye for thread, hexa blade, hammer, chisel, plumb, dori, bubble tube,
thapi, thagara, pawada
1. In case of G.I. pipes the threading is to be carried out with help of die. When the tubes are
to be cut or rethreaded, the end shall be carefully filed out and then threaded with pipe die.
2. In jointing tubes, inside of the socket and the screwed end shall be oiled and smeared by
using teflon tope round the screw end of the tube. The end shall then be tightly screwed
into the socket, tees, etc. with a pipe wrench
3. Jointing can also be carried out using hession rope, safeda/adhesive. Thin coat of
safeda/adhesive is applied round the screw end; henssion rope is wrapped round the tube.
The rope must be soaked prior to wrapping. Again apply safeda/adhesive over it and tightly
screw the end into the socket, tee etc.
4. The threading to the pipe ends shall be done by skilled plumber. It shall also be ensured
that the dye is in good condition. The tightening at the threaded joint shall be full threaded
5. While laying the tube at GL or terrace a pedestal of brick for R.C.C. must be prepared for
laying the tube
6. In case long pipe is to be laid stop valve must be provided at suitable interval. Union must
be provided at regular intervals for purpose of maintenance
7. All leaky joints must be made leak proof by tightening or redoing
10.5 GI Pipe (Concealed)
Standard consumables
Pipes as per specification, fixture, teflon tape, hession rope, safeda, standard adhesive, GI nails,
Anti corrosive paint, cement, sand and suitable clamps
Standard tools
Adjustable, wrench, dye for thread, hexablade, hammer, chisel, plumb, dori, bubble tube, thapi,
thagara, pawada
1. Concealed GI pipes may be normal or center point. It might be used for hot or cold water
supply as per requirement

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2. In case of center point concealed works Apply one coat of plaster. The material/tile which
are to be put into use must be ordered and that material should be out into use to mark the
line out of the plumb line with help of dori and chalk
3. Ensure that the lineout is as per drawing
4. According to the drawing, identify the connection and its location
5. Hack (make jari) the wall as per the tube dimension
6. At connection, Tee elbow is to be marked as per requirement
7. The tube is to be firmly supported with help of Jasti Nails
8. The pipe will be coated with bitumastic paint
9. After fixing the pipe, the hacked wall shall be made good with cement mortar
10. In case GI pipe is to be used for hot water supply Asbestos dori/jute dori is wrapped all
round the tube in form of coil. The remaining steps remain the same
10.6. Rigid PVC Pipe
Standard consumables
Pipes as per specification, fixtures, solvent cement, wooden plugs and suitable clamps
Standard tools
Hexablade, hammer, chisel, plumb, dori, bubble tube, thapi, thagara, pawada
1. Due to thermal expansion of rigid PVC pipes, due allowance, about 10 mm of thermal gap,
shall be made particularly in over the ground pipe lines for any change in length of pipe
line which may occur during installation or when pipe line is in service
2. Above the ground installation of rigid PVC pipe should be undertaken after precautions are
observed for their protection again dirt, sun rays and mechanical damage
3. Generally, in horizontal runs, PVC pipes shall be supported at an interval of not more than
ten times the outside diameter of the pipe. In vertical lines, PVC pies shall be supported at
an interval of 1m to a maximum of 2m
4. PVC pipes shall be fixed on wall with wooden plugs and suitable clamps
5. Jointing the pipes:
The pipes and sockets shall be accurately cut. Care shall be taken to cut the pipe square.
The shortened pipe end shall be chamfered to an angle of 15 th with a medium file. The ends

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of the pipes and fittings should be absolutely free from dirt and dust. The outside surface of
the pipes and the inside of the fittings shall then be roughened with emery paper, and then
solvent cement shall be applied to the matching surface i.e. to the spigot end and the
sealing ring and then pass the spigot end in to the socket containing the sealing ring until
pushed home fully and joined. Mark the position of the socket edge on the pipe and then
withdraw the pipe from the socket for the necessary thermal gap. Since solvent cement is
aggressive to PVC, care must be taken to avoid applying excessive cement to the inside of
pipe sockets as any surplus cement cannot be wiped off after jointing. Avoid over lighting
of threaded PVC pipe fittings as the threads may be damaged
10.7 High Density Polyethylene (HDPE) pipes
Standard consumables
Pipes as per specification, fixtures
Standard tools
Hexablade, Electric hot plate or blow lamp, hammer, chised, plumb, dori, bubble tube, thapi
thagara, pawada
1. The lines of the trenches for all the pipe lines shall be carefully set out to the alignment of
the pipe lines. The trenches shall be carefully trimmed so that the pipe when laid, shall rest
on the natural bed throughout its full length
2. The pipes and fittings shall be laid to line and level, in the trenches.The joints of the pipes
shall be made by butt welding using an Electric hot plate or blow lamp for heating the ends
to be joined. The end of the pipe to be joined shall be joined shall be cut square leaving 3 to
5 mm more than the required finished length. The pipe slowly and uniformly by means of a
metal baffle held in front of the end of the pipes. The temperature of the hot plate/blow
lamp shall be brought to 200oC. On heating the pipe end swells outwards. Heating shall be
continued till the swelling of the pipe is to the wall thickness of the pipe. The pipes shall
then be pressed against a flange forming tool and pressure shall be maintained till a
uniform joint is obtained, i.e. till a uniform rim of melted material is formed. The
temperature shall be checked by thermocrome chalk, which shall turn blue and then black
within 3 seconds. Jointing shall be carried out on ground and a suitable length of the
jointed pipe shall be lowered into the trench. Jointing shall be carried out by skilled persons
only. Care shall be taken so that there is no displacement of the center line of the pipe while
3. Depending on the site conditions, detachable flanged joints or screwed joints may also be
4. Where the pipes are to be used for rain water down takes, across the floor slabs, they shall
be carried through a G.I. sleeve to enable a water-proof joint to be made at the slab level

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10.8 Check norms
Check Points
G.I. Pipe
Was the layout as per the drawing?
If yes, mention the drawing No
Was anti corrosive painting done as per the specification?
Was the threading upto the mark?
Indicate the jointing material used for ensuring water tight joints
Was tightening at the threaded joint done to full/desired depth?
Was testing carried out to check the joints?
Indicate the pressured at which the test was carried out?
Rigid PVC Pipe
Was the layout as per the drawing?
If yes, mention the drg. no
Was jointing carried out as per specification?
Was testing carried out to check the joints?
Indicate the pressure at which the test was carried out?
Was the layout as per the drawing?
If yes, mention the drg. no
Was jointing carried out as per specification?
Was testing carried out to check the joints?
Indicate the pressure at which the test was carried out?



10.9 Safety
Proper weightage to safety precautions during progress of works should be given. Following
steps should be observed
1. All work activity should be done in a systematic manner and phase wise
2. All external work should be done by using proper scaffolding. While using ropes/zullas, it
should be observed that sufficient care is taken to avoid accidents.
3. All works should be done by using proper tools. Worn out old tools require more
manpower and also leads to accident.
4. Co-ordination with other work agencies is a must. This also helps to maintain safety of
workers employed by the other contractors
5. During trenches work, prescribed safety rules should be followed
6. Maintain first aid box on site to take care of accidental injuries

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10.10 Flowchart for Plumbing and Sanitation Work

Fixing W.C. traps,

Nahani traps spouts
and outlets

Internal plaster including W.C.

bath and external plaster complete

Marking of vertical G.I/C.I.

lines on external plaster by

Fixing concealed pipes in

grooved plaster

Checking pipes with

pressure testing

Fixing ofvertical pipe

G.I./P.V.C./C.I. lines

Tilling and tile


Excavation for external

drainage line work

Final checking of slumping,

sanitary & C.P. fittings

Final finishing of building

P.C.C. under pipe line

as per level and slope

Fixing of C.P. of sanitary


Lineout on wall by
chalk for chasing

Water-proofing first

Water-proofing brickbat
coba coat for toilets &
terrace & curing for seven

Water proofing
finishing coal

Laying pipes, construction

of chamber & finishing

Finishing work of
the flat

Chasing the grooves

for concealed pipes

Application of coal
tar and kiltan to
plumbing pipes

Fixing of I.W.C. Pan

Terrace R/W line outlets

and plastering toconealed
pipe lines

Main drainage

Testing of external
drainage lines by
smoke test etc.

JMC Projects (I) Ltd.

10.11 Basic Knowledge of Trade
Now a days method of collecting and disposing the waste has modernized and replaced by a
system in which those wastes are mixed with sufficient quantity of water and carried through
closed conduits under the gravity flow condition. This waste produce i.e. sewage, thus
automatically flows upto the place of disposal after suitable treatments.
Drainage system is the art of installing and laying the network of pipes along with fixtures and
fittings in a systematic manner considering aesthetical matter in an economical way.
Classification of drainage system
1. Internal Drainage system: Includes nahani trap, P trap, C.I/P.V.C lines in sanitary units,
bathrooms Kitchen outlets through vertical pipes lines from respective floors.
2. External Drainage system: Gully trap, chambers, sewer traps, sewer line, to sewage
treatment and thereafter to natural nalah / river to final disposal. If Treatment plant is not
available then to septic tank and soak pit.
10.12 Preamble
1. The type of pipes used are SWG, CI, PVC, HDPE
2. Ensure that the pipe layout and alignment is as per drawing as well as the material as per
3. Ensure that the level of inspection chamber (IC) is up hill with respect to machine level
4. Vent must be provided at the corner of septic tank which should be approximately 6 above
the ground. Ensure that the vent pipe is provided with cowl
5. Ensure to plaster the IC & manhole with waterproof plaster
6. Ensure that the sockets ends of all pipes are facing uphill
7. The pipes are to tested in the following manner
a. Only moderate length of pipeline should be tested at a time to avoid long stretches of
unfilled trenches
b. To prevent any movement of the pipeline under pressure, heap topsoil on each pipe
c. After blanking off ends with plugs or blind flanges, provide an air vent at the highest
point and a cock for filling water and for connection to pump and pressure gauge

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d. Support the ends of the pipeline with timber or concrete blocks resting against the
trench wall and insert jacks at the ends to compensate for the settling of supports when
the pressure is applied. Air should be complete removed before the pressure is applied
e. After laying and jointing, the pipes and fittings shall be inspected under working
conditions of pressure and flow. Any joint or fitting, found leaking, shall be redone.
And all pipes which are leaking shall be removed and replaced, without any extra cost
f. The pipes and fittings shall be tested to a hydraulic pressure of 6 Kg/cm 2. The pressure
shall be maintained for 2 hours and the pressure drop at the drop at the end of the
period shall not exceed 0.5 kg/m2. The pipe shall be slowly and carefully charged with
water, allowing all air to escape and avoiding all shock and water hammer. The draw
off takes and stop cock shall then close and subsequently, the specified hydraulic
pressure shall be applied gradually. The pressure gauge must be accurate. The pipes and
fittings shall be tested in sections, as the work of laying proceeds, keeping the joints
exposed for inspection during the testing
10.13 Stoneware Glazed pipes
Standard consumables
Pipes as per specification, fixtures, spun yarn, cement, sand
Standard tools
Hammer; chisel, plumb, dori, bubble tube, thapi, thagara, pawada

The pipes shall be checked for cross section, normal diameter, length and depth of socket.
Glazing of pipe is critical aspect for quality


The trenches for the pipes shall be excavated to required gradient, lines and levels as
directed with socket, up the gradient. Also inspection chambers and manholes shall be
provided at 30 m interval.


The trenches shall be kept dry either by bailing out or pumping water, timbering and
shoring of sides of excavation if required


The trench width shall be nominal diameter of the pipe plus 38 cm (15) but it shall not be
less than 53 cm (21). Sufficient working space shall be allowed


Refilling in trenches for pipes shall be commenced as soon as the joints are tested,
approved and haunching is done. The refilling on the top and around the drain shall be
done with great care and in such a manner as will obtain the greatest amount of

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compaction and solidity possible. For this purpose the selected excavation earth shall be
laid in regular layer of 15 cm watered and each layer rammed

All pipes at shallow road crossing and made up ground shall be laid on P.C.C. bedding
with encasing of SWG pipes


The interior of the socket and the exterior of the spigot shall be cleaned thoroughly and
dried. The spigot of the upper pipe shall be properly fitted into the socket of the lower
pipe, such that there is uniform annular space for fitting with the jointing materials. Yarn
for required length shall be placed around the spigot of the pipe, to center the spigot in the
socket. Knotting of the yarn shall not be permitted.


Required length of the yarn shall be in on piece. When single strand of yarn material is
used, overlap at the top shall be not more than 50 mm. Water more than single strand is
required for a joint, each strand shall be cut to the required length so that the ends shall
meet on the opposite sides of the pipe and not on top or bottom. When the spigot is shoved
home, the yarning material shall be driven tightly against the inside base or hub of the
socket with suitable tools


Spun yarn soaked in neat cement paste shall be passed round and inserted in it by means of
caulking tool. More skins of yarn shall be added and well rammed. Cement mortar 1:1
slightly dry shall be carefully inserted by hand into the joint. The mortar shall then be
punched and caulked into the joint. The joint shall then be finished off neatly outside the
socket at an angle of 45 degrees. Leak proof joints needs to be ensured

10. The joints shall be cured at least for seven days

11. All lengths and joints shall be fully tested for water tightness by means of water pressure
maintained for not less than 30 minutes. Testing shall be carried out form manhole to
manhole. Or many times smoke test is recommended. Leaking joints must be made good
prior to backfilling
10.14 Cast Iron L.A. Class Pipes with tytoughened joints / Lead joints
Standards consumable
Pipes as per specification, fixtures, lubricant, gasket
Standards tools
Hexablade, Hammer, chisel, plumb, dori, bubble tube, thapi, thagara, pawada

The socket spigot ends of the pipes should be cleaned first


Thereafter a thin film of lubricant should be applied to the bulb seating inside the socket
but not the hard rubber seal

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The gasket should be held so that it takes the shape of a heart


After cleaning, the gasket is placed in the socket with bulb towards the back of socket so
that the hard rubber heal engages in the retaining groove


If any loop is left it will be pressed flat for proper fit of gasket in the groove


In case it is difficult to press the loop, as may be in the case of larger diameter, it is advised
that a second loop be formed in the opposed. The loops are then pressed flat one after the


A thick film of lubricant should be applied to the inner side of the gasket where the spigot
end will come in contact, to facilitate the entry. The spigot end of the pipe should also be


After centering the spigot should be inserted far enough into socket to make contact with
the gasket. This is the initial position for forcing the spigot end in


The spigot end is forced into the socket carefully compressing the gasket till the spigot end
reaches near the bottom of the socket

10. if the assembly is not completed with reasonable forces, the spigot shuld be removed and
the position of he gasket examined
10.15. CI Pipes
Standard consumables
Pipes as per specification, fixtures, spun yarn, cement, sand
Standard tools
Hammer; chisel, plumb, dori, bubble tube, thapi, thagara, pawada

The interior of the socket and the exterior of the spigot shall be cleaned thoroughly and
The spigot of the upper pipe shall be properly fitted in to the socket of the lower pipe, such
that there is uniform annual space for fitting with the jointing materials.
Yarn for required length shall be placed around the spigot of the pipe, to center the spigot
in the socket. Knotting of the yarn shall not be permitted required length of the yarn shall
be in on piece.
When single strand of yarn material is used overlap at the top shall be not more than
50mm when more than single standard is required for a joint, each strand shall be cut to
the required length so that the ends shall meet on the opposite sides of the pipe and not on

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top or bottom. When the spigot is shoved home, the yarning material shall be driven
tightly against the inside or hub of the socket with suitable tools

Spun yarn soaked in neat cement paste shall be passed round the joint and inserted in it by
means of caulking tool. More skins of yarn shall be added and well rammed. Cement
mortar 1:1 slightly dry shall be carefully inserted by hand in to the joint. The mortar shall
than be punched and caulked into the joint. The joint shall then be finished off neatly
outside the socket at an angle of 45 degree. Leak proof joints needs to be ensured

10.16 PVC Pipe

Standard consumables
Pipes as per specification, fixtures, solvent cement, wooden plugs and suitable clamps
Standard tools
Hexablade, hammer, chised, plumb, dori, bubble tube, thapi, thagara, pawada

Generally, in horizontal runs, PVC pipes shall be supported at an interval of not more than
ten times the outside diameter of the pipe. In vertical lines, PVC pipes shal be supported at
an interval of 1 m to a maximum of 2 m


PVC pipes shall be fixed on wall with wooden plugs and suitable clamps


Jointing the pipes:

The pipes and sockets shall be accurately cut. Care shall be taken to cut the pipe square.
The shortened pipe end shall be chamfered to an angle of 15o with a medium file. The ends
of the pipes and fitting should be absolutely free from dirt and dust. The outside surface of
the pipes and the inside of the fitting shall then be roughened with emery paper, and then
solvent cement shall be applied to the machining surface i.e. to the spigot and end and the
sealing ring and then pass the spigot end in to the socket containing the sealing ring until
pushed home fully and joined. Mark the position of the socket edge on the pipe and then
withdraw the pipe from the socket for the necessary thermal gap. Since solvent cement is
aggressive to PVC, care must be taken to avoid applying excessive cement to the inside of
pipe sockets as any surplus cement cannot be wiped off after jointing .Avoid over
tightening of threaded PVC pipe fittings as the threads may be damaged

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10.17. High Density Polyethylene (HDPE) pipes
Standard consumables
Pipes as per specification, fixtures, solvent cement, wooden plugs and suitable clamps
Standard tools
Hexablade, hammer, electric hot plate or blow lamp, plumb, sori, buble rube, thapi, thagara,

The lines of the trenches for all the pipe lines shall be carefully set out to the alignment of
the pipe lines. The trenches shall be carefully trimmed so that the pie when laid shall rest
on the natural bed throughout its full length. The pipes and fittings shall be laid to line and
level, in the trenches


The joints of the pipes shall be made by but welding using and Electric hot plate or blow
lamp for heating the ends to be jointed. The end of the pipe to be jointed shall be cut
square leaving 3 to 5 mm more than the required finished length. The pipe slowly and
uniformly by means of a metal baffle held in front of the pie.


The temperature of the hot plate/blow lamp shall be brought to 200oC. On heating the pipe
end swells outwards. Heating shall be continued till the swelling of the pipe is equal to the
wall thickness of the pipe.


The pipe shall then be pressed against a flange forming tool and pressure shall be
maintained till a uniform joint is obtained, i.e. till an uniform rim of melted material is
formed. The temperature shall be checked by thermocrome chalk, which shall turn blue
and then black within 3 seconds.


Jointing shall be carried out on ground and a suitable length of the jointed pipe shall be
lowered into the trench. Jointing shall be carried out by skilled persons only. Care shall be
taken so that there is no displacement of the center line of the pipe while jointing


Depending on the site conditions, detachable flanged joints or screwed joints may also be

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10.18 Check norms for pipes
Check Points
SWG Pipe
Were the layout and invert levels as per the drawing?
If yes, mention the ref. Drawing no
Was the glazing op pipe as per desired quality?
Indicate the jointing material used?
Was testing carried out to check the joints for purpose of leak?
Indicate the pressure at which the test was carried out?
Is water tight / air right inspection chambers located as per drawing?
Cast L.A. Class pipe
Was the layout & invert levels as per the drawing?
If yes, mention the ref. Drawing no
Was the pipe conforming top specification and weight?
Indicate the jointing material used?
Was testing carried out to check the joints for purpose of leak?
Indicate the pressure at which the test was carried out?
Is the water tight / air tight inspection chambers located as per drawing?
PVC Pipe
Was the layout as per the drawing?
If yes, mention the grd. no.
Was jointing carried out s per specification?
Was testing carried out to check the joints?
Indicate the pressure at which the test was carried out?
Was the layout as per the drawing?
If yes, mention the drg. no.
Was jointing carried out as per specification?
Was testing carried out to check the joints?
Indicate the pressure at which the test was carried out?





10.19 Check Norms for Sanitary Fixtures

Check Points
Ware the fixtures of approved make and size?
Ware all activities completed prior to fixing of these fixtures?
Was the wash room lockable prior to fixing of these fixtures?

JMC Projects (I) Ltd.

10.20. Material wastage control
1. The pipes cutting should be preplanned to ensure minimum wastage.
2. The Teflon tape should be of required width to avoid excessive overlapping and more
3. Lubricant film should be of just adequate thickness because if thick film is applied the
excess lubricant will seep out and which will later be wiped off and will lead to more
consumption and wastage of lubricant.
4. While jointing with mortar precaution should be taken for minimum droppings and thereby
control wastage.
10.21. Safety
1. While working at heights labour should make use of safety belts.
2. While working at higher level material & tools should be carefully handled to ensure the
safety for people moving or working at lower level.
3. Hole / chasing on concrete / hard surface might lead to slipping and falling of chisel.
4. Plumbing nails in concrete / hard surface might lead to falling of hammer due to breakage
of its handle.
10.22 Constructional Sequence Flow Chart for Drainage Works.

Vertical Stacks

External Plaster Work

Internal Plaster to
sanitary units

One Coat of Water-Proofing

IInd coat of waterproofing

Fixing of nahani trap

P trap

Internal pipe work

G.I.C.I. / P.V.C.

Gully trap and its

Connection to main
sewer line (Municipal)

Connection to septic
Connection to filter bed

Work of pipe branch upto 1st

Manholes with necessary
sewer traps

Connection to sullage line

Main soil pipe line

JMC Projects (I) Ltd.

10.23 Mode of Measurement
1. All pipes and fittings shall be classified accordingly to their nominal diameter, kind of
material, quality and the method of jointing and shall be measured in running metres unless
otherwise specified. The method of laying jointing and fixing shall be fully described.
2. The item shall include all cutting and waste of pipes and also cutting threads where
3. In the case of fitting of unequal diameter, it shall be designated by largest diameter
4. Lead caulked joints shall be enumerated separately.
5. Pipes laid or fixed in ducts, chases, trenches, embedded in floor, fixed to walls, ceilings,
etc, with supports shall be measured separately.
6. Lengths of pipes not exceeding one metre, other than running lengths, shall be measured
separately in running metres and described as in short length.
7. All work shall be measured net as fixed, to the nearest 0.01 metre unless otherwise stated.

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JMC Projects (I) Ltd.

Form Work
11.1 Basic knowledge of trade
The temporary structure erected to support the wet concrete in its required shape, till it hardens
and become self supporting is known as form work .Apart from supporting wet concrete, form
work also supports live load i.e. labour, tools and equipments, wind load etc.
11.2 Requirement of good form work
1. The form work must be waterproof so as to prevent the absorption of water from the
2. The form work must be strong enough to bear the loads of concrete Workmen, the liquid
pressure of the fresh concrete and the impact effect of ramming or vibrating
3. The formwork should be as light as possible and stiff enough to have minimum deflection
4. All joints in formwork should be true and surface plane to minimize the cost of surface
5. The formwork should be easily removable without damages.
11.3 Type of Form Work
1. Wooden Plywood shuttering
Plywood Shuttering
Wooden props and planks
2. Steel Shuttering
M.S. Plate shuttering
4 N props
Telescopic spans
11.4 Selection criteria for types of Form work

Type of finish require

Type of structure to be supported
Kind of load coming on shuttering
Availability of shuttering material
Time limit for constitution

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11.5 Minimum period of deshuttering for different concreting element (as per IS 4562000)


Minimum period
Vertical formwork to columns,walls,beams
16 24 hrs.
Soffit formwork to slabs (props to be refixed immediately 3 days
after removal of formwork)
Soffit formwork to beams(props to be refixed immediately 7-days
after removal of formwork
Props to slabs:
Spanning up to 4.5 m
Spanning over 4.5 m
14 days
Props to beams & arches
Spanning up to 6 m
Spanning over 6 m
21 days

11.6 Form Work Materials :

Wooden material

Plywood, wooden patti, wooden props and wooden

runners etc.

Steel material

M.S. Plates of different size, props, Adjustable column

Clamp, column farma, Propex, Adjusters etc. wall forms,


Nuts Bolts, Screws, Hession rope (All hardware items)

Tools and equipments

Saw, Hexablade, hammer, Measure tape, plumb bob,

Line dori, level tube

11.7 Work procedure for form work:


Making of forms as per scheme

Fixing of form
Demoulding of form

11.7.1. Form work for footing


After completing excavation for column, footing, check the size of pit before P.C.C.
Allow P.C.C. work
Check the level of P.C.C. Then mark the center line on all the sides of footing form work.
Place the footing formwork box, check the size and diagonals of formwork box.
Drop the plumb from the ground surface by extending line dori from center line pegs
established @ ground level

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Check for gaps if any in between form work and P.C.C. top level
Before concreting, clean inner space of box and P.C.C. with help of water jet
Give proper supports to footing box so that its position should not change
Mark centers of footing with the help of nail on footing box or planks at centre of form
work length & breadth wise
Center marked on footing box should match to center marked on side rail or center line
pillar which will help in fixing and reinforcement cage to true line.
Check the reinforcement of footing, column and concreting depth of footing which shall
be marked by nail on all sides of formwork and allow for concreting

11.7.2. Form work for column

Formwork for shuttering of column is normally by plywood, or steel plate with slots angles
at the corner
1. Round & Square Farma are commonly used.
Round Frames are available in 1200 mm length and in two segments. The diameter of
column can be as per the requirement of client. These are totally bolted type for easy
assembly and removal after casting. Rolled sheets offer excellent finish of columns
after casting.
Column Frames are available in 1200 mm and 2500 mm height Fabricated art of prestressd sheets for light weight. Sizes adjustable from 25, 300, 375, 450 mm. It is a fully
bolted construction.
2. Material should be waterproof also it should be in true size and shape without any
3. Form work for shuttering of column is normally by plywood, or steel plate with slotes
angles at the corner.
4. Supports to plywood should be adequate in vertical & horizontal directions
5. Check the centre line, dimensions and diagonals of form work box of column. Check
for plumb and line. Also check the location with respect to other column in both the
6. Fix M.S. clamps in sufficient quantity to avoid bulging of column during concreting
7. The rectangular and round column formwork sides should be as shown in figure
8. After marking center line of the column, check the minimum cover and check column
9. Give minimum cover with the help of cover blocks to column reinforcement as per
10. Give the supports so that the column withstand in vertical position. Supports should be
made perfectly tight. Supports with bracing to adjacent side columns can be given to
avoid rotary movement of column
11. Check the gap if any at bottom and fill it with carpenters putty or any filling material.
Starter on footing and overlapping form will help to prevent outflow of cement slurry
12. Calculate & mark by nail the permissible concreting level considering beam depth etc.
13. Deshuttering period should be normally 24 hours.
11.7.2. Form work for beam
1. Mark one level on every column

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2. Check the position and level of the beam bottom topi with respect to line and depth of
3. Width of topi should be same as to width of beam.(Gap between casted column &
slab bottom is called topi )
4. Topi should be fixed firmly to column face and over lapping with column already
casted to receive the beam bottom.
5. Top cut of topi should not be in cross.
6. Bottom plank of beam should not be bend. It should be in straight line.
7. Check the level of beam bottom before providing beam sides including cambers if any.
8. Provide bracing to beam bottom support after leveling the beam bottom.
Support/staging should be perfectly vertical.
9. Props should be as shown in figure.
10. Check the plumb of beam sides at each end & with the help of line dori fix straight line
of beam sides. Lateral supports with Taniya.
11. Check the column & beam joint. Shuttering here should be in plumb (topi portion)
12. Check the dapth of beam.
13. Bottom sikanja to be firmly fixed at 1m c/c to hold the beam from bulging during
11.7.3. Form work for Slab

Plate should be of uniform thickness

Plate should be in perfect right angle
Check the level of slab with tube level or leveling instruments.
Form work of slab should be done after floor P.C.C. competed and fully cured
Apply oil to centering plates before placing the reinforcement
Slab residues to be planned after adjusting available plates
Spanning of plate should be only in longer side ie. (900 mm) where 4 number angles
are provided
8. Use adjustable plates (gabhadi plate) to adjust unavoidable gabhadi in both direction
9. Don not allow bricks or blocks below prop to adjust height, use wooden wedges
10. Check the line, plumb and supports of beam sides
11. Fill the gaps between plates with the help of papers or putti
12. Check whether the slab thickness marked on the side and suitable ghodi is made
13. Check the shuttering as per checklist before placing reinforcement
11.8 Deshuttering of form work
Precaution to be taken during deshuttering
1. While deshuttering the formwork of columns, the care should be taken to protect the
edges of columns
2. While deshutering the external sides of the floor beams, care should be taken to observe
that nobody is working in nearby area to avoid possible accidents
3. While deshuttering the internal beam sides, care should be taken that no support of slab
and beam bottom is disturbed

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4. Deshuttering of slab plates should be done after making scaffolding. No plates should
be removed from slab without proper scaffolding. Also it should be observed that
nobody is working in nearby area.
11.9 General negligence while doing formwork
1. For column formwork, labour use binding wire in place of shikanjas
2. In column reinforcement, normally they avoid the stirrups or rings from beam bottom to
top of slab
3. For support to beam bottom at column contractors use wastage material for topi. (cap)
4. Disadvantages of Topi made from waste material are:
Improper fixing of topi effects on plumb of column
Cross cutting of topi effects on level of beam bottom
5. Labours are not interested to repair the small size of ghabadi, so it effects on the quality
and strength of the concrete because all cement slurry flows away from those ghabadi or
gaps and after deshuttering honey comb is observed in such parts
6. For slab formwork where plates are not possible to place, labours use scrap material. In
such cases after deshuttering the concrete surface at bottom of slab is not found in proper
level. It affects the thickness of plaster. So insist them to use new planks for all gabhadi
7. While deshuttering the slab, carpenters drop steel plates from total height of slab i.e. from
min. 2.75m (9.00) which may cause accidents, therefore deshuttering for slab should be
done with the help of scaffolding only
8. Normally white oil or centering oil should be applied to formwork in required quality only.
More oiling for formwork effects on bonding of steel with concrete. Oily surface of
concrete effects curing i.e. curing for column, beam slab cannot be done properly
9. Labours provide only single type of bracing for props. It should be done in two directions,
i.e. all props should be supported with both direction bracing at same level
10. Contractors use less number of nails & insufficient supports to joint which may result in
untightned joints
11. To avoid cutting of prop labours fix the prop in slanted position or given more packing
from bottom to utilize short props
12. Labours avoid making hole in shuttering ply for straight horizontal projecting dowel bars
and bends the bar vertically inside the shuttering only. In such case some times bars get cut
while making them straight
11.10 Demoulding / Formwork releasing agents
Demoulding agents will play an essential role in the production of satisfactory concrete work.
The prime function is to release the formwork from concrete. In addition to this demoulding
agents can also influence undesirable features such as staining, blow holes & surface durability
Required properties of Demoulding agents:
1. Provide a clean and easy release or strike without damaging the concrete surface or Form.
2. Should not have any adverse effect on the forms or the concrete surface.

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3. Helps in obtaining max. reuse or repetitions of forms
4. Should be easy to apply evenly at the recommended coverage.
5. Should not inhibit adhesion to any finish applied to the formed surface.
Types of releasing agents
1. Neat oils: Usually mineral oils.
2. Neat oil with surfactant.
Neat oil with an addition of small amount of surface activating or wetting agent
3. Mould cream emulsions:
Emulsions of water in oil tend to be removed by rain but minimize allow holes and are
good general-purpose release agents.
4. Water soluble emulsions
Emulsions of oil in water produce a dark porous skin that is not durable. They are not
recommended and are seldom used.
5. Chemical release agents
These are small amounts of chemical suspended in a low viscosity oil distillate. The
chemical reacts with cement to produce a form of soap at the in interface. Recommended
for all high-quality work, they should be applied lightly by spray to avoid retardation.
Increased cost is compensated for by better coverage.
6. Paints and other surface coatings
These are not strictly release agents, but are sealers that prevent a release agent being
absorbed into the form face. Wax treatments also come into this category and are
particularly useful where it is necessary to avoid uneven porosity with consequent color
7. Wax emulsions
Use a stable wax suspension that acts as a release agent Advantages is that it dries off
completely and is resistant to removal by climatic conditions.
Choosing a release agent
Careful consideration must be given to the choice of release agent, taking into account the type
of surface to which it is to be applied, the conditions under which it is to be used, the type of
concrete the quality of finish, the area of the form and the ease of application.
11.11 Material wastage:
1. Stacking, shuttering Deshuttering work should be carried out for such a way to have
optimum usage of material
2. Nails and wire should properly handle and use to avoid wastage. All the nails fallen ground
should be collected using magnet
3. The shuttering should be properly designed to have leak proof joint
4. The cutting of plywood and props should be preplanned to ensure optimum utilization of

JMC Projects (I) Ltd.

11.12 Safety:
1. Labours should use safety belts, while working on heights
2. Technical safety should be ensured, i.e. the ground on which the shuttering is to be
supported should have adequate Safe Bearing Capacity and water logging should be
3. The scaffolding should be capable enough to bear all the load on it and should be designed
4. Proper warning signal should be provided Adequate precaution and warning signal should
be provided at the place of danger zone, e.g. at cut outs
Safety while Deshuttering
1. Avoid throwing of shuttering materials from heights as it may cause accident as well as
damage to materials
2. Carry out the deshuttering activity completely to prevent loose hanging parts which may
fall and lead to accident
3. Proper sequence should be planned and followed for deshuttering
4. Method of deshuttering has to planned along with design of formwork system
5. All the nails and wires should be removed prior to reuse due shuttering materials

11.13 Misuse of Shuttering Materials

Shuttering material is capital asset of the company. Company looks for the higher returns on
capital assets. Therefore the optimum utilization and effective use of the shuttering material is
required which will give high level of quality & productivity. The company is investing lot of
money every year to get returns on investment.
Therefore, taking extraordinary care of assets is the prime responsibility of every engineer,
superviser and labour (THE USER).The improper or misuse of shuttering materials (ASSETS)
should be treated as a non excusable crime.

JMC Projects (I) Ltd.

11.14 Special Working

Special Working for 1850m2 Slab Area with 8.0m Ht. Beam Bottom
Sr. Item Description
Requirement For
Requirement Extra
of Material 8.0
of Material for
for 100m2 mt.
For 1850m2 Beam
stab area
H-Frame 1.5mt.
35 No x 5 175
Cross Bracing
50% of H- 88
Ordinary Jack
35 No x 2
35 No x 2
16 to 20
M.S. Plate 3x2
ISLC 75 x 40 Main Rmt.
(sleeper Cft
10 BWP
Plywood m2
beam bottom
11 M.S. Khapeda 9 to No
10 long
Note: 1) Item No. 3 & 4 can be replaced with adjustable stirrup head jack & propex depends on
load transferred to scaffolding
2) For below plinth work/plinth beams/ Ties/Lintel etc. Add 25% to each item from 1 to
11 above table.

JMC Projects (I) Ltd.

11.15 Acrow Wall Form materials for 1 mt Long & 2.5 mt height wall, following material
are required




Acrow Wall form Plates (1250x500)



Channel Soldier 2500x100

Channel Soldier 1250x100



Tie Bolts 12mmx100 with PVC cone & washers



Coil spring



Sing clips



Double clips



40.mm M.S. Pipes



11.16 for 100 H-Frame, following materials are required





H Frame



Cross Bracing









Sign-Cross Bracing



40mm dia Bracing pipe 6 met long



40x40 Acrow couplers Swival



40 x 40 Acrow couplers Right Angles


JMC Projects (I) Ltd.

11.17. Basic Knowledge of the trade:
Concrete is very good in compression but weak in tension. Various members in structure are
always subjected to tensile forces, bending forces etc. To take these forces and to transfer them
safely to other members, the structural members are always reinforced with C.T.D. (cold
twisted deformed) bars
There are two common types of reinforcing bars
1. Mild steel bars C.T.D. (cold Twisted Deformed)
2. High strength deformed bars (H.Y.S.D)
In building construction C.T.D. (Cold Twisted Deformed) bars are used for primary
reinforcement i.e. main steel and mild steel bars are used for secondary reinforcement such as
ties, stirrups and for distribution steel
Generally mild steel of 6 mm diameter is used as secondary reinforcement and C.T.D. steel
bars of diameter 8, 10, 12, 16, 20, 25, 28 and 32 mm are used as main reinforcement
Now a days C.T.D. bars of TOR quality are also available in the market. These bars are
available in two types i.e. TOR 40 and TOR 50. TOR is the registered trade mark for world
famous cold twisted deformed bars bearing lugs & ribs for strong bond with cement concrete
& R.C.C. structure. TOR steel is always identified by TOR mark rolled on every meter of
Specification of reinforcing bars.
Bar Type
M.S. round
HYSD (Tor 40)
HYSD (Tor 50)

Grade of steel
Fe 250
Fe 415
Fe 500

11.18 Advantages of tor steel


Higher bond strength

Better fatigue strength
Less crack width due to high bond
Satisfactory bendability
100% weldability
Suitable for main and distribution steel
Saving in cost may be achieved

11.19 Field tests for quality of steel bars

Yield stress N/mm2


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1. The pitch length between the twist should be 8 to 12 times that of nominal diameter of bar.
2. The diameter of the bar should not vary. For measuring the diameter of bars Screw Gauge
or Vernier caliper should be kept on site.
3. Steel should not be brittle in nature but it should be soft for working. It should not break
into pieces during bending
4. Length of the bar should be between 11 to 12 meters.
5. Steel should not be corroded. That can be checked by rusting layer on bars and by taking
weight of steel bar before and after immersion in water for 24 hours. Loss of weight of
steel shows depth of corrosion.
6. In case of TOR Steel TOR mark should be present on each meter length.
11.20 Field tests of binding wire

Binding wire should be of 16 gauge.

It should be soft in working and should not be brittle.
When tied it should not get loosened from its position.
It should not be corroded.

11.21 Difference between actual weight and theoretical weight of steel (Rolling Margin )
The actual weight of the steel can be calculated by subtracting the empty weight of truck from
the weight of loaded truck, both weights to be taken from same weigh balance.
As a normal practice take at least three to four of sample rods from every lot of 10 tons
(approx) delivered at site. Put serial no. on the sample pieces. Find out actual weight on a
weigh balance and compare with IS Standard. Record the rolling margin difference in JMC
standard register and also get it approved from site engineer.(client or consultant)
11.22 Stacking of steel

Stacking should be in steel yard only.

No water logging should be allowed in steel yard.
Stacking should be done in diameter wise
Separate space should be kept for cut pieces .Drums should be kept for rings of Bhari.
Separate space should be provided in steel yard for fabricated reinforcement as per BBS.
Proper access for truck movement should be made, from main road to steel yard.

11.23 Benefits of steel yard

1. Allows sufficient space to stack steel of different diameter separately.
2. Sufficient space for fitters for working in the steel yard.
3. To control the possible thefts of small steel pieces as working of fitter is inside the steel
4. Proper control on wastage by fitters.
5. Full cut pieces of rejas (small cut pieces) in beams, slabs, lintels, lofts etc.

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6. Overall security of steel can be maintained by putting a security guard.
11.24 Bar bending schedule (BBS)
Necessity of bar bending schedule
Bar bending schedules are the schedules which helps the site engineer and R.C.C. fitters to
give exact cutting length of steel, required to each member ie. Beam, slab, column etc. This
reduces the Wastages of steel. With the help of bar bending schedule, site engineer can
calculate exact quantity of steel required for slabs and beam. The counter check on quantities
for slabs and beams. The counter check on quantities calculated by site engineer is also easy
when it is accompanied by bar bending schedule. RCC fitter gets familiar with the bar cuttings
and bent up bar lengths before cutting of steel and mistakes in bending can be avoided. Bar
bending schedules also helps in checking the slab reinforcement
As the cost of steel is rapidly increasing now a days we can maintain the economy in
construction with the use of bar bending schedule. Every kilogram of extra steel used is a
national waste and this can be avoided with the help of bar bending schedules
11.25 Procedure for reinforcement work


11.25.1. Procedure for footing reinforcement

1. First of all, cutting should be done for the footing mesh (jail) bars considering the
allowance for L and covers on all the sides
2. Then footing jail should be prepared by tying the bars, care should be taken to tie each and
every junction with binding wire
3. Cut the column bars to the required length considering the allowance for base L
4. Cut the bars for column rings column rings single or double as per the requirement of the
length accordingly. Rings should be prepared on fitters platform considering the width and
breadth of column and deduct the cover from the same. Sample ring shall be made as per
BBS needs to be checked in actual and then do the correction, if required
5. Footing jali should be kept in the footing shuttering
6. Proper cover should be maintained from sides as well as from bottom

11.25.2.Procedure for column reinforcement

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1. Consider floor to floor height and lap length 45D to be added in to the length. (D is
diameter of bar)
2. Cutting should be done first for main reinforcement.
3. Laps in column reinforcement shall be staggered
4. Make column rings as per BBS and check for actual
5. For lapping, make the joggle if bar diameter is more than 12mm
6. Prepare column on fitters platform by typing the rings to the main reinforcement, if size &
No. of bars are not heavier
7. Shift the column to the site and erect in required posting as per drawing and gridlines
8. Care should be taken to tie the dowels properly and rigidly
11.25.3 Procedure for beam reinforcement
1. In R.C.C. drawings ,numbers of bottom bars, bent up bars along with details of rings are
normally mentioned
2. As per the BBS beam reinforcement is prepared in advance
3. Cutting should be done beam wise & for total number of beams required for slab
4. Bind the chit of paper for easy identification, to the bunch of bars
5. Then making of the rings should be done
6. Beam can be binded on fitters platform along with the bent up bar.
7. Place these beams to the position with proper anchorage in end columns
8. If beams are heavy them binding of the beam is done at site location for ease in handling
9. For continuous beams bent up bars should be properly extended in the adjacent beams and
tied with binding wire
10. Proper cover should be provided to bottom and sites of reinforcement
11.25.4. Procedure for slab reinforcement
1. Take the measurement of the cutting length of the slab reinforcement and accordingly
cutting can be done
2. For continuous slabs consider the projection of the bent up bars in the adjacent slab while
calculating the cutting lengths of the slabs
3. The cut bars should be stored in bunches slab wise and can be transferred on the slabs
4. Marking for the c/c distance of the bars should be done on the slab plates with the help of
5. Lay the main reinforcement as per the marking
6. Place the distribution steel on main reinforcement and each and every junction should be
tied with binding wire
7. Bent up bars should be bent at the required length from support as per the type of slab i.e.
continuous or simply supported etc.
8. Place the chairs under every bent up bar to maintain the top reinforcement at top
9. Bent up should be lifted considering the slab cover and slab thickness
10. All hidden beams should be placed such that center of the hidden beam should be
considered as the center of the proposed wall on that beam

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11.25.5. Procedure for Chajja / Cantilever Reinforcement
1. For Chajjas and cantilever slabs the main reinforcement should be provided at the top of
2. Every alternate bar, or as specified by R.C.C designer, should be bent back at the bottom.
3. The anchorage of the top reinforcement should be provided either in beam, adjacent slab or
column as the case may be.
4. For the beams and lintels the reinforcement should be anchored around the beam with
required anchorage.
5. For slabs the reinforcement should be continued in adjacent panel for required anchorage
6. The anchorage length should be minimum 69D or the span of the cantilever whichever is
7. Chairs should be provided below each and every bar of the slab to keep the top
reinforcement in position.
8. Distribution bars should be provided as per the required spacing
11.26 Normal mistakes on site by R.C.C. fitters
11.26.1 Negligence in footing jali

Spacing of bars differs

Each alternate junction of bars is tied with bending wire
Column base is not tied to footing jali properly
Column main corner bars not laid in 45 degree position with the plan

11.26.2 Negligence in column reinforcement

1. Stirrups for main reinforcement is not binded to each and every bar
2. Spacing between the stirrups is found to be unequal
3. Main reinforcing bars and stirrups are not tied tightly to each other
11.26.3 Negligence in beam reinforcement

Top bars of beams are not bent in 90 degree

Distance of bent up from the face of support differs
Spacing of stirrups differs with specified drawing
For end support of beam bent up bars are not bent in to beam or column up to required
5. Spacer pins are provided when multi tier reinforcement is to be provided
6. Beam bars are not passing through column reinforcement
7. Full bearing of beam bars not given on column / supports
8. Angle of 45o not maintained for bent up bar
9. Proper cover is not provided to sides and bottom
10. Check for extra bars shown in the drawing and BBS but forgotten many times while

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11.26.4 Negligence in slab reinforcement

Spacing of the main reinforcement

Distance of bent up from the face of support differs to typical bending
Every junction of main and distribution bars is not tied to each other properly
For end support of slab, bent up bars are not bent or hooked in to beam
Insufficient chairs are provided under bent up bars
Laps are not provided in a staggered manner
Lap lengths provided are insufficient
Length of projection of bent up bars in case of continuous slab is not as per requirement i.e.
9. Extra length of cutting bars at ends leads to which top reinforcement is not properly
maintained at top position
10. Same lap length for all diameter of bars
11. Proper cover not provided reinforcement touches the shuttering
11.27 Material Wastage
1. Bar bending schedule should be prepared to have minimum wastage.
2. Bars should be properly stacked especially away from water and chemicals.
3. The small piece resulting after cutting should be stacked separately for alternative use. e.g.
temporary pegs. Needs to be always in front of fitter so that he can use it optimally where
11.28 Safety

Labour should use protective equipment like helmets, safety shoes, gloves .
Area should be defined for stacking of reinforcement
All bent up steel ends to be stacked properly to avoid any injury
Binding wires should not protrude after tying
Vertical reinforcement projections at low height should have a cap to avoid injury to

11.29 Mode of Measurements.

11.29.1 Formwork
1. Formwork shall be measured in square metres as the actual surfaces in contact with the
concrete or any other material requiring formwork.
2. Where formwork is required to be lined with wallboard, hardboard, polyethylene sheet or
paper lining or to be coated with mould liquid or limewhite, such formwork shall be so
described and measured separately
3. Where lining of wallboard, asbestos, cork slab and the like is of a permanent character and
is to be left in , such lining shall be measured separately the description shall include any
necessary fixing to the concrete.

JMC Projects (I) Ltd.

4. No deduction shall be made for opening up to 0.4 m2. No deduction shall be made for any
opening/cutouts when slip form technique is used.
5. Raking of circular cutting and rounded or moulded edges shall be measured in running
metres. Moulded stoppings shall be enumerated.
6. Formwork to secondary beams shall be measured up to the sides of main beams, but no
deduction shall be made from the formwork of the main beam where the secondary beam
intersects it. Formwork to beam shall be measured up to sides of column, but no deduction
shall be made from the formwork to stanchion or column casings at intersections of beam
7. Dimensions shall be measured to the nearest 0.01 m. and Areas shall be worked out to the
nearest 0.01 m2.
11.29.2 Reinforcement
1. Bar reinforcement shall be measured by weight in kilograms and shall include cutting to
lengths, hooked ends, spacer bars, cranking or bending (straight or spiral). Authorized
overlaps, Chairs/separators shall be measured
2. When welding of joints is authorized same shall be described; joints, butt welded shall be
measured in numbers and lap welded shall be measured in running metres of the length
3. Fabric reinforcement shall be described (including meshes and strands) and measured in
square metres. Authorized lap shall be measured.
4. Wire netting used as encasement shall be described (including meshes and wires) and shall
be measured in square metres. Authorized laps shall be measured.
5. Raking or circular cutting and waste shall be included in description.
6. Binding wire for reinforcement shall not be measured, but shall be included in description
of items.
7. Hoop iron shall be fully described and measured in running metres.