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A GRAMMAR

OF THB

CLASSICAL ARABIC LANGUAGE,


TRANSLATED AND COMPILED FROM THE WORKS OF THE MOST
APPROVED NATIVE OR NATURALIZED AUTHORITIES.

BY

MORTIMER SLOPER HO WELL, C.I.E., HON. LL. D.


RETIRED MEMBER OF H. M's. INDIAN CIVIL SEETICB,
And

formerly Member of the Atiatic Society of Bengal

and Fellow of

the Univertititt of Calcutta

and Allahabad.

Published under the Authority of the Government, N.~W, Provinces.

IN

AN INTRODUCTION AND FOUR PARTS.

The Introduction

and Part

The Noun.

I.

9f
ALLAHABAD:
PBIXTBD AT THB IfQBTH-WBSTBBH PBOTINCBS

OFDH

AICD

Price, Rs. 2-8-0 (3

Qd).

-^7'
PBB1I.

NOTICE.
THE

present Fasciculus (the fourth) completes Part I

on the Introduction and the Noun.

Part II on the Verb

and Part III on the Particle have been previously


published.

These three Parts deal with the accidence

(inflection), the syntax,

and such etymological

processes.

as are peculiar to one of the three parts of speech, noun,

Part IV, treating of

verb and

particle.

common

two or three parts of speech,

to

Ibth August 1900.

M.

S.

still

processes

remains.

HOWELL.

NOTICE.
-ADDITIONS

AND CORRECTIONS TO ABBREVIA-

TIONS OF REFERENCES.

ADDITIONS AND CORRECTIONS TO CHRONOLOGICAL LIST.

Additions and Corrections to the Abbreviations of


References.

Whenever S says " I have heard

Last Prefatory Note.


trustworthy person

",

he means

AZ (NA.

the

173).

[This addition should be inserted after

(Nw. 210)".]

The Lexicological Monograph entitled An Nawddir


Sa'id Ibn Aus alAnsarl alKhazraji
fi -ILughat by Asfr ZAID
alBasri, the Grammarian and Lexicologist (d. 214 or 215 or
* AZ.

edited

216),

in

1294 by SA'ID Ibn

alMarum alLubnani from a

CU.

For

"Yazid

allladrami ", and for


After

Kais"; and read


*

Shaikh

autlior

names of the

MS

Majma'

own

" Zaid

read

";

and dele

in 1290.

written in 1099, the

Tahir

Bhk."

azZiyadi

".

a?Siddiki,

or 560".

On

its

Mugknl
alFataui

margin

(c.

is

952) by

(d. 981),

alBihdr, fixing the orthography of the

Traditionists,

and concluding with a section upon

the dates of the leading authorities on


Tradition,
to

Primer, the U.

alMuharibi, of the Muharib of

"Delhi" add "

Muhammad

of the

insert

675 by IMkrrn.

117 or 127

read

541 or 542 or 516

lithographed, from a
the

127

Ghalib "

After

IHjr.

alHadrami

his

ALKHURI

Allah

written in

The commentary of IM upon

IAI.

lAt.

MS

<Abd

from the Prophet

The Kadi Jamal adDm Abu -IFadl Muhammmad

IMkrm.

MUKARKAM

IBN

alAnsari alKhazraji
the

Secretary to

allfriki alMisri,

an-Najjari

[He waa
al

An sari

Madam

(b.

630, d. 711), author of the

a descendant of the

anNajjari, one of the

alMisri,

who was

aDd

Chancellery at Cairo,

afterwards President of the Council at Tripoli, the

and Lexicologist

arRuwaifi'i

Grammarian

LA.

Companion Ruwaifi' Ibn Thabit


Banu Malik Ibn AnNajjar al*

present at the conquest of

Egypt

in 20,

was appointed governor of Tripoli by Mu'awiya in 46, and died

in

56.]

IT. Insert

ya

asSaba'i

"

"

after

<Abd Allah", and

of AlMarJ-

" after " Grammarian".

The Sharif Aba Muhammad, or Abu-lMu'ammar,


Yahiya Ibn Muhammad IBX TABX-TABl aPAlawi alHusainJ,
ITT.

the

Grammarian and Philologist


* Jh.

The Sahah,

(d. 478).

often called the Sihah, of the Shaikh

Abu

Nasr Isma'il Ibn Hammad ALJAUHARi atTurki alFarabi, the


Lexicologist (d. 393 or 398 or about 400), printed in Egypt, with
the Marginal Annotations of

[See
the

last

MAJh

N,

in 1282.

in the Additions

and Corrections issued with

preceding Fasciculus, where this correction also should

have been included.]

LA.

The

great Lexicon

entitled

the

Lisan al'Arab, by

IMkrm,
*

MAE,.

Cawnpore

theSH".

Add

" * Also the


Marginal Annotation upon the

edition of the

Commentary by

the

same Author upon

Rk.
*

Insert

TA.

6.

371

".

The Tahdhib alAlfaz, being

the Kitab alAlfa? of

ISk, with the Tahdhib, or Critical Annotations, of T, edited,

with the Glosses of


Cheikho,

S. J., in

* Tsr.

In

I.

IK

on the text of ISk, by Father Louis

1896-8 A. D.
3 read " the

MAd, from

MS, and from

the

edition lithographed in Persia in 1285".

U.
tical

The

'

Umdat

Primer, by IM.

alHafiz wa,

'

Uddat

alLdfiz, a

Gramma-

Additions and Corrections to the Chronological List.

No.

4.

lAIdied

The prayer

AKB).

127

in

(MAB, ITB, BW)

at his funeral

in

was offered by Bital

Burda, Kadi of AlBasra, who was removed from

aud died soon afterwards

(AKB.

117

i.

If

115,452).

(NA,
Ibn Abt

office in

so, the

120,

proper

date seems to be 117.

"

No.

5.

Add

No.

8.

Insert

IAI

(4>" as a master of I Al.

"

IAI

(4)" as a master of

"

IAI

(4)" as a master of Y.

No.

10. Insert

No.

13.

No.

"
14. Insert

Read " AASli, pupil of


IAI (5)"

Akh.

MD (12), lived".

as a master of Kill.

Nos. 19, 20. Transpose these two numbers, making the necessary alteration in number wherever
"

Add

AZ (19)"

MIA

or *AZ

is

mentioned.

MIA.

as a master of

No. 23. After "74 years" add "or a few years more than 100".

The former
latter in
(4),

who
No.

iro.n

tin-

estimate of
I

Klin.

AMYd's

If, as

the

age

NA

is

found

.-fates,

in the-

INr. and the

he was a pupil of

IAI

died in 117 or 127, the latter estimate must bo adopt- d.


27.

He

iirst

learn!

llu;

A/

(1

1'r..

of S (NA); but not

iiuisirrs

Khl (B\V).

No. 28. Insert" pupil of

XM. 29. In-Tt " Ahnir (IS)" :unong

tin-

lt*n of

I'V.

No.

Ahmr

30. Insert

"
(18)" and

Fr

(29)"

the

among

mas-

of Lh.

ter*

33. Insert "

No.

No. 34.

MIS

Nr

among

died in 231 (lAth,

the masters of

BW, HKh):

age of 92, according to a story told in the

at the

case he was born in 140,

Fr

"
(21)

who was born

(29),

in

AUd,
232 (NA),

NA,

in

which

and should therefore be entered before

in 144.

No. 48. Insert " Zd (41)" among the masters of Mb,

BB (NA).
KK.

No. 49. The reporter of [poetry among] the

AT

No.
from

seems to class him among the

ii. 2C. )

(INr.

1Kb

50.

was a Kufi (NA)

context, to

its

mean

that he

But

but this observation appears,

was Kufi by

birth,

not in

doctrine.

Insert

57A

M IW (father),
|

lived

No. 61.

pupil of

50 years

Add

Th

(47) aud
...

...

"MYd

(53)"

Mb

to the

(48),
...

298

masters of Sul.

Insert

64A

I.W.

of Zj (51) and
"

IW

(57 A)

332

the masters of Kl.

No. 71.

lusert

No. 72.

Sf was born before 270 (INr, BW), probably a

mistake for 290.

84

(son), pupil

Zj (54)

Even

if

among

his age, at his death in 368,

in the
years, as is stated

lAth, IKhn,

which case he was born in 284, he was senior


in 288

was only

MAB,

and TKh, in

to Kl,

who was born

and therefore Nos. 71 and 72 should be transposed, the

necessary alteration in

number being made wherever Sf or Kl

is

vii

In the INr. n. 225, 233, the dates above mentioned

mentioned.
(b.

before 270, d. 368) are erroneously assigned to

Sa'id asSirafi alFali, author of a

whom

commentary on the Lubab,

the author of the INr. says in the

BW

as to

" I have not


come

of him/'

life

upon any

Muhammad Ibn

Insert

75A

Bd

Amd,

pupil of

Nf (57), and

AAS

No. 83.

IS

ID

died at a great age

Read "371

No. 101.

Insert

Add

(BM,

...

371

AWM).

450".

ASB

Ao. 104, note3.

(55),

...

(66)

No. 100.

Akh

Zj (54),

(51),

"

Ya'Kub Yusuf Ibn Ya'Kub

(84)" as a master of IB.

He

studied

alBasri,

Egypt under Abu

in

known

as Ibn

anNajirami, from Najiram, a ward in AlBa?ra, and

Khurrazadh

known

also as

Grammarian and Lexicologist (b. 345, d. 423), who


Egypt and learnt from Abu -IHusain 'All Ibn Ahmad

alBuhturl, the
settled in

alMuhallabi

(d. 335),

who was

a pupil of IKb's son

Aba

Ja'far

AJimad Ibn 'Abd Allah adDinawari alMaliki, Kadi of Mi?r


(d. 322), who was born at Baghdad, and studied there under his
father

1Kb

(50)".

No. 106. ISd was a pupil also of his own


pupil of

ABz

father,

who was

(79).

Insert

107

A Bd
|

ITT,

pupil of

Rb

(86) and

Thm

(98)

...

478

and
109

*
|

ABk,

pupil of

Mkk

(95)

...

...

494

viii

No. 112.

Read "431"

No. 116.

Insert " pupil of

No.

Insert

19.

No. 120.

To

ITT

"531".

for

ABk

(109 A)".

(107 A)" as a master of ISh.

If

nearly 90 (BM).

so,

IT

should precede

Md

(115),

No. 121.

Insert "pupil of ISB (116) ".

No. 123.

Add

No. 126, note

1.

H (118) "
Add

*Abd ArRahman Ibn

"

to the masters

He studied in Spain under Abu

Muhammad

known

of Jk.

Ibn

Ahmad

-IKaeita

anNafti, of Nafta

Ibn AsSa'igh, who entered Spain,


and became a pupil of lArb (125), and afterwards travelled in the

(a

town

East,

in Africa),

as

leaving Damascus in 518 on

No. 128.

Insert

No. 137. Insert

Through

pupil of

SKht

IBsh

(122)"

way back

IS

among

(66),

himself:

IS

(66)

to

Nafta,"

(1 17) ".

the masters of

these masters the grammatical pedigree cf

traceable in three lines to

F(73)

his

KIAmk

KIAmb

is

from information given by

Insert

137 A

A
|

IMd.i, pupil of lAt (128)

...
|

513592

and

147A

ITlh, pupil of Sub (133) and

IMu

(136)

545-618

aud
>

152A

Bd

ALB,

KIAmb

pupil of

No. 156.

Add

ITlh (147 A/'

No. 183.

For

172

" read

...

(137)

557629

to the masters of Shi.

171".

Insert

186A

*Jrb, pupil of

After " 723 " put

Xo. 190.

746

...

(172)

", the

number of

the

first

Note below.
Dele No. 196 and Note

2.

No. 199. Insert " lived nearly 88 years".

No. 201. Read "

*FA

and

MN

(Author of the)".

Insert

202A

M|

*IHjr

...

...

...

773-852

IHjr was pupil of IHsh's son Muhibb adDm Muhammad


Ibn *Abd Allah Ibn Yusuf alHambatf, the Grammarian
750,
(6.

d.

799),

who

studied under his father

diplomas from Sb (192) and

IA

(193).

IHsh

(194), aud received

CONTENTS.

Clll.

Page.

CHAPTER

XII.

THE NUMERAL NOUN.


31 3.

explanation of terms

Definition

tion between

num. and

each

in

num.

tX^I

cX^lj

its

<j^'t

O
<X^>!^

with

and <jLo!

anomalous expression

jjLjLj't'

numerical exponent

superfluous for prcn. in du.


for pron. in pi.

314.

reason

sp<

cxcep-

'f

of this exception

of

a n.

by

numbered

specifying the genus

the

/era.

accompanied

generally

tion in case of

m&ms.

elementary

O "f.

of

derivation

scale

from

composite

peculiar pre-

pi.

elementary nums.

dicaments of nums.

number

distinc-

necessary

explanation of difference 1423

Predicaments of nums.

their

R's

gender

explanation of peculiarities in their gender

LgJ&o!

IHsh

Ixi^ VI. 161.

and

by

hitherto

assumed

mention

restricted

the

num.

gender

of

the

others
to

how

by Sfw

to

of

by

numbered

be mention <]

Mich

mention after

refutation of this restriction

num. when numbered

mentioned, but understood


nion

justified

Fk

gender

of

is

not

apparent opi-

num.

when

1426

CONTENTS,

CIV.

C*

understood numbered
theory of Sb
reference

his

latitude allowed

than
fern,

is

word other

allowability of

gender of

fern.

number

when numbered

num.

gender to
a pi.

is (1)

substantive or ep.

is

a collective generic n., or a quasi-pl.


exs.

n.

with such ns.

proper name

What nums.
need a

10

when

sp.

...

of nums.

\V)

from

their sp. is (a)"a collective


(b)

not such

peculiar treatment of JuLo as a sp.


O

1426

1442

to their

...

generic n., or a quasi-pl. n.

...

what nums. are pre.

sp.

(3)

do not, aud what nums. do,

Case and number of


to

exceptions

(4) of both genders

numbered

of.

auLo and oiJ! used as sp. for what


auLo written united with
(2)

im-

Bdd and Ks and Fr

according as sing,

num. when understood

gender in

opinions of the

(2)

dispute as to

*LjJ

be regarded

316.

pL>!

Sb on

criticism of

Nw

by

porting unrestricted

315.

word

St'f-

numbered

(2)

the

summary of his argument


to the opinions of S and

words of Z

actual

is (1)

from 11

to

99

its

num.

num.

explanation of a text

14421443

CONTENTS.

<3V

Page.

where

sp. is

from

able

apparently pi.

num.

its

of sucb

other apposs.

broken

pi.

from 3

to

sound

10 pre.

sound

sary

in other cases rare

*!&
to

II.

1454

10 mostly a

to

nums.

a sp.

weak when an

of multitude

pi.

Mb's opinion

228

to

explanation

IHsh and

andBD

The comp. nums.

pinion of

totswner

R
...

in

first

*S S
*-cLc

"

Lol

another explanation of
in

KK

-lie-able to

"*1
&iJl$

...

and

LuL>!

of

99
.*J>

cause of uninflectedness

member

uninflectedness

of

language of

...

'ij*.

nums.

10 when pre. to pi. of multitude

adopted by

the

first

member

numbered
what

nums.

such
its

pre.

prefixion
effect

on

member of comp.
of first member to second,

uninfloctedness of cadi
prefixion

exs.

num. sometimes

num.

1443

pi. then preferable or neces-

objections

and

...

of nums. from 3 to 10 when a pi.

sp.

in last

be an ep.

sound pi. in three

to

cases

from 3

and of

sp.

dispute as to

when

pi.

of paucity, and when a

318,

100 and

sp.

of nums. from 3

sp.

p.

for

num. may

whether p. of any

The

not separ-

number of ep. of sing.

1000

317.

(3)

sp.

14541457

CONTENTS.

cvi.

Page.

without prefixion of whole to something


else, said

mon

IM to

by

be disallowed by com-

of

assertion

his

consent

common

consent questioned

.,.

S"

319,

Treatment of j* of
of

y&e.

explanation of the

in composition
' ' '

of

of

and of

and of

like

KK,

of

<jUj

<j

>

without composition

Dm's

pt+z-

treatment of

last

jc^Uj in composition

nion of

1461

iiL^-fc

* * *

of ji

1457

*s

)\y&J\

as noted

opi-

by IBr

such elision of <g not peculiar to poetry


analogous elision in other ns.
X

320.

Gender of
X

>

...

jj^^cLfc

and similar nuras.,

to

'

masc. gender universally predo-

^ytwo

except in two

minant in Arabic over fern.


'> '

cases, the

word ^(JUUG and the system of

fcm. here said by many

dating

dominate over masc.

to pre-

erroneous to regard

the system of dating as a case of predomi-

nance

demonstration

reason

why

true

case

masc.

this

the Arabs date

error

by nights

of predominance of fern, over

in dating

case of

of

condition requisite for a

predominance in gender

gender

1461

1465

CONTENTS.

evil.

Page.

of num. having

sps. of different

genders

number among such

distribution of the

explanation of such idioms

sps.

>

unit not

compounded with ^^xLfr and other nums.


00
predicament of A*aj

of

its cat.

0*

0-?

and KJUOJ

used

what decimal

with

numbers
321.

...

Uninflectedness of

O'x^

nums.

in enumeration

aud of letters of alphabet, and

Kjj-gAJu
the like,

when simply enumerated


names of

vars.

of the

infl.

ns. are orig.

letters

III. 1.

why

Fath of

not Kasr

322.

4\A-!

when

letters

when

numsu when

718.

and

meaning

&

X>

in *-U!

^r**r

^J

infl.

transferred
...

infl.

broken

use

pi.
o ^

assimilate ep.

modifications in

treatment of such names


to cat. of

when

except ejs. and

infl.

of names of

dial,

letters

names of

finals

14651471

change of the

tX^I

and (5<X^I preferred

in combination with
o

a decimal

num.

sometimes found

tX^-U
*

and

w^Lc

when

prc.

-use of

iX^

'

and (5<X>

<X^>U

of

14711474

CONTENTS.

CVlii.

Page.
O

when not
denote
'*

Jo!

x*

Jo! when

of

pre.

>

generality, in

rarely

non-aff. phrase

made

then

not pre., to

the

det.

neg.
a '

sometimes posterior to

of

this use

it

not found in a/, phrase

use of

f.

Jo!

Jo!^ and

6 x

denote generality

to

sjo!^

Hamza

on

of

Jo!

opinion of

denoting totality
G

xfi

Jo!

refutation of this opinion

sometimes

used as

'0,0

i.

q.

^-><X^^I <X^t and

1X2^

meaning of the

Jcs>^! <5<X^4

genders
x-if^O

in

two

these

words used like

in non-affirmation, to denote totali-

21 mentioned by

expressions

'

othtr

ty

explanation of

application to masc.

ex.

9 others by ISk

mo re by Kl

...14741483

...

323.

The num. how made

324.

Ordinals of nums. from 1 to 19


to 90,

latter

det.

...

and of 100 aud 1000

tiicms. coupled together

J483

1484

1485

1486

from 20

-of cardinal

act. part,

derived

,Co
from

Tiitms.

formation

its

one

nor Oof^

gender of

Jj^l not
G

R's opinion on
<X^.!^

act. part.

its

fern.

. . .

CONTENTS.

C1X.

Page.

325.

This

act.

ijw

and

how

part,
,

^^

used

etc.

...

...

A.

wwms.

Distributive
B

etc.

meaning of distributive
scholars

eo:s.

distributives used

not agreed upon

Arabs

the

by

statement of

of majority

AlMutanabbi's use of
o^

<X^!j

>

jjt<X=*j

Tiums.

IA

opinion

of KhA

'

,-

oW and ^!<X*
'

tX>!^

14861495

r,

325.

etc.,

"

JL^I

and V^AW respectively

for

&
said

to occur in the sense of

325.

Dates

B.

1495

...

tX^!^

1498

reckoned by nights, not days

method of dating
to

month how expressed


number of v. used in

be complete

...

CHAPTER
Tin-:

326.

XIII.

ABBREVIATED AND PROLONGED NOUNS-.

Definition

of abbreviated

pronunciation,

not orthography, to be considered


!

(l)convertcd

(2)au0.

named abbreviated
ed

1498-

before final

T
ns. as

final

decl. n.

whrn

definition -f prolong-

Ilum/u

final

Ham/a

'

%Lo not named prolonged

-1501

CONTENTS.

CX.

Page.

&G

nor such as

and &L&

and *$+&

abbreviation and

ation regular or

327.

Unsound

n.

ns. so called

decl.

known by
in

ending

abbreviation regular

328.

Second kind

329.

Third kind

its

of prolonged

exs.

by Fr

its

15031505

1506

...

1507

KK,

of abbreviat...

disallowed,

allowed

unrestrictedly

drawn by Fr

1508

his opinion refuted

prolongation of abbreviated

tion

1503

regular

...

A. Abbreviation of prolonged

majority of

kind

1502

abbreviation or prolonga-

ed

cases,

...

...

known by hearsay

some

prolong-

additional exs.

prolongation

tion

in

^y&

hearsay
first

exs.

additional exs.

exs.

329.

its

and

ps.,

abbreviated or pro-

indecl. ns. not ealled

longed only
~'&\

vs.,

by

distinc-

disallowed by majority

of BB, unrestrictedly
able, unrestrictedly

apparently allowopinion of

1Kb

IW

and
,

15081511

CHAPTER XIV.
THE NOUNS CONNECTED WITH VERBS.
330.

"
Meaning of tbe description connected with
verbs

"

classification

of these ns.

1512

CONTENTS.

0X1.

Page.

THE
331.

accident

Definition
n>'s

INFINITIVE NOUN.
eonfonnabiiity
to

conformability

meaning of such conformability


definition of inf. n.

why named

BB
in

inf. n.

according to

KK

tril.

unangmented

(1) the

forma-

prevalent

formations

other

crafts or offices

form

its

tions

KK's

of

refutation

names of inf. n.

other

opinion

and qual.

v.,

s<X3je

the

(2)

perfect

originality or deri-

vativeness of inf. n.,


G x

inf.

alternative

v.

SJLxi in

or.

xJjb ar occa-

regular

6 ^

Jlw in fright and excitement

sional var,

sounds

in
ns.

denoting time,

inf. n. in such cases


O '

O ^^

JljLs

and JLju

in

or

sounds

and, with

">

9^

^ ^ ^

r,

-^*j

'

>

und kJlxi

JlaJ

^--^

non-inf.

JL*3 in brands

non-inf. ns.
^^Jii and
9^09
o^--x

motion

in

ailments
f.

>

season, for act

Oo^
Jaj

JUULS, in

'^

and, with JL*J

in

>

JLj

in violent
n s*

and

Jjii

and

and JULS
9

auL*3

in

colors

Jji3 in defects

'

'

'\'

anrl iLLni in

position of act
n ^x

>

in

superfluity

Jju

in

ailments

CONTENDS.

CXU.

Page,
regular inf. n. of trans. JOL
that

assertion

it is

not regular

when

S and Akh

other

allowable, according to

condition

opinions

'

intrans.

J^xs regular inf.


a

"

Fr

opinion of
'

'

Jlx3

JL*3

i
s

of

O ^

intrans. Jjt3
^

> >

Jjw

and

Jjii

" '

the

in

prescribed,
^

Tashil, in case of Jdti

of

or

Juuti and

Jux3

>

Juti sometimes combined, sometimes sepaH"

or

^.1*3
9

aLyji regular

s-

most prevalent measures

inf. n. of Joti
s

n. of

in inf.

'"'*

"n"

9<

aUUi

rate

>

rule in inf.

Jkjii

<r i.

Ox

irregular ^?i/.

Juii

of Joii
x^^
Jaw as inf. n. of Joui

Jjt3 as inf.

Sx>
JOLJ

Tis.

Ox

Oxx

xx''

Ox^
Fr's opinion on v^-Lc,

Jj**
>^*>
&Ajt3

also

JLC.L&
X

not in/.

9>*x

>Y

J*i

i.

Jjjuut

>x
i.

q.
XO "

JyuLo

tril.,

and

^j>

>x,ox
(j^Jj
Oxx
and Jot3
&JLxJ

i.

q.

these measures
...

...

332. Inf. n. of augmented

and

*>

>xx>
,

some of

&XjLLo

n.

q.

JOLJ

Jot* as in/. ?.

of Jow

O'x

of

n.

Ox

>

...

and of unaugment-

ed and augmented quad.

each conjiig.

15131529

tJONTENTS.

CXlii.

Page.

provided with appropriate form of inf. n.


such forms

reducible to one rule

all

whereby regular inf. n. may be known


when v. is known irregular inf. n9. more
notorious in some conjugs.

regular inf. ns. confined to

JLx3

hearsay in some conjugs.

some conjugs. irregular


tion

classificatinn

commensurable,

quad.

(2)

(a)

exceeding 3

vs.

and

with

coordinated,
tril.

commensur-

coordinated, with quad.

'S.-

and commensurable
adjLaJj

which

inf.

7i.*

anomalous

Sc
JU3

Q s
v>!tX

simple substantive

^\"

"

-^

jLftA*

ss

aaid

(a)

to

ang. <&

non-

(o)
'

be

' '
its

J^tLs
O

kJUUx> and Jlxi


(3)

augmented

incommensurable with quad.


with

in

is

Juts and Jljuu said to

>

fcljjo

when J

used

Q a

J^yuu

(b) Joi3

opinion of S

Hamza

>

distinction between coordinated

Juul

and

tril.

augmented

(1)

augmented

able, but not

of

sole inf. n.

detailed explana-

of

of

inf. ns.

letters

than regular

(a)

be anomalous

JOIA>
(6)

tril.

beginning
*

CONTENTS.
Page.

anomalous
~~inf. ns. of such

(b) conj.
** '
cs

exs.

^a a

oLb! and v*^!

vs. as

unaugmented quad, and

(4)

Hamza

its

coordinates

O '

instances of J^ou in non-reduplicated

0^0

O x

>^

Q X

_LsO

aULUj and

JLftxa*

0x0

<-

only in reduplicated

O ^

J^JLJ an

J^AJ

o. f.

'

and J^JL$

0x0-

0^0

-in/. 71,

usual meaning of

a simple substantive
9 s

JUy^

G^

O^o

or J^ota and J^oti both i?i/. ws.


-- X

'

and iLoJuJ'

(5..

or quad, beginning with

augmented triL

^ of quasi-passi^ '

vity

on measure of

tions

effect

XX

JJjtAJJ

forma-

of unsoundness of J

(6)

augmented qi^ad. on measure of (a)


Cxx*
9 o^oxo
9x i?-^ >
^JjtAA^I __ (b) JJju!
and
kxAJUb
**x
x

*'

...

333.

TVi/.

ti.

with

on measure of
S

(1) JJIAX> .sometimes


O ox

of femininization

inf. n. of
(2)

JOIA* regular as

unaugmented triL

pass.

exceeding 3

par.

letters

vowel of

pas*, part,

of

its
i>.

used as inf. n., n. of

time, and n. of place inf. n. on measure


9~ o x
of JjJiA/o rare
disallowed by S* 'his ex-

1529-^1545

CONTEXTS.

CXV.

Page.
O s

planations of apparent instances

and &.<Xa>o
J

with the

all

part., in

plicable as d.

act.

these exs., otherwise exinf. n. used in sense of

s.

act. or pass. part.

in such cases

its

gender and number

presence otherwise ex-

its

by suppression of a pre.

plicable

&*jX/o

(3)ac. part.~exs.

some of

'

on measure of x-Lc-U

inf. n.

>

n.

use of

inf. n. as act. or pass. part, hyperbolical

334.

held by

JLnAJ*

of unauginented

n. of

of

not regular, though

tril.

KK

to be orig.

Juw

S's opinion preferable

as an inf. n.

when an

and non-inf.

...

...

its

conjugs.its)

N. un.
and iuuJ

sense

...

(5^*^ not regular

^^Ax-Lf^

** **

*->Lo|
n.

15591561

an inf. n. in what

exs.

prolongation of
Ox

336.

^j

instances of JLub* in inf.

(5-^*^

vowel

inf. n.-

iUUj

\j^^
O ^

335.

an inf.

&*

initial in JtxAJ'

ns.

1559

to be an intensive inf. n.

and by

frequent

1545

its

disputed
f

^^'"^

and seUJ

^ tf

properly XAJ!

un. from unaugmented

whose inf. n. contains

...
>"

opinion of

tril.

IH

15621563

CONTENTS.

CXV1.

Page.

ofZ

ofS

of

of

IM ofBDand
how

un.

n.

general inf. n.

tril.y

n. un.

mented

other than unaugment-

n. un. evidence that inf. n. of

tril.

whole

when

indicated

on measure of xjti

is

how formed from v.


ed

IHsh

trans, or intrans.,

is

orig. JJLS

how formed from quad,


having two inf.

tril.

and n. mod.

or aug-

ns.n.

really sorts of inf. n.

un.

n. un.

confined to what indicates physical action 1563

337.

N. mod. from unaugmented

how

when

indicated
'

n.

general inf. n,

mod.
on

is

measure of k-uti

or

when

v. is

not an

anomalous from non9 ^


9^0
^
xJLxi sometimes
.meaning of &AJU

unaugmented
il %

not a

338.

tril.

7t.

trii.

un. t nor

**j

a n. mod.

' *'
|
Inf. n. of Joti unsound in J

...

extraordinary exception

R's opinion

inf. n. of Joii!

unsound in g

how formed

''

of-

and

<i

,,0

JOIAXA*.!

dispute as to

letter elided

omission of compensation for

elided letter

omission allowed in inf. n. of

Jjtit

xxxO

1569

explanation

dispute as to letter elided


x*

1567

how formed

of exception

^'fjr

1567

^SBx

and JdLaJu*,!-not in inf. n. of Jots

difference between

them

poetic license

...

15691572

CONTENTS.

CXVlL
Page.

339.

Ns. that govern like the


" TW." here reason for
inf. n,

meaning of

v.

beginning with

inf. n. like v. in government

and

intrans.

its

augmented inf. n. like im-

government

in

angmented

of

character

Zrans.

differences

government

between inf. n. and

v.-

dispute as to inf.

governing a pro-ag. in the noin.~

n.'s

inf. n.

pro-ag.

not altered

when

ccnditiona of

its

op, inf. n* must be sing.

why

adopted by

IM

attributed

ta

governmentthis condition

states

of op. inf. n.

comparative frequency and validity of


its

government when

it is

(2) pre. to the obj.

ag.

with

Tanwm

(4)

(1) pre. to the

(3)

pronounced

synarthrous

distinc-

tion between pre. and synarthrous

gov-

ernment of fiynarthrous inf. n. in Kur


disputes as to

.when

pre.

government of inf. n. when


pronounced with

when synarthrous

constructions employ-

ed with pie. inf. n.


$ 340.

its

appo.

Government of
its

time

...

...

Inflectional place of n. post, to inf. n.

of
341.

Tanwm

apportion

to

case

inf. n. not conditional

difference,

in

15721591

...

on

this respect, be-

15911594

CONTENTS.

CXviii.

Page.

tween inf. n. and

1595

pron., and (2) precedence of reg ....... 1595

1601

...

...

Inf. n. not (1) preceded


(2) separated

expression^

from

its

...

its

by

re</.

by extraneous

reg.

supposed instances of

of

of precedence

such constructions

separation by extraneous expression

suppressed

(3)

opinion of

whilst

on

(1)

its

Sd

by extraneous expression

by understood

of

its

reg.

nor

remains

precedence of reg.

the truth, according to

iitf.n.

nor

"
"
meaning of extraneous and

" non-extraneous "

342A.

of

cause

pirt.

1594

difference

342.

act.

inf. n.

(2) separation
(3)

government

predicaments of

occurring as substitute for expression


v.y

in respect of (1) assumption of

Quasi-inf. n.

defined

by

IM

formaO

tions

excluded from definition

fclioA

government of quasi-inf.

op. quasi-inf. n. defined


fication

rare

IM

*.

by IHsh

TI.

classi-

of quasi-inf. Tt.its government


opinion of

allowability disputed

of author of Basit

THE ACTIVE
343.

'

Act. part, defined


parts, excluded

PAKTICIPLE.

illustration

from

1601

...

some

this definition

act.
act.

1605

CXix.

CONTENTS.

Page.

of origination
part, often not denotative
definition given in Tashil

mation of

act. part,

tril.

trans,

of

Aud

in

unaugmented

(1)

I*"

(a)

or

intrans.

"*

J^o

of unaugmented
s

J^J

exceptional act. parts, of Jjii


real act, part,

and
+**

(tyintrans. Jou, and

trans. JJL*

part,

'

Joii,

* +

>

for-

only

tril.

act.

(2) v.

other

9 O

>

**(
why named J^UJ!
*
^ *
I

than unaugmented tril. exceptional act.


',**
anomalous Kasr of
in
parts, of Jou!
^

ac. pari. said

to be

sometimes (I)

in sense of pass. part.

(2)

on measure of

JJL^O

government of

pass, part.

precedence of
all

its reg.

part.

government of

cause* fcf its

complements
intensive

its

act.

government

illustrations

paradigm

government of intensive paradigm


ditions of

its

government

showing precedence of

oexOx*

of J Lxs

JLjiAX)

reg.
n

and

o^

exs.

ex.

government

frequent

"

9 '

of

of Juoui and Jot3 rare

Ox

O ^

of JOL>

con-

J^Jti
?

Jlxi even regular

much

rarer than of Juuti


X

exs.

O X

additional ex. of Jjii

government of

first

opinion of Jr

3 paradigms allowable,

CONTENTS*

CXX.

Page.

BB

by common consent of
of

last

juxs and

two disputed

transmuted from

not

government

act.
o

JL*i

often intensive form of JJLO*

Juuii
"

i.

q.

not intensive ^government of all 5

formations disallowed by

arguments of

allowable

IBdh

precedence

of

meaning drawn by

between

act.

their

act. part.

these paradigms

some formed
...

...

...

Government of

ace.

distinctions in

not formed from non-tril.

;M

in truth,

opinion of

their

and intensive parfidigms

from

KK

BB

equality in intenstwfrieffs

344.

J^

part.
>

when

part,

and

16061623

intensive

paradigm when not sing. (1) of du. and


sound pi. exs. (2) of broken p. e#s.
'

""

such government frequent in jLtj^j


elision
(1)

of ,j of du. and sound

from

synarthrous act. part, governing (a)

the ace.

(b)

the gen.

(2)

part, governing the ace.


345.

pi.

'exs.

anarthrous act.
...

...

Conditions requisite for government of ace.

by

act.

or pass. part.

government of

ace.

act. or pass. part.

disputes as

by dim. or

to

qualified

government of ace. by

1623

1626

CXXl.

CONTEXTS.

Page.
OS

net. part.

where

conjoined with J!

(\}

an adv.

is

obj.

government of ace. by
^

with J!

(2)

ex.

controversy on

act. part,
-

denuded of J!

conjoined
condition

of time required for government of


reason

when

prefixion necessary

past

act. part,

government of second

allowed by some in sole or


troversy on

its

denotes

obj.

ace.

first obj.

con-

case of other

allowability

obja.

government of nom. by

^art.

no condition of time needed for

such government

dition

act. or pass,

dispute as to

nom.

so

controversy as to whether con-

governed

of support

needed

is

...

government
346.

condition

prescribing this

for

aec.

for such

...

...

16261637

Condition of support required 'for gcvern**-

meni of ace. by

act.

part denuded of Jl

voc. p. not a support

ing this condition

reason for prescrib-

support upon suppress-

IM's theory of such support


part, is enunc. OF d. s. sup-

ed qualified

when

act.

port upon

supplied

eupports referred to

ed ac. jxir.

ed by
ed

ill"/*.

KK and

Akli

interrog.

by

it-

Mi

supplied

unsupport-

^ovonnncnt allow-

tl:< ir

opinion refut...

...

1G37

cxx.
Pag*.

346A.

Prefixion of act. part.

to

its

or

obj.

pred.~ ace. or gen. allowable in obj. immediately following op. act. part.
ace. necessary in other obj a.

one contingency

able in

gen. allow-

gen. necessary

in obj. immediately following

part.

ace.

act.

inop.

other

in

necessary

exs.

ofr/s.

opinion of Bf as to what governs them in


ace.

choice of case (ace. or gen.) allowed

only in explicit n.

opinion of

to ace. part.

Hsh
when
act.

case of pron. attached

of

Akh

and

comparative merits of acc.&ndgen.,


choice allowed
part,

from

its

separation of pre,

obj.c&se of

post,

appo*. of obj. governed in gen. by act.

qual.

ace.

ex.

part.

is

inop.

and gen.

when

comparative merits of ace.

in appos.

sense of past

allowable even

when

and when

act. part, is

in

act. part, is in

sense of present or future.

ex.

of ace.

dispute as to whether op. of ace. should

be supplied
op.

and, if 50, then what sort of

qual. preferable to

syllepsis

v.

gen. preferable

ace.
v.

supplied for ace. .when act. part,

really

must be
is

inop.

aec. better in ant. after op. act. part.

dispute as to allowability qf g$n. in appos.


of ace.

16121649

CONTENTS.

CXXlil.

Page.

346B.

Tho

prep.

used as support

ment of self-trans,

to

govern-

act. part, or inf. n.

v.~

allowable after act. part., not after

opinion of

Mb

on allowability after

v.

the prep. LJ sometimes used aa support

THE PASSIVE
347.

Pass. part, defined

(1) plastic, att. t

v.

measure of

of pass. part, of

no

aor.

but

when

tril.

act. or pass.

paw. part, of
its

another

illustration

unaugmented

c or J unsound
aplastic

PARTICIPLE.

formation

definition

...

part, of

tril.

still

not on

quasi-con-

formable
o

its

jjtfljo

Q
i.

q.

J-utJ as a substitute

to its v.

'

>J

regularity disputed

government of

^ JJLo

denied by

augmented

IM

(2)

v.

other than un-

such

whether

tril.

this

v.

be

'

trans, or intrans.
oyuo- pass. part.
' "
s
*
o
*> ^
of UAJL^J
Juvxi as a subst itute for J.JLAXJ
s

pass. part, of intrants,

formation

v.

of pass. part, from (rans. and intrana.


9

-+-pas6.

x-o

part, why named JytA^I

^1

not to inf.
pass. part, applicable to adv.,
w.

government of jwss. part.

condi-

1649

1650

CONTENTS.
Page.
tions

of

its

condition of

government

time prescribed only by moderns


fixion of

part,

pass.

with

coordination

to

and

language here
pass.

act.

in Tashil

by
sucli

ep.

IM's

part.

when improper

part,

nom.

its

assimilate

prefixion not allowable in

pre-

prefixion of

and when
'

pass. part, on measure of

proper

JujU

or the like, not coordinated with assimilate

v>jo

or

THE ASSIMILATE EPITHET.


348.

Assimilate ep. denned by


9

'

jLs^

O s ^
<>

vj-***^

no other

^S^5

criticised

BD

except in-

definition of

intended

by

BD

is

in-

IM

definition suggested

by

sense of continuing in assimilate ep.

opinion of
its

no?.

IM

and pass. part, when conti-

it

is

ky

when continuance

trans, act. part.,

nuance

by IHsh

'

v^**^^

ep. pre. to its

tended by

IH
'

regularity

shape of assimilate ep.


its

measures
s-

'

quent in oonjug. of Jjw

this ep.
9

'

v*- ^
4

fre*

-f-

anc*

'Of.

<-^-*t

'

assimilate ep. on measure of jj^*3

from

16511661

CONTENTS.

CXXV.
Page.

conjug. other than Juts


not conformable to
^

to

wherein

its

it

its

mat-

act.

part.

condition of support

government

nom. and

government
it

resemblance

its

participates with

government

reason of

Its v.

ua^! and jjLydi

ac. par.

ters

assimilate ep.

nature of

ace.

its

governed by

such ace. assimilated to direct


obj.

cop.

required

in reg. of assimilate
ep.

or
\

*ay!
349.

"-supplied or constructive cop.

16621675

Matters wherein assimilate ep. differs from


act. part.

350.

...

...

...

...

16751682

Reg. of assimilate ep. sometimes an attached


pron.y prominent

or

latent

classifica-

tion of connected reg. really or

virtually

cases of reg.

72 con-

governed

in ace.

possible

allowable

8 being bad

40 good

synoptic

pron.

table

and

of the 72 con-

when a

prothesb when disallowed

constructions added to 72,


total

15 weak

constructions of reg.

structions

G3

disallowed

structions

number

really

making 75

14,25G

sometimes treated as assimilate

substantive
eft.

...

16831696

CONTENTS.

CXXVi.

Page.
so*

THE
351,

This
9

JLJ! or SUPERIORITY.
should rather be called

defined

so*

of excess

Joi3|

declension

its

formed from intrans. and

its

shape

trans.'

only

from such vs. as vs. of wonder are formed


from

of

expressions

formed from such

morphous
352.

v.

vs. as

from

letters

from

Jjti!

lyive

of wonder

pret. v.

From

*.

...

16*98

exceeding

indicative of color*

vs.

1697

upon measure of

internal defects
353.

no homo-

...

from

Irregular formations

how

superiority

...

substantive or ep. having no v.

or
...

16981702

...

17021703

9
.

354.

This
ag.

Jjtsl regularly .deno tea

355.

of obj.

occasionally
.

Its states

v.

its

superiority of
its

...

construction,

(1)

arthrous and aprothetic

it

ijjo

before

it

it

separation of

combination of this

Jjjo

when an-

v. that

precedence

from

J^

with the
9

by whose means the


from is made tram.

...17031704

dispute as to

sense of f* conjoined with

of

formation

...

^t^

**

Jjwt

is

formed

participation of gen.

governed by comparatival

J^

in accident

CONTENTS.

CXXVll.

Page.
denoted by root of

ironical

v.

comparanot comparatival
sometimes
J^o

tive

>s<>f

(2)

when synarthrous or

Joii!

pre.
Js-o-6.

when

and when

indet.f

del.

JJLJ!

periority always used with

thear.,or

not being deprived of

prothesis

sense of art. with

356.

JJQ,

of su-

all three

nor having two

it

of the three combined

...

...

17041713

number and gender

...

...

17131717

Its

357.

Suppression of

^JJQ

tive frequency

with

its

compara-

t/erz..

of such suppression in vari**#

ous constructions

Jou! sometimes divest-

ed of sense of superiority
of

regularity

this

dispute as to

number

usage

'

gender of Jowl when so used

,*

>6f

J^l

like

and
S

><S

(3x*l

its

J5

^y

9,^

declension

JjSt

>&*

construction

obscure

of

and

Tanwin and

J^l

its

qualificativity

generally

disregarded

when introduced

sign of gen.
.

into

it

>C* O '
Lfr

tion

Jjf

when uninfl. upon

Juo

or

Jjl

explained by S

00

and

Pamm

'*

>

u^l

the latter construc-

and by
,6,-t.

^ ^
J;

6 f.

J;

,,,

17171727

CONTENTS.

CXXVIH.

Page.

>

358.

*-!

^A

suppressed from

words
'

359.

qualified

&

what

treated as a substantive

ber

it

by

of

sort

...

17271729

...

sometimes anarthrous

^yJ^I and ^JLs\J!


- o

and aprothetic
^-Ls>Jf

num-

gender and

superiority obliterated

of

sense

it

>

<S

Ly jJ|

orig. an e>.

feu

an inf. n.

tplanations of L^jti'L
XX^

-^

-^J

360.

Jots! not like v.

nom.

in

>
.j

government

not governed by

^ o*

unless Juts! be replaceable


>

same sense
its

case of

>

in

additional exa.

nom. sometimes &pro-ag.

modifi-

from

tradition

construction

ex.

not found in Iur

heard only after negation

dispute as to

allowability after prohibition

or interro9

gation

v.

reason for

J^xXJl

cations of construction
this

by

government in this case


such

expressed

except in rare

it

latent

in every dial.,

nom. governed by
and without

sOf.

Jjii!

restriction

1s**
direct obj. in ace. not

governed by Jju!

>x*
nor ace. assimilated

to

direct obj.

JJLS!

17291732

Page,
tnade trans,

of

wonder

construction

of Jmi!

v.

by prep.

x*

>

treated

similarly

>^*

formed from doubly trans*

made

unrestricted,

2nd

to

t-*ans.

by prep.

obj.

causative,

not

Jou!

v.

and concomitato
-

not

objs.

in

governed

ace.

adv., cfe.,and sp. governed

THE NOUKS
361.

by

in ace*

op TIME AND
-want of

Their application

them

their

Vowel of their

-~-their

measures

Damm
o

formation

of

by

it ...

1732

1743

PLAC&

government*

object of using

pronounced with

J*s!

formations-

why

irregular

'

not

9 9

'

JutA* from JOLOJ (a) in

of(l)

j)lnce

of Jjw-o

9^^

iUlax>

J^U> and
from

(2) Jjt

362.

The

(b) in addition to

O"x-

w^^

cj,

sometimes affixed to these ns.

Tho foregoing all


tril.

17441747

in addition to Joi

-such affixion not regular

363.

*^A

...

...

1747

1749

17*9

1750

applicable to unaugmented

formation of these tW. from aug-

mented

tril. t

and from quad.

reason of

their oonformability to pass. part.

...

CONTENTS.

CXXX.

Page.

364.

aUlxA* formed from prim, substantive, to


indicate

6 s

slx^o

tion peculiar to tril.

sU&o

forma-

this

abundance~-'&*-jy*

or

5^.svx

coordinated with

this aUjL4x>

of

-ras.

but not regular xJuuuo


Juijj,
9 * sOs
O O
aLuuw not formed from
part. J^LA*

place
act.

more than 3 rada.

substantive of

and

&iJiuuo

like

Ox-Ox,

SuJjCuo and

ibJijuo

"

not

actually

yjjuuo used

*Juuo

XJlxJuo

abundance

to denote cause of

No

o Jixx, and the

9'xox,

heard

365.

and

v^.JLaJuo

&Jjuuo

1750

...

1754

government exercised by n. of time or


apparent instance of such govern-

place

ment

...

17541755

THE INSTRUMENTAL NOUN.


366.

Definition
O

'

loose

application

of term

formation of instrumental n.
its

measures

JLLxi*

"
s

contracted

Joo^ said

to

be

from JljJuo
*

vowel

of*
I

...

...

1756-1757

CXXX1,

CONTENTS.

Page.

O>">
367.

Anomalous formations

JjLix>

,-

and

explanation of these measures


in

x-l*Ax>

distinction

meaning between them and measures

pronounced with Kasr of *

...

...

1758

1759

CHAPTER' XV.
THE TRILITERAL NOUN.
368.

The

unaugmeuted and augmented

n.

of

formations
to

greatest

controversy as

n.

number of aug.

and quin.

quad,

letters

decl.

allowable

in

each

number

of

letters

menled and

formation
in

unaug-

augmented ns. respectively


not taken

certain augs.

theoretically

account

into

formations of unangmented
formations

rad.

but

possible

one formation neglected, and one


09

0>

instances of

it

statement

to dial, of

mented
369.

tril.

Jot3

rare

>

to

others

some

meaning of

such variations preculiar

Tamim

formations of aug-

...

"
Meaning of "augmented
mentation

rare

>

Jjti not neglected

measures reduced
this

dlx=>.

Jjts neglected

12

tril.

classification

...

...17601770

object of aug-

of augment

,.,

1770

1771

CONTENTS.

-GXXxiL

370.

other

Homogeneous augment

former regular, and latter

371.

Number

confined

...

of letters in augment

of augment

to

...

...

hearsay

augs.

17711772

positions

1772

augment separated or united


...

17721774

...

1774

1775

...

1775

1777

...

17771778

augments separated by the vj

...

17781779

Two

augments separated by the

...

1779

378.

Two

augments separated by the J

...

17801781

379.

Two

augments separated by the

...

1781

380.

Two

augments separated by the

381.

Two

augments separated by the ^J,

382.

Two

augments united before the u3

383.

Two

augments united between the

384.

Two

augments united between the

385.

Two

augments united after the J

386.

Three augments separated

387.

Three augments united before the

388.

Three augments united between the

372.

Single augment before the vj

373.

Single augment between the u> and the

374.

Single augment between the

375.

Single augment after the

376.

Two

377.

...

and the J
...

o and
and J
,

...

1783

...

1783

and J

17831784

...

1784

^ and
and J
...

..

.,.

1780

1784

1785

1785

1787

1787

1791

1791

1792
and
...

1792

CONTESTS.

cxxxiii.

Page.
after the

389.

Three augments united

390.

Three augments dispersed, two being united,

and one separate


391.

Four augments

...

17921793

...

...

...

17931795

...

...

1795

CHAPTER XVI.
THE QUADBILITERAL NOUN.
392.

G^ >
JJjt3

Formations of unaugmented quad.


>

**

>

48 forma-

no JJjii or JJjti

disputed

tions possible

by analogy, but none found

other than those mentioned

above

added by some qq

second or third

of quad, quiescent

apparent instances to

contrary

letter

such formations not original

formations of augmented quad.


393. Classification of augment
letters

greatest

mented quad.

...

single

Single

395.

Single augment after the

396.

Single augment after the

397.

Single

augment

after the

in

1800

its

aug-

augment before the

-.

394.

augment

number of

number of letters

1796

...

o
first

after the last

...

1800

...

...

1301

...

...

18011802

...

1S02

1803

18031804

CONTENTS.

CXXX1V.

Page.
398.

Two

augments separated

...

...

18041805

399.

Two

augments united

...

...

18051806

400.

Three augments

...

...

1807

...

CHAPTER

XVII.

THE QUINQUELITERAL NOUN.


*

401. Formations of unaugmented


quin.

added by IS

tion

found

upon

in

plained

' s

(j**^*.*v

and

TI.

variations er-

" ^

jiiiflJL?

explained in Tashil

formation
letter

tions of

its

rest

aggregate of measures agreed

unaugmented
>

how

measures added by

192 formations possible, but

others

not

forma-

no

variations
sea;,

rad.

augment in quin. only a single


nature and position forma-

augmented quin.

...

..

18081813

CHAPTER

XII.

THE NUMERAL NOUNS.


The num.

313.

which

that [expression (Jin)]

is

(IH)J

\ii.

applied to denote the numerical quantity of

is

the units

of things

(IH, Fk),

single or collected together (Jm).

whether those units be


So says

IH

(Fk).

"things" are the objects numbered

"units" are each of them,


n. is applied to

which

pi.,

is

denote specified number, contrary to the


denote

to

applied

these ns. separately

ments not belonging


[to

(WIH, Jm) and fheir


one by one (Jm). The num.
an

unspecified

The reason why [Z followed

(R).

which

all

The

that they

is

by]

(R)] of these

[though

725.,

mentions

have peculiar predica-

The elements

any others (Jm).

to

IH

number

infinite,

are reduQ' ^ '

cible (R),] consist of twelve words,


J^!j one to a^&s. ten,
f

ioLo

a hundred, and

contains

nine

*f.

oil!

a thousand (M,IH).

Each scale

numbers, the units being nine numbers,

and the hundreds nine numbers;


thousands arc deduced from them, i. e., derived

the tens nine numbers,


wliilr tin-

from

tin-

tlnv' smlrs. brin^

thousand--,

thousands

hundreds
to

derived tVon,

infinity

(head

of

thousands,

(IY).

M.

\\.

U ;i(t.< of thousands, tens of

And

Jm) by
184

and

tlic

(1)

//.'<m.w/,W.s

Of

other rtuws, arc


du:ili/:iti.n,

like

1424

two hundred and ^lllUwo thousand

'

+~

lization, like

&)+& twenty

Jm) and

(R,

(2) plura-

its fellows,

which

^lo

are co-ordinated with the pi. [234] (R); and like

hundreds and

ui^J!

fclU three

^.'JLftl

thousands

Jm)

and twenty [320]

hundred; and similarly

pU '&L\

[210, 308]

(5)

thousand one

[below] and

its

fellows,

compo-

(4) prothetic

(6)

affixion of the

[322]

JL^!^

y&e.

?Lus

of femininization, like

(7) rejection of

Ox

[31^] (Jm).

like

composition,

synthetic

and ,jlHj| [below]


sju^C
^
*
*

is

it,

like

XJb

a n. occurring in

language in two ways, (l)as a substantive, being

the

&sA

S5LJa$ [316] (R, Jm) and o$lT itUJ three thou-

sition, like

*AJ>

coupling, like

(R, Jm), iuLoj

ioLo o?ie

because they are orig. coupled (R)

to

(3)

Ox

"f-

a hundred and one, and oUlj

sand (R)

name

proper

for

this

quantity,

like

the rest of
s * s

the

nums.

(2)

as an ep., derived from StX^ unity

occurring as a genuine
fern.,

when

XXXI.

27,

it

.BwJ

one being [314].


of the substantive

and

*&xt

t>.te|

ep.,

follows

as IV.
a

the

And

they use
,

as

as

/^w.,

Z?fte

iXa-tj

169.

creation
<X&.!

^^^^

eleven [above],

i.

q.

[2]; and
StX^tj
^

made

^JtJS ^f

and resurrection of
[322] in the sense

O^Ll twenty-one [539]

i03v&<)

^^-U one and

and ten [210, 308].


twenty and S^AA!
d^!/one
'
s '

As

for

1425

because

Hamza

the

it is

at its

curtailed of the J like


,

like

beginning
fern,

their quantities, as
v'y>'

its

the thing

J being
;

while

a quasi-compensation for

is

like
^Gu3! [307],

&}>[

The nums.

(IY).

the

are

denoting the [genera (IY)

order to indicate

in

[265],

us.

^Lb]

is

^GcL [277,667]

generally conjoined with

numbered

^^ I bent

from *^jl

And the

the elided.

or ^Gcli

it is

295],

i,

genera and

*^ three garments,

ten dirhams. Kilo ~cLD


^) "*J
+

>

>

^j

twenty men,
*>s

<

<XaJ|

eleven dln&rs,

iuLo

a hundred dirhams

[314],

ff.

and

,9

oU! a thousand garments: except tX^!^ and ^uS! for

v^y?

'*'**

you do not say JU^ <Xs^ nor


,

jv*Kt>

to!

but express the

O >'

generic n. in the sing, or d#., as


(IY)] and <jSU^

sion (M).
>

pair

For

^V^x
the

men

a man

[in the c?w.

[in the sing.

(IY)], effecting

two indications together by means of one expres-

the

"

^w;o

J^

w>o

me

J^

man

imports genus and unity, and

imports genus and making one into a

so that there is no need

numbered

to

combine the num. and

whereas, in the case of the

rest,

number

andr/ercusare not imported, except from the num. and the

numbered

together,

because kiij three imports number


O "

without genus, and jL)* wen imports genus without number; so that, if

you intend

to

import both, you combine the

U2C,

And he

two words (Aud).


^x

say

"*

says

People

5 >

/ met them

l+^/ujiJ

U..gAJut

that

discarded rule (M).

the

[228,315] acts upon

two, the two of them,

by

*^z&> p4***J I m et them, the three of them,


misunderstanding both idiom and analogy, and failing to
to

analogy

For the

recognize the difference between the two phrases.

Arabs say, in the case of two, U.$4*/ 1 met them two, without
O

expounding ihzpron.

/ met

but, in the case of

them, the three of them,

mam/,

^y,ws.

>

^^

(t

p*te |^4&JU

p-g-v.^

1 saw them,

of them, and the like, expounding the pron.


The difference between the two cases is that the du. does

the

Jive

not vary in number, and

[numerical] exponent
in

number

its

while the

vague, unlimited

is

pi.

were not expounded by something


number, the hearer would not know

so that, if

explanatory of

therefore independent of

is

it

numerical quantity (D).

its

We

314.

in respect of

of the nums.

and sp.

[3 1 5].

kinds, (1)

now proceed

to discuss the

two matters, gender [below]

As regards the first

what

is

matter, they are of three

always made masc. with the masc., and

Jem. with the fern., as analogy requires, vid.

O lli! two [313], as J^


"
x

is

one

He

is

*.M

^JjJ
x

God and

<X^!^ ijJu

God

that hath

the

predicament

II. 158.

ftJxxx

one and

And your God


jx

jvXiX^

Je^
)

^jJlyo VII.

created you

from

189.

one being,

1427

V.

,jUjf iLy^pr ^j+s


^^XAXJ!

IAXAX^ XL.

105.

and

[16]

Our Lord, Thou

11.

made

hast

made

arid

tn'icc,

us

to live twice,

[i. e.,

and ^^olla. (KJ]


or
<jAAjyc
jjjoslx&l (K,B)

and

j|x

is in

and similarly

9x
.,

and

what

21. [539]

/era., rir/. kxJLi

and

XXIV.

fern,

9. [34,

men with

three [265] to
iycL&

siJJ

whence

warders, [the
pounded, as

whence
/

JLJ

&JL>

J.li'T

shall be
(3)

with

tlic

x
,

and

viJL?

elided from

angels or lI\U*

PJMoi n0f

]i]-

/;

///..

men for three

id.

days, and
1

7 //?/

11.

*/,//*

i'^JLt

/r//,

which,

if

^ O

^jj [above]
and

sic

n.cn for three


niyJits

ttflfo

distinction,
-

lulflll. 36. TJni/

vkir XIX.

'

le.

men

three

riMjuircs

uncoinpoiiinlrd.

the

xtU

or not com;
>fx
and 85-^0 c^JU fAre women,

.llllf IJLXJ'
<^
TX

that thou

what

x<>

jOXi-

^|

kiJLj

e., LXJLo

i,

/Aa^ ^Aow speak not unto

siJLi

whether

?ime,

being elided (MAd)]

sp.

xxlx

JL^ kxJLj

^U

30. [87],

(2)

and masc.

ten [318], as ^L>% ~cLc

[expressed] in

LXXIV.

r;
;

the

iuu-gj

women [below] with

thirteen

s^Ac

x "

>

>

167, 525]

sLjol

^w urr^

with the masc


G x

they be compounded with


thirteen

O^

G xl x

with the

"

>

in the/e??i. [324], as
f-frM;

always made

is

tAt'rd

~&l^ ten/i in the

to

s^U
.

k*j!x

oJu

the form of theacZ. part., like

fourth, ferns. &ftJand

and

^AAJ'Lc!

num. that

the

11*

XX ^

(I

to die

lL<

lllo!

^.^of

/'///.

to

iuuo

with the

lieiug-

msc.

made

and,

if

1428

compounded [318]

>

conformable

is

analogy, being made

to

t>S^

masc. with the masc., and fern, with the fern., as oofj

3^fxiI.4.[H5,2ll 315,442]andIL57.[2ll] Sh).


l

O x

O x

**

"
i

have three

Sv-cLt,

states,

number should be intended by them, as

(1) that unrestricted

OUAJ &UJ TJnee

SUxu

" x

-i

and the uncompounded

is

the

half of six [below]

(2) that

numbered should be intended by them, but not mentioned,

?L1C

as

&

and

that

(3)

faste

meaning days [below],

five,

...*.

c>4-o

cyv^^A/

lay

awake,

meaning nights

Jive,

a numbered should be intended by them, and be

mentioned, which

is

what IHsh mentions here (MAd).

Various reasons have been assigned for the abnormal


genders of the nums. from 3

to

[says R,] the most

the following.

above 2

when
*

+ 1*

iiJLj

it

is

probable

constituted fern, in

is

its

10

to

* *

me

tuted fern,

i.

e.,

>

' '**.

iuuj! [8];

it is

used in the

^f^

Three men

before
fccjb

so that, in the case of unrestricted number,

in

becomes fern,

not said.

men

The reason why

it is

consti-

the original application is that every pi.

in their language,

number above two

as JL

opinion,

The num.

is

of

my

original application,

sense of the numbered, as in JlL*

but, in

serves to express unrestricted number, as *x*u

ouuo and JLoUo UUAJ

came

because

[234]; so that,

[270] becomes

fern,

when

it is

indicative

the masc. in such

because of the super-

1429

vention

of this

itself to be fern.

more ought the accident

8till

accident,

As

for the num.' s being

an accident,

it is

because the num. belongs

Afterward

an accident.
to

sense

of

which

ns.

numbered by
cation

this

num.

not

sense

because the

as

substantives

men

in

to

their

means

usage than xiu

original shite
is

qualified, iiii

observed

JL^,
4
of these expres-

and also because

the intention is to lighten them, since lightness

Tan win

of the

of

But, though the sense of qualifi-

common

[below],
sions

the

is

three

x,iJL>

Jl^

put in apposition

being more

JL*j'*

commonly used

predominant in them, they are more com-

is

monly

since

[142],

is

"I X

deriv.

which

[217],

and are then invaded by the

[322],

qualification

^f

the nums. are

numbered

express the

to the cat. of

numbereds.

is

by prefixing them

attained

According

by
to

their

whole of

rule, then, the

to this

elision

the nums. are orig. pre. to their numbcreds; while such

as are not pre., vid. 11 to 99 [315], are [aprothetic] for a


[special] cause

and

*)*>
u ' x

&5lo [313] is
"

prefixion in

JU^ *li[316]

like the prefixion in fcLias


"
+

iX
/

and

The

[316].

v Lo

o^L^I [12l], according to the different opinions


held by the GGr of the two cities for the ep. is pre. to
:

what

is its

qualified

but as to whether the post,

remains a qualified, aa the


the pre.

is

by the post

KK

hold, or the

now

qualified of

suppressed, a general [expression] explained


,

aa the

BB

hold,

there

is

the dispute men-

1430

Since, however, the sense

tioned in the cat. of prothesis.

and they often occur

of qualification exists in the nums.,


in apposition

numbe red,
and,

the expressions denoting the

to

&b jlis
c

as

objects

[above] and xSLc Jo I/ ^IJ! [142],

when they do not

***/*

follow the

what

qualified,
^

>

J^s
into

&jLo, or

governed by J^o

the ace., as

U^j

um^

deriv. eps. in having the

from the masc. by the

Ox 5,

deriv. eps,, like

V)^

as

is

or put

Created like

regularly distinguished

this distinction

an(l

fcUo

JL^JI^o

^iev mav ^ e

'

/<???z.

Ox

&U5 and
JL^
*
c

either post., as

qualified is put after them,

being regular in

^^

Other quantities
* x
Ox
a n ell of
as
3
^S

[265].

f*

also than nums. are used as eps.,


9

x 2

the

nums.

>

cloth and yxis

a bushel of tvheat

When, therefore,

but not so often as

the nums. from 3 to 10 are

eps. of the pi. of the

masc.,

tional femininization 5

because they are eps.

they retain their constitu9 " Ix

which

[316],

&l

jLs

is post.,

/em.; so that

is

And, when what

[270],

&b

as JlLx
*

qualified

mentioned (R),

the nums.

JU
is

of the pi.

is

said,

qualified

like

by them

remain fern, in apposi-

because the

tion to ike post.,

as the

SUclS

sp. is the

being put last for

same expression
the two objects

vid. observance of the original state of the

nums. as substantives,

and intention

(MAR). As for the num. whose sp.

to

lighten them

is sing. [315], vid.

what

1431

is

above 10,

it is

not

made

fern.,

because the same fern.


^

qualified does not remain.


X

Moreover, though

,>X

>

U^

^^ aLo and J

is orig.
and similarly
<jjv-k. **<> ,
G^
x-"
>
G"
O x
are or^. aulo *#!.,> and oU! JL=* ; , still
*

^.

when they
them

these nums., even

x/

follow their ^>. qualifieds, do not agree with

in fern, gender, because the


^

and

from the terminations of Jjjv^ and

are inseparable

,j

its

cat. [234,320],
G

f--

^!

and the

them

abandoning the agreement, because the breach

in

from the termination of

of the custom is established

when they

the nums.,

*5Lo

while

by the two

first

and, since

follow their qualifieds,

agree with them, therefore, when pre.


do not agree with them

to

them

also,

and tt^ '(* are


^X

auLo
JC^N
'
x

*
O^ ^
>

&&X3

why

in the

they

so that Jils* JiJ! and sTJrvIaJf.


+/

and

do not

f.^0^ >x

y^

j*

follows

9^
to iuu*j'

same

And

said.

the

reason

?^ x ^
,

when compounded with

state as before

they have neither a

pL

sp.

s~cL&

remain

the composition, although

nor a pi. qualified,

is

that

their pi. sp.ia suppressed, the last sp. being considered sufficient,

because the custom of the nums., when they follow

one another,

num.

is to

be satisfied with the sp.

of their aggregate, as

hundred and tkn


>

men,

Jjpij>)

orig.

kiJJ^

JLjLftU.

iiLc

J^

k3lo

i-

^ j^wj
]

&^

of the last

a hundred men and

so that,

since

three

their pi sp. is
185

men and

thirty

supplied, they are

1432

same way as when the sp. is expressed*


the Arabs intend to treat the nums. like

treated in the
Since, then,
deriv.

by expressing the in them when


is /em., and eliding it from them when

their

epn.,

qualified

qualified is maso., while they

have no masc.

their

qualified,

because they are not applicable as eps. to anything but

ihepl, which

is /em.,

whether

since, if the 8

pis.,

the intention to treat


;

be^Z. of a masc. or a /em.:

were expressed

and

plain

it

them as

and you would think the

in

them with the two

deriv. eps.

to

would not be

be the one used to

make

the unrestricted num. fern, in the original state [of substantive] not to be put on account of the qualified's being
,

fern.,

because the

when

not denoting unity,

inseparable from the substantives containing


[238,263]: therefore the

Arabs drop the

of the/em. r because its femininization


rison with that

of the pi.

quasi-masc. [below].
in the

pL of

is

it,

mostly

like te*

with the

is faint, in

pL

compa-

of the masc., so that

it

is

For the femininization regarded

the fern, is that which supervenes because

of the plurality, like the femininization in the pi. of the


masc.,

not that which

proved by the fact

was before

that, if the

were regarded, g^u jl^ XII.

plurality, as is

original [femininization]
30. [21,270]

allowable in a case of choice, as


in such a case.

the

sLx>!

would not be

JU> is not

allowable

As, then, the adventitious femininization


6

removes the original masculinizatiou in

JU^

-t

and ^Ul

1433

[270], so also
:

removes the original femininization in

it

but this adventitious [femininization]

notorious, in

jU*s

in

faint

produced upon a thing by


effect

produced upon

it

s^**3

opp.; so that

its

effect

marked as the
9x

by

apparent,

because the

like is not so

its

is

iy^ becomes

yuasi'inasc. [above], because its femininization is faint.


Ox

One

says, therefore,

8 x

I-"

G"

&UU JU*. and viJL>

j**j

where the

which, in the original state [of substantive], denoted the

femininization of the abstract rmw,, becomes denotative

The gender

of the femininization of the numbered.


O

these ten expressions,

we say

settled,

have

mentioned,

formable
are

'

their

vid.

that

to

contrary

"'

'

*>'

'

which,

in

>

*k>

as

?7iasc.,

because

its

5L^

when combined with

'

as

without

unit also,

it

- x -

JU.; iyix

fcUj
to

?>zcn

and

[324],
G'XX

Ix
,

except

the

analogy,

and dropped

in the

And
LcLr:
it-

agrees
x

^/i

fix

they

cLJb [above],

/e??i.

decimal nunibcrs, jign-cs with

eight

wherever

*y>f yLt
[31G], from regard

unit,

con-

remaining

&l

auLo^

^;/.

are

,jllj|

kl3 and
a

what we

is

as

it,
'"

reverts

num. might be made

wlit'ii

the

in the fern.,

it

^i

sp. is not

and

analogy,

and J

composition,

being expressed in

the

while

of

having been thus

predicament
JL^JJ

below 10 or above
"

'

s~&*

to

that

xx

G-'

<Xa>tj

analogy

apparently

occur,
*

to

5^

the

tni,

>/'.

in

witli its
,

to

which

reason why,
alone

gender
.^>.

among
is

^xr

^t'w

that,

in gender,

ivomen,

1434

being /em., and

VL

y!t [by suppression


,

it

of a qualified (Fk) T]
O

would be

S^^

(Aud, Fk)

because

said,

is

JjLo

wasc.

and, with the_pZ., the gender regarded is that

of its sing, [below], as

[IM

and the

states] in the Alfiya

So [says IHsh]

Tashil (Fk).
sl&uD

means

it

[below],

9' s s

otherwise

for

WTioso doeth a good

161.

like
thing shall have ten good things
l^JL&o! ^>llwla>

As

quasi-masc.] (R).

S^u

in the

Aud

but whether

would necessarily be said requires consideration,


>

because some justify the masc. gender in ~cL& by the


sf.

* * *

that the JUx?! are <&(j^*s*

argument

and others on the

ground that the pre. gains femininization from the post*


[111] (YS). This is [the rule] when the numbered is menSfw, in his

tioned (A, Fk).

Commentary on

reports, as [a restriction] transmitted

learned, that

it is

num.

after the

and

when

only

the

numbered

made an

num. or

(YS), as
9

if
"'

the

&

may

first

may be

be affixed

and the fern.


numbered were suppressed [below], as

'

Ss

conversely (Sn).

Tashil,

mentioned

elided, with both the masc.

JoL*x> nine questions


^j>

restriction,

is

the rule

ep,,

enforced or neglected (Sn); [so that] the


to the

from the

numbered be put

that, if the

(YS, Sn), and the num.

Nw

by

the IH,

But,

which

nor by

is

AH

and

in

mentioned

the Ir,

men

Sfw upon

in opposition to

not

nine

&u*i' JLis

by

nor by

IM

IHsh

in
in

or

this

the

any

1435

of his books,

Ns, but have not found in

the

to

than what

other

say that I have

is sufficient to

it

vid.

that the

the

numbered

is

made

bered be [intended, but (A)

the

if

with the masc. when

however, the num-

If,

is to

give the num. the same

numbered were mentioned, as kl+a o^J>


O

I fasted

meaning

five,

meaning days, and

five,

the masc. (A, Fk), as

it

up

[also]

icith six

means

ferable,
to

^*

ou*o

may be

&JLO!

elided with

whence

>

And

[in

then follows

days ofShawwal (A, Fk). Apparently

that expression of the

which

ow* I journeyed

234. [320] (Fk),

II.

j&

l***jv

nights; but (A.)] the

tradition (Fk)

restriction

not mentioned [literally


[A)],

then [the chaste construction

gender as

fern,

mentioned (YS).

is

any

mentioned by [A,] Fk, and others,

is

num.

it

referred

Fk

[with the masc.] is pre-

is distinctly stated in

the Tsr, but is open

an objection, which you will soon learn; and that there

nodifference [as to elision of the

being

^iSl

or

s ]

is

between the numbered's

any other expression, as

is

laid

down,

without any restriction, by many, and

among them Illsh


ssts'o-csf
Jami who hold M~*= (5-U ^L^^\
Islam has

<*

in the

n founded upon five principles or essentials [339],


>

i.

e.

Sb

J^o!

or

'*
Jt^

restricts the

to

be an instance of that (YS).

elision of

the

to the

]>ut

case where the

n c0

numbered
ly, not

is [the

any mlier

expmftion (Sn)] |*U (YS,Sn) exclusivetnasc.

(VSJ; and

liuldti it to

be the

[only]

1436

practice agreeable with

He

the speech of the

discusses that at great length

sum

but the

Arabs
of

(Sn).
it

is

When the numbered consists of days and nights,&&

this:

\JL+s+

\&y

I journeyed
X

days alone, as L*TV


fasting

is

five,
Q

>

meaning both

[above], or of

/ fasted

OM-*>

only in the days, the

s is

five days, because

elided in the

num.,

in the first case, because the nights predominate over the

days, which are subordinate to them [325. B], so that the

predicament of the nights

is

applied to the days

the second, because the day, becoming, as

ed under, and part

the night,

of,

is

it

elision of the

s is

this reason

by the same

to

the nights,

the [only] practice agreeable with the

speech of the Arabs, to which mention of

For

and, in

were, includ-

indicated

name: and, since the predicament belongs

S says that expression of

it

is

foreign.

allowable

it is

by analogy; but that we do not find it in the speech


the Arabs [320]; and the language of Z [below] is
the same effect (YS).

[For

says on

II, 234.,]

1^^

of
to
is

said from regard to JLJ nights, with which the days are

you never

included; and

the

num. from regard

fasted ten days

see the

to

jL!

and,

if

Arabs use the masc.

days

the earth,

&

llij
\

>

or in

XX.
,j!&
w

103.

the grave,

you say

L^

o^-o

you used the masc., you

would deviate from their speech, as


text \LL*

in

is

clear

from the

Ye have not tarried on

save ten days, and then

1437

(
X

XX.

,jf

day

Ye Aave no tarried save a

104.

And what Nw

(K).

mentions as

allowance

to the

of both genders by the Arabs requires consideration.

when

But,

the

numbered

some other expression, the

is

rule of using the masc. \num^\ with the fern, numbered,

and tliQ/em. with the masc. must be observed, there

As

being no reason to the contrary (YS).


the

may be expressed with

&

not mentioned, that is

is

some; but wlia'

is

the fern.

reported

when

to

whether

to

the numbered

be disallowed by

mentioned above as reported by Sfw

necessarily implies

its

As

allowability (Sn).

nums. whereby a numbered

is

unrestricted

them are with the

ouaJ

kx*

number,

>

of

not intended, but only

kiJLj

[above]; and

names

are

tlie

is like its

name

of

contrary to the opinion of some;

[8],

prefixion of J! to them, as
prefixion to
tJie

Sun,

^jui and s^yuLf!


t

some proper names, as &&$! a

for Fate [8] (A).


is

similarly

The gender regarded

that of the sing, [above] (Aud, A),

not of the pi. (A), as v^Lolt^

from regard

5,

&cJJ|

when they Bayftf&ffj and

[with the pl (Aud)]

with the

as

because [/em.

diptote,

**

while

**

(Sn)] proper

all

for the

to

&UJ three hot

^U^

which

baths (And, A),

is

masc. (Audi.

This is contrary to the opinion of the Rid (Ami, A), who say
-

*.

^JU

regarding the form of the

i>l.

while Ks,

1438

)
>

[like the

"

Bdd

(Sn),]

says

*x

You say
5

1 passed by three hot baths, without a s though the sing.


[261] is masc"; and he constructs what is like it by analo,

gy

to it

but Fr does not say

in the sing,, (1) if the

women

its

Of.

x Ix

form, as u*iui!

&cJl>

[or -men

(Sn)],

beings,

because

^x&

is

The gender regarded

numbered be a substantive,
9

gender of

this.

three persons,

because (jo^ui

meaning men

/em. [263,264]:

(a)

[or

meaning

masc.

is

the

is

women

and

(Sn)],

this holds good so

long as something which strengthens the sense, or in

which the sense

is

often intended, is not attached to the

sentence [containing the

num.

(Sn)]; for,

sense

may

be observed:

attached to
is like the

it,

the

be

that

if

the

first

saying [of 'Umar Ibn Abl Rabl'a (MN, EC)

alMakhzuml (MN)]

[And my

shield against

three persons

him

that

ivas afraid of

two of them having swelling breasts, and

the third just entering upon the time of puberty,

99

was

where

^j^ui means 8^*3 ivomen


Nawwah alKilabi (EC)]

(EC),] and the saying [of

An

verily

this

Kildb

quit of its ten clans,

IM

in the

CK

is

where

ten

sub-tribes,

^.kf!

makes Co!

means

and thou art

Jolls (EC)]; and

UoCJLt sCil

1439

And We

VII. 160.

divided them

an instance of

nations,

twelve tribes,

into

saying that by the mention of

it,

Ux! the predicament of the fern, becomes preponderant,

IUK,

[otherwise, says

JLo

Lbllu,!

would be

^1

o *

because Jax-^
^

'X * X

^ *^

Lblcu,!

a subst. for

being suppressed
will be seen [3

an Arab of the
xx

^Ue.

[We

>

aLxLs.

XX*

&

^^1

which

(Sn),]

-e

'x

>

"^

>

&Uj

L^AJ!

and we have
9

intended by

gender of

it

(2) if

but three

its qualified

"

meant

to
i.

Icing
is

the

be understood, not

its

cyLjL^

e.,

ep.,

^xLc

and as

/Aree middle-sized [240],

and similarly

^^
*

is orig.

intend

an ep. (A); though some of


x x

>

'

the

It

gender of the

As for the [collcctiv e

is

r5 x

IUK, say \^\^ dJu

treated as a substantive (Sn).


tliat

when you

K2JU Zfo'ee beasts,

the Arabs, says

when you intend

x-

males, because abb

liowcvcr,

when ^L*^ a human

numbered be an

the

own, as VI. 161. [above],

is

>

0^3 viJJ^

(EC)], U^AJ being often used

what

'

Hard indeed has the time been upon my household!


S

like the saying [of

by drought (EC),]

are reduced to three souls,

x 'x

&LJ divisions

sp.

is

x^

JJLl

he makes

the right construction, as

is

desert, afflicted
^ S

[the

and the second

6]:

^Lfc ,jLoJt ^U-

camels.

is

CT

masc. (Sn)]; but in the

is

said,

because abb

only with

siny. is

llir

is

y^. f

regarded (A).

(Sn)] generic n. and the quasi-pl. n.,

regarded with them

is

186

their actual gender,

so

1440

that

tlie

gender given

to the

num.

is

the converse of
" '0
J

You say

their pron. requires.


S

men and

(A)]
[

Q s

^ *&

"G

pjjJ\
x G" x

you say

S***

(1) [ jyLJ!

Sx

what

three

xxJLS*

,,

three sheep, with the


x Qxx

because

s,

fJ

^f ^ many men and (A)] >+Z$ ^c. warn/ sfoep

with [the ep.

in] the

masc. (And, A):

butBD says "In my

opinion you Bay*JULH

Aud:

in the

(a) so
' '"~o x

^ oJJ
I

because

B XX

is
ivAfc

tion

/em." [271]; and


and by

it is

what Jh and others men-

this is

refuted the language of A, like that of


"x'0 >xx

the Aud; and


78.

When

it is

proved by

the men's sheep

-.yd!

^.

iu^

x xx

^&Ju

XXI.

jt

had strayed into it: while some

Hx x

say that

is

sarily implied

both wasc. and /e^.; and this

Dm

by what

which have no

sarily wisc.,

lote- trees, V_A>>

"

S X

are J^sso Lees and k? duck*,

us.

because the rest are either neces-

third,

vid.

neces-

transmits from IHsh, vid.


O

that the fern, generic

is

six,

"

Ox

\^ bananas,

fresh ripe dates,

grapes,

V^-L&

^+s wheat,

and

words, or of both genders, vid. the remaining expressions


(Sn): (2)

the

JbJfJ^ JL-U

because you say nlctf'Lj

in] the fern.


r,

(3)

JLjf JLo Ldi


x

duels with [the ep.

many
tfirrc

head o/ ca^fc or

s xx

viJlj

three clucks [271], with omission of

because Jb hastwoa^aZ. vars., masc. [from regard

to the form, or to the sense

r;^x^

regard

to the

II. 65. [257],

sense

xcU^

^=>

^*

(Sn)],
x

(Sn)], as

where JL^TUj

is

and

fern,

xxx^^x

UA!&

&jLxo

[from
x-"""^

yiJ! ^t

read (Aud, A). This holds

1441

n. or quasi-pl. n. is neither

good so long as the generic

separated from the num. by an ep. indicative of the sense,


[the ep. being either not mentioned at all, or mentioned

them

posterior to both of

nor used as a substitute

(Sn),]

for a pi. of a masc.; for, if either be the case,

[necessarily (Sii)] observed

is

the necessity

the

first is

*--o

*-

S^

^
fcUl>

^ ^<j

x-0,0

kJ!

viJLj[271](A);

tive of the sense, as

moderns

Xjb

(Sn)]:

three female

three

posterior ep. has no effect, as


9

of the

like your saying JuJI


vi>lM
J^ji
*

the sense, [though as to

is

A differs from some

sheep and kJI

then what

male ducks

XU

J^

|JuJf

but the

&u

and

and similarly the ep.noi indica-

,Lw^ oJo i^e pretty ducks,

JbJf

being common to males and females (Dm): and


the second is such as

being
fl

a,

as a broken p/. of

bered

which

IUK,

is

it is

/.

so

that its
S

it

made

that the

num-

pi.

for

i5Cx-

[27.')],

i)iit

being

oriy.

iUoui on

used as a substitute

t'<

*tf

JLiL-l,

(Sn;.

in

is

num.

would be done with the

*Lli! &ijb three tltimj*, tLyi!

so that, though

as a substitute for a
it

J^K

used as a substitute (A); and similarly, says

measure of
y

used as a substitute for

by the expression of the

(Sn)] masc., as

9 +
tin

JU^

r,

[to indicate

the

kiXi three pedestrians,

fern, quasi-pl. n., but

' Of

JU^I

in

aUL^J

\>l.

it is/?'/;/., still,

of a ?ncr,sY\,thc

And. [as the form of the

ii

since

it is

used

must be expressed

sixy.

is

not regarded

1442

in the generic and

quasi-pl. ns. so (Sn)] also the form


}

of the sing, is not regarded

and

s s

numbered has two

JL^

like

s<> f.

allowable [in

num.], as Jl^l

its

the

[264],

masc. and

dial, vars.,

and expression

elision

state,

fciii

Hinds

the five

u+s*

ottXJLgJI
*

the

a proper name,

is

it

'

O^o

^.

When

when

regarded (Sn),] as ^L^JLUt

[but its sense is


three Talhas

fern.,

[of the H ] are


^OffJ^I-'
yJJ three

gJu and Jt^l

states (A).

As

315.

regards the second matter,

nums. are of four kinds,

[314], the

(1)

need a

not say J^; tX^!,J


*
f f
[228,313]

^J^/

nor

the sp.

e.,

what does not

,0

<X=^ one and ^lot

sp. at all, vid.

i.

"

'

while

for

tivo:

you do

J^ JkL^
#

Lxlj
X

a poetic license: (2) what needs asp. in the

is

Q^

Os s s

gen. pi, vid. aUJJ three to iyax /en [below], as &iJJ ^<XLc
S^wwJ

^iij

JLL

IF^/i

me

are

men and

^/ir^e

ten

women,

G^

when

except

word

the sp. is the


s

must be

hundred, not olio*


*

license (Sh), as

>

^yLwj'^

V.

is'.

sp. in

&5Lo

cJU nor ,.w*


w "^"

*Jf

^c

the ace.

[85],

VII. 138.

oJU*

except in poetic

s ' s

sing.,

vid.

as XII.

[85],

c-JJ [316] (MAd): (3)

O x

X3u*3 ninety-nine,

JFiWi w?e are three

^Ja^

a hundred, which

in the sing., as JoUxJU


*

needs a

>

and

yL&

4. [85,

what

s-6.

tX^I eleven to

211, 314, 442],

XXXVIII.

22. [16, 85]:

O*

(4)

what needs a

sp. in the gen. sing., vid,

?lx>

a hundred

1443

and

a thousand [below], as JL=^ iuLc


x
X

uifl

'

TJWi me
^Jo^
x
x

> x

area hundred men and J^


?2?*ras.

pm

a thousand men

numbered are

to the

G x

uaJ!

r.

ten,

(Sli).

consisting of two

x x x

sorts, (1) kxJLj to s~cLfc [above],

which ought

to

be pre. to

a broken pi. of paucity [316, 317], as J*l\ &ill


r

26. [79, 235, 585]; (2) &5lo


to

tobepre.
x

&

sing.,

and

XXXI.

<jjf [above],

XXIV.

as sjJL^ idle
^

which ought
2.

and

[62]

<

JU|

II. 90.

.For

a thousand years (Aud).


Ox

.316,
pl.

The

(IH,IM)

The
in

*p. of

kiU

f?x

to

x x

y^

is

[only (A)] a gen,


'

\'

form or sense, except in kjUxJJ


#
X

> O

to Sol+juwJ
#

'

[below] (IH); and mostly an expression of paucity [315,

317] (IM).

The

[254]; or a quasi-pl.

a generic

by

^o

rr.

n.,

orquasi-pl.

(B,A), as

a generic

id. pl. is either

like

ki^ [257] (R).

n., it is (1)

*6-e

like

Jj

If the sp. be

[mostly (R)] governed

jlklf^ si^fiUJ
xlx

<Aon four lirds and li#Jt

n.,

II. 262.

TAcn take

>0x^,

kiXij

^y> 7 passed

ly three

persons (A), because, though they are in the sense of the


pZ., still

of the

they are in the form of the

num.

to

them

uunU' for prefixing

it

is

sing., so that prcfixion

disliked after the arrangement

to the pl. (R): (2)

sometimes governX

*X> X

<*

x'-O

XXX

ed by ]>rcfixion of the num., as in Jos^ iuuyj SjotXj!


^1^
XXVII. 49. ^;zcZ there, were in the city nine persons, the
tradition

lft*

*^

^!>

Co

yll)

There

is

no poor-

1444

)
^,

rate on what
(A).

below fine camels, and *J!

is

may
broken by XXVII.

is

[above] (R), and the truth


tricted to hearsay.

ought then

As for
is

to

Ju^l

is that this

^Jt

'

x^U

and

three slaves

them

^\ &ll3

construction is ressp.

be something

three

and

to it;

be a broken^. of paucity [315,

31T], as

handmaids

(A).

being governed in the gen. by prothesis, this


because the word becomes lighter by prefixion, as
its

before explained [314] (R).

But sometimes the mem.

aprothetic, [and pronounced with

case the exponent


9

subst.,
{?

and

governed by prefixion of the num.

else, it is

JTv&JjC*

9.

however, the

If,

_.

&c-b [314]

not be pre. to

Akli says that the num.

but this rule

x-

^^1

S <>& 9 '

as

^*e.

ujlyjl

(IY),] in

either [in apposition to

is
\

Tan win

it

is

which

as (IY)] a

'

*J

or in the

ace.

[as a sp. (IY)], as

Llyjj iUJLj,

which

is

a poetic license (IY,R).

The

ace. is

anomalous, because the numbered, as before shown [314],


is orig. qualified,

they put

it

which

is

the [word] intended

so that, if

into the ace., the intended is in the semblance

And, as for the prefixion

of a complement [19].
num.'] to thepZ.,

it is

because the post,

num. being afterwards pre. to


^ s
<

it

But,

when

[of the

is orig. qualified,

the

for the sake of lightness;

while the qualified of &UJ three and upwards


[314] (R).

is orig. pi.

the sp. [post, to the num.

to 10 (R)] is *Slo a hundred,

it

is sing.

from 3

(R, Aud, A), as

[313] (And, A), aSUjLH (A), and sSUjLls [above]

1445

)
X

(And); not

>

By analogy ^iLo

pi. (R),

'

eJL> or ^jj^c [in the


6x

>.

(IY, Jm)] should be said (IY,IH), because &jLo

lias

twopls., one in the semblance of the per/, p7. muse., vid.

and the other in the semblance

,j^xj [234,244] (R, Jin);

[234] (Jin). But the num.

of

i\iv

is

not pre. to the^;er/_pZ. masc. [317]; so that only ^,Ux>

perf. pi.

fern., vid. ix>UU

remains (R,Jm),

to

which the num. might be pre.


x Ox

default of the broken

[240,317] (R)

XXIV.

eJLS

v^!^

in

57.

and

after having been accustomed to

the semblance of the pi. with the and


^
JO
to
confine themselves to the
vid.
,jyuvJ they
^;;>-^^
x

as in

and, disliking that the sp. should follo\y

the pi. with the

follow what

pi.,

is in

sinfj.,

which besides

of ambiguity

disapproved in
sing.,

instance of
cited

there
it

fear

removed (R). S says (IY), It is not


their language that the form should be

and the sense pi.

when

shorter (R,Jm), while all

is

say in poetry what


only

is

is

is

IY); so that some of them even

not used in prose

pJI

^XXfc^u&^uf

But

[^ lif

(S):

but this

is

no fear of ambiguity (IY); and an

is

by S (IY).

(S,

I^JLT

[233] (S, IY),

as (IY,R)]

^r^

vs^
0^!
J*)'^j*j
'A
7
/re
hundred
camels as bloodwits for
[By AlKarn/dalc.
tin; slau-litrr <>f /Ac ^r^c ii?^- ha* the pawning of

pjGiSfi^

cloak

paid for

/f/
-,

^ Aa* cleared awaj this shame

1446

the faces

of the Ahtams,

i.

alAhtam

the sons of Sinan

e.,

Ibn Sumayy (AKB), or

v-LJI

^lL

occurs

(IY),]

in

K, Aud, A), because the poets

poetic license [315] (IY,

are allowed ample liberty in reverting to obsolete o.fs.

but

this,

though agreeable with analogy,


*i

lous in usage (IY).


9

Some say ^^o with


and some make the

is still

anoma-

Damm

of the *

9x

of iuLo smack
[244] for ^jZ* [234]
^
somewhat of Damm in the sing, also, but do not make the
:

Damm

plain; and that

is [called]

"stifling": while
O

says that,

you pronounced the * of ^LLo with Damm,

if

o!y like ,j^


some make the ^ of ^f^o
saying

Akh

And

would be allowable.

it

the seat of inflection, like [the

^Lw [236]: while Akh says that ^^jo is orig. ^J^

of]
o

like

^L^cit is

him,

the J being elided

sing.

but this

is of

so that,

according to

no account, since,

if it

were

<jj* would be said of a single hundred', though

sing.,

perhaps, according to him,

say that

it is

[a

broken

it is

pi.,

a quasi-pl. n.

on the measure

and some
of]

jluu

like

*i

C5

And ^J!

[243], the last

by

being changed into

[688].

,jjJI, the

being

in the saying

[234], (1) according to

elided

&

Akh,

poetic license

is curtailed of the s

like

is orig.

(2) as is transmitted

from iLS [254]

from Y,

but this

is

1447

not correct, since the regular form would then be


*

like

and

^**
(5

*= >

Ox

xb from

aUid

jo,
O^

orig.

like

[244]

900,

p.

1.

sometimes said

(3) is

255,
JuJ/[237,
"x

the

257],

21],

be

to

being pro-

nounced with Kasr, as

9 x

&

as you say
from kif [Nfote on
^if

an ^

in -**

^^; [368], because

the
o

a guttural letter- and to be then contracted [into

is

t5

jl]

on account of the

rhyme: but

^o has

not been heard;

IM

so that this requires consideration (R).

says in the

Gof

Tashil "

And

oJ!

is

peculiar in being used as a sp. [for


Gx

any num.] without

restriction

at**
C^

>

whereas

and

(5^1

'i^c.

itt't

a hundred

x^x

j u

an ^ tb^ir cats": as

xx t
thousand, UJ! *-cLfc <X^| eleven thousand

*^J| iuLo

used as a

ioLo is

's<> s

for only oJLj

s/?.

to

&0-&

and UJ!
^^fc twenty thousand,
^^xLt^ tX^I twentyx

thousand

XX

**X

^re

juLxj s^cLfc

S%JL&

auLx>

hundred,

5^XXO

>

and as &2UJUJ ttre


X
#

IJH+:* fifteen

>

elided,

for the elision

hundred

xi

X)|X
auUxJLj

(Sn).

and the union

while the

o.

/.

y-Ju* [307, 689, 758], the

into

and ioUju*

of [the

>m

ra.

in]

"

is

is

eleven hundred, and

must be written united, because the


x

>

x^i t ...
X
^

c5<X^|

XOX

hundred.

v^>

and

tlu;

incorporation (D),

union

The

is

up.

is

made a compensation

of [the pre. n.

having- been converted

made a compensation
of
187

kUxw
X ^

in] *

JL* J^l

cZcvett

for the
to

1448

-nine is
Jj ninety

an

the ace. because of the impossibility


num.'] to

It is

ace. sing. (IH).

of

put into

pre6xing [the

In the case of [the numsJ] from ~cL. J^.1

it.

eleven to ~cLt iuuwJ nineteen, this [impossibility] is because

Arabs dislike three things

the

be made like one

to

[110].

For, though they say Jo\

X XX X

X XO ^

and JvxLc

SL^+s.

rf%

except in the case of

~ciji

~^

x'

prefixion being allowable

fifteen,

s s ,

Li! [210, 318], still this is not

when a

like that, because the post.,

sp., is

[denotative of]

the [person or thing] ideally intended


it is

by the
that the whole

put only to explain, so

thing; whereas the^msZ. in


is different

from the

first,

,,

,,

jo^^Lt

^
x,

so that this

which

first,

like one

is

^*^

is

Zaid's fifteen

not like

making
,

three things to be ideally one.

twenty and

may

its cat.,

the impossibility is because the

of the pi, but is assimilated to

prefixion is not possible with retention of the

of its resemblance to the ,j of the pi. [110].


"

such [phrases] as

forty garments occur


in

the
sp.,

which

sing,

because,

and therefore
is

it

but they are rare.

when governed
in

a complement,

the
it

And
in

semblance

it is

while

because
""

twenty dirhams and

jvxLe.

Sometimes

'

^J>

And, in the case of (jj;-^

not be elided on account of the prothesis, since

not really the

n.

^
tX^I Zaid's eleven

H' ^ ^ ^

the sp. is

the
of

>^0

^^ jjuj
ace.

the

as
6bj.,

does not remain like the

1449

qualified,

which

any necessity
the

an essential, so that there should be

is

to observe its state [of plurality]; and, since


is

plurality

and the

from the preceding num.)

intelligible

is shorter, t'ney confine

sing,

Yet, notwithstanding that the

semblance of a complement,
fied, is still

themselves

in the

when

quali-

its o. f.>

^-'J

was

it

> x-

*=

as Ltl^ui
"^^^

is qualified,

iti

numbered becomes

observed; so that, in most cases, only

not the num.,

to

With me are twenty brave men, because

it

>

,-

ujr*^

is

and

it,

(j$dJ^

the [word]

intended as respects the sense, while the num., though

made
as

to

it is

precede

is

when

qualified

like a qualification
it

is

fication

num.

of the

Asfor VII.
subst. for

160.

is

iLCy*/!

were a

because

sp.,

it is

of

iollu/!

JAR

that
sp.]

there

is

^\

(Tsr)]

is

JAI,

i.

e.,

sly

say that (Tsr),

if

be made masc.^
masc.

while the sp. would be made sing. (A), because


of a <:omjf. [num.] (Sn).

just

[not a ap,; but(Sh)]

the two nums. Would

kxA*, [sing,

[317]: but quali-

Jcine

the sp. being suppressed,

Shi and

[below] (Sh, And, A),

it

also allowable, though rare (R),

[3l4],lLllJ in

s^c ^^'^

of

as w\ Jb *+*

post.,

XII. 43 Verily 1 see seven fat

^\^

it,

however, asserts

(And, A)
it is

the sp.

[in the

no suppression, ami (Tsr)] that iLllLl

CK
is

but that the mention of Co! makes the predicament of

tViiiiiiini/ati'Mi

preponderate iAnd, A)
^

the mention <f

^^^
^

>

and

*-

in

UblLj

(Tsr), as

>

*
r^o.*x>

makes

it

preponderate in

1450

&S-i

fied

of

Ux>t p/.

by

because iLlL,!

(Aud),

[314]

And Hf says

a nation.

Rx>!

Is

quali~

that

lial^

x-

&s

be ep. of
&>jj

may

the qualified having been suppressed,

and the ep. put into

when
q.

place [149]

and that the num.,

X^j

But Fr holds that the

division*.

and the text appears

This

(Tsr),

sp.

may

may

sp.

a hundred and
the pi. of

^!oJl

is

not be separated [from the num.],

a thousand,

JdJ!

(IH).

#erc. ww^r.

The s/>.

that pi. i&pre. to the sing., as


is

when post,

it is

siny.

',

made

fact

in

the case

sing,

that

while the

and

is

the
9

of

such as

o.
I

/".,

as

'

iLj [314],

JU^

because they are emboldened to this

the

sp.

governed

sing, is lighter

is sufficient indication of

in the ace. is in the

than thepZ., and the num.

the plurality, the multitude

plurality being greater and

more notorious

than in the scale of the units, because [the


to] the scale

JeU' ^>lo' hundreds of mm.


*

put into the gen. because this

we mentioned

by the

JLb

to

pluralized

it is

of

of their dw., and of

^L

But, if uotpost. to viJlS and its cat.,

5p.

be in

not pluralized in the num., as above' shown.

its cat. 7 is

And

is

be evidence for him

to

[86] being a poetic license (A).

The

"*

made /era. because Lbu^l

the pi.

and

applied to ILI^J, is

**

i.

its
s *

in

pi.

and

this scale

appropriate

of the units is thepZ. of paucity [235, 315,

317], the predicament of which, according to them, is that

1451

many things, such

of the sing, in

according to

its

pi.

from

is

sufficiently

it

as their

its d'mi.

making

form [285], and developing another broken

[256]

so that the plurality of the

numbered

notorious here to enable them to dispense

with pluralizing
(1)

it

a [##.] pi.

s^
sp. of aoLc is

But sometimes the

(R).

Aud, A), by assimilation of

(R,

s3Lo to

x x x
fc~cLe.

since

ten times ten (Sn), as in the reading of

it is

IJamza and Ks &J^,

And

*5lc

Ui ^^ ^ tyLjj XVIII. 24.

they tarried in their Gave three

(Aud, A), where

Ubayy

reads

&***,

hundred years [below]


(K)

(2)

an

ace. sing.,

[anomalously (A),] as

iijfj

iSiJJUf

^^ Jjb' #

L^U

^Lo JuiTjiu

iSi

by Rabi' Ibn Dabu altazari, When the


young man lives two hundred years, pleasure and youth
4

(R, Aud, A),

And IK

gone (MN, AK13).

hundred dirhams and KLL^ oU!^!

IH

(A).
44

.JJUL^
W
X
x-

is

says very happily

*!>Lc

XVIII.

24.

"Ubayy],

41

44

is

and governing
tlmu-li

'

a subst. [for auLc


*
X

two anomalies, putting

"as

^/ie

thousnnd dinars

in the reading c

with Tan win, which

transmitted from others than Ilamza and


'

"

^J^

[above],

"

it

woL^

tlie

VII. 160. [above]

is

(B)],nota

sp,

;).,

[and

were said

otherwise

of *uL> into the p/.,

would ensue

similar,

Ks

o<JLJ

in the ace.,

lyiJ^

C.

>

allows

[151].

so that

it

And UclLj

is

ic

otherwise the anomaly

1452

of putting the

"that, if ^ju-u,

into the pi.

sp.

were governed

would ensue.

Zj says

in the ace, as a sp*,

it

would

"be necessary that they should have tarried nine hundred


"years, because
"

understood that the

it is

>

of a Jiundred, as

J^%'

'

=*

"one of the

k^Lo

"one of auLo

eJJ

"

$utx>

'

so that, if
;

one

sp. of Site is

'

a hundred men, where Je^ is


'
5

were a

^J^

would be

sp., it

and, ,JAJU* being at least fAree [234],

would be as though three hundred times three years,


"
which are nine hundred years, were said. And this is
it

'

"equally applicable

"were a

sp.,

to

VII. 160., where,

if

<>&.

lL>L*J tribes

they would be thirty-six, according

to his

"opinion. This, however, which Zj mentions, is also an obto the

jection

reading of

^^

"with prefixion,
"but a .sp., although
"

^J^

being, according to them,

it is

to the case
pZ.,

nothing

is

But what Zj mentions does not

reading of these two,

&J$

not governed in the ace.; while

"necessarily follow, because what he mentions


"

&jlx>

no doubt that the reading of the majority


more regular, according to the GG, than the

there

"is
"

Hamza and Ks

the

where the

intention in

sp. is sing.;
it is

like

whereas,

is

peculiar

when

it is

the intention in the sp.

"

occurring as a pi. in^t^J! a&Jb [314]. Moreover the o./.


" in the whole is the
pl. the sing, being deviated to only
}

"for a [special] cause, as before shown


"

sp. is

used in the pl^

it is

so that,

used according

when

the

to the o. /.;

1453

"while what Zj says would necessarily follow


only if
what is used in the pi. were used as the sing, is used, and

"

"does not hold good when the


i(

o.

f. in

what the num.

applied to." This

is

When you

IH's remarks.

used according to

pi. is

the end of

is

qualify the sing,

its

you

sp.,

may

observe the form or sense [of the qualified] in [regulating


the

number
*.

men

xx

>

or *UJfe

and

'

Jl^o

Jo^-b
X

Je^'

a pZ.,

But the

sp.

Ibllj

Fr allows

[correct]

j^jfj^

LJ

tall

Jx^x

allowable in

Zaid

[49],

is

the

<'i>.

is

be

sp.

which
ijJLi

'

^L>^Jo

'

xx

[538], as

would not

GG dislike the

many of the
*f

v-i^ tX^I

intended from the sp.

which

b^

seconds

while Jo^kJ?

'

what

KJL^ and

J!j-b

be a sp. on

to

(AKB)]

num., in any scale whatever,

sp. of the

by observ-

and the qualified are one


thing.
is
the
because
what
is not
first,
opinion

firsts is

the text

ep.

be allowable [52] (IY). S and

^^

or

the rest

if

in

#x *
&JLJ [above],
*

occurs as [^p. of the sing.

allowable in

if

then

ep.,

men

tall

And,

[78] (R).

^JJ^ L^i [above], where

(A KB)], because the

'.

a hundred

the principle of *Jl

as

"

be a 6wfrs. for the elided

thirty witty

iSLo

a nee of the sense (Sn).

i-

'

of the apposs. be like the

may

whence *Jl ^Uuif L^o

&&

of] the sp., as Lb^fe ^C=LJ

to

be an

x <-*

j>.

and udxj! kjLo


'

is un<-<inivocal

because
designa-

nnn-cxistent in such eps. as these.


peculiar to

some genera,

[317],

>x

it is

But,

not dis-

1454

)
x

liked, as

^LJLc

three learned

xxJlj

hundred erudite men.

ud3f !<U

and

ep. [316],

it

As

for the

to

sound

10

is

pi.,

\$

if

(1)

d >

said,

mostly
it

does not occur as a sp. of the num.,

according to S, except extraordinarily,

being

,,

what we said on

like

num. from] 3

sp. of [the

a broken^. [315,316].
be an

is

&3Lc a

[148] (R).

jUiJUii

The

317.

This

>

men and JcoU


^ X

>

^JL^

&cJJ not

nor ^U-Lwuc v*Jj, since the object of the sp.

particular ization of the genus, while the eps. are defi-

cient

in

meaning, because most of them denote

this

generality, for

which reason you do not say


x

pZ.,

when an

(a) if it

ep.,

>

>

*U>Jb

in the

broken

&1U

be a proper name,

it

(2) if it

be not an

ep.,

seldom occurs as a

then,

sp., be-

cause tiiQpl. of the proper name must contain the J [13];


while, the most important object of the sp. of the

num.

not individuation, the


being explanation of the genus,
of the num is mostly indet., even if it be a gen., for

sp.

which reason
rf/ie

^JuJUW the three Zaids and c>LuylssJL3

&ree Zainabs are rare: (b)

then, (a) if

it

have a broken
X ^

sp. in

most cases,

if it

pi.,
I

be not a proper name,

the sound is not used as

'

^\^f gJL3

the
[238,239], because
^iTv-LJli
x

[238] not being said, but

sound

is

seldom used as

X*

sp. of the

mtra. in any other


.

43.

-4d

position
^et;en

than this

but

green ears of corn

1455

[below] occurs, notwithstanding the existence of


(6) if it

have no broken

XXIV.

57. [240,316] (R).

sound pL

to the

the sound

pi.,

The num. from

word

the

vicinity of [a sound

(2)

when

pi. is neglected,

is

the broken

<t

the

pi.

in

is

the other

the

^O s s

*x^ XII.

as ^>^Lju*

in the vicinity of

when

Seven

II. 27.

*^

^Ub ^1

43. [above],

XII. 43. [316] (Aud,


^

A): (3)

as

formed from] a word whose

pi.

^>0>

which

neglected, as <y!^--w

is

heavens and XII. 43. [316]:

broken

sp.,

3 to 10 is pre.

when

[in three cases (A)], (1)


*

pi. of

used as a

is

\_pl-~\

is

>

>

seldom used, as v^bl*^ eJL>


&

th^ee Su'ads, which is allowable because joLLw is rare;


^ ~~ ^ ^

>

but jubu*, viJJ

The sound

also is allowable.

preferable in these two last [cases]


the

because the

first,

other

\_pl-]

and
is

is

pi. is

necessary in

neglected-

If,

however, the other be often used, and be not in the


of [a sound pi.

vicinity

broken

formed from] a word whose

num.

pi, is neglected, the

except rarely, as ^tX+^l

2>1.,

s '

<

three,

"^

is

kxJLj

Ahmads and

three

'&

tlie

below

it

'

pi.,

when

weak, as ^jjy^^ WUtJ Area righteous

men,

But prefixion
y

to the

sound

the best [construction] being apposition as an

next

Zainabs (A), more often JucU*! B1U and

'
'/'.,

not pre. to the sound


'

sSiCC viJJ (Sn).

an

c;loo\ viJJ
*

is
s

f-

ace. as

d.

[to 3 (IY)]

5.

The

(A).

ought

to

188

be a

sp. of
pi.

e/>.,

and

10 and what

is

of paucity [235,

1456

315, 316], in order that

may

it

num.

the

to

correspond

of paucity (M), because the exponent is according to the

numbered have only a

If the

expounded (IY).

of

pi.

paucity, or only a pi. of multitude, the num. is pre. to

as

f&S\

&l3

[235, 237].

pens [237, 242] and JLl; '^^four men


If however, it have both pis
the num. is

three

mostly pre. to the

num-

of paucity, in order that the

pi.

s df.

bered

may

correspond

But

occurs, notwithstanding

the

existence of

it is

renderable by

O'l

^^/^

The num. from

is

neglected, as

and 10Kd

J^

&+*'-* Jive

tion of paucity, but

'

228. [below]
^^ *

II.

*ty>l[235];
indeed says that such as

but this

is

not well-known

3 to 10 is pre. to the formation of

(1)

when

the formation of paucity

'

oJJ

three yirls,

dirhams

(2)

s s*f.

JL^ '^^ four men,

where there

contrary to the rules (Sn),] or by


is

a forma-

is

anomalous by analogy,

it is

rarely used (Sn),] and

fccJL)

multitude in two cases,


^ s

*)J

regularly allowable, as being

is

(R).

Mb

not regular.

u.>Jy&lL3 three dogs

kiU

the num. in paucity, as jUo>!


#

to

three mountains [237].

though

it,

[as being

hearsay, [as being

therefore equivalent to the non* '

existent, the first as in

II.

228.

[above],

since

o-e.

%\J*\ is
I

* *

anomalous as pL of
secnnd as in
^

999^1^
'^^
j~~

%J>

open

to

[below]

and the
9

"

-G.

is
three shoe-latchets, since
gL^ci!

seldom used (Aud, A).


is

with Fath

two objections,

But
(1)

this explanation of II. 228.

what

is

remarked by IUK,

1457

Of

~ x <>&

some mention

that

vid.

which case

tlie ,jf, in
*x

as

tf J*\

it is

Dammof

of %J> with

pL

not anomalous; and (2) that

with Fath [above] has a regular formation of paucity,

iJ>

$.

vid.

f -6.

yj*\

because

9 9 Of
Jot-! is

?,

regular in

'

with Fath of the

Joi3

o, and quiescence of the g when sound in the g, as


here.
And the language of [R and] BD is that, if the
,

sw<7. of the up.

has a

pi.

of paucity not neglected, the sp,


y

is

'

"

f-e

y^i"

paucity, as Ju^! &J13

p/. of

mostly put in the

^red

x-

mountains [237] and ^1 ^4^.

mounds

/?^e

[238, 254]

but

sometimes put in the

is

of multitude, as in II.

pi.

228., notwithstanding the occurrence of fcU-l [above] (Sn),


.

318.

When you

go beyond

you put two words,

10,

Ox*
(1) the unit, vid. &*^j>

nine and what

it,

which

^Lo' and

^Uol

is

below

are all uninfl.

upon Fath, except

[below], these being

(2)sl&*tfn

[319],

trictedly (And).

num.
ing

I/T/?.

is

member

tin;

sense of the con.


first,

(A'-,

i.

the

e.,

the cause of

f.

[319]:

[of the

comp.

mininization, [or rather

pla<-" of

its

irhat precedes the I of

it

[209,210] (Sn).

uninhVctedncss

its

the last member's standing towards


of

^Ui'

upon Fath unres-

uninfl.

for the last

(b)

xx

is its imply(Sn)], the cause of its uninflectedness

And, as for the

and

like the du.\

which

As

(a)

in tlir place

<>\vn

is

of the

standing in the

femininLeation (Sn)J in

respect of inseparability from Fath.

For that reason the

1458

first

member

~&A Lu! [below] and


s^c.

of

[since the cause of uninflectedness is

member

cause their last


[290,308], and
tion,

what precedes the

is uninfl.

It is plain,

because

S^f eleven male

twelve men, with both


#

x x x

and !tX^

is

sl&i

/ei?ew

be-

(Sn),]

Some say

that the

like part of the

and

slaves

the seat of inflec-

word (Sn).
you

l,lr.

llj|

in

the

^L^

[members of the

first

[314], that

comp.~\

xx Ix

-cLt &LL>

thirteen

male

female slaves and ib^U*


^x

and

with the

slaves,

the /em., and the second in the masc.

first in
&o!

it is

from what we have mentioned

say lAx&uLe.

masc.',

wanting

stands in the place of the

not of uninflectedness (A).

member

Uco! is tnjl,

and ^<X=*f

iLxLc Gdil

XX

iL^

Zwefoe

x-

pfr?5,

with both in the

/era.;

girls,

with the

the masc., [and the second in the

fern.']

first in

viJo thirteen

The

KK allow the first member to be pre.

member

of the comp., [the first being then infl.

(Aud).

to the last

ib^U*

according to the ops., and the last always in the gen. (Sn) J
as

x!^

Li
jc

sjcje

These are fifteen (A), whence ^JJS

when

[below] (Sn); and approve of that


-"

member

of (Sn)] the corap. is pre., as in

fifteen [below].

of the

Oo\

Thenttw.

numbered

C-cLD tXs.|
X

you say

'

is

x-

eK-cLc.

sometimes pre.

and then dispenses with a

Ttee are

[the last
'

^ Q X

K^^

to the
sp.,

thy

owner

as tjjo

Zaid's eleven (A), because,

when

J^^D Z% twenty, you address him that knows the

1459

'

attributed to him, while you do not say Jo\

any but those who know Zaid and his


That is done with all the comp. nums.,

tweiity to

id' a

iwcnty (Dm).
IxLfr

except

LJ| [316] (A)

and

Lcli!

s^r.

and similarly

with the uncompounded, as Jo\ &jLo Zed Us hundred (Sn).


- X X X ^ S*
S' S S S'\'
One says ^LxLc. <X^I [210] and J~cLc &cu toy thirteen

but not

IJbt

J^JLe.

because the ~&g of JLr. Lbt [above],

to the

being equivalent

of the

<j

ofo.

[290], is not combin-

ed with prothesis [110]; nor jUil, lest

it

be mistaken for

the prefixion of jjLbl two without composition (A).


if

And,

a comp. num. be pre., the uninflectedness remains (IM)

unaltered in both members, as

Thy

el

men

This

bers,

Zaid's

are with

^& Je^l

<X>\

eleven,

with Fath of both

uninflectedness remains with the


so

second method

is

therefore

that the last

and J

by common

member should be
"<'

(imposition remaining, as in

vJLJLxj (A),

[18], contrary to^xLg. <X^I,

method

Arabs, as Ju^

is

of Ju>l in both cases,


,

and Kasr of the

because

it is

transmitted by

^t J^l

*x>

and
;

The

J^c

of

i,

'x'x

S from some

the

is

two causes

name

not a proper

<x^| [with

Damm

inft., the

though dlJju

diptote [4,215], because of the presence of the

Tin's

mem-

with prothesis [210].

(Sn).

J^t,^ txLl

the most frequent method, because the

is

consent, and

*x>

of the

Fath of the j
in

in the second (Sn)]

the

and

first

is indi-

14GO

cated by IM's saying (A), But the last


in A. (IM): and

who

it is

asserts that

member

is

sometimes

approved by Akh; and preferred by 1U,

it is

the chastest, giving as his reason

that prothesis restores things to their o.f. in inflection (A).

This reason

member

is

also,

not said to require inflection of the

because the pre.

the aggregate

is

first

of the

two members, not the first only, nor the second only;

but,

since the final of the second is the final of the p*e. aggregate, the inflection appears

IM

however,
the

CT

forbids this

that there

is

in

it

method

to

be copied, saying in

no reason for approving


x

>

the uninfl. is sometimes pr.\, as \*)&'^

man

From
that

and

isivith thee! [225]

and vu^.

a wise, knowing One [205]

it is

said

by some

that, since it is

forbidden, even

'

HI*W

method, vid. that the

be

p** (J^ &* ^' *


(A). But IUK remarks
weak

to be, according to S, a

weak

first

And

(Sn)

there

member should be

is

Fr; though

IM

have thy fifteen

a third

it is
X

copied, contrary to the opinion of Fr.

IM

XXX

oi*3

cloned, transmitted

mentions in the Tasini that

"But

not

pre. to the

uninflectedness of both being removed, as

L& R.u^ What

dia/.;

it is

<J

last, the

many

authorized as a diaZ., to copy

if it

because

it,

J^ ^
x

In the Tasini,

(Sn).

Lo

by

not to be
XX

H^Lt

^Uf ",

Tashil, meaning with prefixion of the


says
first to the second without prefixion of the aggregate [to
in the

another thing (MN,Sn)], as


xox
xxx*
5LAfc -^^'
ub
,.wo
W
x

*xx
ik

io.JLw.

^xx*,.wo

auUlfc

.-t

v-ft-u

1461

(
o

[above],

i.

e. auoLt

and

his wrariness

"

[He was overtask?

distress, with

assertion,

not allowable,

is

sideration; for [others transmit that


first

comp.,

of eighteen of his

girl

by common consent". His


however, of "common consent" requires con-

years (MN),]

the

on account of

/,

member

be pre.

to

unrestrictedly,

[i.

(MN)] the

the last

to

member

of

the

poetry or elsewhere

in

e.,

KK allow

(MN), whether the aggregate be pre. or not

(Sn),] as

before noticed (A).


6^ ^ '
.

319.

The

of S~CLD,

jfc

the ft-m. (IH,IA,A)J

is

pronounced with

Bami (M)] Tamlm (M,IH,IM), as

[the

^^

(IY,A), and '^^&

^.^

^w?ve

UJLj

(R), in

[when compounded

to

iyx^

Kasr by

(1)

g^I &&^[
x

eleven

ft

^j nineteen (IY),

with Kasr of the ji (A): (2) quiescence (M, R, IA, And,

A) by the Hijazis (M, R, And, A), which


<l'"d.

(R, A): (a) since they dislike the succession of four

Katies in what

is like

mated with the

unit,

tlir

the chastest

is

one word, and

is

moreover amalga-

which [mostly] ends with a Fat ha,

Taimmis deviate from Fath

to

Kasr of

its

medial;

while the Hijfizis deviate from mobility to quiescence of


the medial, in order

moved hy another
are broken in
<i^J. and

and

-uid

(R):

many

J^\, hut

that,

one heaviness

(b)

may

that is because

of the num.*.,

but

the

customs

wh< n<v their


saying

^J^J upon the measure

sI

not be rc-

of

with Kasr of

\^s [.^22];

(g

its initial

1462

[234, 320];

and sSlJis

^*7' exce P

&5Uilj'

to

f-

^l*u

not

&

s-

anomalously [316] (IY):

R, A) by some (A), which

is

nor

"

Fath (IY,

(3)

the o./. (IY,A), and

read

is

by AlA'mash

in II.57.[211](IY), because the composition

is accidental;

but this

ever, the ji is pronounced with


fin the

(Sn),

(R),]

In the mane

rare (R).

is

The

Fath (A).

how-

.,

of ^xLc

MSS

as expressly stated in some of the

wasc.,

when compounded with a unit mobile


is sometimes made quiescent, [because

in the

final

of the suc-

cession of vowels (A), in consequence of the combination


of four Fathas, one of which

the unit (R), in what

is

RiLlji

the Fatha on the final of

(K on XII.

virtually one n.

as llr. <X^I (R,A) and 'JL*

pLl

is

(K); contrary to

*b

pLI

4.),]

(R). and so on (A), to

|210] (R), lest two

lli!

quiescents be combined (K): and so Abu Ja far reads


c

yLl

in XII. 4. (442), for lightness (K)]; while Hubaira,

the companion of

though

Dm

it

says "If

may

[670],

(Aud,

it

s,

be said
?,'

reads
t^g-co

is

'How may

we say

be made

this

A)

Haf

yLc

IX.

lisi

36. [83],

involves a combination of two quiescents (A).

made quiescent
Jsa

[ tX^I

more

in

when

fitting"

(Sn).

of the

the

quiescent after the

occurring in the

pounded (A)

that,

the

The

of

n.

y& and

and the

&

be

[of

^j>Ci

num. of thejfera.(Sn), when com-

Hjll ^iUf (M, IH),]

is (1)

pronounced

1463

with Fath (M, IH, And, A) by most of the Arabs


XX

who

^Q

treat S^cLt

the cause [209]

X ^ X

XX

"

like

X X

^^^

one (IY)

is

x^ x
&iJLj

(2)

**

(11),

^ X -"G^

and *eft*)l, because

made quiescent (M, IH,

And, A) by some of them (M), which often occurs, because


the comp.

is

heavy by reason

of the composition (R), aa


X

>

made quiescent

the (5 is [necessarily (R)]

(IY, R, Sn),

I*

^JU- [215] (IY, R),"and

\&

in

^S ^AJUQ

^G [208,213]

(R): (3) seldom (Aud), anomalously (IH), elided; while


the

pronounced with Fath (IH, Aud, A), because of

is

,j

the composition

the

since

(Sn),

account of
[Ifi]

(R)

Kasr

or with

the [elided
.sha

as in

its lightness,

(R)]

&

&

^UJ!

* 'Cx

oot^

(R, Aud, A), as

(R, Sn)

Fatha on

tolerates

X*-

I saw

the

judge

an indication of

and hence the saying

[of

(KF)]

^X

*x"^'*'^X

!^

^xXxS'!^

XX^X
SwxLc

X XX

jjU^^

XX X

XX

^X x ^

>**X

LuL^^ LoUi' oo*~

<xL^

assuredly I have drunk eight cups of wine and

and

eighteen

-*

^Uj
those

the

who say

and two and four [below]


being elided according

joilT jl^i?

forcer

i/ic

(A), properly

to the

7^au^

dial, of

KF), as

(Jh,

says the poet [Mu<larris Ibn Rib'l alAsadi (Jsh)]


J

[below] (Jh)

And
/

on

the

ground

is batter

made my

blade Jlu

among

c-

stout she-

in the foreleg*, striking the leathern shoes

(Jsh).

But, after elision

than Kasr of the ^, in order that


189

of the

tf

^Ui may

Fath
agree

1464

with

when compounded with sl&l J


pronounced with Fath of the finals (R). And

its sisters,

they are

sometimes

because,

also,

when ^Cj

elided, its inflection

is

not compounded,

being placed upon the

its ,5 is

as in the

saying of the poet

[below] (R, A)

/&* /oar beautiful central


incisors,

/S7ie

two above, and two below,

two on the
on the

/our lateral

?icZ

and one below, and similarly


that her front-teeth are eight (AKB), and

right, one above,

left, so

x ^x

the tradition

xx

55

^W

^1*5^

[below] with Fath of the

^5^-0

>

That

(R).

LV.

24.

is like

-4?irf

the reading of some

are

//t*

with [elision of the

^5

the ships

Damm

The

correct method, [says he,] is to re tain

in prothesis

ace.,

like

he

as

for AlA'sha/s

elides the

in

it

by

poetic

(5tXa^l

allowed

det. defective in

^
>^^

the ,5 of
) a

>

O >

>

(AKB).

expressed

u$lS

[16],

o x-^^

JcaJ^

as

license,

^ (A).

because the
is

saying pJ| ^j^i


~~

from the

it,

which

^,

And,

of the

elision of this

of the defective,

and in the

^/^

> ,X x

^LLuH

But

in ^jUi is the

X & '*

fo&J\ *)y
with sails raised aloft ,

and (K, B)]

D disapproves the

II in the

<5

incisors,

it

[above],

is

elided

x-

^Joj [above],
pJ! ^5^-*^^

i.

e.,

while, in cases of poetic license [below], one is


to elide the

^ s from the finals

of words, content-

ing oneself with the Kasra indicative of them, as in the

Baying of the Rajiz

1465

<
O

S *

Lo
|

2Vi,y

u'0

Th

and another

And IBr

KK

the

XX

>

cites

(3^*
to

a dir ham, from

Hood with

that gives

says [in his Notes on the

allow elision of this

pJflAlj
But this

AKB).

>

b^ # U^

cfviJj

hands area hand that sticks not

munificence;
(D).

udxuJL kxj

&

L$J [above] as

in

the

D (AKB)]

poetry

that

and that

an instance of

[restriction of the

sword

it

(CD)

elision to poetry]

a in
cases of
requires consideration; and H's saying
poetic license

"

[above]

is

open

to the

X-

objection that the


*

~C'

J^Jlj LXXXIX. 3.
And l>y the night when it goes away, and cannot therefore
be reckoned a poetic license (CD) and the truth is that

elision occurs in the Kur, as y*o. !3

not peculiar to poetry, as is proved

it is

cited [above]

by

which

is

by the

tradition

given in the Sahih of

Muslim

in the chapter of Eclipse, on the authority of

'Abbas,

who

says

^=*

|jL,j

xJL&

&JU!

cs

lo

Ibn

iJj|

The Apostle of

God (God bless him, and give him


sun was

peace /) prayed, when the

eclipsed, with eight boivs in

(AKB).

And

sometimes that

is

four prostrations

done with

gl^dtaftft

x x

the lateral incisor tooth,

f^*

ships [above], and their like

(R).
.

320.

affixed, ag

The num.

to

whose end the

twenty and

[its cat.,

vitl.

and

(IY)]

are

1466

thirty [and

which are in the


to
,jyuwJ ninety,
y*?; forty

form of the

pi.

dominance

[of the side of the

J^i-ftj 5J

..jlji^!

common

(IY)], are of

Lo *jo^l
,r^

gender, by pre-

masc. (IY)], as in

^ ^^? (2?^^

t^*^ LJOL&.!

^xxt4>

Abd ArRahman Ibn AlHakam (CD), She called


brother after that there had been between us that
4

(M), by

me

her

matter which brother

and sister do

rule [of Arabic (D)] that,

when

not

do (AAz).

It is

the masc. and fern, are

combined (D, IY), the predicament of (D) the masc.


predominates (D, IY, BS) over the Jem. (D, BS), as in

AlFarazdak's saying p}| liCU CJ [247] (BS), because it


is the o. f. [2G3] (D, IY), the fern, being a deriv. from
it.

This rule

is

universally observed

cases, (1) ^1*1*3 two hyenas,

except in two

when you mean a male and

you form the du. from the fern., not the


masc., in order to escape from the combination of augs.:

a female

for

(2) the cat. of the date [below] (D).

fern, predominates ovsr the masc. in


Qfs
9
for the Jem. and
as du. of

They say
two cases,
s

(1)

^'Ju^

^1*^

*^o

that the

ij

for

the masc.;

x xo

for the

Arabs do not say jjulx^o


**

by nights

mentioned by

Jj, [or,

[in

c"!ate ;

**

by days. That is
in one Ms, Zji (DM),] and many.

for they date

But

[228]: (2) the

[325. B], not

averring the dating by nights to be a case of

predominance (DM)]

it is

a piece of carelessness.

For

the essence of predominance is that two things should be

1467

combined

the

[in existence, as in

first

or in expression,

ear.,

as in the coming ex. (DM)]; and that the predicament of

one should then be applied to the other: whereas night

and day are not combined

expression or in existence,

[in

at the time of dating, which is not a part of the day

and

night together, but either of the day or of the night

(DM)]; nor are two things here spoken of by the name

And

of one to the exclusion of the other.

the Arabs date by nights

moon rises only

at night

(ML); so

and the

lunar,

that, in this respect, the

A true case [of predomi-

nights precede the days (DM).

nance of the /em. over the masc. in dating (DM)]


" o^'

saying

&JLJ;

"

^ '

nights and days (ML),

&Xy5 / wrote

meaning

specified

is

that

some of the three were

that there should be a

by a masc. and a /em., both


X

irrational,

[below] (ML).

The num.

as in

specified

is (1)

both combined (AKB)],

^jjo

[or

predominance
kxl^

and

is

given

jli llrouglif

JU'f

[in

num.
^ ^

'

^.

l&j o^lk

by a masc. and

separated from them by the word

A fern, together
or

it

and sepa-

^ ^

X-

rated from the num. by the word ,jjo


v>J!

your

after three

it

And- the formula for

days, and some nights (DM).


dating and elsewhere (DM)]

is

a^x

^j^LxJ

,j-o

why

only that the nights precede

is

Arab months are

the

[the days], since

the reason

in
*'

to the masc., as ,j^j

("i

which case
*X^^

male and female rfar>

^^

****=

ss*jl;

>^

yLc ooyoi!

[Mow]

I saw fifteen

she-

1468

camels

and he-camels

[314], in

unless the two sp$. be

which case predominance

is

given

*^ and

to the fern.,

as

[By AnNabigha alJa'dl, describing a wild cow, whose


young one had been devoured by a wild beast, Then she
went round about, for three days and nights, seeking for
him, and the display of grief was that she yearned

lowed (AKB)], since dating

and

based upon nights, as will

is

be seen [326.B], for which reason, when you speak vaguely,


and do not mention the days and nights, the expression
*

follows the fern., as LM.JV


x^

days, whence

They

U^

-f.

(a)

separation, the sp.


(R), ^gJLjl

but

is

*ft

is,

to

five

*f.

II.

234.

wait four months and ten

fern,

predominate only for

separation, since, with

of the

'as it

\jj>
^

^^y^jL ^^ojyo

**j^!

you make the

that reason, and because

xS

'ssO-f-

Y^!

'

one abode
^^ Jj\ Such a OS's"

compel themselves

shall

days [314]

9 ^

were, not mentioned

S says

yU &1^ is allowable by analogy,


'

not the idiom of the language of the Arabs [314]

the
(S,R): (2) not separated [from

words, in which case,

(a) if

two

spsJ]

the num.

by these two

be pre.

to the
'

numbered, predominance is given to the foremost, as


^

J.
*

fc

t)uLC\
five
'

)Clf.S

male and female slaves 2^ Ju^!^

slaves, since the prefixion to

an excess of peculiarity

[to

it]

this pre.

num.

is

it

imports

and so in the num. to


&'<>*>*

which

*.

*.'

females and male

_-,_-

+\

coupled, as

' *'

G^

1469

o hundred and three men and women and

a thousand and three she-camels and he-camels

J*^

the

(a) if

numbered be

the

if

(b)

masc.

sp.

in

the

^t?e

and twenty

^L^> 5 *3'u

^C=*

llo

jU^>j

LLJ.

Co^j

V-&-&

..,.,&

^yte.j four

the two sps. are

&JLJ

and fourteen

as

nights,

and

&*. JVAJ b'yxLc ooyXxi!


' [above]
"/
?#'*-''"/
and she-camels are
fifteen he-camels
SLcL

the aggregate

slaves

is ten,

slaves

may

female, or unequal.
i.

(6) if

the

&uj

11^

what

is

When

kill

4vm

meant

is

x-ib.

[the sps. in]

iL^ s^xLt

xv

_y

not like that; but the

number

of male

and female

some of the ten being male and some female

and they

case as this,

respect

nights.

whereas

is that

nights, because with the nights

are days equal to them in number

sense

porches, and iUjJ

SLJ^ Co^>

and

journeyed four teen days

fourteen days

and

x...

she -camels,

and twenty days and

^ and

regarded, as &liJ

is

and

thirteen he-camels

fourteen houses

*...

^wkt.

and men, from

she-camels

masc. be not rational, the foremost


SjOj

as sCoTwLfr

masc. gender conjoined with reason

for the

then,

sSJx^tfSxx^JOxxx'x

women and men and

fifteen

be rational, whether the fern, be

^ '

}L=N

as a sp.,

ace.

rational or not, the masc. is regarded,


*

xsL

e.,

be equal, five male and five

The

indct. post,

to

in

such a

in the position of division, is intended to

denote ^e?iz^;and the

word^-o

is

metaphorically adapted

1470

from the
are

local adv.

so that

men and women means


two

[either of] these

two genera; as what

SLx>fj

J^^uo*^k)i

that they are not excluded

divisions,

and from [either

between two things

is

stood from the language of IM that the unit

of] these

It is under-

may not be com-

pounded with &)+&& and


sary, as

from

not excluded

is

from the place intermediate between them (R).


^

The people

(jjv^j

but that coupling is neces-

its cat.,

x^.^

J^v^ iU^

not

[313],

[325],

ooC

perhaps because of the ambiguity in such as iLl~T


iLLj ^j-h-^

which might mean / saw the Jive


O

longing

to,

by some

i.

e.,

of the

Arabs with Fath, of the

IM

Q*

have the predicament of

v_>

means from
Q'

CK that

says in the

juucu

and

go

and

KjuwJ

^J

whether

uncompounded or compounded, and have ^>-cLt and


cat.

coupled to them, as jj^l XJLOO oJiJ

odd years and ,Twy^ ^a-?


x ^>* ^
^"^

>

odd maid-servants, andLuB


and

iUA^v.^5

to

&*^L?

*o (A).

away goes

^i^Acj

means from aLxJU to

Jh says
;

/ tarried some

^yxLfc

Ha.o.j
^

/
^ JoLt
^ *

JLA^ A^J ^en and

&c|

auL*dj

twenty

Gx'^'fix*'

its

and odd

vj;v^^ f^> twenty and odd volumes

Sxf

and that

and Lo^Lt

^*

and odd men-servants and

have ten

be-

twenty men (A). *-dj pronounced with Kasr, but

three to nine (Jh, R).


^L?

of,

(R),

so that

auu*o

When

and

*saj

Ofx

from

vi

you pass beyond

you do not say

^;j^;

( Jh,

R) but
:

1471

the well-known opinion is that

decimal numbers (R)

all the

not accompany any but ten


^x* >
SLoui

the Prophet

seventy and odd


321.

is

refuted

be used with

may

it

does

by the words

of

>

**->

&y^)

it

and the saying that

&

o/ sto% and odd

<jW^ Faith

is

parts, or in one version

composed

(Sn).

The nums., [when you enumerate them


V

are uninfl. upon quiescence, as *ii$

(IY),]

*>

,jUj't J^*tj

one-two-

three [159,647], because the meanings necessitating inflec-

wanting (M), since these nums. do not

tion [19] are

occupy the place of


but correspond to

so as to be ags., objs., or inehs;


O x
Ox
like LO and VJQ [187, 200]. That is

ns.,

ejs.,

*xx

xx

confirmed by the saying iuu

^'1^ three-four transmitted

by

S,

where the
xx

in 200 s I

to the

though mobilized by the Fatha of the

is left in its state [as

as an indication that

cent in the

J5

Hamza
8

num.

it is

as], not restored

constitutionally quies-

(IY). Similarly the

names of the

letters

of the alphabet, and what resembles that, [are quiescent


in the

finals

(IY),]

when simply enumerated

coupled, nor occupying the place of

[l. >9].

The

as

ns.,

not

u6G

JiJ!

with a ^ after
then has two dial, vars.,
^\^
"
X

the

(11),

[720, 723], like jfj with a


Ox

the measure of

O -f

is

and^

upon

^ and ^1: while

or abbreviated [234]

after the

!^

transmitted.

190

[with the

Thus

prolonged

[the

names of]

1472

these letters cease not to be uninfl., because they are ejs.


*

corresponding to

JLO [above],

*JQ

and

au

you make

until

them occupy the place of ns., in which case you put them
into the nom., gen and ace., as you do with us., saying
,

oo

"

f*=* pj^sJ! J;
fl

I*

The

<" x x

of

the

word

-o

<

UA^

^^ is a

and

Ox

-^

Jb oLJ! y*! The


JLLw^

initial

final of the word oLo

zs

a ^

and

x x

^^ I wrote a beautiful _

coupling, because
u
when

it is

what

you say

and similarly in

equivalent to dualization [228], as


the spelling of

is

Bakrf\ and

the

answerer says
&L A ^ and a J and a
inflec%\^ o&j
ting them because he couples; whereas, if he does not
*

couple,

Ibn Al

he makes them uninft., saying K

Hakam

and a

Yazid

When

GG,

they get together over an

and a

v_>

a wrangle arises among them (AKB). The


of ns. is inflection and, whenever
you find any of

o. f.

them

uninfl.,

you must seek a cause

what we have mentioned

like

vague ns.
and some
the

LJ

[athThakafi al Basn, the celebrated poet

(AKB),] says, satirizing the

[below] (IY)

names

ness

for its uninflectedness,

for

the prons. [16], the

[171, 176], the verbal ns. [187], the mets. [216],

of the advs. [201],

But, as for the

ejs.

and

of the letters of the alphabet, their uninfl ected-

is original,

not needing a cause; while their inflec-

1473

(
-

tion in such as
is

[above]

and
^^x^lJu [123, 200]

*>J!

caused by their being constructed, which

contrary to the

o.

(R on

/.

tested on the strength of the

yo

SM III. 1.

If that be con-

Inflection).

Fath of the

in LM

Alif-L&m-Mlm. God, there

He, the answer

that

is

the

is

is

is

if

aJUf

^ JT

no god but

orig. quiescent, being

pronounced with Fath only because of the concurrence

and the J of *JU| [663]. By anaof two quiescents, the


^
logy it ought to be pronounced with Kasr [664]; but,
disliking Kasr, lest two Kasras having between them

which

is

which

is lighter,

as

too

be combined in the word,

the origin of Kasra,

which would then be

a^

heavy, they deviate to Fathn,

iL&

[207] and

^!

[206] are uninfl*

upon Fath for this reason (D). When you make [the
names of ] these letters ns., predicating of them, and
coupling some of them to others, you

inflect

them, as

we

have mentioned, prolonging such of them as are abbreti

viated,

and doubling the

do not put the


cat. of ns.,

may

be

(a)

[above].

g\ in the dial, of those

For,

declined as triptotes;

may be decided not to


n*. f

when

where

by the

(b)

who

transferred to the

they must be treated as such: so that

ed; and v c) represented

to a cat.

^ of

(1)

they

dualized and pluraliz*

and J

(2)

their

be rad., because they are transferred

that is necessary: (3) since

into which inflection enters, there

is

among

no biL

n.

sing.

whose

1474

second

is

a letter of prolongation and softness, therefore

you add to the of C lS, and l another in order that


they may become tril.\ and then you convert the [second] f
I

(a)

into

Hamza, because

the

first

porate the

*b;

as in *GlT and

to the ,5 of
first,

of its quiescence and the quiescence of

you add

[683, 721, 723]:

^ another &

which you

into

as you do in the case of ps.


}

predicating of

Oxby

/z.

it

322.

[313]
Qx

tX^lj

O^

JL^U, tn^ n. &z>) or

Therefore

JL^J^JJ

H<X=.

"

[191,

treats

it

When you

Cx

/ saw

you say otf

o^a

when he

one and &jUUooK

is

inflection [is necessary], as


90s*'
/ t^ro^e a
and Ux=

[275, 306] (IY).


? '

say Jus!j \&& This

in

incor-

&**& ouJ

to the cat. of ns. as in *>J!

where the poet doubles the

200],

as a

them

(b)

when you
X

transfer

and

a joo
X X

three, then

T^zs

fa

(M).

an

is

acf. jpar^.

from jc^

aon

x-'xO
,

i.

q.

&JL>\

means dJUjf,

i.

was single
e.

[324]*

dJUjToJjJftAa

single (number)] and is used in [qualifying] the number-

a single

ed [314], like the rest of the nums., as J^l^ JU

man
is

and

^tcL^

^JL^
[325.

youthful, the

And

j.y>

a single people.

A] or ^Ij^l

Hamza

also.

The

like

is

<xL^ with Fath or


is

^)7.

^ll& [247] from .Ll

being a substitute for the

the assimilate ep.

and JH^;

The broken

[below].

Kasr of the

changed into Hamza,

(1) in

1475

where the change

^tJc^l [above],

pronounced with

Damm may

regular, since the

is

be changed

the beginning, as s*^! and oJ3l

for sj~j

or the middle, as j^pi [243]: (2) in

into

and

it is

anoma-

the j pronounced with Kasr in the beginning, as in

and

JJ^s

anomalous according

^^[ and

regular according to Mz, and

is

of
<5<X^ where the change

lous, according to all: (3) in

HjJ! for p-L&j


s
V

in

ojcj^ [683]

&^\ where
,

Hamza

When

to others.

used in the rmras.


'*

x *

between two decimal numbers, the forms <X^I and <5<X=f


are preferred to Jcjj and sju^!^

for the

lg

and

and

<X^!^

sy^a

eleven, and

8tXa.!^

^jAiOLf^nfy-on* (R). And

Ir

rarely (A),]

Jk^^ eleven

When pre.

to the o.f. (A).

and Sj^lj also occur,


<\^!^

But sometimes, though rarely,


as

sake of lightness.
9 '

is said

<X^I

^^

sometimes, [though
(R,

A), according

and ^5<X^I are regular-

ly used otherwise than in the nums. between two decimal


9

f.

numbers, as paj^*! and


x.

'

^jj^l

one of them.

When

not pre., ^<\^l is not used except in the

nums. between

O ' *

But

two decimal numbers.

<x=!

is

regularly used to

denote generality of beings having knowledge after


negation,

prohibition,
[499];

interrogation,

and keeps

iXM XXXUL

or condition, as Co

to the sing, masc., as

32.

Ye are not

like

any

^jclj
others

1476

the wives (R) and

of

mination

is

LXIX.

then rare [262].

47. [107] (Jh).

And sometimes

dispense with negation of what precedes

quence of the negation of what follows

Jyb $

pron., as vJUj

its

ljs.^1

Its deterit

it,

is

able to

in

conse-

if this

it,

contain

Verily not any one

& '

But

says that,

meant

is

it

^ *"

t\a>!

when

does not occur in affirmation,

to denote

generality

that

so

jjdl ouJiJ

&

/ met any one but Zaid is not said,


o
^
And <X^!^ also is used
opinion of Mb.

|Jo\ SM

contrary to

the

in the non-

aff.iQ denote generality


fern., as

^-g^o scX^lj Sj P~$A*

met one of them

Hamza

that the

of rational beings; but

(masc.),

of the

!<X=*!j

nor one of them

J^l used

as in

He

consent.

as jU*l

CXII.

1.

seems not

^^CJ ^

to

Hamza

the sense of <X^!

is

its

**C

F says

therefore

Hamza

common

unity in such
hazard the

to

you ought rather

is

a substitute for

being One has not come

me: how then can any more have come?

but rarely,

not

whereas in the

a substitute by

rad.; but

Co

I have

(fern.}.

to see the sense of

say that, in every case,

the

it is

[above], and

conjecture that the


to

[below],

made

in the non-aff. to denote

totality is rad., not a substitute for the


aff.,

Lc

c^uJiJ

is

Sometimes,

0^ is used in the a/., not in a num. between


9

two decimal numbers, nor pre., but


1.

[160].

And sometimes

like

in praising,

<x^!^

as CXII.

and negativing

1477

)
>

~0

existence
-

<Xs.l

of]a

like,

6x

yc

they say j^JiX^TiXa..!^ and

giving ^tX^^ the pi.

..

t^^ by

G x

s<X*,

pl.
is

The meaning

[2S8, 254].

j7e is a

calamity that

is

assimilation
of

^(X^ya

one of the ones.

The

poet [AlMarrar Ibn Sa'id alFak'asi (A KB)] says

reckoned

TAe?/

(R)

of the

heroes,

abstractive
his

be the

to

fox at

they roused in

[1],

me, the vj being

one of the calamities.

Dm

Tashll " &^>\

^J^l

Commentary on

the

"fern., is applied to the masc., because


"
u

"
tl

the calamities, an expression


^ C -o x
Ox xx>

as

^l^jJ!

^ au^b y

J^><xL^I tX^I also

^ f-c^o

^jjca.^1
,,

<4

"

"

-ffe

it

says in
,

though

means one of

applicable to the masc.,

one oj the calamities: and

means one of the calamities but they


;

give the pZ, of the rational to what they deem great,

" even
though
"

muster

the

thinking that I should elude, and not

them, until

face

me

>

f.

<Xa>!

He, then, who says

be not rational.

it

'

'

yo observes agreement with the form

>

ofy,

and therefore makes both the words masc.


^

while

lie

*-

who says <X^I (5tX^ observes

the sense, and

therefore puts ^5<Xa>t

And there

is

prefixing

it

another dial. var. of

to the pi. of the fern.

J^l

vid,

&*>W with]

1478

"Damm

of the

words [peculiar

and Fath of the

And some

"(AKB).

(AKB)] are used

to negation

in the non-aff. to denote totality (R).

like

R mentions twenty-

which are mistranscribed in most of the MSS, so


that we think it a kindness to spell and explain them
one,

(AKB),

vid. (1)

v-*^ (R),as ^^>^ L$J

any one speaking plainly,

i.

Co

There

not in

is

says ISB, yv**

e.,

it

which

>

they sometimes say in this sense; and so says the author

oftheKF (AKB): (2)]^


n.

from^b

that

it is

a house (AKB)

(b)

rel. n.,

^; b

(R):

is pi.

but to a place in Al'Irak called

be a blunder

KF

and the

adds

^S

'

tain

and by Kl

omen, which
first

,j

(6)

Lh by

it

^Ub
Kl,

by ISB

be

to

(c)

is

some

said

(AKB)

by
(5)

'

from^io

a moun

be from iLjb a dial. var. of aids an

improbable, the correct opinion being the

and like

from

is

to

of .b [310]

which, says Kl,

>

a rel. n. said
^sjio (R),

says that
o

>

called not in relation to

is so

to

ISk says

(a)

Lh

(R), a rel

Hamza and ISB


o

^3 with Hamz of the

and

(3)

^'o
X

add

(4)

by rule <*>b because

Abh *Amr adDurl

pi. of %b

not pronounced with


8

it is

[499]:

is

^Os

with an

who says

the author of the

KF

and a

that

spells

with the addition of the


^

it is

it [

this is transmitted

without

&IL

like

Hamza

^k!

but

(KF),]

U79

Witt

Damm

of the

v.,

of the

Is

KF "gives

Kl,

^L, [like *^yb


j

which

two other dial,

and with

Jh

the J of the

is

is
v.

the p
:

and

both mentioned by

vars.,

KF),] with the Hamza put after

(Jh,

Damm

the form to which

Damm

Fath of the Hamza, which

and Kasr of the

the

the

of the

lo

and quiescence of the


himself

restricts

and

^^o
X

witli

and quiescence of the Hamza, the only


form mentioned by ISk, which is said by 1SB in his
'
'
x
99s
*Us
to
be
from
aor.
Commentary
i^k> like ^Lb aor. g^j,
meaning went away in the, earth but transposed, its
of the

Jo

**

*~~

regular form being ^SJo


of the

MSS

which

is

of the

j^e-ji

[above]

^UB|

(AKB)

and Kasr of the

Q
:

f-

6,

(7) ^! (R), cited in

"
;

(AKB)

&

(8)

to the

Ji

(B),

foregoing

oo

one says
>!jJL
*^l

one, or

while most

have (AKB)
with the
^(.L (R),
;

(KF), by addition of the

like

"
Th, whose Commentators say with Fath

of the Ilaniza,

any

like

authorised by ISgh

the Faslh-by

(AKB)

Lx>

There

is

not in the house

elision of the ^5,1.0. &z>\


^! by

as saya

Zuliair

r;

yl

dwelling of Asmd's in AlGJiaiuran,

writing, wherein
(9)

^AxTdJ).

is

whirh

not
is

effaced like

any one of its inhabitants

said

by
191

ISB

to

be from

(Jh)

1480

(AKB)

[139]

(10)

with Fath of the

U^r (R), X

B-x

double^
tillage

but this word

being Jl*i from ^J^f turning the soil over for

is

not mentioned

fr

(AKB)

(12)

yL

sometimes with

Damm

it

of the

x x

o^J I called

(R), both transmitted

that !Li L^? Co

few nor many from

*.A^i

while Sgh transmits from Fr


:

from

says, is

fi

(AKB)

pronounced [with Fath, and (AKB)]

Kl from Lh ISB says


not in

ISk

(R), which,
So x

(11) (5^co

by ISk (AKB)

but sometimes

by

means There are

meaning became few

;.

with Fath and the S

S^i

does not accompany negation

it

^
2

(R),,

i.

e^ occurs in affirmation

Damm of the

(AKB)

& Sgh says that


^

it is

y,^

oujj I crept) meaning ^&*

said

(13)

by Ks

with

(R),

to

one that creeps

be from
but

ISB

^
irregular, the regular form being (S*+?& *
9

says that this

is

because

it

is

v>jJ<>(R),with
^"

that
that
fe

it is

from

rel. n.

from

S-AJO>>

creeping (AKB)

Kasr of the ^>and af the double ^: ISB


o

(14)
says-

^rnQSimngdecoration and adornment; but

some transmit

inexplicable,

it

as

unless

&^& with the


C'"
it

undotted

be JAA^ from
J^JI

man stooped his head: (15) o!^

which,

which

^^ The

ISB say s, may mean-

o^ jj possessor of camels fur, i. e owner of camels or


may mean diveller in a tent ofcameFs fur: but most of the
MSS have (AKB) t?T(B), an act. part, from s
,

1481

I fecundated

the palm-tree

occurs, though

Dm

and in the Tashil also J\

says that

is

it

of the copyists, the correct form

a mistranscription

with the

J^

being

used in affirmation

because *J

is

the

which
bounded in

(R), says R,

The

-^

gazelle

an

is

its

(AKB)

(16) o! with

part, from ^-kJ? >-?!


running : but there is no
cat.

doubt that this word

which

by R, either

is mis-spelt

the Tashil, and

with the

<j

Kl from

lAr, being, says Dm, the act.

fault with him,

is in

i,

e,

man

that being the genus

mitted by

from

hunger (AKB)

*jJ)

i.

&^

<}o\

(17)

the icell

witli

Damm

of the

Oii>^^
%l^99 L

no^ in

which

found

finds faulty
is

it

trans-

that

any one

it

sob xlsfj
is said,

KF,

ISB says

not in

AZ (AKB)

and with

&AJ!

transmitted by
:

(20)

meaning water:

Ly*

(18)

Iain/a, as 5

(R),

ISk gays that

s^oli L^>

Kl from Lh:

J^Jy

Lo

(R), with

(19) )r*y-

Damm

of

f in

any creature is a rel. n. from /X


,^ob
x^c'fili,
,KxX
Luo ^^1 Lc> v^of l/> /Aavc no^ seen
an^
xo

that

Hamza (AKB)

the ^, and
ts

of

to

e. cX^I

without

is

anything also

and so Kl transmits from

^ ^a

J^b* (R)

There

tx)

part

^j!^

^\

transmitted by

is

derived, says the

with Hainza; and that

iTi

or for

transmits syob Lgj

e.

07

<j**

Kl from Lh, being


O

AZ

U>A*J

for

and
crea-

1482

more beautiful than her


*
i.

U-L=*

e.,

of a fair

is said

and his Commentator

ISB

says that

irregularly formed from ^\J which


blood: these four are from the crude-form

re?. w.

Damm

(R), with

KF

the author of the

any

is

(21)

woman,
2

one,

i.

e.,

&^A

of the

(AKB)

and with a double

There

j Lgo Co

says

heart's

and Kl says that

is

not in

it

an irregular

it is

Ga

from

rel. n.

a Zowe, meaning lousy

S*3

not found in the I ? lah


it is

[alManHk

but this word

ISk (HKh)], though


These are the words

of

mentioned in the Tashil.

mentioned by R, who here follows DI.

And

there
*

remain some other words cited by ISk,

vid. (22)
>

ISB

which,

says, is an act. part,

wail whistled
and

i.

%
,

e.,

having fire in

it:

(24)
^

^ ^^1

platter as though

it

o
Of

ivolf: (26)

i.

e,,

^t^o
i.

e.,

x x

yLo

which

^Aj
Off?*?

Is

JULi

meant There

is

not in

a snorter or snorer

c^^-o

it

a dog, nor
*-

(27) ^sAj

barker

&

^i!

which, says

ISB,

'^

not used except in denial, as

[88]

T7ie

says ISB, a licker of a dog's

from

Juuw from ^ <5xcJL> u*^! was familiar icith the thing


is

from J^pt U^>

saya JSB, a dog; (28)

with Fath of the

^.iLi

&

says ISB, a blower of a piece of wood


So*'
6*^
<ja^
o

shouting: (25)

&ol^

(23)

is

whereas the saying of AlHutai'a

is

but

1483

(
x

-e

xx"*

>

x-o

x.

wolf of the waste or a tame wnlf seized the

the

or

young camel,

the disaster

the

of

cited to the contrary: (29)

not in

any

it

^^s^o

be

There

is

^b

Lo

L^>

nor any answerer

caller,

may

nights ?
x

xx

but this

XXX

is
X

obviously not peculiar to negation: (30) gl3 ^1^ jK L^? Lo


#
**

j*

There

not in

is

it

any

one, which, says ISB, are some-

times used otherwise than in negation, because the


is

and the

the bleating of the goat,

And

of the camel [328].

from

Amali

the

the

fclis

here are some

of Kl, (31)

^^>

grumbling
words

other

U,

10*

%(j

e.,

says Jh,

2x

There
(32)

is

not in

^^ L^J Co

it

i.

any inhabitant of the


e.,

says Jh, t\^|

while

Gx

by AUd on

the authority of Fr, and

^ desert [302];
^pU

is

added

x2U by Lh but ^^A


:

and slSji are not inseparable from negation, whereas JjoU


X

is

not used

in

affirmation

(33)

ukLfa a looker fronj

'

iV/i

(1) if

3*J3.
it

AVhen

bo single^

prefixed to

it,

tlie
i.

e.,

his eye,

?iw??i. is

men

three men\ (2)

whether

or more, as
if it

e.,

>

Ox

4a>o

(AKB),

intended to be

dct., tlion,

neither pre. nor com})., the


it

be
t

twenty

i.

one, as ^!L^
^

Jx^^'-cx

>

ar.

^jAjJ!

is

r/^i

6 ^

^L^ ^yu^f^ klLL

//^ forty-

bej?re., theart. is prefixed to

1484

as

*#KjL}|

I' '

the three dirhams. *#>JJ! auLof/ie


x

dirhams,
the

&lb

&51+J
XX

Me

s&JLS*

four thousand and,


*

the last

"

jore. to

the pre., then to


three

the

hundred

?Aree

hundred thousand

^^

<

^JJ!
X,

ando^^lxjuxl
X
*X

waJl 85l+jt3 ^Ae


x

dirhams. and

>

hundred

>'x

*"*

thousand, ^^JJ!
Xx

be

-o

uLf^l R5UxJL>

as

jposf.,

"

three hundred,
if it

Xx

UA.M
X

j.

1S

^-aJ!
^

s-aJl
,

>

Ix

iSUiJb
X

^e

^Aree

hundred thousand thousand thousand dirhams: but


sometimes the ari

is

anomalously prefixed
x^^f-o

and ^>os. together, as

^f^H

>

"

if it

to the second

said

by the

.<?/?.,

is

KK to be

prefixed to the

[member], as U*j>

[210]; not to the

the ^?re.

wree garments

fA

be comp., the art.


X*
X X X X*X
5

first

to

a x

&xJUJ!

[112,599], which [prefixion] is

regular: (3)

^c <X^^!

because

member

of the

it

Me

must be

corn/?.,

eleven dirhams
inclet.

[83]

nor

because that would

be like the introduction of the p. into the middle of the

word [210]

but the art.

is

sometimes, though with

authority, prefixed to both members, as


the eleven

dirhams, which

KK and Akh, is regular


gantly, to both

CisO I^jf j^Sf

[prefixion], according to

and sometimes, though

members and

weak

the

$/?.,

as

the

inele-

^jjf lijjfJ^Sl

the eleven dirhams, which [prefixion], according to some

of the

KK,

is

regular (R).

1485

You say

324.

>

regard to "numerical order (R),]


[357]

J^t

a x

/AzrcZ, /era, aiiJUJt


X

witti

the first i fern,

kklj! (M,IH);

^\the second, fern,


'

number (TH),

of one out of a

vLllllf

x 0x

(M); and so on (Jm), to /r ^L*J|


X

Zfte*

^ Ox

/e??i. gj-iUJI

and,

[when you go beyond 10 (IY,

^ s x

WIH,R),]

x *^

xx

^7is eleventh, fern.


^-cL& ^j>Ls\Jf

plOjpLi^lJ&f

^e

we?yiA,

the

x^.

ycL&
klilllf

^.

(r

x.)jLs\Jl

(M,IH)j

making

/em. 5^11

^ [of ^^LssJt and ^ll

l
l

(R)] quiescent (M,R),


>

* x

notwithstanding that they are compounded, as in ^jJo

xxx
[215] (R), or pronouncing

it

with Fath;

thirteenth [below] (M); and so on


w^j^

f/ie

nineteenth

^^

(WIH,Jm),

[210] (M,IH), /ew.

89

oJUJf
to

H*-cLt

Lul

iU^uJt
x

x*

(IH), keeping the two ns. uninfl. upon Fath, as in <x^l


[209,210,318] (M).

^11
9

As

for

^^Jl\
^

the thirtieth,

and so

>

tfie

twentieth,

w ^

on, to ^ugjcJ! ^Ae ninetieth,

and XoU! the hundredth, and oU^M the thousandth, the


X
ordinals here are uniform with their cardinals,
^.LiLjJ!

and

<jji!UJ!

are required by analogy.

though

But in the

coupled they say ^^cLuJlj dJLtfl the twenty-third, oJlill

and third, and oUSft^ /*^M /Ac thouiSUlj ^Ac hundred


sand and fourth (R).

This section comprises the

act.

You form an

part, derived from the nums. (IY).


'*

act.

Gx x s

part, from ^Lol two, jL-^ ten, and the intervening nums.,

and

*A
6

fourth, to

you say y^Lo striking

But J^t [357]

And> as for [what

is

not

is

below

art

tivo i

G '

e (And)/]
J^.!^

one [and Sju*^ (Aud,Sn)],

it is

an

[not

but a substantive (A)] constituted in that [formation]

from the

first

(Aud,A).

an

is

The predicament

(Sn).

same as that of

the

x-'x
i.

You say

and

Si

Jx-'

**

fcuyl

to

XXX
both Twasc. in

^.xLt

make

x'

S^A*.

both ns. fern

xx

as you

s&JLd) [above], because

(270];

and as
325.

men

^ ; 1LJT5

#Ae

make

tave no meaning, contrary


thirteen

C x

kilUJj

it is

iioting a single masc., so that femininization in

5^riLa

in the

L^Ufl: and sa

xx

comp. and coupled, as

thirteenth where you

oJ^\ [322]

X"

act. parts. [265].

/ew. JUjUJI [above], RxJUfl


in all the scales,

q.

of this JctU in respect of gender

>^C^

>x-C5x

"

part, from <X=^

act.

here follows the Aud; but

says that &=\)

is

*AzYd,-

'are^x

instance of that (IY).

ep.,

**

x-

and jLfcU s/tt% [343] (And).

i.

second, ^Ju
^b
#

saying

tenth, as

~ci,Le.

Ox-

x^x

^s you form one from Jaw

to [the

[314],

num.

?z.

it

would

de-

in] x

which denotes the

^^ ^

You may use

cardinal

twenty-third (R,Jm).

this act. part., according to the

sense that you mean, in seven ways:

(1)

you may use

1487

singly, to import qualifiability

it

by

sense unrestrict-

its

ed [by conjunction with ten (YS),] as viJU third and


fourth, whence the saying [of

*:>!>

AnNabigha adhDhubyanl

(MN)]
x

x *-o

>

AjLu; JJL!|

'-

(3

imagined marks
after six years,

when

you may use

together with

it

this

and recognized them

her,

oj

year

the seventh

is

aM

^^U* a

s.

fifth

&

comprised in five

whence IX.
i

of

and

five,

i.

e.

in that case

one of a collection
it

must be pre.

to

40.
77.

why

it

God

i.

q.

what governs,
v.,

[like

wyox>

[but from the

(a) the

that

it is

(Sn),]

nor

is

and J^U*

num.

must be pre., because the meaning


one of ten:

(Aud)

then does not govern the ace.

derived from a

is

(Sn)]; so that

it

one of two and

this is the opinion of the majority (A): (b)

Akh, Ktb, Ks, and


the second, or,
(Sn),]

^ jjf ^ JJJ

"

one of three

is

not

I^U

Assuredly they have disbelieved who

have said "Verily


reason

[204] and i-Uf

'-

>

Kl3 dJU V.

is

n.] qualified

cardinal number, as a part must be pre. to its whole,

its

by the

nothing else than one of that specified number,

it is

as

(2)

cardinal number, to im-

its

port that the [person or thing denoted

by

(MN)]:

Tli hold that the first

[when

may govern

it

may

be pre. to

in the sense of the present or future


*
v
in the ace., as in

Jo^

199

1488

(Aud, A); so that they say


(c)

IM

^^\ ^6

^b

(A)

only (And)

saying that

distinction,

JjJ
'

and siiS

asserts that this is allowable in

some make a

[for]

governs,

*>

but not viJUi and the subsequent ordinals: and this opinion
X"

is

IM

adopted by

cxj

the Tashll,

in

says he, the

because,

xx

Arabs say ^j-JL^J! ouyu / have made the two men


*
x
two,

the speaker is the second of the two

when

<J

who says

X 0^5

making two

excusable, because
is

has a

it

not excusable, because


s '

you do not say


(3)

so that he

^U

^.JiS!

to be

~o

"

it

but he

v.;

has no

it

two in this sense

who

says

v. (A),

KJULS

is

c-Jb

meaning that

s s

iJLUJ! oJiJlj

you may use

to be

when you are

together with

what

the third (Sn)

is

below

its car-

dinal number, to import a factitive [and transmutative

is*

(Fk)] sense, as

iUJLi'

,,

^A

joo

meaning This

is

a maker

of three

to be

^^U ^
There

is

5l

not

maketh them

four

(ivith

himself), whence

^ *^

&1U ^

four, nor of Jive but

to be six', and, in that case,

it

may

LVIII.

^5^
%
f^*;
any privy communing of three

to be

<jj)o

but

x-

Lo

8.

He

He maketh them

be pre. or made to

govern [the ace.], as both constructions are allowable with


JirLl

jlo

the past,

it

and the like (Aud)

must be pre.;

but,

if

(a) if in

in

the

the sense of

sense

of the

1489

it

(A)] be pronounced

(A,Fk) the

aUUU

may

[be pre., as

with

Tan win, and made

'

>

present or future,

!<X#

^!s
to

or

govern

on the condition [of support upon one of

ace..,

the things (Fk)] prescribed for the act. part. [346] (Fk,

*xx9^xl

Sn), as

gjite

*j\j

<}<&

i^lo Ij^ (Fk),] because

[like !jo^

X X

>

really an ac. part. (A,Fk),

it is
o

>

since

v^JJLj

you say

-c

I have made the two men to be three, when you join

jj^yL^J!

yourself to them, so that you [all] become three, and simi-

I have made

larly xiJUJt oJUx


to SjLlxJt
*

the three to

/ have made the nine

c^-&.*

.X

q.
^

i.

become

ten, the

/L&Q here being


X

to

become four,

J^&U, and treated like

it

'

of
[in respect
^

government (Sn)], because equal toO itX in sense and in


derivation from a v., contrary to the JccU meant to denote
x

one of what

it is

pre.

to,

which

J^oU (Sn)], having no

government nor derivation from a


before

said

the

(b)

then,

ep.

v.,

e.,

[i.

must be pre., as

when

i.

(Sn),] is not

9x

and
j,

j.,c
,

and

JL&L^

q.
o

formed from the nums., but from viJJ

9x

upon the measure of


j-.r

^~o

upon the measure of


ox

>

z?i/;

^y&

?i,<?.

*;

a^,

AJ,

'xx
of c*Jb

the aors. of

which are on the measure of vr^? except those whose J


>

is

an g

vid.

xx^

^*

and

sure of *A-i aor. ,Axio (A):


**

rule loosely laid

**J

J*^*x

down by

which are on the meax

(c)

IIIsli

.JJ

is exce])tcd

from the

(Fk): [for] ^lf is

not

1490

used in this
pre.

(Aud,A); and therefore

way

nor be made

to,

^b

that <X^tj
* *

is

'

to

govern, what

is

not be

may

it

below

it

(Fk); so

not said, nor


(Aud,A): this is
^l3
!<X^I^
'
#

unequivocally declared by S (Fk); but

one Grammarian, [Ks (Fk),]

who

Arabs (Aud,A,Fk)

preferred by

and

pugns the validity of the

is

allowed by

it is

transmits

Dm, who im-

[opinion] with the

firs

from the

it

argument
*

that

ItX^

there is nothing to
i.

himself

e.,

Zaid

is

mentioned

is

is

jLfrL*.

(Sn),] as

'

num.

which a

to

,]

^~cLsj

kxJlj

viJU

^j-xiJLj*

Ujb &*jK

sj^a

s/

This

'*

is

maker of twenty-three

with prefixion (A)

but this

is

open

to be

\jj&
[i.

q.

making

tiventy-three to be twenty-four with government, or

v&Jb a

'

''(-'-'

"

as

x.

^jjtxJb^
^* x

**s

become two (with

one of twenty-three with prefixion; and

This

Jo\

language implies that the ep.

q. <jd*j (Sn

[i.

^b
#

coupled, to denote the two senses [last]


Q

mentioned,

to

be formed from the

may

decimal number

making one

(Sn): (d) Ill's

prevent your saying

iUA

twenty-four

to the objection that

the ep. denoting the second sense in A's [last] two exs. is
not formed from the
is

coupled (Sn):

(4)

num.

you may use

import qualiftability by

companiment of ten, as
[324],

which the decimal number

to

its

it

together with ten to

sense restricted by the aco

~^ &<&*>

and similarly the

eleventh, fern.

rest, as

JLi J^oUxlT

SL>

*ys

xx

and

the fifteenth part

1491

>"

x-

<

xx x

SyxLt iUwjLJ! iLoUj! /Ae sixteenth


B

discourse (And):

Ox*

when

(a)

Jc=J and ^cX^t

orz^r.

'

q x

and

Ju^!^

ably transpose, putting the

the

[i. e.,

[322], they invari-

stX*.tj

(Sn),] after the

the

final,

the

e.,

[i.

(Sn

<.>

of which

the

so that

,]

because

Ox

so that their measure


X X ^

U&A
X

is

'

and

IM

CK

says in the

JUJLc

(b)

as for the
it is

that this
]

except with ten,

its cat.

nor
9

used with

/em

(jy *^?

(A): [for] (5dl*

ib jli>

f.

is

not

>

and

its ca^.,

as

or with

not used

is

except with SLJLe

^xLc.

o.

transposition

ano-

9x

practised in Ju^lj [and H<X=Jj

ytei

and

Kasr [685];

eleventh transmitted by Ks,

<X&.!^

with

is

*..&

twenty and

malous, serving to give notice of the obsolete


(c)

[it

of femininizatiou being virtually separate,

(Sn)] the preceding letter is pronounced with

saying

becomes joU and SjjU

it

then converted into

is

6x

fi

J^G and xJLtU from

they form

except

but both are also

,jyu*j^ 4>L^ ninety-first,

N?^^

(1^)
x

import the sense

fc

(^)

y u

of^-yol^b

being comprised in what

mav

use

^w

tn te ^ to

is

[above], vid. the

mentioned and,
;

number's

in this case,

you have three courses, (a) to put four words, which is


the o.f.y the first word being the ep. compounded with
y

ten,

and the third what the ep.

pounded with

ten;

and

is

derived from, also com-

to prefix the

aggregate of the

first

comp.

to the

JL1 &UJ a

1492

aggregate of the second comp., as 111

thirteenth,

press lie. from the


in the second;

and

i.

first,

e.,

one of thirteen

&Ub &JU]:

to inflect the

(c) to

viJlS

(b) to sup-

contenting yourself with the 111

position is removed; and prefix


Lie.

because the com-

first,

it

to the second comp., [as

suppress the ten from the

first,

and

the unit from the second: and in this course you have two
alternatives, (a) to inflect both, because the cause exacting

uninfl ectedness is

removed in both

into the case required


in the gen.
first,

by

by the

so that

first

and govern the second

ops.,

prothesis, [as j&.& v^Jb]

and keep the second uninfl..

this alternative,

you put the

(b) to inflect the

111 oJb

[as

] ;

but

though transmitted by Ks,ISk, and IK,

and explained by supplying what

is

suppressed from the se-

cond, so that the uninflectedness remains unaltered, should

because of

not be adopted,

its

rarity

^ ^ ^

that both

may

be uninfl.. [as ~&*

the two, in respect of

its

(a)

some assert

**

&JU ,]

because each of

companion, occupies the place of

the suppressed; but this is refuted by the consideration


that there would then be no evidence that these two ns.

were detached from two comps., contrary


(0) this third

course

the

first is infl.

IM

or his son [BD]; but, instead of

you confine yourself

is

it,

to the case

when

not mentioned

by

they mention that

to the first comp., its first

member

1493

(
^ X x

remaining uninfl., [as ^-.D


of the Arabs, [as

li-c.

oJb

oJb]
X

import the sense of

to

(6)

"

];

you may use

to be

thirteen

&Lb

S
i.

below what
a

^s-

(a)

>!>

IM

tion here the formation of the act. part,

denote

is

maker of

fourteen [below], that being allowed by

though disallowed by some (And):

to

with ten

[above], in which case also

derived from, as *-&*

is

it

*A

fccJo

you put four words, but *he third of them


the ep.

some

or being in/?, by

S,

does not men-

from

tlie

comp.

q. J^e-L^

because

it

has not been heard

but

S and many of the ancients allow it by analogy while


and most of the BB hold it to be disallowed (A):
the
;

KK

on the supposition of allowability (Aud,A), you

(1))

may

[keep the two comps. entire, as above, or] suppress the ten

from the
"

first

(Aud); [so that] you say

[by prefixing the

second comp. in
uninft.

first

cmp.

first

in its entirety

the.

first,

[saying
0.

the cp.
O
i.

q.

^^^

>

not

from

"
>!;

because of the liability [of

>

q wyoxj(Sn)]

i.

may

unit from the second, as well as the ten


X X X

the

to the

comp., the ep. being then ap-

parently infl. according to the ops. (Sn): but you

suppress

^& &jj ^C(A), by suppress-

(Sn)]; or

ing the ten from the

jj^o

and keeping the four words

its entirety,

uponFath

xxfxxx^ ^ ^
^\.
/^i^ C
x/

kiii

to

confusion (Aud, A) with the ep.

oiuu

this [explanation]

being better than the say-

1494

ing of the Tsr "because of the liability to confusion with

what

is

not orig. two comps", since the liability to con-

fusion, as thus interpreted, is

the two members, or of the

removed by the
alone (Sn):

first

inflection of

(c)

the second

comp. must be in the position of a gen., [by prefixion of


the

comp., or of

first

its first

by common consent (Aud, A), says IHsh

IUK

GG allow *'J&

says that some

making eleven

twelve and

to be

second (Sn),]

to the

member,

Aud; but

in the

tUl ^lj

|*

This

is

XXX

j&s.

^>\

-0

&JU making

twelve to be thirteen, with Tanwln, which conflicts with


the story of

common

consent (A)

(7)

you may use

it

with

) d

and

^j^Ls

which case you put

its cat., in

couple the decimal number to

it

with the
9

(a)

to

that

first,

,jy-^ are coupled

[539] (Aud)

><

to the act. part, in its

Sx

and

its cat.

states, as

^JLaJ!j

jo^

>

ep. on the

two

the ninety-ninth^ fern.


(j^u-j

and that you may not suppress the

measure of

saying ^5-^^ ^jL*.


cause every deriv.

is

J^U

>

and compound [the

with ,j.n-^ and

as you say
^cL&
co-ordinated with

its cat. (Sn)],

^5^^

[324], be-

its original,

<X>.!

with composition

They do

and

xx

xxxxx^
[320].

jjyL&

<5*>l^tf the twenty-first, fern.

,jyuujJ!^*A*uJ!

yxLc

and

(i

^; 1LJT5
to

1M means

[IHsh following]

it

is

allowable, but not ^-

not mention

any

n.

derived from
,

1495

)
^

and .its

cat.:

twenty [froviijjjjte], ^iij made


x c

to be thirty [from

'

be

^^L

ninety from] ^yu^J

Oox)

to

**

on, to [^jju*s ?nads fo 6e

and so

,JY^ made

but some Lexicologists say

and

'

the ac^. j^ar^. from this is,jwijLx> and [so on, to] ^J^JUUG (A).

32 5 A.

They say

|J^

Ll

|*|j

grims arrived one by one and


s

and

TAe

tivo

^.^yo!

and

tivo

jdJLS xiJLj #/iree a?ic?

^Aree and

but the correct phrase


^ ^

^.^j

v jjuLSI

jXs

s~o

^ f-o

s s*

is [said
s

>

H to be] c>U! and

by

*-

<>

**

<>

or
eLo and gi&j and
J^^^o and ^jJuo and siJLoo and
^L^
[18], because the Arabs make these words deviate to
,

pj>

forms in order

these

tion of the n.

however,
!

be dispensed ~with (D).

to tax people

jj^tj Ix^!^
is

may

by means of them, the repeti-

that,

etc., to

It is

an error,

with making a mistake in using

indicate repetition, because this phrase

regular, frequent in their language, as says the poet

Lu^J

tXii

we drink four cups


on fur from inside] and,

LXJ^! Ljuj!

of wine

if

it

apiece,

Some add

ive

|jf

have put

were not a common

oL*! would not be made to deviate from


tion in jlL>!

Lo^i

it,

o. /.,

and the devia-

would be constructive, which no one says.


^ o

with Darnm, citing in evidence the saying [of Kuniit Ibn Unaif (T)]

^tj^

193

1496

when mischief shows

teeth to them, fly to

it

two hindermost

its

in bands or one by one (T)]; but the


o

truth is that
triptote

it

(CD).

hpL

of

Je*^ [322] for which reason

In their meaning these words

what the aggregate of the two


the

ns. indicates;

Arabs abstain from saying

of two, because of

it

is

indicate

and therefore

lLl <x# of one, or


!

an excess of meaning

one, and in *Hi over ^Ctfl taw.

The

over <X=*f

in oL^I

text IV.

3.

[180] is

expounded as meaning Let every one of you marry

what women please him, two each, or three each, or four


each) the coupling of some of these nums. to others not
being a coupling of union [539]

and similarly

XXXV.

some oj them having two wings f and some


Arabic scholars
three wings and some four ivings.
differ as to which of these formations have been used in
1. [18],

i.

e.,

speech by the Arabs.

The majority say


9

s>

that the

Arabs

>

except to ^Lkc only, as in the


verse of AlKumait [praising Aban Ibn AlWalid Ibn Abcl

have not gone beyond ^L^

AlMalik Ibn Marwan (AKB)]

5LL> ji^yT ji v^-*-4^S L Jy^xlj fji


(D) And they found thee not slow, so that thou didst
increase above men in ten qualities each (AKB), where,

Ui

T ^

'

*'

'

however, some interpret ^L&x by sjix*^ praiseworthy

1497

The

(CD).

use of these two measures Jl* and Joti* has

>

assert, of Ibuv
X

>xx
jjMrfXfcMjo

pLj-^

and

&-ol3
',

'

'*
;

and

make

**

S^cLc

fen

and, some

,J
ju* and
^^
X

'

'|

U*3 ano

this formation

on his part,

to forgery

\*

and

as instances thereof,

cites,

which are attributed

^* "

^jUj and yj^uo

and

U UU3

**JUQ

&ju*J also, as
X

vd>jU
S^ x

and

five

and

sLc^c

and

,
,

x " x

relates that they

^^;

**> x

s.

**X

.*XAWUO

in serial order to
lines,

*"

?u. t

iJuo

>x"x

and

KhA

LLxJo (IA).

"

Ox

and of

y***jcuo,

auu-*/

>x>
,

>

>^ and

Joy

Ox

iLo and

>xOx

and ^Gj and


*jyo

as y

~x

x * x

i.

x>

some

jU! and

as

s
auus!
/o??',

4^\j one, ^Lo! two, UJJ three,

in the case of

Qx'C

and

Oxl x

x&

been heard

'

\*

'

4?

UUwj

jf

KV_*^C. UCVMuO*

LwliX^^

(D) -4&d /^ m^?i marched towards


one, and two and two, and three and

the

men, one by

three,

aud four

and four, and Jive and five; and we speared one ana^id seven and seven, and eight
i the r; and sir and six,

and

eight;

nine,

and

and we slashed one another

ten

and

these verses being

ten

and wt

smote,

and nine and

and we*e

redolent of forgery (CD).

Tayyib [aLMntanabbi

(W)]

is

blamed

smittcu

Abu-t

for his saying

1498

)
O

[543],
T

H<Xc*^

where

.2

(W).

meaning

(D),

oUf

But IBr says that

the speech of the Arabs in the sense of Je=

LUJ
fates

by one, in
.

the

525B.

&

puts i>L! in place of


Q

o^

and (jJtXw in place of


i

lie

occurs in
as

Uxi'^o ^1

dll o/

^o&Zd wee^

W5,

owe

lawful month (CD).

The

night, in the chronology of the Arabs,

precedes the day, because the years, according to them, are

formed of lunar months. For most of the Arabs are inhabitants of deserts,

ment

of the

month

by whom knowledge of the commenceis

hardly attainable except through ob-

new moon; so that, when they see the new


moon, they know the commencement of the month. Thus

servation of the

the beginning of the month, according to these,

because the appearance of the


the beginning of the

is

the night,

new moon takes

night (R).

They

date,

place at
then,

by

nights [320], because these precede (A) the days (Dm).

Therefore [in dating (A)] you [ought to (A)] say,


the 1st [night (R)] of the month,
S X

'^

fy

(1)

^^
&9

!jy Written on the first night of such a month, or

on the night of

its

new moon,

on

or xJL^J at the
**
*

&JLJL!

time of

* *'

of -the

new moon, or aJL^x^J at the time


appearance of its new moon (R,A), the J being

the observation

of

its

1499

i.

q.

^ or

joLt [504] (Dm), as

&3LlpS [below]

(Sn);

it is

and [on the

in xaxajJ or

xA^Jclj or

day (R)] JiiL &JLJU

first

after a night that had passed (R,A), the J being


[504] (Sn):

(a)

[according to R,] the J

peculiarity [504], which


peculiarity here
to the time,

I ivrote on
it,

or before

the

of
sc

^ s

it,

as

\&f syJ v^Jtf

new moon of such a month;

as oJ^> *JLyU after a nig

it,

the one importing

is

of three kinds, the act being peculiar

the night

S"

lit

that

had passed]

*r

as ouJb &JLJJ before a night that

[below] and that


:

q.

original meaning: but the

because occurring in

or after

is

is its

i.

is

according to the context;

restriction, the peculiarity is

for,

ojGJ

because of the act's occurring after the time


,

it is

without

because of the act's occur-

ring in the time; but, with such a context as

such a context as c>-ub

remained

because of the

it is

and, with

act's occur-

ring before the time: (2) on the 2nd night, k-ouj~

*J&J

of such a month; and so

on, to

\dS {fA on

the second night

the end of the


night, but
in,

month (R): and,

you do not intend

you may write what

2nd day (R),]

Ul^

passed (K,A)

(3)

is

to

the act occur in the

[if

mention

written

in

,jJaXJJ o//<r

on the 3rd (R),

its

occurring there-

days,

tiro

vid.,

on the

uiglits that

^^L ^SkiJ after

had
three

1500

nights that

had passed

had passed

ten niyhts that


^JL&. after
X

Xx

oJU. JLJ
#
the

and so

10)

(4

first

(R,A): (a)

X X

is

JLJ

on, to

allowable, and so on, to oJLa. JLJ


"
^t^J'
*

but

[construction] is better, in order that the

is a prow, of the pi.,

^, which

may relate to the/??. [270] (R): (1 1) then,


XX

Sf

[on the llth (R),] oJ*=


nights that

^X * X
s\.xL&

x-LJ

after eleven

^Je^y

had passed (R,A):

(12
14) and so on, to the
xx *5x"xxx*'^ ^'*?
you write oJl= &JLJ yL& *^3 a/^r fourteen
O

14th,

when

wV^^

^a

had passed:

(a)

by observance of

x^

x
x

first

is

allowable, by agree-

[construction] is better,

the form (R): (15) then, [on the 15th (R),]

i*jLalJU in the
o>

^^1=^

ment with the sense; but the

^ x

"

*
^

middle of such a month (R,A) or

e.^

or &iLoAj3 [above] (A), which is better, [because


x
x x
.

shorter (R,Sn),] than

^J^

kill

y^ g~^J

A), though they also are allowable (R)


x xx

x^*t

the 16th (R),] ouJb


S^cLc

*^

remained (R, A); or


from the 15th

t,

^TjjJb

to the end,

(o be defective (R) :(b)

as

(J? f

(16) then, [on

6^/ore fourteen niyhts that

we

said: (a)

some say o^Jb

because the mouth

may

*xx

^xOx

^x*x

some say ^^djo

jLJLJ

r^-cLc

that
a/jJer sixteen nights

prove
**

y^J

had passed, dating by what

past, because of its certainty

explained by regard for the

(1719) and

^^

or

while the

smaller

so on, to the 19th (A),

first

[idiom]

>

is
is

number (Dm):

when you say

1501

ouob

&JLJ

eleven nights that


s^Lfc before

(20) then, [on the 20th (R),]

as

is better,

allowable

we

on,

and, on the 30th (Dm),

complete month] (R),


(R,A), or xacJLJ at
its last

xJuo

its

e.]

[i.

the 28th,

SLLJ

*jQu [above] (R,A)

day of such a month,

that the

the v^

is

month

*JLJ
is

it

night or s^-*J (A), with Fath of the

Kasr of

first (Sn):
^ in the
~

the

'

^^jy^ on

or

0-0

x\JLJ or x^^LuJ^

*$ or

s, *

'

[above] (R,A).

-^> '"
^-3
" ^ [above],
U

complete (Dm).

sometimes replaced by the

the last

&

Ox"

(30)

j$ on the last night of

and then, [on the lastday (R),] ltX5^^

you write

on the last night [of the

f -

When

when you

end or a^SLo3 [below] (R,Sn),

both, or

[first] ; in

to"

is

before two nights that remained (R):

(29) on the 29th (R,Dm), vllib

u* and

(Sn):

^^ JlIf^JLiJ (R, A), which

and so

28)

^JJLJJ

on

remained

mentioned, than O*AAJ, though this also

(21

write LuJb

or sjllJ

we know

[As above shown,]

^ and conversely (A).

CHAPTER

XIII.

THE ABBREVIATED NOUN AND THE PROLONGED.

The abbreviated

326.

inflection is an
% s *
final of 7i5. like Iks* and

letter of

Hamza

is

inseparable
~s*
*

~^

not an

is

This

final

but only a

of two kinds, converted and

is

The

aug., being never rad. in a decl. n. [300].


is

The

[16] (A).

regard being paid not to the writing, but to the

pronunciation.

ed

whose

that [decl n. (Sn)]

from a

or

as ub> and ^a*

du.

convert-

^^ and ^llxj
*

s *

[229,300]
*

* *

LLU,

and sometimes from a Hamza, as

And the aug.

(5^L! [214].

ordination, as

^J

as ^lijLo [272].

is

that [decl.

[rad.]

or

which

Q [278,304,683]:
frequent.

is

(^^

(3)

occurs at the end of

named abbreviated
n

<

and amplification of its form,

When one of these

Hamza

as

(2) for femininization,

(Sn)]

Hamza preceded by an

the [final]

three kinds, (1) for cos

the decl. n,, the letter is

prolonged

is of

<>-e.

for multiplication of the word,

or

f-

is

L-u/ ^<X>!

aug.

whose
\

(I Y).

And

the

letter of inflection

[230] (A).

The

before

of two kinds, (1) converted from a


is

an g

(2) aug.,

The Haraza

but this

is rare,

as iLo and

unconverted; and this

is

more

of the latter is of three kinds, (1)

rad., as iCif [230,304]: (2) converted from (a) a rad.

or

1503

as

*C/and

iL*.

(6)

*to>

(b)

of femininization, as

definition excludes

&

an aug., (a)

what ends

of co-ordination, as

Hamza

in a

[683] (Sn).

which

subnot

is

distinctly declares, on account of

the prolongation supervening in

an

after

stituted for a rad., as fLo [above], orig. 5^0

named prolonged, as

A's

[683] (IY).

iT^

it,

because

is orig.

and

*U

named prolonged

(R).

[Similarly] such as

[above] are not conventionally

its

*L

[,321]

The abbreviated and prolonged are two kinds

of decl. ns.,

since vs., ps. y and indecl. ns. are not called abbreviated

or prolonged (IY, Jrb), even

Hamza preceded by an
ventionally

if

they end in an

Only

(Jrb).

named abbreviated

the decl. n. is con-

or prolonged (R).

their calling
^ye [174] abbreviated,

or in a

and

As

for

*5fyo prolonged,

a [careless (IY, Jrb), tropical (R)] expression (IY,

it is

R, Jrb), intended for distinction between the two dial,


vars. of this
tion of

?i5.

The

abbreviation and prolonga-

Grammarian; and known by hearsay, which

the province of the Lexicologist.

327.

in

(R).

are of two kinds, regular, which is the pro-

vince of the
is

word

is

According

of three kinds

to the

GGr, the unsound

[327329].

The

first is

n.

ending

what haa

a sound counterpart, whose penultimate must be


pronounced with Path.
This sort is regularly abbreviated.
It

may be

JJLJ

exemplified by (1) the inf. n. of the intrans.

as ^ys*

was violently moved by


194

love or grief, inf.

1504

xx
inf. n.
,

^yo

^+.

for their

n.

2*w/.

IU and

**

*J

^yo and

loved, inf. n.

[331],

^^

tt'tfs

blind,

sound counterparts are ~*j

and ~&! exulted, inf. n.

y\

[331]

(a)

others say that &L& with prolongation, inf. n. of

was fond,

occurs anomalously

Uj*

and they

cite

When I say

[by the Kuthayyir of 'Azza,

"

Softly!", the

eye sinks into the head with weeping,

from fondness,

and copious floods of tears pour

(MN)]: but what

into

it

they say requires consideration, because


jj*xxJ! jj^o oosll
inf. n.

$L

and then

(MN)

/ made

JUs [332] (Aud);

with

cites the verse mentioned,

(2)

^Lfc

J*3 pi. of &I*i [238], as ibli a

a quarrel,

O^

pi. <^jo

9x>

& ^

^j

(3)

a garment,

and

^\

pi. (S

fjx>
ibJuo

(4)

^\

^^^

and

aby>

and 'iy+S

a good work, pi,

a pass. part, of what exceeds three

^OJUQ given and

a butcher's

for their [sound] counterparts are

an argument, pi.

O 9

>x

JH. of &-U3

Juii

knife, pi. ^Joo [238], and iLo\ a pitfall, pi.

lie, pi.

for their [sound] counter-

part is kj,j a water-skin, pi. yjj


QXO>
^)
[238], as xxx>4> an image, pi.

v_y>

incessantly

i>

K.SJO

JLS3L&.

transmits

two things consecutive,

like oJbli IJought, inf. n.

O^O

and

the

AU

00^09
^-cjjuw^o

summoned

for

[letters],

their

as

sound

counterparts are ^J^ohonored and -^scul** extracted [347]

1505

(Aud).

And

similarly (5) Juul

when an

^*y\

denoting superiority [351], as

anything

else, like

Mtnrf and

^c!

'

like

(6)

^^\ blind by night:

(5
^

"C^

pZ. of ^Jliij!

/em. of jlSft [248],

^JiiM

^T^. of

^cpxlMand
such as

farthest and

f/ie

[725] and ^jLlf jt?Z. of Cljj\


for their sound counterparts are JJbt pi, of

pJ. of

^liJf

[359, 725]

whether

Of.

for their sound counterparts are Juu^M


JUftttcfeaJb-cyed

the uttermost; of

(5

**

'

ep.

tof-*^

[18,358] (A): contrary to

^yOH

^^ [258,272] and ^il^ [248,272], whose abbre-

viation is derived from hearsay

the measure of jjU

and w /n'ty by

counterparts are
(8) JuuLo

on

indicating collectivity by the absence,

A] and

Lbj'w.

sui

used as an in/

n.

[254], like

iLbl; for their sound


j

tm. iL^ui and

n.

^.

6xx^

O x ^

(7) a generic n.

the accompaniment, of the

n. ?^z, SLoA. [329.

Ssju:

(Dm)

''^

Joo

clay,

n. un,

[333], or as a n. of

^'

or ^Zace [361], like <c4^ act or ^ me or place of plat/ing


+ *
x-

and

Ju*uo
<5

oc^ or

a'^/e

or place of running or working


9 x

their sound counterparts are ^jcjuo ac


Q X

^y* an
and

(9) jJulc

or ^m<? or />mce

used as an instrumental

a 6a^ in which a present


8

(A).

or time or place

of pasturing
?i.

[366], like

instrument, or engine, for throwing or shooting

^5<X$x>

sound

for

* X

of going [333] and ^v^*^ a c<


or grazing

coui)t(M-]art> ;n v

is

offered
O

for their

^Ju*^* an awl and Jy^

a spindle

1506

The second kind

328.

[327] is what has a sound

counterpart,

whose penultimate must be an

This sort

regularly prolonged.

[326],

may be

exemplified

(1) the inf. n. of JuLf,as Jaj^ gave, inf. n.

*LLi| ; or of

is

s s

by

[aug.]

<*f

It

<i -f.

-,_

ti

beginning with a conj. Hamza, as ^bx! considered,

v.

f*
inf. n.

*Uby

*
,

*>

* *

^A^M \went to extremes,


(S

and

inf. n.

for their [sound] counterparts are IIs! honored, inf. n.


* ' s

and
*

-,
9

t>

*?

of

n.

[332]

f^BUCwyf

pi. auu*S"f

^.^
,

and %\^ a cloak,

Q' Of

9 *

for their [sound] counterparts are slU>

QX

pi. Sj^^l
A.

O ^

--

and -.^Lv a iveapon,


^
L

Akh says

that

SU^t

SUAJJ

are post-classical, because

and

[7;t

he-ass,

(a) for

this

[Noteon^). 898,Z. 16]

^J a mill or mill-stone and lIS

6ac^ o/ the neck are abbreviated


[of

pl. xssJL^I
*

*f

Qs

reason

and

the sing, of

(2)

O-'O*

a wrapper,

^ ^

'

XJUi [246], as %L~S


pl. ibjs!

strove to earn [492], inf. n. vjL-Jc^!

^fco^l extracted, inf.

v^juwwJcSl

and, as for the saying

Murra Ibn Mahkan atTamlml (T)]

a rainy

niclit

wherein the dog

of Jumada (one of

sees not the tent-rope

darkness (T)], the sing, being

^te

the

cold months),

on account of

its

rain with abbrevia**,'<>&

tion, it is

a poetic license, [the

it is said,

&SS takes

256],

the

pl.

pl. iJlx*

being

&!ju| (Jh,T)]: or,

like &**>pl.

and then *fl> takes the 2?^. ^oJf ; but

JU^

[237,

this is impro-

1507

~x
bable, because

while

*!<Xi

says that the poet

may have

given

'

of.

r,

9
l*

^^

as JULJ

>

is

'

has not been heard as a

* t

"3

(And)

pi.

^jj

the pi.

&

[sometimes] given the pi. Jowl

like

and then have affixed to


&*)) [237];

it

the

of

sign

femininization, which is affixed to the |>. in such as sLyfo


A

fi

and LJU=* [237,265]

Mb
(3)

holds

an

*I^

it

to

inf. n.

and

so that

^jJ an

be pi. of

when

of jJii

itij [322]

screaming [331]

it

assembly, not of

coZcZ

in/I

in *Ac

wa

tJ*4, and JjU fought,


8

^CJ>

UKM
inf.

n.

inf.

5^ and
,

n. *?JLD

7) the

jtbj (5
--^

[334],

TZ.

for their

exchanged blows,

measure of JUij*

as

*!$

similarly (4) jLki

ne^r^ ^o, in/I

in succession,

sound counterparts are

the

(D)

%!^ giddiness and

And

foad [331] (Aud).

c?OM;n

and

an ailment, as &LLc diarrhcea [331];

(b)

of J^Lj [332], as

ran

^Slfc

^ jj

for their [sound] counterpart is

indicative of (a) a sound, as

for its [sound] counterparts are

then becomes iuju!

inf.

n.

in/ n % on

"

%\&JL>

running

and

intensive eps. on the measure of Jl*/or jli^o [252,269,


312], as fLXfi

much

running hard

or rawc/i and ilJojuo giving

or o/len [343] for their sound counterparts are s^jj

remembering,
269] (A).

^U^ a

6afcer

[312],

and

Jlj^

[252,

The

329.

counterpart, the

1508

third kind [327] is

what has no [sound]

knowledge of

abbreviation or pro-

its

If its penul-

longation being attained by hearsay (And).

timate be invariably pronounced with Fath,


tion

known by hearsay

is

variably an aug.

The

(A).

by

say

is

its

is

known by hearsay
is

exemplified

LL^ light, ^Ji earth,

the prolonged

a' sandal

fc!<X2*

known by

hear-

BB

o.

fact that the


!

f.

common consent

is

is

is

is

contrary to the

the saying

*^(5>x^x

o.

/.

xSx>x^
JLb

f*

no

e 5 cape

proved by

f.,

the

only aug. [326], where-

of the 'abbreviated is sometimes

augmentation

[below] (IM)

a return to the o

it is

abbreviation (A), as

of the prolonged

put-

[i, e.,

(R),] by poetic license [273], is [said to be

KK (I A), because

and

fcLj

(Aud, A).

Abbreviation of the prolonged,

329. A.

since the

<^

penultimate be in-

known by hearsay

(R)] allowable (IM, R), by

as the

if its

prolongation

And

abbrevia-

exemplified by fcUi youthfulness, itll nobility,

ting only the

of the

and,

sing, of ^llis [243],

intelligence.

wealth, and
.

abbreviated

a youth)

and l^=

its

from journeying

rad.\

(Sn)
'

and that

and hence

xO^~'
LjLufl

cs

jc

>

Jo ^

to San'd, even if the

journey be long, and if every old camel be doubled up,


and galled on the back (MN)] ; and the saying

(Aud, A) Then

1509

they are the proverb of mankind, which

and are keepers


new and old (MN)^. Fr dis-

they know, in every sort of good deed,


both

oj faith in covenants,

allows abbreviation of what has a rule necessitating


prolongation, like the iSLki of jJ^I
"
Abbreviation of the prolonged,

allowable, by
ral"

common consent

But

(A).

so that IM's saying

by
"

[above]

opinion of (A)]

[the

the saying [of AlUkaishir alAsadi

its

poetic license, is
"
in

means

Fr

is

gene-

refuted

by

(AKB)]
''^>O^
o

>>x

J Lo

(CS, A) She

saz/s,

of thy drinking ivine


said

7,

man, art thou not ashamed [728]


notwithstanding old age ? Then

old

// thou hadst betaken thyself at early morning to

cooled wine, yellow like the color of the sorrel horse, thou

wouldst have come home at evening having that unsteadiness in thy two legs which would have been in them, an

having thy

thing,

i.

e.,

vulva [Note on

p. 18,

1.

],

ap-

pearing from the waist cloth (AKB); and by the saying


[of

AlA'sha (AKB)]

L^JtJ^

(A)

JujklMJu Jl^

And

J,

# S^L J^

Co

(JotJ!

C ;L^

of the hard -running five-year-old horse, and

every long-legged mare, whose crest the twohands of the

tall

man do

not reach (Sn),

-^'

being in the gen., coupled

1510

to

Jxl!

in

p\
C

'

"

\J\

[111]

And

(AKB;.

the

converse, [vid. prolongation of the abbreviated, by poetic


4

license

(A ),]

though

occurs,

(A)] the

majority of

KK

it is

For

disputed (IM).

allow

it

[the

A), un-

(IA, Aud,

an

restrictedly (A), citing in evidence the saying [of

Arab

of the desert
ui

tf
X

[below] (IA)

(MN,

J)]

**- ' ^*j

v-s>

~s

O my wonder

II

at you as dried dates,

and

as

stonele&s dates, that stick in the throat and the uvulas! (J),

orig. lilfl

(MN),

pi. of Sl^J

[254,327] (J)

poverty

made

of thee.

For neither

nor wealth (MN). Fr draws a

allowing prolongation of
longation into what

of

thee independent of me

make me independent

lasts,

^^ ^.

and laying hold of the saying

[below] (Aud) Z?e that has


will surely

(MN,J), like

is

what

not found

distinction,

not transformed by pro-

is

among

their formations

so that he allows prolongation of

ing

&M

because
^

prolongation of
exist

^^>

(5

a key

a frying-pan, say-

exists

but disallows
& *

^yo afreedman. because <JU* does

and similarly he prolongs

ing *L^J

JLix)

&J beards

(5

[238], say-

because Jll^ mountains [256] exists

disallows prolongation in

^J

(5

[238,

not

Note on

but

p. 908,

//.

because JL*/

1517],

is

not found

among

the formations

And

of the pis., except extraordinarily [253,255,257] (A).


[the majority of

(A.)']

BB

the

unrestrictedly (A), holding


inf. n. of

which

sLi

(IA, Aud, A),

in the [last] verse to be

independent,
it is

Apparently, however,
because

allowable, unrestrictedly,

it

ou^ I was

ojol^ [below], not of

far-fetched (Aud).

is

disallow

it

occurs,

whence the

saying [of Al'Ajjaj, the Rajiz (MN),]

of the beginning of a new


beginning of a new month wears him

[And man,

the succession

month after

the

09s

worn out (MN)]

out, as the shirt is

[above],

with

where

him

itlc is not from &xjuU

in boasting of wealth, and

Fath meaning

profit,

^
<*

poverty

by Sn

to

and

^Jt

because
^ ^

'

dU

it

is

and

*>J!

(5JLyJLy

meaning / vied

&Li with

not

is

contrasted with

[above] (A), which

is

Jil

[said

be (J)] a refutation of the distinction drawn by

Fr, because the poet prolongs *C$JU!

notwithstanding that

by poetic license,
the prolongation makes it unprece-

dented [as a

pi.

Fath among

pis. [253] (Sn,J).

formation], since there

agree with [the majority of]


ability of that are

IW

and

195

no Jl*/with

And among

tlu

IKh

is

KKas

(A).

to

those

who

the allow-

CHAPTER XIV.
THE NOUNS CONNECTED WITH VERBS.

330.

"
means, by his saying connected with

that these ns. are attached to


vation,

vs.

in respect of their deri-

and of their containing the

between them and

vs.

letters of the

t?.;

so that

there exist an attachment and a con-

nection in respect of form, since they take after one

and he does not mean that they are derived from

They

are eight

ns., (1)

o. /I:

v$* (IY).

the inf. n. [331], (2) the act. part .

the pass. part.


[343], (3)

[347],

of time and place [361],

(8)

the assimilate ep.

(4)

[348], (5) the n. of superiority [351]

(M).

vs. '\

(67)

the

two

ns.

the instrumental n. [366]

THE INFINITIVE NOUN;

The

331.

inf. n. is

the n. indicative si accident

to the
[402] (IH, IA, Sh, Fk), and conformable

^^ striking and

Sh, Fk), as

accident

was

is

glad, inf. n.

from him,

(a)

really, as
r

(b) tropically, as

falling

ways

v."

LXXIII.

7^e

ailed,

and <jy^

it

by the

in

v.,

i.

one says

e., is its

"

origin,

be conformable to
8.

[40,332]

This

inf. n. is

ailing

v.,

(3)

as

is

used

its

deri-

^>d^^ I praised fervently


its v.,

but not the

'',

i.

"

e.,

conformability to the

from which the

conformable

and the source of

and one says

or as explanatory of

possessed by a devil.

The

its

v. is

t?.

mode

act. part, is

What

v. is

from

inf. n. in

commensurable

is

vowels and quiescences (R).

inf. w.'s

so that ns.

^00

sitting

of the pass,

n.

&ei?i<7

utrur, after the derivation of the

the

n.

inf.

like the inf.

conformable to the aor. [343]


with

proceeding

vation, as the inf. n. in \J^s


is said to

(2)

Gonformability in their language

(YS, MAd),

to this

^jiZoia

inf. n. jyui

sat,

ofr/.,

conceited
yc\ being

lit

Joii*

The

XX

x "

^wo

upon an

in various

gladness [327]:

*^

(IH,

^LSl honoring *(Sh).

subsisting in an ag., as

(1)

v.

that

it,

or

meant

is
it

should

as corrob. of

number

[39]

not derived, like Rjjdlj

1514

omnipotence and

and

aJ

So

are unrestricted objs. (Jm, YS).

may mean

conforraability to the

v.

of its letters (YS)

and by

the

v.,

as

n. indicative of

*Lb

c>xkt!

to the

confoimable

n.

the whole of

accident,

only

its letters (Sli).

it

liberally,

fcLkej

But

since

because

it is

and that the

would have been a perfect

is original,

the

v,

on p. 30,

14]

I.

nal, the v.

from the

it

KK

said

v. is

BB

includes

and,

if

IH

" the
n. that
'

derived from

hold that the

hold that the

r
,

inf. n.

it

[Note

v. is origi-

inf. n. is origi-

it,

and the qual. derived

and ITlh holds that the

[339], because
;

is

and some hold that the

derived from the other.

an addition

what

better to preserve

inf. n.

are each an independent original, neither of

first

(MKh)] being

being derived from

t\;

"

similarly the qual.

nal, the inf. n. [and

derived from

it

and qunl. being derived from


while the

v.

definition, according to the

For the

opinion of the B13 (R).

whole

A], which,

[342.

IHsh and Fk,] had

is indicative of accident,

but the

not conformable to

is

the definition from ambiguous expressions

[and his followers,

conformable to the

/ gave

v. is

Jm

in the

inclusion of the

exclude the quasi-inf.

intend to

though a

xJ

although the two last

ns. 9
[41], are not inf.

liJ

and like

omnisci* nee,

&lJLfr

and the

v.

them being

But the sound opinion

is

the

every deriv. implies the original and

while the

v.

and the qual., in relation

to the

1515

are like that, because each of them indicates the

inf. M.,

and an addition, the

inf. n.

v.

indicating the inf. n. and

tune [402], and the qual. indicating the inf. n. and the
ag. [142]

(I

5 "

The [BB say

A).

named .cUo* (M on
v.'s

i.

JjLi*

the inf.

q.

i.

fully,

e.

it

n.,

bjas [333]

(R)] inf.

n. is

R) as being the place o/the

(M).

r.

But the

proceeds,

as in Li**^ fjouLc
;

And

q. Jj>li [143].

and that the

originality, its

the

[i. e.,

is

KK say that ?jul* is


isxXjdl

i/*/;

/sa

beauti-

here

w.

meaning proceeding from the

the act. part.,

v.'s

39,

proceeding (R), because the

derived (IY),] from

i.

that the

is

n.,

inf.

q.

like J<Xfr

v.,

KK adduce, as evidence of

government of the

i.

as

the

v^>Jutf

9 |

bju>

the op. being before the ra/.: but this is a mistake,

because the op.

is

general rule

is for

government,

to

troversy

is

before the reg. in the sense


the governing word,

precede the governed

that the

at the

time of

whereas the con-

whether the original constitution of the


to that of the v.

n. is anterior

and

inf. n. cycXa.

(R).

And S names

^A^ (M, R), because

it is

inj.

the

the accident

of the ag. (IY)

and [sometimes (M)]

the action of the ag. (IY).

hrarsay

(WIH).
mentr

,j

in

The
////.

are

Its

JUL>

form

R), as

(M,
is

dependent

the [uiuitigmcntcd (Jm)] tnl.


(Ill) r.[482]

formations of the

many

(M.

SII)

inf.

n.

in the

and various

imaug-

(M), the

[prevalent (R)] formations [mentioned by S (M)] amount-

1516

IH

ing to thirty-two, [to which

ing thirty-four] (M,


(2) jjii
(8)

(3)

xLb

(4)

^pUl,
(19)

LUi,

(20)

RJCu, (24)

&*,

[(25)

XJUi,

JuuJ, (29) sJ^ii, (30)

JJ,

UL,

[336], (5)

jJo

[below], (7)

(31) JjLii,

forgiving, (13)

m^

^^w
Q

[below], (15)
&

(2)

[248,272], (9)

^G^

re/tiwwflf, (12)

[below], (14) sJJLb seeking,


9

|N

x-

demand-

6^iV/^f

auJLc

overcoming

[below],

G^xx

CS'

(21) oL-fl 6e/w^

f;i

Aea, (22) J!^/ asking, (23)

Ll^ knowing

[336]

seeking, desiring [below] (SH), (26)

5\>box

(M, SH), (25) SbUb

j^>

entering [336]

(M, SH), (27) 3jls accepting [below] (M),


O''

small,

^(&j going away

^1*

strangling, (16) J^JLo


'

^ ^

abstinence, (24)

(32) iJbuLo, (33)

tjjSbeing turbid, dingy

^jjL=>.
*

(18)

jlli, (23)

^6

(8)

[below], (19) &jyw stealing, (20)


S

j^,

O^x
JU^ having mercy

young, (17) ^^st guiding [below], (18)


ft

(22)

Jos Killing,

acefa'n^ [336], (6)

[272], (10) J^LJ [below], (11)

(7)

'J^i, (27) J^i, (28)

^V ^raT/%,

jLui

(6)

jli,

(21)

Jjui occupying, (4)

(3)
:

vid. (1)

(16) J^i, (17)

SJL*li,[(34) JUJUi] (M), as (1)

profligacy,

adds two, mak-

^&, (12)

(11)

iJlii,] (26)

>

^iL

&J,

SH

on IH, Jm),

(5) *JUJ

j, (15)

(14)

in the

WIH, R

(9) (5L^, (10)

^IL,

(13)

JiJ

(28)

JL-^

* >

Seating of the heart, (29) ib^g-o 5ei?i^ reddish [below],

1517

)
G

J^jJo entering, (31) *^x> [333],

(30)

(32) Slju** endeav(34) **&(Jt

ouring, (33) HJo.svuo praising [333] (M, SH),

IH

and]
also
$

>

are those frequent and prevalent


like

occur,

"

V^JJLS

uluX?

as

The measures mentioned by [Z

(SH).

disliking [256]

jJlxi

(35)
&e&tf#

^.j-^

;jj-*-*>

becoming
9

677 j; (41)

as

LSVL-A> disgracing

as

xJLxi

*A

(5

n. of

The

orig.

s^L^

i.

q.

^*> harm,

io.Llo

(44)

&JULi*

but transposed

,,

as kJLc:

and others besides (R).


[499] (IY).

as

with the

OS>

6 >'

and

as xCLgJ perishing

[because they dislike the


46)

as i-y^ij ease [248,

,*.,

LoLLo displeasing,
x
>SS

as xylf"

becoming adolescent and

&^U

,'**
affliction; (43) aJLjUJ

aU-u-

(42)

(37J JOLO,

(39) kJ^lxi, as Hs^-^xi. [below]

9x

&JLxx3,

(38) SJjJLilj

(36)

O^*

haughty [385, 678]

(40) &yJLx3

being lord

jj^

ability to repel foes [372]

being, orig. *jyLy[716]

and

as

"^

and others

Hamza

(Jh)]

Ox-^^
[i.

The

q.

&JU

(456

(Jh)]

and

(5

> ,

JU

poet says pJI JkjDLj|\(Xlj

[prevalent (R,A), regular (Aud),] inf.

[what indicates (Aud, A)] craft [or office (Aud,

A)

or the like (SH), of whatever conjug.

(SH, Aud, A), as


[below]

^tf wrote,

(SH), like

(R, Aud, A),

i^Lot

kJolla.

office

it

be (R),]

inf. n. 'iAjtf'art

is

fcJljii

of writing

art of sewing, s\L^u trading

of commander (R, A), klllo

1518

art of casting in a mould,

whence iv^y?
office

that

vA-w/

art

s"LCa*

mediated between them,

of mediator, ambassador (Aud,


regular in

it is

offices

IU

A).

Fath

with,

Ox X

in

(R),

inf. n.

mentions

And

and handicrafts (A).

may be pronounced

initial

of weaving

some

the

cases, as

9x X X

profession of agent or advocate, iDSb business of


9xx
The /i/l #.
broker, and ab^ q^ce p/ governor [below].
Jb

prevalent in taking fright and running

Ox

and

excited,

Z/ie Zi'&e, is

&e ridden,

Jl*i

off,

9 ^
,

as

and in
9

^Ls fleeing,

^U-i
9

*-

,-\* lying with a woman,

6ei'n<;

refus-

^y*

cover-

ein<7

zn /iea, and

^Ub 6em^ refractory (R),


O
AMYd (Jh) while ^\^ stoppx

like

f-U=* [below], says

m^f

5/ior/

"

m a gallop

^L^

is like

Ox

[above] and

[below], all being combined in refusal of

what

jL-ci

is desired.

O x

And

Jlx (1) occurs in sounds also, but less often than

Jlxs

and

Juuti [below],

as

sLo\

crying of the she-ostrich

9 ^

and sL^ crying of the he-ostrich


inf. ns.
9

(2) is regular in

non-

denoting the time of the accident's drawing near,


O X X

oiks season for gathering

as

the crop

of grapes, J*_o

O x x

and

oltXa-

season for cutting off the fruit of palm-trees,


O

XX

season /or reaping, and cUx season for carrying


>

corn wtatt reaped

while JliJ shares with

it,

[as

1519

o "

though Jlai and Jlxi were universally used in

all that
O -^

contains the sense of time of the act, thus resembling

^1

o ^

and

other

one with the

or season in alternating

time,

jjl^l

such

(a) the inf. n. of all

S x

is Joti

oo x

like J^> and


*^o

cutting off the fruit of palm-trees and i.&Us gathering the

crop of grapes (Jh)]

and

Jb\j.

(3) is

prevalent in brands also as


,

oU^ on

a brand on the neck,

The

on the Hank.
of

headache

j^>

^\L*

[328],

while JL*3 shares with

Damm

murrain, because

Jlis

sneezing

it

before the

is

in the
is

it

in

call

>\j

word

and

Jj^l

for help and


;

'

fragments,

i.

^Ui

q.

J^A*3 often occurs,

O ^ x

as

<

'

^\^o

as

^~?^&

And, in non-

>

the pass, part., as ijb\> chips,

broken

bits,

and ^CL crumbs

denotes a amaZZ quantity severed


Cx

vj!^**

occnrs

<xJ>

while Jl*/ shares with

'

n*., JL*j

g!

>

JLj

^&> groaning, and v^ju [below].

shouting,

f/I

J.LL

and

deemed heavy.

the in/ n. prevalent in sounds also is

screaming [below],

as JLjul

O x

And

and

prevalent in ailments,

in/! n.

any conjug. other than Jx [below],

coughing [below]

the side,

from a
Ox-

>

and

large, as

'>

KtfSM parings, iLcL* cuttings, clippings, s^Uu choice part,


fix x

and

>

ibUL)

versal

t*7?/

as

3/ra?/

n.

^Uj

6ea.^ loti^ft^ /or.

The

regular, uni-

of shifting about and violent motion is

leaping [below]
196

<jtCIi

bounding,

1520

(
x xx

quivering, and

,jUO>\ trotting

in this sense, as
fcly leaping
O

and

<Jl*i

sometimes occurs

But

and ^Uj* prancing.

X X

not a commotion.
Ox&
x *
most prevalent ^n/ n. in coZora is *-U3 as

^Lu hating is anomalous, because


The

grayness [below] and


X

they be from
of Jots
>

>

<jo

dinginess [above]

O x x

dark sorrel and ^^s. pale yellow


Qx

>

jb^-g-o

\vhile

[above] and 'i^&f dinginess also occur


o

if

and some of them are on the measure

JULJ;

as \J^a

even

&xx

G x

S,

*x^

Ox

O x

it is

x x

r.

and, says

x x

they say yoLo whiteness and jl^u blackness by assimiO

lation to

x X

x x

and ^L^c evening, because these


^-y-^ morning
But, as for the occurrence of de-

are colors like those.

'

measure of

fects [below] on the

hernia and iLU3 inflation of

and

limbs, as Juki' and

and

aL^yj

And

>

and

XJJLS

it

2-

\j| scrotal

is rare.

of the act

in

xLt3

the

and &*-Lo and auJLo 6a

W patch,

XXX

S,r.y>

iaW

place on the side of the forehead.

denotes the superfluity also, as

The

foreskin, prepuce.
x

"

IT?/.

72.

**

O xx

&IJJ>

and

iLL&

prevalent in ailments
^

of the conjug. of Jjti [above] is JOL?, as


tjc,./)

like

position of amputation, and

iUki'

similarly iooj^ and iLotX^


X<>

0x0

>

the belly,

often denote the position


Ox* >
Gxx X

aULx3

x O

&JL*j

9x

6enz^r swollen,

9 x

falling sick, and

^ feeling pain

(R).

The [most

(R) prevalent (SH), most frequent (R), regular (IM), universal (IA)] inf. n. of the trans. (SII,IM)

tril.

(IM)

v.

1521

(IA,Sn), of whichever conjug.

it

be (R), JjJ or JAJ [482]

(SH, Aud, A), whether sound, unsound in the

Hamza

reduplicated, or pronounced with

o or

or J

(Sn), in senses
x x x

other than those mentioned (R), is JJL (SH,IM), as


c-^o
9

struck, inf. n.

Cx

(SH, I A, Aud, A), like

^~o

X x

&'

tn/. n. j ; (IM),

and

fJ

ap, zn/.

Jjf!

J^a. t^as ignorant


inf. n.

&+^

(R), ^o!

is

JL^

<X^

(SH),

praised,

Ox

xx

u^i and
,

^ gobbled

inf. n.

(A).

unequivocally declared by S in several places

What

occurs,

xx

safe from, inf. n. ^o! (Aud, A),

tt-as

but some assert that


(IA),

TI.

0x

^x
n.
cj^i drank, inf.

That

zn/

o/,

repelled,

J^j (Aud, A); and as

n.

j>>

is

it is

not regular, which is not right

meant by "regular" here

is that,

when

and you do not know how they pronounce

v.

its inf.

you form it by analogy to this, unless some thing else


has been heard. So say S and Akh (A). But Fr [below]

7i.,

formed by analogy, notwithstanding that something else has been heard while Syt

holds that JoU

be

may

transmits in the
not attain to

Ham

from one authority that -you do

knowledge of the

inf.

nx.

of

tril.

vs.

except by hearsay; so that you do not form jJi/by niuilo

even

if

nothing have been hoard (Sn).

the Tasini, as the condition of Juu


inf. n.

of

mouth, as

J^3

in the

that

two

it

's

IM

b.-in-r

prescribes in
in

the

should import action with

the

last

tXB.\

iv^ular

whereas S and Akh do

1522

not prescribe that

inf. n. of the

but speak without restriction, as

The [normal

does] here (A).

is

JU, as

and 0^3 was dusty,

(IM), regular (IA, Aud, A)]

y, inf.

[327] (SH,IM),

.ZTes

(A\ and pit [327] (Aud), unless

vlJLJLa

>x

[prevalent (R,A)] inf. n.

is

x<^

^5

&JL*3

ju^i

which

as --*

inf. n.

Ox

(/ray, zn/. n.

it

xx

>

lawny, inf. n. S~M (SH,A), ^1 was brown,


(SH), v-^-i

JJ-&

hand, or arm, withered

indicate a coZor (SH,A), or defect [above] (SH), in


its

**

(IM), inf. n. of aju oJLi


oriflf.

n.

like
g^s* [327]
^y> (R),

inf. n.

case

[IM

intrans. JoJ, [whether sound, unsound, or re-

duplicated (A),]

(IA,A),

[above], and

^.d

0^09

purple or
blue

and red

unless
or an

it

and,

indicate a craft, [of

office, in

which case
>

him

to

eU^, which is a color between


according to IHsh in the Aud (A),

violet, inf. n.

be (A)]

x X

&Jl*J

as

which he gives no

its

regular inf. n.

XX

f^Jle

ex. (A),]

is [said

^5 was governor

by

over them,

9X X

in/1 n.

x>^

[above] (Aud, A): but what he says requires

consideration, because that [regular inf. n. *JlIj


X

case of what indicates a craft or an

office (Sn),] is

only in [the trans, or intrans. (Sn)]


v^Jc/, inf. n. ibUtf [above],

1>LL sewed,

&

in the

known

[below] (A), as

inf. n.

x>K was overseer over them, inf.

n.

kLll^, and

*bUb f^ce of

1523

overseer (Sn)

and, as for

Aud), universal (IM)]

OuJ

(R),

>

is

i<;

(I A,

inf. n. of the intrans. joii is Jyi3

as^ fowed, inf.

jLio

in/, n.

n *^J

in f'

jt*u ^5>

The [prevalent (SH), regular

extraordinary (A).

(SH,IM),

whether

sat, [inf. n. Oy*3 (IA,

n.
it

g^, and jio entered [336],


be sound or unsound (A), as

Aud, A),] and

went in the

!tX

so long as it does
jtX& (IA, A),]
9 *
jxx.x
O^>
not require [its inf. n. to be (IA)] Jl*3 or ^^Ui or JLl*

early morning,

(I'M.) or

a JjJ
then

n.

[inf.

Fr

JuuJ or kJLxj (Aud,A).

whose

make

[above] says

When

has not been heard, comes to you,

inf. n.

jJj for AlHijaz", [whether

it

it

be trans, or

Najd" (SH), whether it be


but the well-known opinion is that the

intrans. (R),] "and J^i/for

intrans. or rfraws.

inf. n. of the trans,

whether the

[tnl.]

be JuJ or JuJ]

v.

the intrans.
kjlJJ

from

a
^
is JUL$

is

Jyti

from

jJtl [below],

unrestrictedly,

and that the

x ^
-,-- r
n
JOLJ [above], Jou
,

inf.
-

i.

e.,

n.

of

"

from Jmi and


,

because they are the most pre-

valent in hearsay, and the unheard

is

assigned to the

o *

prevalent (R). Jl*i belongs [regularly (Aud, A)] to what


indicates refusal, like

shied away, inf. n.

ran

off, inf. n.

oC&

sLij

n.

^U^

'&
(IM), inf. n. tUf,
^
j

(IA,Aud,A), jyi took fright, and

[above] (I A, A),

Ox
fractory, inf.

^! refused
\^

^^
,^

ims

restive, re-

[above], and J^| ?-an aw;a?/, i?i/ n.

1524

[regularly (And)] to what

^^1* belongs

(Aud,A).

JU

requires violent motion (IM), as


O

X X X

(IA, Aud, A), olio circumambulated, inf.n.

inf. n. ,j^y?>
O

xx x

^U^b

(IA,A),

x x

"-o

o-U The pot

^<XftJ!

(Aud, A), and

leaped, inf n.

to

belongs [regularly (Aud,A)]


x

> 9

A)]

x x x

boiled, inf. n.

^LJl^

^y [above] (IA).

JLi

[what indicates (IA, Aud,


xx
#is 6e% moved, inf. n.

ailment (IM), as jok? ^xc^

(1)

*G&*[328] (IA, Aud, A), JjLI coughed,

and

went round about,

**

I$\'

w^as troubled

[328] (IA,A)

(2)

jULL [above],

inf. n.

with a cold in the head,

5o?m<i(IM), as

^^o

^
^

inf.

J&

n.

screamed, inf.

n.

Lj' [below]
barked, inf.n.
?\^a [above] (Aud, A),
~x>
xx
n.
%\^ (Aud, A). Juxi [regularly
(A), and ^jjt howled, inf.

Ox

in
(Aud)]coraprises (1) journey %(IM), as
n.

JA^;

^ ^^^

as
A); (2) sound,

A),

C^

^ ra ^ e ^

sometimes

vLl^rs-^

w/- w

Juui3

>

G x

and

Jxf^ [below]

(IA, Aud,

A), and

In what indicates sound (Sn),


are combined

(R,

A),

as

croaked, inf. ns. ^*JL> [above] and


inf.

ns.

herdsman called
^

w.

Ju^S (IA, Aud,

>

Jlx3

screamed,

f"

i/?/.

(Aud).

The raven

^3*3 the

ce, inf. n.

(j

&& [below] (Aud,

'

roared, inf. n.

gentk P

JL^(IM),

<Ll*3,

departed, inf.

JU^

^-^
out,

and

inf.

^I^Lo (Sn),]

ns.

^5-uu

and

.and ^JuUI ui>v| the pot


*S
x

ma dc

a noite in boiling, inf.

^|

1525

like
andy^t (A),

^^>

and

[above] (R)

XXX
XX
j*^! J^o

above] and

^L^

while sometimes Jou

stands

C -0

alone, as

fi

^/ie /torse

[above], and o^cS\ &&<*e


O

and

neighed,

inf.

The sparrow-haivk
O x

n.

J^g-o

cried, inf. n.

>

>

and sometimes JuU stands alone, as


a plaintive cry,

gazelle uttered

n.

inf.

~lo

TTre ybj; barked, inf. n.

as the

first

stands alone in four nty ing and the second in ailments


}

[And

(A).

[which

is

The

&JL*3 is described above.]

always intrans. (R,IA),]

is

[regularly (Aud, A)]

(SH, IM), which

is

[most (R)J prevalent

(1) sJlil [above]


X

>

(SH), as JL&. Jo\

Zr/irf

Ox

was endowed with good jndgx

x x

S x x x
TZ.

iLol^y

*-o

I A,

'

<

Aud, A), |*sa^ /'*

was generous,

^'5 eloquent,

^o3

[below] (SH),

>

+S

(IM), in/! n. tJ\-^ (IA, A), like

xx

inf. n. of

6////:y, z/?/

7^.

&Il^J

Oxxx

was genuine,

inf. n.

smart, witty, inf. n. '&1\^ (A); (2) iJyJ,

matter was easy (IM), iw/

72,

>

>

iLy^

n.

(I A),

x>x

SLsL-o (Aud),

Ox

inf.

'

and

oJi wo*

as^Tj^^l
^

<^tXc rro* .vwe^/,

77*e
???/.

Aud, A), and ^Lowassal^i?tf.n.]L^^Lo (Aud,


^*
more prevalent than any other [measure] in

n. *j.<X^ (I A,

A).

iL'LiLs

is

the inf. n. of jJL>

but some say that the most prevalent

[measures] are three,


(2)

kJl^, like

(1) jl*3

L\S [above];

(3)

like

JU^

j,

like

being comely

^11 [below].

1526

What

is

before mentioned

inf. n. of the tril. v.

the established rule in the

is

And whatever

(IA\

occurs contra-

to the preceding [is not regular, but (I A)]

ry

cat. of

to the
*\

&

iiu*
Gxx
jU^

belongs

transmission [from the Arabs (Sn)], like

displeasure, anger,
O

desire (Aud),

^^ pleasure, satisfaction

(IM) T

^^ grief (A), and Jdcu niggardliness

intrans. Jju (And), where the regular


(Aud, A), in the
O

xx

jJu (A); and

inf. n. is

^!jLi thanking

is jJi3

(A)

(Aud, A),

and

is

Jyu (A)

big, old

If 6^in^

>x xx
t/?/.

w. is

that jjii

^iJL

)^
(iXcfc.

is

deciding,

k^ JaJLi

beauty [below],

JU

^o

But Zj and

to
(A),] which is contrary

72,

ugliness
(IA>,

and

(Aud), where the regu-

a regular in/,

w.

IU

mention

of Joil

[like

what S says (Aud, A)


in/, n. of

or JjJ (Jrb),] like


[on the measure of Jx5
ICf 6ein^ generous (SH).

"

&* greatness

and [IH points out tbat(Jrb)] the

and

Aci

v liS

and

(A), in
>^>>

^.^^

n.

prospering

(Aud), where the regular zw/.

xJbw or iUyu (A).

like

succeeling,

discord,

and
j?% [below] (A)

(Aud, A),

lar

JuLs

Oc>
and ^^M^

>

(A), in the

rtc/iTi^

fi^twg

iUxJ creating

away, in the intrans.

o^

A) and

(Aud,

(Aud), where the regular inf.

walking (A),

^liJo

e/rfer^ [above],

^s^ denial, )j&

Aud), and

(I A,

trans. jj^'[and jjtf

O>>

>

They say

Juu

is

often

pL* [above]

that (R) there

1527

Ox*
is

nQ

and

inf. n.

on the measure of

JL*J

^^ journeying by night (iy,R): and, because of their


among

rarity

be

to

Banh Asad make them

the

inf. ns.,

imagining them

and

of &jj^

pi.

G s

^
*

As

[238].

for

of RJLxj is frequent

pi.

G ^

'

fear of God, Zj says that


5

as in

^AJ

Mb

says that

elided, as in the

r.,

its

measure

where

"
^&

Nor

aor.

^AAJ [759].
XXX
of Jut> except in the

No

t'w/. w.
x .*x

conjug. of

is

Juu
*

aor.

^Uj

the

being
'*"

Joi3

does Jat3 occur


defective,

and

as

is

said for

the

in

^wi

^^^ hating

^Sil

inf.

and

buying,

selling,

also is

it

> >

when

except

aor.

its

is

JaLftj

wound

healed,

which

^JLJ from ^JLl

(1)

is

>>x

>*x
being s-J^S? and

* X
XXX
s.JU overcame, aor. ^Jju

vJ^j

as

>

Y7ie

n.

on the measure of jJJ occurs in the

[above], except two words,

its aor.

'

^,
!

[689]

entertaining,

rare.

Ox

fix

^Ji

jJw

it is
^*^

being a substitute for the

while

fern.,

ib^^ though these

have not been heard, because Jmj as

the

'

except ^&s* [above]

>

not peculiar to JOLOJ

Ox
;

and (2)

^JU

from

>

XXX.

as

XXX

that the o./.

may have

which was then

been

2.
*

jv^xU Juu

elided, as in the

AlFacll Ibn Al'Abbas Ibn Abl

197

[502].

saying [of

Fr says

with the

Abu Umayya

Lahab (MN)]

1528

the.

Verily

and made

familiar friends have r< newt d

and have broken

off,

th# separation,

to thee, the

promise of th.e

"

f-U~0

matter

ivhic'* they. premised

for

>

As

sjut [338].

*jo^f

i. e.,

(MN)],

x^

^J^JLJ

extraordinary, as

is

it

delayed pay-

by some to be orig.
with Kasr, but pronounced with Fath because deemed

ment, inf. n. <jLJ [above], which

heavy

and

((

Fath of the g
^

<

*>&'*''',

with quiescence of the

<JVJL
.

with Kasr- of the J

both being read in the Revelation (R),

],

>_x

AZ

also is allowable, with quiescence [as well as

while jU-

where

mentioned by

is

said

is

^ is

read in

jvXLojSXj

x *

ly ^U-ci V.

And do

3.

not ye

let

hatred of a people

induce you by Ibn Amir, Isma'il on the authority of Nafi


4

and Ibn 'Ayyash on the authority of A;$im (B;. Jyw


4

occurs as an inf. n.

,'n

only

five

I performed ahlution [3 42 A]

uyL^y>

O >x

Ipurijiid myself

^J^

>

z??/.

O'^x

Jy^,

n. of

[above] zn/
q.

?i.

of

i^ inf. n. of

nf
-jgk inf. n.
.^|Us
x

o^J^

/ z0as

eagerly de-

O^

>S-o^^-'

li>-'

v^^

sirou*, jfS. inf. o/^Lu!

i.

words,

like

T/ie ^re blazed,

awpted, as S

and J^o

transmits, jjti occurs


G

animal slaughtered,
^jo
and^i^ and
Q^
O ^ x
JOLS also, like &+**> leaves

Q
w>v

x-

And

writing book.

tree

with a

occurs

i.

q. J^JLCXJ
>

[265]

x-

and

X>

and &&&

off

And JL*3 often


(jdJu Debris.
oC>
O^e>
O^*
as *** [265], iuCsco ridicuhd, and &I*J

stick

O'x

knocked

i.

q.

jLtU [265]: while both are intensive.

1529

occurs denoting the cause of the act, as in the Pro-

*JjLft>c

n"

" 9 "x

"

'

saying JLsujo *jyvx>

phet

"'

''"if

XAA^IL*

children are a

jJyf

And

cause of cowardice, hoarding, and niggardliness.


n

>

occurs denoting ?/7/a/ the thing

wed if i ne

2>2

and

The

of the augmented

ed quad.
[e. g.

(Jin),]

measure of

mouth, pyiJ

fl^

infusion,

inf.n. of the non-tril [v. (And, A),

is

i.

e.^

and the unaugmented and augment-

tril.

Thus you

regular (IH, IM).


v.

whose pret.

is

say,

on the

Ox-*

Of.

measure of

Juu! is on the

the inf. n. of every


Cw

fh>:

(R),] that the inf. n. of every


^x

**

into

inf. ns. (R).

332.

iw'M, like

But some of the measures mentioned

emetic.

fjls

are not

])ourt

(force

f.v

v.

whose pret.
O

is

Jm N

Jl*Jl (R,

on the measure of

x"

jJii is

on the measure of J^o"j (R), that the inf.

every

z;

whose pret.
n

is

that

on the measure of JjubuJ

n. of
is

on

^ f

the measure of JlxAZj (Jm), and that the inj. n. of every


x x

v.

whose pret.
)

x x

be

and so on

hazarded

augmented
and add an

is

on the measure

for

before

whole

the

be f ore

inf. n. Jlill; (b) JJL.S

the

of

may

quad, and
at the pret. }

and then,

there be two

the

first of

rule

you should look

its final:

should pronounce only the

And one

(Jin).

[trH.], vid. that

mobiles [anywhere]

I',

c;

on the measure of JJL*j

of kJLUi (R),
also

is

final

it'

in the pret. t

them with

inf. n.

jiU*

(c)

you

Ivasr, as (a)

Jlli [482],

1530

inf. n.

OUi

j.ib inf. n. jULj [below]; and

(d)

(e)

Jl/, inf.

O C

there be three mobiles, you should


*
XXX
pronounce the two first with Kasr, as (a) JL*AJ|, inf. n. Jl*Aj|;
x

n. Jlxi [below]: but, if

ft

**

xx *
(6)

'

Ox**'

JjL&J,in/
*

n.

JLu&J;
*
^

'^

ty. JJjti!

(c) JuiAi!' y

in/! n. J^jti!

^
;

and (/) JjU3

mentioned
n. is

'

X X

JUttl
x-

(rf)

Jowl*

arzgr. JJGii!

zw/! w.

in/ n JuuUl [below]. What I have

derived from the

v.

[331]

but

the inf. n. occurs regular,

if

is

intended to

one happens to

The most

v.

however, of JjJ,JJjL?,jLlU,and

notorious

Jjutf,vid. Jujui,&ILi*t

9 ix'

>

KJLtlft/>

and

JLJLAJ

are contrary to the rule mentioned.

But, as for Jlx3


,inf. n. of JL&U
'

like

Jibs

it is

contract-

ed from the regular, being orig. ^Juo (R on the IH).


**

in/

ft.

Ox

C&X

fc'w/ 7i.

of

fined to hearsay

JJjLftj*

such as
Q

>

and

as JJjwj and

of

JxU and
,

though regular, have become con-

(R on
,

the SH).

and of what

is

And

the only inf. n.

co-ordinated with

jjuAJ and the like,


y

TIS.

and such intances of them as occur are

J^LCL:;

jLfcjjtf

xx

JUJ /n/

JUi

^x

JuLftj

not to be copied
of

Cw

xx

of Jju [above], Jl*x and

'

JLJLfti*

xxx*

rt6

have a previous knowledge of the


inf.ns.

n.

fix*

not founded upon the assumption that the

is

how

explain

in/
O

(e) Jl*i!

^8^'

''

uti!

?5

Ox*

' s s*

inf.

is

JJjiAi'

contrary to the rule,

ss

J^UJ

[below].

The predicaments

of [all]

these inf. ns. will [now] be explained [in detail] (R on the

IH) The vs.

that exceed three letters are of two kinds, (I)

1531

composed solely of rad.

letters,

(2) containing an augment,


(a)

which kind

which kind

is

only quad.

nation,

and

it,

(c)

commensurable with

(b)

incommensurable with

it

of three sorts,

is

commensurable with the quad, by way of

nation with

of

co-ordi-

without co-ordi-

The predicament

it.

the sort co-ordinated with the quad,

the

is

same as
*

that of the quad, in the pret., aor., and inf. n,, as


[483], aor.
*

-"O

JjH|

inf.n. *JUUli

[482], aor. jj

j^L

X*X

>*

.,,

>

>

aor. via^o
in/.n.SJU^a ;and Jox? [274, 482],
^ x

[below]; like _*&*> [495], aor.


[336].

The

sort

'

in
6 x x

_^>jo

fc^o

[404], tn/.n,

commensurable [with the quad.] without


X x0<E

co-ordination has three formations, Jaw!

'

^ S x
,

J^LJ

and

'\'

J^U
* * "

<

v^

though these formations are on the measure of ^


in its vowels and quiescence, that is a thing virtually acci-

but,

dental, not being intended;

not like

Llv^S

(lYj.

and therefore their

The

715.

inf. n. of jj^T is jliit (S,


'

WIH,L, IA,Aud, A),

inf.

regularly,

when

are

M,

s<>f.

JOL! is sound in the

as
g [338] (IA, Aud, A)
J^l honored^ inf. n*fG{ [below]
(IY, LJA, Aud, A), whence lu7^are, tw/n. fCk^f [342.
(5

A] (S,IY, LJA).
and jili [below]

For the

gwac?. has

and, the

first

two

in/, ns.

&U&

being more prevalent and

Q X

inseparable, whereas J^kjui sometimes does not occur, the

accords
inf. n. of the co-ordinated
lent, as

Hk^

[above] and

++

with the more preva-

[482]; while the inf. n.

1532

of

what

commensurable without being

is

co-ordinated

in order that it may


jjt*,asJj,< [above],
enjoy a share in [the predicament of J the quad, on account

accords with

The

of the resemblance and commensurability (IY).


inf.

n. of

&

JW*

is (1)

M,

(S,

WIH,

L, I A, Aud, A),

X"

^ a x

when Jaw

regularly (L, Aud, A),

A) in the J [338]
O

J.XMJO

and

Aud, A), as !iy^[252, 486], inj. n.


* x
S
I punish* d him, inf. n. v_*jjuu(S,IY),

(L,

>>C-'

*x

sound (L, IA, Aud,

is

aOjjcfr

whence IV. 162.[39] (IY,IA), as though they made the


at its beginning a substitute for the aug.

the final (IY)] an equivalent for the

<5 [before

thus altering

its

beginning as well as

they do in Jlii! (IY)

s^xo [338] (WIH),

oZ^

of the

[489], zn/.

v.

whose J

G*

<

?i.

is

(a)
:

'^^>

aspu?

seldom in the case of such


prevalently in the case

(b)

though here the

f also

A), as t

inf. n. occurs according to

^^5 (Sn): (c) necessarily in the case

when

is

multiplication
9 ^

xfix

as

(S,I Y), as

(M, Will, A),

of the unsound (A) in the J [338] (Sn)


L),

a Hamza, as
divided into parts,
y>.

(i

o.

ending

JlxiJ

inf. n. x^sao'

the

in

"

o^

^ ^ ^

as

(2) alaSs

its

and the

'

.,-

inf. n.

in JJLS,

n.
^Jf repeated, inf.

neyed much, or

q//e/^

"

[334]
O

x-

like

(WIH),

s a '

w. >Lj^' [below],
x

o^b

(L),

^f^jourtravelled
x* x

q/Yew, ^n/. n. ol^iaj

(WIH,

489]
'

6 ^

round about much, or

[334,

sUo

z'/z/I

intended

(3) JlllS

and

J^

went

1533

round about much, or

by some

said

M,WIH,L,IA),

(S,

(M), as aJcjy/ spoke

LXXVIII.

Owr

M)

jCs*

s5

(4) JLts
x-

Arabs

of the

(S),

And th?y

28.

p&f [below]
n.

inf

x " x

J!^s\o (L)

(S,

him, inf. n.

to

L), and Lzl^i / burdened him,


-5tX$\

'/.

often, inf.

M,

(S,

whence

hove utterly

(S,M,WIH,I A), as though they followed

ri/V/ns.

the same method as in Jl*i inf. n. of jit, pronouncing the


initial

with Kasr, and adding an

letter (S)

(5) Jlx3 with a single

with a single

j>

[below]

universal, regular

(I

before the final (S,IY)

g as Llj^read in the text


,

A). In the non -defective, j^oUi' is

while

xJjLftj*

is

frequent, but confined


O

to

And

hearsay.

when

so,

charging with error and auiaiu


rest of the

GG.

But S appears

cessary when the J


c

BO that

is

according
to

Hamza, as

say that &I*Aj

conjuy. of jJU

is

(R on the SH).

not said

common

in the

is

ne-

in the defective [338]


f

is

as^ia^a
to AZand the

E^.k-frj

(J

the J is a Ilamza,

JUJ

in

the

language of the elegant

speakers ainun^ the Arabs: for they use nothing else;

and one of them, hearing me expound a text, said l^v.^J j^j


^

iJJi+j

>

Lo

^*

strum

&

IpLlo

Assuredly thou hast expounded

u-l.ofe like

ha* not been

hard

it

with

of(K).

But

O 6

JLxj does not occur in

the

substituted for the

of

first

no n-i nf.
its

don hie

n.,

except with a

letter,

as

lly [278],

1534

,llo

and <jt^ [685]

whereas

in the inf. n. the

substituted, in order that the inf. n.

inf. n. of

adouble

Jaw

like (L) ^JcX* inf.


X

cording

BD,

n. of

^jJ

reading of
x

of

-^

so is

[with

A) and,
;

*x

[ac-

9 x

x-

in multiplication, like *Lu*3

JUtt

have not heard of

LXXVIII. 28.

And GJJ'in
X

it.

x C x

on the SH).

ju*

(K, B)J in

It is

[said

the

best explained as the inf. n.

is

in place of

**

LXXIII.

by Z

to be]

is

put

8.

[ 40 ?

(1)

the inf. n. of

33 1] (R

on the evidence of the saying

\Then I spoke truth


is

of i?&

71.

L^O put in place of the inf. n. of vjtXf, as [^xLo

v.

But, as for vjIU'with a single j [above], as

[334] (L).
zrc/.

not

be like the

may

Mn both (Sn)] isanomalous (L, Aud,


to

is

[According however, to BD, IHsh, and A,]

(R on the SH).

JlLX as

&

and lied

to her,

to

her

and man

profited by his lying, and similarly


auL>

And

verily the praise of

while thy praise

is

true, there

then [governed] like


**

for

it

either

men
is

is

no

true

lie

[the inf. n. in]


*T

'

in

it

and false
(N)]

LXXI.

being

16. [40]

< ' '

means Llj^ !^?jJo and

have, falsely lied,

and ye have grown vigorously, one


two constructions of LXXI. 16. given in the K]

[like uL*J jWuJo

the

of

or

1535

is

governed

in the

ace.

by l^jo

because

implies the

it

sense of L->j^, since every denier of the truth


i.

(2)

q.

xpUCo

is

lying:

*ss's)sss

si

S ss

and have

the sense being ibJUCc


l^jjLXi

bandied charges of lying, or ^^ojLCo bandying charges

of lying, because, when they were lying according to the


Muslims, and the Muslims were lying according to them,
there

was a bandying of charges of lying between them

(K).

The

inf. n. of J^Li

L),

regularly

(IY,

WIH,

is

And), as uJULs

(S,

IA, And)

like

(L, IA, And): (2) [JljuJ

say

Jl%

(S,

addingan before the


!

Kasr, as in ^\3\

(IY)

tliis

JUs [342A]

(S,

IY,

WIH,

1"^ '

they say lU^Li

t
,

(S,

?i.

often

!^Lo

>

<" ^

(L).
>

"

!*&

O
,

inj

n.
it

Os*

him

&

L), as

(S,

(S, IY): (4) [Jlli


>

nn-asure of &JL*3, as ib-c disputation,


lie disputed with

into

And), whence

inf. n. ^Lx> ,and xjJj'U

with

initial

[first]

And sometimes the simple substantive from


tin-

AlYamau

IY) for lightness (IY), as

L, IA,

~&

L^

[278, 685],

^\^6

M,WIII, IM,L),

y)^ec/ t0ft& Aim, zn/.


9

people of

and then converting the

were elided

IM,

^S [above]

final, and pronouncing the

(3) jt^[:>>28] (S,

though

who say

and

WIH)

M,WIH,

[490], inf. n. idsULo

(S), [or] the

M,

(S,

[490], inf. n,

^L*

for] those

(S.M) and Jll^so [below]

(WIH)

kjUli^

(1)

i.

e.,

According
>x^x>

for]

fi

JLo

(3[).

occurs on
^^

gLx>

to

from

S (Dm),

the

//</.

/(.

infeptniue from o/JUU

is jJLcUx) (S, I

Y, DM),

1536

*)x*

x o^

like JL*AA^W! from

ft

oJjt&uJ (S)

for they

C x

9 x

card

JUJ

Dm) and

(I Y,

sometimes
x x

disO

^ x

JL*x (I Y), but not x-UU*, as &x*JU.


O XX ^

>

I sat with him, inf.n. &wJl^x> not u*^Ls (IY Dm),


Ox
9x
x x x
nor (j^^^ (IY) JL* 9 is disallowed, [and fcicLbo requisite
,

(A);] in [the inf. n. of (Sn)] the JLcG

Me

as yA*b /00&

Zeyfc

?-^A* 5iWe (Aud, A), inf. n.


9

Aud

side (R,

whose

is

A), and <^L> ooA;

and

aL-u,Cu>

iUx>Lx>

^5

Me

where

(A),

*}

.U*o for
,.iUjl
^ x j is not said (R). because of the heaviness (R.
y L
)

Sn) of a

pronounced with Kasr

<5

word (Sn)

M^ contracted

while

inf. n. Jjj, [not iLo^Lyo (A),] is


is

whose
very

poured upon

v.,

double

is

(5

whose
(R)]

is

jj^j

because
is

MSS

only. Ill does not except the JLtU

,5

it is

is

extraordinary

vs.

is

why

(AAz)

nay, the

^Lx>

[with a

in inf. ns. they

and more tolerant of burdens (R).

regular, according to those

Jut3

that ns. are lighter

is

But

rare (Sn).

and the reason

add something more than in


vs.,

the day,

anomalous (SH), the regular form being

L* with a single

than

him by

have " and^Lyo",


which [version] the [reproach of] anomalous-

according to
is

with

anomalous (Aud,A). ^LAAJ

and some

not anomalous;

ness

beginning of a

at the

who say

Jlj

JL*i as

but, [according to A,] JLxxs is

The incommensurable

Jlixi, as
t*7i/I

72.

of

anomalous (A).

sort has ten formations,

two not

1537

)
''

'

beginning with a Hamza,

xxx

invariably beginning with a conj.


vid. Juubl
JljJl

JuOi!

j^l^l

v*lj

jjial

and

its

nouncing

Hamza, three

five

sea:.,

penultimate with

quin.,

jji&Lf,
n. of

inf.

formed by pro-

is

Damm,

X S xx

vid.

The

and JJUkll (IY).

beginning with an aug.

v.

every

and

s '

s '

JjUS and Ji^Us and: eight

vid.

if it

be sound in
xx

6 ix x

"

the final, as JLju learned, inf. n.


jjlju [below ], JLsUb'^'n/'.
n.

Jjlls [below], and -,^4\S

and with Kasr,


n.

Jjj'

it

be unsound, as

X ^^

*."

inf.

if

-^JJ [below]

^^ turned

followed consecutively,

^jl

-'O^.x

and ^AJLyo

i>// w.

x',

in^

??.

fi

^aJLo [below],

or?'//.

inj.

i^x

^^

9
,

away,
n.

Jl^j

^x

^Jlyi

and

x x

to

by analogy

(5ftJLwJ,

Damma

sound counterparts,

their

n should be a

[decl.]

And

be produced.

no

inf.

7i5.

preceded by a

the final of the

Damma, may

beginning with an aug.

vs.

inf. n. of jJuu , as
inf. n. of

(JJUi

inf. n. of

jUsso [below]

^ have

whence #J\ uA-^* **^

j^US

as Lg*

'
z

inf. n. of

JJUs

is (1)

Jlu

(1)

inf. n. of J^s^',

n/.

n. of

or threw, one at another [below],

The

not

formed differently from what has been men-

tioned, except such as are extraordinary, vid.

-L3

the

being charged into Kasra in order that a forma-

tion not found in the language, vid. that

V5

i.

c.

jjo*

X*

andjjjlt?

[below]

!^<Jf

JbuU

TAey

(2)

s/to^,

[335] (L).

(S^f, Will, IA, A), regu-

1538

I spoke,

larly (S, IA, A), as


G

whence

JL^J

xx

jjlju

Pamm

(S,

IY),

(S,

C5

^ x

[above], and J^ssJ

inf. n.

being pronounced with

(IA, A), the

[below]

inf. n.

xx

inf. n. jjju

IY, I A) because there

is

no n. [in the language

O a ^x

(S)] on the

measure of

x x

while JJUS with

Damm

IY) with Fath of the g

of the

is

a certain bird [379] (IY)

found among

J&3

(2)

x C

Ji+s

[below]

They

(WIH).

M) and
;

[that say
witli

[above] (M), cited by

>

O^^x

"

inf. n.

it,

>

Th from an [unnamed

attachment, [like the

is

xx

a5 jJL4J>, inf.

Jjlf (S, IY)]

of the desert (IY), There are three loves

a love that

as

MS.,

jUsO

the poet says

OS

>x

I burdened myself

say xjJUsxJ
[above] (S,

who say *^y[above](M)

WIH),

(M,

G S

according to those
n.

JOLAJ (S,

tie

" f-

(Jsh)]

'

'

Arab

for there

is

between father

and child (Jsh),] and a love that is affection,] like the


love of friends (Jsh),] and a love that is murder (AAZ) r
Jsh)], like the love of the lover
JLxAj is [said

by some
^ X

The

XX

cUUj

inf. n. of

is

to be]

and the beloved

anomalous

QJXX
J^Lo (S, M),

(L,

(Jsh).

But

IA, Aud, A).


X

Ox^

as the inf. n. of Juuu

because the measure and the number of letters


Ox xx
a ^
x
5O &xx
are one, and oJlc-Lo from oJlcli corresponds to ^J^^

is JjUS,

gx

from cJjii

while they pronounce the

with

Damm

(S,

1539

IYj, in order that the inf.


if

because,

may not resemble

n.
it

they pronounced

iliept. (S),

with Kasr, the inf.

resemble the pi, as L^\JJ [253,376]

(IY)

would

n.

and

they
6 ^ x "

do not pronounce
[in the

with Fath, because there

it

language (S)] among ns.

inf. n. of JtfrUs

The

Aud, A).

like (L)]

inf. n. of

v.

Hamzais formed by [pronouncing

A)],

except in the

[
ss

anomalous

(L,

beginning with a conj.


its

third with Kasr, and

(L, I A, Aud, A)] adding an! before its final (IY,


*-

no

But

IY).

[above], is

L^

every

(S,

is

L,IA,Aud,

JoLt^u,!

whose

c is
**

unsound [338]

(L).

^ ^ ^*

Thus,

(1) in

JUftl! (S,

the quin. (IY), the inf. n.

M,WtH), as^Ikll departed,

WIH)

[33G] (S, IY,


s s s

(b) of

as y^A^^I reckoned, inf. n.


x
^

jiIl
^ x

IY,

WIH)

Jill
(S,

is

xx*^
JjUi-,1
inf. n.

(S,

is

^.l^sull

JlluJl^

JUui!
^ X (S, M, Will),
(S, I Y)

IY, Will)

\V

[49G],

AVI 1 1), as

(if,

II)

t/

?j.

and

(c)

of

inf. n. /jilt
/' s

(IY), the

[482],

***

M, WIH), as

(S,

(S,

[283] (IY
...ll^l

^L^J^I^

JL*i^u,t

^jlklt

(2) in the se*.

8^o

is

n.

inf.

M, WIH), as /1^1s [482]

M, WIH), as^Ulj

M), as

j^Il^
O

<>

of jjub! is

(a)

inf. n. (a) of
^x
^"
_~sau.w! extracted,

(b) of

is

Jti^

JiLij

j^l (WIH)
^J^l

[482],

and (c) of JJL^Ms


J.ulxi! [283]

(S,

(c) of

tn/-

J^[

(S, IY).

(S,

And

1540

no

v.

Hamza has

beginning with a conj.

its inf. n.

formed

what has been mentioned, except

differently from

[the

a '^

augmented quad.]

Hamza

beginning with a conj.


's

s s

'

**

* '

orig. JLfcUs or Juuu

But from the

v.

excepted that which

is

[below] (L).

JJLxi!

'

**

is

G*

is

an

n.

w/

ever,

as

IM

by

^>Lb!

is

final

(A)

ning with a conj, Hamza, whereas the

but

regard

meant, how-

is

be the

is said to

[and others]

[757]:

^fa.'i

Damm, from

^L\ (Tsr). What

and

ss

not pronounced

added before their

the penultimate is pronounced with


o. /.,

s* **

>Aia> and

orig.

ill,

for the third [letter] of their

to the

s *

ss

xGwCw

led and -xb! augured

with Kasr, nor

was dishevel-

as wUol ^eit? about,

v.

orig. begin-

Hamza

in

what

mentions is imported for an accidental cause so that there


;

is

no exception (Dm).

is

co-ordinated

wUh

it

LLLI; (S,
(Sn),] is (1)
as

^1^<S

The

inf. n. of JJji3

(S, L,

Aud, A), like

M,WIH,IM,

[495], inf. n.
JCc

x<lx

IA, Aud, A), and aUAtf^


(IY, I A)

and as

IY, L, Aud),andjolU

and as
s'

Jj^

Jao

B' '

letter (S) in

inf. n.

quake, inf.

*&jL

(S,

SjJv" (S,

n. *Juii'

inf.

it,

n.

iUtf^

(IY);

L, Aud, A), and

'

[above], inf. n. iuiajo (L,

IY)

it

I shook

as a compensation for the


(S,

Juill

L), regularly (IM,L),

I pampered him,

[above], inf. n.

j^j and

L,
l^^ [above] (S, IY, WIH,
O^^*^

I made

&xjp

[and of what

Aud)

the

being affixed

[added (IY)] before the

such as

Jy!

and *lblf (IY)

final
:

(2)

M,

(8,

(And), as

WIH,

(S,

[below] (Aud)

1541

IM, L), regularly

M,

JUJU

L, Aud),

in the reduplicated

(S,

M,

and

L),

but as matter of hearsay (L, Audi, not

universally (L), in the non-reduplicated (Aud), as

[below]

(WIH, IA,

^^^

A), like

and 9tJLp [above] (L,


of

"

vjby* (S, IY, L, IA, Aud)


IA, A). The poet [Al'Ajjaj, father

(AAz) Ru'ba (M),] says


wAw

X*w

frj

(M,L) That I pampered with what a pampering!,


greatly, the

being red. (AAz)

i.

e.,

and the poet [Ru'ba Ibn

Al'Ajjaj Ihn Hu'ba atTamlmi, complaining of hoariness


(Jsh),] says

IA) O 7?z?/ people, I have grown old and


impotent, orhav ecomenear to it, i. e., to growing old and

[below] (L,

impotent;

and

after men's growing old and impotent


o

death

(Jsh).

But

on the authority
lirard (Sn).

^f^z [below] is reported


of Sm and others, not to

And JUx^

is

^xx
v^-UU

in the Tsr,

have been

anomalous (IA, Aud).

corresponds to tJ^(Juo in
in

is

>x^

oJUU

'ill^l

O^e
,

and J^JLJ [here]

to

the authority of these two here being

like the authority of these two there (S).

the prevalent form, because

it

is

The

first

is

inseparable from the

^ *

w hole of these vs., whereas J^ou


^ x

c.

you say ib^*>, while


seems

this

to
Ox

The
(S,

sometimes does not occur

^^

[above] has not been heard

But, according to some, both of them are regular;

(IY).

and

be the language of the Tasini


(A).
e

sometimes pronounced with Fath.

initial of J^JLJ is

M,

L, Aud, A) in the reduplicated (M, And, A), like

j^

the initial of

as

(S, L),

jpj

and juis

(S,

M, L, A):
6

but not in anything else, so that they do not say ob&v-u,


as though their not

were

because

(IY).

There

pronouncing the
the

of

no

is

(K on XCIX.

tions

&

in

1)

with Fath [among the forma-

Arabic (A)], except


*

reduplicated (K,A). But in ^J! Jo

JU^

fear of the

^'s

the

with Kasr

heaviness of the reduplication

a version

initial

*^

in

the

L>

[above] there

is

being pronounced with Fath from

becoming a

(MN).

Kasr

is

the

o.

/,

jiJJ being pronounced with Fath only by assimilation


Q

to

s"

JliuS

^[bS

O
,

[334]

all of

which

is

* "

with Fath, except ^LuJ> and

while they, according to

S,

are simple sub6

stantives put into the place of the inf. n. (A).

Kasr

is

[held

(A)] an inf.

by Ks, Fr, and the author of the

n.,

'

while

to

be

and JLj^ with Fath a simple substantive

(K,A) and similarly


:

-'

J!J\ with

'

gUuii'

with Fath

is

one that clatters,

UaS clanging, clashing, clattering, rattling with

1543

Kasr

is

an

inf.

and Jj^L; with Fath

.;

stantive denoting

what

is

a simple sub-

Ox*

the devil whispers, while

\j*\j*y
x

flx

.{A). J^ju with


inf.
the And and Dm iSn),] mostly means

whispering [above] with Kasr


is

Fath, [as

said in

is

the act. part., as jJj*wjJt ~& J^o

an

CXIV*

From

4.
O x

chief of the whisperer (Aud,Sn),and JLaJLo


[396] (Sn).

and

Some, however, allow both

J^Jii with

Kasr (Sn)]

to

be inf.

the

x
i.

q.

[J^H with

ns. (A),

which

Fatfc
is

the

But
opinion first mentioned by A [and others] (Sn).
xx C>x
^ X )0
^^*x
y
n. of % g g s , and
i gy 4>' retiring backwards, inf.
*Lo5jJ

XOX

[40,273], inf. n. of u>o5J

shown, the fourth

are anomalous (A).

As

above

n. of (Sn)] the v*

[letter] in [the inf.

^ of quan-passivity or its like (A),


J& [486] and JjoUco [487] (Sn), is

beginning with the

such as the

^ in

pronounced with

whether
[below]
.

it

Damm, when

belong

to the

the v. is sound in the

conjug. of

jJtls or

quiescences, and

measure of (IA)]

number of

the s^ of quasi-passivity or

letters,

its like,

not of the conjug. of JJbub (MKh),]

(IA)] JJLUS (M,I A), with


[495. A],

inf. n.

^Uj^

ten formations, (1)

jiis

Damm

of

in

is

beginning with
it

be

[on the measure of

its

MKh\

in/.

vowels,

even though

[below] (IA).
(Sn,
199

The

JJjLftJ [in

and

JL&UJ or JJUlf

or be co ordinated with the last (A).

of [what is on the

fourth, as

^>jJ*

That comprises
as

j+fj showed

1544

resignation,

ja

n.

inf.

as Jilis [487], inf. n.

[above] (Sn,

MKh),

(MKh)

jj&tf (Sn,MKh), as

(3)

[above]

(MKh)

(MKh)
ft.

(MKh)

jus

as

XX

"xx
(9) oJjtAi*

(Sn,MKh),
(Sn,
v.

jji^s [485] (Sn,

as

inf.

n.

inf. n.

MKh),

in/.

^^

?i.

(MKh)

^Ll5
^

be not sound in the J

rad. or converted from a

charged into Kasra, [for


.

down,
L 256 li

inf. n.

aud

(Sn),]

affinity

J5*^

then only a

the

^JLo

either

Damma must

to the

&

and ^iJo areto

be

(Sn),] as J5jG>*
en/, n.

nea?*,

/ w l&3 [above

t 482 ]) l>n

the

if

But,

>

As for

as

JuS,

XXX

X X

Jjj

is

j,as

jJUUs (MKh)

[below] (MKh).

[which

x x

(MKh);
O**Jyy
evw spirit
oo^it

(10)

as

inf. n.

MKh),

acted like an

-C^AJU

x x

(7)
O>*^x-

xx"xx

x ^

(MKh);
MKh),

(Sn,

[482]
*

JJUl

(6)

w.

^ x

(jX**?

Jkis [above]

Ju

as

(2)

w/-

MKh),

xx

"

[485] (Sn,MKh), inf. n.


xx o x ^
y^-JUi'^wi on a cap (Sn,
(8)

g^Oo'

(^n,

Jjus

(5)

>

MKh), in/

jj

(4)

(MKh)

[above]

(A).
O

the augmented^wacZ. upon the measure of

GXOO
its inf. n, is

upon the measure of JL*AA^!

[495, 496], inf. n. *LfiJv^!X


inf. n. jjUijs! (S, IY),

(lYj.

The iw/

n. of

and

as

and as v^JoUi?! [432, 496],


X

^oub;!

inf. n. jlit&Jl [below]

Jjij [above]

is (1)

j3u]| (M, L),

1545

as Ills! [432, 495],


[432, 496]f inf. n.

^llJe!

[above], and

Jy^j

LlxLi3

(2)

^UJI

as toJLil and

and
But, [according to S and IY,] JtLoUi
*

LLoCL
[283] (L).
*V
1%

n.

inf.

are [simple substantives (IY),] not inf.ns. conformOx''


x
C5xx
S
able to -jU^I and T xAj>! but only like ^lo in relation to
*
*
/

aoyu^j

fj

v^lH[40] (S,IY). And, [according

333.

IHsh and

A,]

\A&'

anomalous (Aud, A).

is

(A), [like] SojJL&s (Aud),

to

commensurable with (Sn) JuiA*isform-

[n.]

.X

ed from [the inf.

n.

(L,A), to indicate

of (Sn)] every {unaugmented] tril.

its inf. n.,

and the time and^ace in

which [the accident denoted by]


sometimes the

tril.

[362] (L,

9x*x

^^a/> striking,

witli universal regularity

it

And

inf. n. of the unmigmented


Ox*-'
of JUIA* [with Fath [Jrb)], like

Ox*x

Qx*^
Aj&jokillin(j\?>42. A],

and

The

(SH).

.>y&A

drinking,

rule is for the


inf.

be pronounced with Fath of the g without any res-

triction [as to the

ness of

its

>

as Jcej
,

if its

future

as

o
,

vowel of the

in its aur.

J (ARf)], except when

XXX

Kasr

occurs [361] (L).

The

occurs on the measure

n. to

it

of femininization is affixed to

Sn), as fo^c [below] (Sn).

v.

formed from such

aor. Juu

J^^

it is

and the sound-

in

wlndi case

[below] (BY).

Jli

it is

says

pronounced with

in the

Sahah

be an unsound letter, which drops


as in *<db [482,609],

its inf. n. is

that,

off in

its

pronounced with

1546

Kasr

[of the g]

>

future

its

letter

as in

even

if

c>

like

[699], its inf. n. is


* X

[700]

o drop

g
n.

like

the future

off in

Tlie

cat. of the

jifiye

or its J also be an unsound

"

the

of

quasi-sound

pronounced with Kasr of the

is
c

JJLO/>

[above] and Jc^^o [below], whether it be an tr//I

or a n. of time or place[361],according to what

but

if

as in

pronounced with Fath of the g, as J^^o

[below] and ^iy> (Jrb).

belonging to the

but, if its vj be retained ID

J^j

its

the quasi-sound be unsound in the J

S mentions;
,

then with

OX

Fath of the g

J^i whether

like

however, says

thing else. S,

it

be an

inf. n. or

any-

[and

on the authority of

O x

Arabs say J^^o [below] with


X
X
(S)] Jua^j whether it be an inf. n.

others (8)], that some of the


X

Fath, from[Jc*j

aor.

or anything else.
O

And, says

S, the

reason

why

the maj-

J^^o [above] with Kasr is that they sometimes


Jx*
>xx
>xx
the ^ in Je^ saying ^^^ and J^L>[701]; so that,

ority say

alter
'since
\

,,

they alter

at another

[482,699],

it

[into

they assimilate

(S)],

which

by conversion

is altered

by

&

to the

it

elision

at one time,

for those

who say
>

o*y*

and therefore, as

they say J^yo there, so they say j^jo hero.


n x

of

and

And, as

Ju^

[above] with Fatb,

it

is

as

X *X

though they said d^-t

7 ^^]

preserving the

^ (R).

But

O Ox x

they say Soyo loving [above] (S,R), with Fath, by common


consent (R), because the ^ is preserved (S,R) in the

1547

by common consent (R), and not converted

future,

The

Jot3

whose g

is

have JouLe in the

is to

inf.

udx^jl

in

odxsOl

like the sound in that

is

and what occurs contrary


like

n.,

as jiLjw

to that is

its

(S).

rule

passing Ufe\

reckoned anomalous,

dlSjJUoj

And

222

II.

they

menstruation, which is an inf. n.,


*.*> "
as is proved by the [next] words ^ J! yo Jo Say thou, It
is a nuisance.
Some, however, do not hold the inf. n. of

will ask thee about

that [formation] to be regular, but confine


9

But

(L).

to

it

hearsay

sometimes occurs in the defective, on

JoLfl/>

Ox

condition

[of

[below].

And

of the

affixion]

as

'

O^

and aU4^oo

xjuojuo

[below] occurs in the hollow (R).

&X^AAX)

Fath and Kasr occur

in (1) iulkx> (R,L),

en/

n. of JLj

wronged, Fath being regular, and Kasr anomalous (L)


(2) !kxliJ> [331,342.

A] (R,L),

in/,

of

J^l praised

(L); (3) *!c^o (R,L), in/ n. of ^S ftZamcrf (L)


(R,L),

in/

of

n.

(R,L), in/ n. of
L^XJUO
'

^si*

(R,L), in/

7i.

>'*^
O
ijCJUx>

(8)

Ox*'
in

JLbx>

./
,

in/

in/

n. of

l*x

(4)IUMM
(5)

(L)

kLdi
;

(6)

(7) k!lIsLo^
x

G '

* +

iLLd*

ao.\ ^.^kj (L)

was angry

of s_>Xe

[below],

powerless (L)

w;as niggardly,

<\Z,

accounting (R)

2(;a5

ff|/*fi,

of jLo strayed] (9)

dUbo perished.
xxx

n. of ^^^^xiJI c>*JLb

/^e

And

52^n rose,

similarly

Fath being

according to the Hijazis, and Kasr according to the Banfc

1548

JUax
S says
that^scJJ!

Tatnlin (L).

6 ^

x^^JLb

^x^

but one

meaning the time


9^

occur in

Until

5.

of the dawn, [read by Ks (B)] with Kasr, means

the rising
t t

XCVII.

that

may say

o/*its rising

501

g^jouo

of

n.

time,

Kasr and Damnr

J.

6x

[below]. Fath

-Uax> is

andDamm

in

<*

in

fy^being

easy circumstances (R). And all three vowels in (1)


9

dUlgjo

&$

[below] (R, L) and

[above] (R), in/ n. of

perished (L);

power, ability

man

T/ie

(L);

(3)

ab>Lo

(L),] in (L)

(2)

^^[331]

(4)

[alone

(R),

n. of Lj^ became
^JZ* (R,L), inf.

(R, L),

of

inf. n.

"

returned,

1^5 gentle

(L);

arrows (R);

*X

fi

[above] (R,L), en/, n. of

(5) iLyajuo

Ox

disobeyed-, (6) iU^^xi [above] (R,L),tn/

(8)

,J

at hazard with unfeathered andheady^ua playing

^ess

(L)

of

?z.

And Kasr

w. of
as V. 53. [498]; (3)
<j.y, *w/
O

xx
z'n/.

(R,L), inf. n. of J

wanted, needed (L).

anomalously
old (L);

Ox x o x
JJLo (R, L),
;

(2)

n. of 'J
J^l
*2>U (R, L), in/

(7)

H^u

(B,L), inf. n. of
x

-^

in/.

7i.

^pardoned
^
9

iw/. n. of xtX^
iu\,.x)

?z.

excused (L)

of

s!\>

afflicted

(13)^**.** sleeping at
;

(L)

jjiffed
;

(9)

scorned

Am

(L)

;'

sjjuw [above],

(10) &i,.jw

him

+*>
(5

knowing (R)

(11)

(12) (j^x^uo [above]

midday, (Ityz^^o coming -,(15)^***


O

passing the night

of

^L^

(16)

-^

^J^A becoming hoary

fl

(17) u>***

1549

Ox

Ox.
finding fault

^y> increasing

(18)

(19) J*JLA eventually

"

becoming;

VJU*A>

(20)

journeying

The

(22) i&uxJo wishing.

respect, (a)

containing
of the

fr?/.

but not containing a

There

(R).

[above]

c?a?/

by Jamil

no

is

(1) in

one

> <

of the

and containing

"

JOIAX>

two respects, when

(2) in

Damm

I Jbo [below]

in the language,
except

^yjuo

and lULo as
,

of battle or deeds of generosity,

Buthaina, keep

(Jh),]

if thou keep to
is

anomalous,

G
s

is

??.

(21) *j+*ju*passinglife',

when pronounced with Fath of the c but


thes;(b) when pronounced with Kasr orDamm

pronounced with Kasr or


the

what a help!

it,

to

"No"

Verily "No,"

against the multitude of slanderers

and

>x

-x

UCJLc

Convey thou

the brother

to

of AnNu^mdn a message
O

/rora me.

But some assert that

that the exs.

of

it

>

(L).

abandoned

mentioned have the

being curtailed by poetic license [58]

and kXJLo

JUIA* is

S says

and

finals elided,

orig. tuo^A

i^jw,

JuuL> does not occur ia the lang-

uage of the Arabs," meaning "as a

sing, or as

while [his Commentator] Sf says that

ur*x>

in

a plj'

1550

(
x

is orig.

jyw

the

^ ^J(R).

>^J!

*'

>

being elided by poetic license; and

similarly *jCe in
o

'

*jCo and

And

[III says that ]

"

"

measure of

while there

^jjjuo

no other

is

JOLOX>

according to the chastest usage (Jrb)],

are so extraordinary that

Fr even holds them

and ttyu (SH), like Jj (R, Jrb

of &*Juo

on the

n.

[inf.

o x

to be

^.

ph.

of glls

his opinion [254] (R), because of the

(Jrb), according to

strangeness of
X

allows

jvJCo

>

the

in

JOLR/>

tn/

n.

and ^yuo otherwise than by poetic license


O

why we employed
is

Dammof the J,as


O

(R)

inf.

(j,

i.

q. iLlLN

i.

q. iuuw

q.

J^jD^er shing

Damm

mentioned by IKtt, with

a message
with
and^wuyo
;

Damm

of the

easiness of circumstances
znft.^* competence,

and prefixion

(Jrb).

s
T
x

LJi ^Jt
^

II. 280.

Until his

and dULo are

Damm

But Fr may assert that

O x>

O 9&x

gjB

i.

easy circumstances [447] (R, Jrb), with

of the j
o

n.of dlLt (Jrb),

wealth (Jrb). And some read


6etn^r fw

[the

>iix

6x x
,

And

that (Jrb)] dUL^o occurs (R, Jrb), with

and dUU (R, Jrb)

of the J

(R).

^>J.

the restriction "according to the


O

chastest usage"

and, according to him, JjJuo occurs as a

reason

Thus Fr

(Jrb).

O '>&x

of xCJL^x> [above] and aJOLo

pis.

i.

q.

^ [above] (R): and Akh says that the reading sJJ/in


II.

280

out the

is

not allowable

in the

because there

language (Jh)

is

no

JJIAJO

with-

[while Z, followed by B,

1551

explains

it]

by

elision of the

on prefixion, as in

(A) sometimes (M)]

[of the tril.

n.

According to others than S (Sn),

yj\ [331] (K, B).


the inf.

on the measure of the pass, part., like


(M, A) and
t'n/1

n.

coin ng,

sometimes

i. e.,

when

occurs

fortitude

j^JLsJuo

corned by him,

a^^^uo
*

the pass.

^^ a dirham

v_>>-o

'

of

KJUj

/ie

^JL^

governor's
!<X^

XXXI.

>

^X

&

*>

L^-SXJ X^lt

?io^ left flesh to

his

mind

(A), )y**+*

[below],

(M).

JJijuo

iw
;i

|^yO

his bones,

and

and urlljf

and hence &CjJbo and

(>>

x^o

s^jix>

but

*J

nor understanding
[below],

LXVIII.

in

to

the created, and L^o KXJuJ [76], i. e. KJ-^^IXJ (IY)


seldom, [being confined to hearsay (Sn),] as
jlajjj

is

part,

of God, the dem. referring

the creation

10. TAis is

occurs

understanding, reason (M), as the

Jyijbo

meant, like wyo^l

(i

^>-*

6.

and

[below];

[below], and ab^Lo pili/iny

as in ^J? x^l^j [247]


*

i.

e.,

jlc:

one of the

is

C.

/>\

like

it

that occur in the shape of

And

\y~+* and ^^juo [below], and


so say Akh
;m<l
[below]

are

LXVIII.

G.

<

i;.

of

any thing

else

[than

Jrb)] "",-urs [often (A),

and

^j^jca+J!

Fr

the

nx-iit

the p<7*s. part

the

\\itli

in

(BS>.

mian---

UIUN^

regularity (Jrb),] on the measure of the pass. part. (SH,


A), which

is

therefore applicable to the inf.


200

??..

th^

and the

part.,

1552

ns. of time and.

place [363] (R, Jrb).

And

hence

Umayya Ibn

[below] (M,A), by

Praise be

to

God

us pass the

me
x*

disembark
3*

ueluyoj
its
3l

upon

x-

Ju

boLfuo

sailing

the

the

(AAz), lllo' ^po'

to
-x

upon

AAz),
evening, and

morning ! May my Lord make


morning, and make us pass the evening, in

at our entering

wenl.

at our entering

Abis-Salt (IY,

XXIII.

Make Thou

30.

with a blessed disembarking

its

(IY),

^ *c

.*c

&JJ\

and

^y\

^L XI.

43 In the

anchoring

(IY,

A\

name of God
jJoLox> ^f

be
3'

j*^

[342. A.] (A),

Mazin (IY), And ye


have tried us time and after time, and the knowledge
of the quality of the man is acquired on the occasion of
(M, A), by a

man

of the Banii

experience (T),

6x

x><--<,

[by 'Alkama Ibn

Abada

her (my riding-beast)

(IY,

to water, as

foulness were red as henna

of sesame

together.

AAz), Then I brought

She

and

is

though

its

the juice

coaxed

to the

pools from

of the leaves

dung of

the

troughs, and desired to drink of the water dunged into,

1553

and, if she loathe


is

drinkings

it,

then verily the feeding between two

a starting and riding (AAz),]


x

fc

'

C^iU

C^X**0

$C

- o

>

<>.

f.

^U2d.!

j!

,j

L
V^

AAz) Ibn Al'Ajjaj (IY), O wy Zord,


if I do amiss, or forget, Thou wilt not forget, nor die.
(M), by Ru'ba (IY,

Verily the preservation sh

ill

be like

having been

my
*

i.

preserved,

e.,

like

my preservation,

&

Lo

being

infinital

(AAZ), opi>
f^V; XXIV 18 Awl dispersed
them with every dispersion [below] (A),

J4xjf!

3; * ASui

gl ^13!

(M, A), by Zaid AlKhail (IY,

^ ^f

AAz)

Sf

atTa'i,

joUt
fight

me any fighting, because of the enemy's overcoming, and I escape when not any but the
until

I see

not for

sharp-witted escapes (AAz), and


dUL^JLojO
^

"

J^SA.V*I

V^-

ci'*-*o .*L3

though the sound of the cymbal were in his


the bit (IY, AAz), or neighing
(the horse's) champing
The shape of the pass. part, of what exceeds
(IY).

(M)

^45

three

an

as (1)
[letters] occurs

[above], L

e.,

^^ &;

(2)

71.

inf. n., as

XXXIV.

18.

of time, as
Ji

*x

aJU

[above],

evening,

i.

e.,

at the

time of our entering upon the

and of our entering upon

the

morning]

(3)

1554

as

of place,

n.

X X *

kjjj-o

>

-j"^

XVII.

My

82.

Lord, bring me

i.

in,

into

e.,

AlMadlna, at a good place of bringing in; and take


out,

i.

from Makka, at a good place of taking out (BS).

e.,

J*

jjLftx>

in easy circumstances,

^y+tjuobeing
G

and

like

'

>

me

[i. e.,

~w*j

(R,

Jrb,)]

being in difficult circumstances,

^**A/J

>

~w*^ (R,

[i. e.,

^A/> ^f *^> Leave him alone

Jrb), as in their saying

<*

ttne7 /us &*tn0

w easy circumstances and

s^wwjuo

"

_Jf

until his being in difficult circumstances (Jrb),] >Jl^v.*


fortitude,
(R), as

[i.

e.

<xU* (R),] and ,jyUx> madness,

Madness (R, Jrb),


i.

when

e.,

LXVIII.

JyijT^U

S,

(SH),

the

i.

e.,

is

aUAAJ!

not

/M

6.

^^ c^

[i. e,,

&io

is

the

of you

according to one Raying fR),

made

red.

(Jrb),]

it

is

rare

however, [differing from others (R ;,] disallows


Q

J 0.x

the occurrence of the inf. n. upon the measure of J^JIAX

(M,R,BS,Sn); and explains these things

He

their apparent form (IY).

holds

9 ^

be

(R,

eps.

of JL=

and

to
^JL*
x
9 x

>

i.

state,

e.,

*+*

>

^^

JL*

wherein easy circumstances are experienced

(a state)

[and

Jrb)

^y^

according to

jo

wherein

r***-.

circumstances

difficult
O

are

ff

experienced'] (R); [or rather, of ^ol a case,] as though one

>x>

^aid auj

^^j

'"x

"t

wx!

^J!

JLCO or

>

'

alone
aui^ju Leave him

1555

wherein easy circumstances, or

until (a case)

circumstances, are experienced (S


xO

sense being

xx

y^^^>

^Lo^

[or ^Lo\

^ and ^

the

time,']

>

difficult

xx

v^ju until (a time)

wherein easy circumstances, and difficult circumstances,


are experienced (Jrb); by suppression of the prep.,
x

<<

as in their saying J^o^uo obtained,

(R

i.

because the occurrence of the inf.

>

x-

e., xJlc.

>

J^o^oo

upon the

n.

measure of Jyu^o

is

him (Jrb)

impossible, according to
O

>" X

and
and so he says that
gvj*
O X

j-^j*

which are two

serfs 0/*AMi pactf, are (a

pace) raised, and lowered,

strengthened and weakened, by the mare


O

e.,

and so he

holds Jyi*xi

mean

to

confined,

i.

tightened,

(aw

e.,
O

understanding) tightened and strengthened', and


to be

i.

> *

i^Jtsam

LO jJlio >^o meaning (patience) wherein fortiX

xx

is

practised

and the

in

*-g

to

^Job

be reo

(R),

"

when

being a pass. parf.

As

[184, 503] Jrb).

for *i

;yCo

the

JL=*.

i.

e.,
/

xjj<Xojo

LgjjL*^

Explain thou

^5

reality,

to

>

Juo^e

me the true

tale

and similarly

reJ.

being the indica-

Gx

tion of substantivity

made

obviously not an

it is

inf. n., but is the thing disliked, the

is

from their Baying

x
,

as

^J ^AJ

of his state
,j~u,

^Xo

Jo Se foW me

truly the

meaning Explain thou


told

me truly

(R).

And

to

me

age of his young camel,


his state, which thou hast

[the inf. n. that occurs

upon the

1556

(
x

)
x

Ox

measure of (Jrb)] aUUb like JUiLc forgiving, restoring


,

O x

to health,

[i.

"

>

--

sULjw (R, Jrb), in/, n of

q.

Ox

we, restored me

to

remaining,

fcli'lj

LXIX.

sLL

q.

[i.

Then shalt thou

8.

(R, Jrb),] abjfc

LVI.

health (R),]

lying,

While there

2.

pass (R, Jrb), and

and ^LC (R),]

As

OC^oOC-O'xx
<iJ!

{#5

^-c-^l v*ic.

place

i.

'

obvious-

q. 8\-=! last: for

one says

LXIX.

denoting substantivity.
*

J^oU
or

ep.

of

the

this

soul
is

8.

may

be

^oo^:

*!'
* "o

And

thing remaining, the


Ox
x
i.
similarly kJLob
q.
,

i.

excellent

shall

with

ibofe'

q.

denoting substantivity
Ox

Ox

be

e.,

g^

excellent thing, the


^
O fi
X.AJ3&

kJLflb

may

i.

fc^

Ox

thing,

O-

or ^jb

remaining

(soul)

q. J!&>

i.

LJ&j in
* ",

to

coming

it is

or [is affixed because] iLoLt is o?'^.

And

its

the indication of substantivity,

is
OX

extremity.

for aLoLc

7%e thing succeeded the

while the

it is

(^

Lg**^

than what occurs upon


Ox

ioj

G x

because

j^J^jjLgj

coquetting and ogling,

kJlj

the measure of JJAA* (Jrb).


ly an act. part.

no lying at

shall be

rarer (SH)

is

ending [below],

as

q. ^>&f,

Ox

aLolc.

any remaining for them ?

see

[i.

forgave

as aLob

^bU

And

abj

in

LVI.

2.

^j*^ [204],

then

the

gift.

be

(R).

the sense

believing,

And

[it

being that

truthful.
is

All

said that

of

(R)

1557

the inf.

the

n. [of

(A) sometimes

tril.

A)] occurs on

(SI,

the measure of the act. part. (SI, R, A), as l^Ls


(SI,R, Sn),

i.e.,

R, Sn), as the

Crl^l (IY,

inf. n.

[sometimes
G

(IY)] occurs in place of the act


[142,143] (IY, R),
JiLfc

[below] (IY).

i.

e.

And hence

uj&A paralysis (A); and

^^ ff2

^'

e.,

*>J!

LsxJU
a

^3

^ ^^ H^' ^

^JU
i*

U^La.

(^' ^)'

7ie

Jib

[below]

3!

(SI,

L^sJ

A),

and

there

is

was struck
(M,R),

[76]

being

while

me
from Asmd ;

indeed for

red.,

i.

e,

ll^

(IY),

it

meaning ioLlT

has
(A),

whence

by the Mjijnfm of the Banii Amir,

the case tAa^

a slanderer had

my home was on

he would find his


get

Sufficient

V),

being made quiescent by poetic license, which

often occurs,

(S^&j

no healer Jor the love of her, since

lasted long 'AKB),


the

atTa'i,

the distance, the

is

e.,

by Bishr Ibn Abl Khazim, praising Aus

Ibn Haritha Ibn La'm


as a trial

i.

according to

i$$&l

^llfj

[below] (R);

^U

>

Jj^ Je^

[247, 312],

~.

i.

part., as

JjU andj^T *U

[76]

way

Jns

home

-^nrf, if it

in

were

AlYamama,

the highest peak of lln<jramaut^


to

me.

And what good

do they

(God keep them not well /) in Lathi's severing

my

1558

ties ?

by rule lla !j

LXIX.
for

(K,

[their
8.

corrob.

d.

[above],

i.

[above],
s.

[7 9];

e., llatf,

i.

rebelliousness,

]
i.

Ub (A).

e.,

But

like

in *Jt

a corrob.

ace., is

in r^J!
U*)U*

which

is

LXVII.

R), like

^^

UU*

says that

s.,

not

'-*-

[above]

is

^o

L^Lix

nor

reviling,

[with

God

oath

context

my mouth

(R)] not being

which

is

it is

suppressed

~"

act.

part.

(2) the pass, part., as

And
,

Y,

being
r

'

^j^oU

my Lord,

not

of speech was

like the correl. of

with an explanatory

[above],

the correl. of v^tXtfU (R).

sense of (1) the

lie

*.'

(I

mentioned ^1Y,R), because

according to
[650]; while,
"
t

s.

(IY), what he covenanted

by the sentence, since

indicated

the

Uj'Li covenant with

such a state that a

in

proceeding out of

coupled

np.'of both

[538] (R), the

^x

5.

cZ.

the position of (IY)] a d.

[in

19.

ti

12. [79],

q. the inf. n., so is the

i.

and the phrase being constructively $

[above]:

XVI.

^
,

l5

t5

what we are considering (R). And IIU

in

part,

d.

be a

^lliL

*>J!

^! pj

gfy

and

may

tlslS

ok in

and similarly

^LJiiaJL

e.,

as the pass. par?. in ^tJbuuuo j.^uJ! 5

with the
act.

and U&lUC*

Then, as for Thamud, they were destroyed

5.

LXIX.

for,

AKB)

as

the inf. n.
*jl

iU

i.

is

e.,

*juifSis

used in the

iu [above];

1559

[161] (R on the IH) Shalt thou

Tibrdk

? (It

number, from regard

It is

on

then uniform in gender and

to the o. f.

ized and pluralized. Or, in these

e.,^ ^ and

i.

Jty*

but

also be dual-

may

two exs., a pre.

n.

may be

3 Jjc of(the possessors

The former hypothesis

of) thy love.


bole, as

the dwelling

was) a dwelling of Soda's when she was one

of thy beloved (AKB).

suppressed,

know

jJf

involves a hyper-

though the possessor of the accident were embo-

died of the accident, by reason of the completeness of his

by

qualifiability

334.

Jrb), 'tj^S

^LJo

it

JUSS

[143] (U on the IH).


like

[below],
in

[332] (M),

!>bp [below],

ijjjj,

'

^jJ sporting,

of

much

(M, Jrb), Jo^


S

<*

[\jJue clapping,

Ji* journeying (M),

is

[332] (II,

[jll^S' (IY),] JLJb',and

the sense

^}Z> going round about

Jj^J

formed

(IY),]

^ rejecting
fermenting,

Ox*

Jutf

killing,

and

to denote multiplication,

[repetition (IY),] and intensification of the act (M, Jrb).

When you
ed]

intend to

tril. intensive,

and
Lu5"

make

the inf. n. of the [unaugment-

you form

this is the saying of

it

upon the measure Jlxlj

likeyj^J' [above] for

much fermentation, and ^liL and


r

regular.

J1i-

its

KK

frequency, however,
sny

that
201

JLiUJ-

is

<X*

jbli' [above],
O X
fj

Notwithstanding

JUAJ

orig.

the

is

not

1560

importing multiplication [489],


"

G x
!

o Jo

so that J Jo is orig.

& being converted into

its

But the saying of

[332].

is

preferable, because they say vJjJj [above]


o x

s_>x*Jb'

does not occur, though the

one of those words whose


O x

KK

may

obsolete

o. f. is

say that

it

is

When

(R).

'

an

JlxAS is

pronounced with Fath of the

is

n., it

inf.

Q X

Cl

and
JX
1^.^30 [above]
Ox"

not otherwise,

oljlaj' [332],
x

XVI.
^-A
"O
-.

"^

to

face,

i.

e.,

^UJ

whereas

in

UJ! ^>Ls\.o!

Towards

V. 45.

^lAJLi*

the

it is

bLyox

~x

Xx

^re,

JoCI

explanation of every thing and

I met him face

^Uii' xxxij
C

jPor

91.

"

>

# x

>

except in two words, ^Lu5x and *UJU>X [332], as

while

a simple substantive, which

is

inmates of the
governed in the

Ox*
ace.

There

an adv. (BS).

as

Kasr of

the

among

Ox"
And some

is

[thus] no Jlxij

with

except these two (IY).

inf. ns.,

S^xxJ

say JLdxi' also (D) from aJLoLuo competing in


x-

find

archery,

But, as for

otherwise

^!^o
x

"

-C

from ><\Jt

y^a drank wine

(CD).

ft

^LuJ says
,

its ^>

S, it is not

an intensive formation,

would be pronounced with Fath

a simple substantive put in place of the inf. n. of


O x

as jL&
Oxx
gjUf

which

is

A]

is

^o

a simple substantive is put in place of

Gxx
and ^Lo and

^LJaI|[342.

but

Ox*

-*,x

&lk& are put in place of cA-y and

(R).

which they mean only

And

its

counterpart

is

*GQj>,

9 ^ e>

^jllaJ

meeting, as says ArRa'I

by

1561

^.oS

cjU
Will

hoped for thy bounty.

its

promises come?

For to-day hope has fallen short of meeting thee (S).


And in v^L-SJ Fath also has been heard, to which Jh
e

and others

and my
and old

selling

with Kasr of the

They say

*UL

^^

[332]
e

(4-6) Jl^xj-,
LVL-V-'"'

(7)

<L

are taxed with a mistake

that Jl*&> with

Kasr

of the

two

i.

6-

An

'Uuu,and gby>

ns.^

[names

a crocodile, and also a

pieces of cloth

swallowing; (10)
[283]

(12) Jlp'

as L^L-aJ*

^JU

sewn

igrrea^

of

[jjAorf (D)]

together

(9)

JJUj quick at
;

(11) ^jOLfOJ
;(13)

^lldJ,

TAe she-camel arrived at her

kiU-'Tv^o!

(8) ^jUjb*

;
x-

a [small (D)] pigeon-house

necklace

vid.] (3)

(D)] places;

Ztar

JUQ> an e^fyy [379]

time for being covered

occurs

hour of the night passed

JMJO

the inf. n., vid. (1, 2)


^llli*

q.

and [fourteen non-inf.


-^- "^

^s

v^>

as JoJJI^c i\j>
yo

itj^j,

and my pleasure,
expending my property new

and my

in only sixteen ns.,

and

while those who

tippling wines ceased not,

<*

(BS).

saying [of Tarafa Ahl)]

recite the

And my

themselves (CD)

restrict

(14)

^,LjiJL>

playing (15)?Lljb

(16) JllL> short (R).

15G2

And ^Ixii,

335.

g of which

[the

is

doubled to

denote intensification and multiplication (IY),] is simi' ^


CM
x
as
There was between them much
lar,
Lyop (*-**? \j%
t

x-

shooting one at another

(M, Jrb), and

much prevention (M), on

sides (Jrb).

^^^^

It

(IY,R); because

^f^- much

and as

incitement

both

does not proceed from [only] one [side]


Lut, [332],
(5

intensive forms of

^G

AA^ [below], and ^~cs^ are

[487],

^jLsU

and t=lA3 (R);

meaning is shooting one at another,


and inciting, and preventing, one another (IY). But
feince

the

sometimes
sive

this
n.

measure occurs (IY, R) aa an inten-

of the

[unaugmented]
[an act proceeding from only] one
JLJb
^AJUO

inf.

is

much [knowledge

?ftwcA

an

and

\_side~]

skill

AjuU* being

v5

of the Khildfa

inf. n. of (1)

j^Us

as

(R).

(IY).

Lu^ [332]

Umar

?fttfc&

em7-

much engrossed with

(5

then, occurs aa

the [unaugment-

(2)

AAiafc [above], inf. n.

*ii incited him, and ^^A.^S. [below]

particularized him (L).

Thus-

in (M),] guiding r

(^i**-*

ed] tril, to denote intensiveness, as


of

(R), denoting

mischiej-making (M, R), ^.^uc

speaklng (IY, R), and


the business

of,

tril.

x^.^.
inf. n. of

says [in tradition (L)]

^IS^ ^lyL&jr !^J (IY, R, Jrb), i. e., But for being too
much engrossed with the business of the Khilafa, [and

1563

too forgetful

by reason of

it

mind the times of the

(Jrb),] to

I would chant

call to prayer,

the call to

prayer (IY, Jrb) f

thereby indicating the excellence of the call


^JLuij
s ^

also [334] is not regular (R)

that] Z, being asked


is said to

hearsay,

ly used
inf.

that

[though Jrb declares

was regular
"

This

fern, with

the

"

which only occurs


Prolongation

allowed by some in the whole of them


disallowed

Ks

(R).

transmits

But

Fr

(IY,

R)

[all the

of his

BB

but

cat.,

differfrom him in that

own

is

is

better

[272] (IY, R)

ZUxxl^

and allows prolongation in the whole


(IY)

These

(Jrb).

[above] (IY).

(5*a**i3

or confined to

cat. is so frequent-

ought to be regular

it

abbreviated, as

it

have replied

made

are

ras.

whether

to prayer (IY),

regularly
;

and (IY)]

school (IY), disapproves of

it

(R).
.

The

336.

unaugmented
contain a
of the

vJ

tril. \y.,

is

<t

(R)],

as

if any

a stroke
be in

it,

as

the

[below] from
* *

oJUo / went

in

and, (2) from everything else (SH), which con-

sists of [three (R),J the

by IH

&^i

Iivent out, and &JLi^ [below] from


vsA2>^

n. of]

(SH)

[265]
Q s

from the

the inf. n. of (Jrb)] which does not

L^

' '

[331] (R)

),] (1)

on the measure of &I*3 [with Fath (R, Jrb)

augs. being elided,


1

un. [formed (R, Jrb

n.

[unaugmented (Jrb)]

which contains a

tril.,

[the inf.

[according to the opinion held

(R),] the augmented

[tril.

(Jrb)],

and the [unaug-

15G4

mented and augmented (Jrb)] quad. (R, Jrb),


Ox

measure of the
kneel once
G xx

being added,

SLS&iajf

if

there be none (SH), as

* x ^

O x

<*

a departure and
a
down once
SLs^JJ being rolled

and the distinctive being the context,


A

J.

LTb (SH,
whose

L), from the

inf.

the inf.n. contain a

'

'

[two words (R),] sSCol

[unaugmented (Jrb

does not contain a

n.

if

iuU^u,! [338], and

'

And

8J^>L [below] (Jrb).

SJoL'

as 8<X>C !<X&i [below],


*

on the

making a camel

n. used, as &=*lit

inf.

is

] tril

their inf.

(R, Jrb),
ns.

being

*''

u Lo!^

meeting
coming and ^UJ
X

(Jrb), are

L), because the aw/s. are not elided


'

they reduced

formation

to the

anomalous (SH,

from them, nor are

X "^

kJLxi

but the

s is

affixed

G x* *
1

to

them as they are

The regular form

(R).

is **>\

and

OX X

SUiJ [below] (R, Jrb),

which are allowable

AlMutanabbi

says
xS &jo

uJLJ

(R) / me^

^/ie

JUil

fcXl^v^ii

dawn, when

because the night passes

the

away with

dawn, at Darb alKulla, [which,


of the

my

Greeks (MI),] with a

deep grief (W).

When

contains the

night

it,

the rising of the

single meeting that healed

the inf. n. of the unaugment-

tril.

as

and Sjui3 [above], not


Ll^> [331]

slain in

I think, is in the lands-

ed

[v.~\

was

you

let it

remain unaltered,

fyS and

SjLfij

[below].

1565

IH

So says

but I have not come across what he says in

down unrestrictany [other] work; nay, the authorities lay


n. of] the unaugmentedly that the n. un. from [the inf.
>

ed

tril. [v.] is

that(R)],

put

on the measure of

according to the o.f., because


is J|ii

v.

of(IY)]the unaugmented[?*i7.

kill [the augment,


(1

if

OX

a wa/&, and
n.

inf. n.

on the measure of

tw%,

fcjj-A

a drink (M)

And ~IM says


like

LjLT

and

that] kill [with

a siring (IM), &1&*

x-

[above] (A), whether the

KJ^-O

9x

be on the measure of Jjb


Ox

as in
9

[above] from

Syt] in the

Ham

the n.

from [the

unrestricted

Ox

Gx-"^

or not, as in L=vS>

un.

is

from [the

the inf. n. contain any, being drop-

f&jfand &1J [above] (IY).

m/

(IY)]

Y),l as aUj3 a standing and

Fath (A)] denotes

And

[below] (S, R).

that] the formation of the n. un.

[Z says

For [S says

&JU3,

the o.f. [of the inf. n*. (R)]

ped

when you mean the n. un. of thet/z/ n., youalways


>

it

"

on the measure of &i*j (R).

>

ab^

from Vr^]

^ 5^

[881]

so [says

And [BD and IHsh say

'

(Sn).

inf.

n.

of

>

(Aud)] every

that]
v.

tril.

indicated

by [the paradigm (L)] &ili (L, Aud), witli


Fath (Aud). And what I think is that, when the inf. n.
is

of the [unaugmented]
it

also to *JUj

(R).

This

is

tricted (Sn),]

many

tril.

[v.']

contains the

s
,

you reduce

saying sj^iJ [above], with Fath of the

when

the [general (Aud, A),

inf. n.,

(Sn),] is not

[applicable to the

i.

c.,

unres-

few and

the

[formed (L, Aud)] upon the measure

1566

(
>

of

fcJUj

[337]; for, if so, the n. un. [from

A) only (A) by an

(L, And,

ep.

context (L, A),

mere?/
.

G'"

You

wi7& ( L).

leave [the inf.

than the unaugmented

like

augmented] quad.,

the

single act

of

*x

n.

a angrid craving for


every thing else

of]

unaltered, whether

&^>J> [332]

it

or an

be [an un-

augmented

and
JilaiJ [332], ^l^j,

[tril or quad.}, like


if

tril.

&+A,%

Aud, A) and SJ^Lx &+*


x

(L,

and then,

r'

as StX^L
x

(L)] is indicated

(Aud, A), or (A) by some

6 x

[other]

it

be not there, you add

J^J6

an

as fctLTI
J

it,

honoring
as

abjjtS

but, if

[338],

i.

the

be there,

sj^

e.,

[below]

you leave
;

though,
Ox

cases, the n. un. is

ambiguity, as

we

held the

H [

mostly qualified by

lL
x

jUjb*

'

it

alone,

in

such

s'tX=!.

to avert

a 6in^e consolation and,


;

if

-x

of compensation] to be elided,

of unity put, there would

be no harm.

formation of unity as evidence that the

and the

S refers
o.

to the

f. of the inf.
O *x

ns. in the

whole of the

tril.,

trans,

or intrans.,

is

Jmi

Ox *x

[above], saying that, the generic n. of such as

&Us

^J

and

[254] being undoubtedly [formed] by elision of the

analogy requires the generic, i. e., unrestricted, inf. n.


9*x
6x*x
Ox*x
Ox
and &JU>c> [above] to be
and J^j
of such as
g

-^

fc=^

not

L^ and J^^ [^31]

of the [unaugmented]

tril.

but that they vary the

by adding

letters,

the composition, because the [unaugmented]

inf. ns.

and altering
tril. is light,

1567

txmtrary to the yu:ul and

quad, or augmented

tlie

augmented

have two

[tril.]

If the

[tril.].

one of which

inf. ns.,

more notorious [than the other], the n, un. is on the


measure of that more notorious, not of the strange one
is

'

-,

,,

a.Lo

[above], not

k^&o

you say SJot^

Q ' ' *

* '

S ''

* s
,

from

Sx ^

and similarly you do not say

The

[337] ate really sorts of

'cates

inf.

But the

w.

comprising

and the whole of

times,

xi*3 belongs only to

w?i.

and the

its

not to what indicates

modes

and

^is
.

or &

The

337.

mt

digm (L^J iLu


of

the
~

(IA
>

;ind

(L,

1A.

<^

ixxjl

tlie <ciisc

not

V^AM.IJ

iM-iiin-

and

//-

//^

v.

is

of (IA, And)]

indicated

by [the para-

>

<-

and

xlljl

//,

mi-aninii-

considered

a>

<</'>// //////

/'

that

lie

keej.^

202

and

andftjbtfjf,
X

o-

Kasr (IA, And)

witli

And),

ac/,

>

iw/! n.

auJL^jfij^
'

and

quality^ like ^^u^. beauty

from [the

tril.

as

I]\I

(Sn).

n, morf.

every [unaiigmcntcd]

(Jrb).

^*&> cowardice, and

permanent

srHartn<>xs,

>

like

act,

"jardluicss

twice

what indicates an

an infernal

ignorance,

knowltdge^ JL^

nor

n. indi-

orace,

act of the physical organs, like the cxs. given by


A.:

mod.

n.

because the i/I

the <;emts of the act [254],

and several

^;^*>;

o^
owJb'15

from

w.

w.

>

XjUcs

iblirfrom s^J^[332] (R).

*>

to,

and

.!/".</

and

evil is

1568

that Jashion

of dying and killing

the [general

(Aud), unrestricted

This

(L).

n.

mod

[from

context (L),

[i.

it

is

(L)]

by an

e.,]

for, if so,

indicated (L, Aud,

by some

or

the like

(Aud), or by something else (MKh), as uoj^JI &A+>

/ enjoined him

abstain, as one enjoins the sick

to

abstain or xxl^Jl^x)
to

abstain, and

\*&y$with

*j4^
man

to

a certain mode of injunction

I searched for

8jJi3 xj'joio

ij^xft-Jl

the

MKh)

MKh)

ep. (Aud,

when

inf. n. is not

(MKh\]

formed upon the measure of &l*j [below]

is

'

one searches for the precious object or

-o

HiX^x.M

&

as

it,

'

^ U^3
a,

~c

'

with a certain mode 0/searcA(L),whencesju^xJUiJl s<X^


O"

'

The search for

SUxIac

(Aud,

And

MKh).

the stray beast is a great search

similarly
G

augmented]

tril.,

as

mode, of honoring (L),

so

' ^ *

No

the v.

99

Jj5 %

is

not [an un-

-f.

7 honored him

iu>o..n

g^>tXxiJf
'

as one honors the friend or

non-tril., except

when

with a certain
JijfJK^
' \j*y$
'
%

inf. n.

anomalously

mod.

(I A,

is

formed from the

Aud), as

*Uv*r>

^ -o

S^cJI She

is

pretty in the fashion of putting on the

where they form

muffler,

muffler

and

*~o

x+*J!

>

"

aJLii

from

v^-xi!

put on a

^^.^ yc Se

15

beautiful in the style

ofputting on the turban, where they form

put on a turban (IA) ; and hence

aLJu

aUUi from*.<*3

from ox^AJf /SAe

1569

He put on a

veiled her face, andaUa^S f rom ya+A 3


iUUi[with Kasr (SH, A) of the

o (SH)] denotes

mode

the

(SH, IM), and quality (MKh), q//ie accident (Sn, lIKh),


O^<,

as

ab^3 (SH),

i.

a striking qualified by

e.,

mentioned, as in x^/jT
style of riding

as in

case,

or

known by

b\tU

j^ ye

He

the

^; [332]; nor &JU3 [above] a


'

n.

'

either
his

circumstances of the
i.

e.,

>Ldj >Itean

vjv

Sometimes i*i [336]

effectual excuse.

ep.,

beautiful in

is

^! li [551],
>x-

an

is

not a n. un. like


y

mod., like SJLi a hardship


X

(R).

338.

The

inf. n.

of the jJti unsound in the J is

[only (R)] kLJtf


[332] (R on the
X
r x

Afw,

wi/".

n. iU^vJ'

and

(L).

That

is

by

of the

for

it

[265],

heavy (R).

No

SH,

L), as

'&
' purified
Ox*x

>C5^

s!^5

strengthened kirn, inf. n.

elision of the first

because the double


n.

inf.

of the

is

unsound

jJU
x

abyLa

and substitution

deemed
in

the J

"x

occurs on any measure other than *Lub', except what


X

extraordinary (L),

[where]

the

double

&

occurs

is

by

poetic license (R), as

[below] (R, L) She passed the night continually lifting

her bucket, as

L>Ai (MN).

fin

old

This

is

ivoman damllts a boy, by rule

by assimilation of the unsound

to

1570

the sound, as the sound

remindeJ him,

is

inf. n.

inf. n. x+saju

understand,

"

Gx-

Sj/6

the elided

s^j-i

[332]

plain that the elided

-^

and

the J

is

x-

made him

s^-^j

The language

(L).

my

but, in

more probably the aug.

is

unsound

assimilated to the

is

x-S-

in

of

opinion,

because the J

remains in the sound, as &*JC3 honoring [below], and similarly therefore in the unsound (I Yj.
S

ed

was

(2)

of J^*>'

the

because the

which

>"

of JAJL& is a letter of prolongation,


.X

lized on account of the

if

whereas,

were

the second

would have

of feniiiiinization

to

be mobi-

The
^^*'

(It).

>x"^'

''^"JS

the Jout and JjuU-J unsound in the c

of
inf. n.

x-

on the analogy of &o Jo' [above]?

(1)

elided, the letter of prolongation

and ^ui^\ sought help

heliC'l

r.

not mobilized

is

We said that the elid-

is

of their sound counterparts (L),

analogous to the

As

for such as

u Uf

as

inf. n.

$fe*[ per-

mitting and 8jLia*b! seeking permission, they are or A/.


r,

yys*[

x o

and

of the

y^sJLu*1

v.'s.

but, the inf. n. being altered

being altered [713], the g

[below] (R).
(R), the

And two

is

by reason

converted into

quiescents (L), [vid.] two

substituted for the

of the

i;.,

and the

is

elided [703] (R, L),

and the
Ox-

as a compensation for

it

of the

inf.n.(li), being then combined, the second [of

(L)]

them

of feminization put
^

[265], as &jL^|

Gx-

and xjLjU^t

orig.

J^l and
to the

two

^IjjLLl

being transferred

the vowel of the

and the g converted into


[above] so that,
been mentioned is then
meeting- together, what has
!

R)

The

e.J the

[i.

Ox-

of jult [and Jliisll]

longation in such as abyw [336] (R)

[i.e.,]

the

therefore more

Akh and

(2) according to

first

Of

is

fit

for elision

(IY)

and this opinion, being

Z (IY)

adopted by

a letter

is

it

the first (R),

R)

(IY,

is

it

because

of]

of prolongation, as

Jo and

n.
list inf.
*
&

of

The compensation

[663] (R).

lously omitted in
r

is

(b) because

elided on account of [the concurrence

is

two quiescents when


in

Fr,

substituted for the g

agreeable with analogy,


th

is

S,

to the elision of the letter of pro-

by analogy

(IY, R), and

Khl and

according to

elided, (1)

the second (R),

(IY), (a)

ag.

done (L).
(IY,

*U>!
r

fclpt

inf.

of

n.

as

performed,
/
r

sJLo.'!

X T-

anoma-

Jun, and

s/mi''>

sty

is

XXIV

JjL
;j

(*r

!>7.

Am/ performance of prayer


r

'

Omission of the

(I j).
'

compensation in such as JjJ [and \lcxjul (R)]


(1)

by

the evidence of

S,<MI

no distinction
is not,

is

pre. (IY)

[exclusively

made by

Lini

l.v

FT,

<

Ii)],

(2j

fore dropped (K), as iiivpJl


is

hctwren
in

tlie s

\vh;it

the state

J^lUf.

allowed

37. (IY, R)j while


is,

;m,l u hal

of

pivfm,,,,

because the //'/^/.then, (as

(IY).] Mipplit* the place of

"pinion

XXIV.

is

V,

\\

|:):;i]

it

which

ff(

there-

.K,15 :an<l

hrttcr. because QO autlicntic instance

has

1572

heard except with prefixion (R). Elision of the


O*

such as

by S

(t

any case (R);

since
pUlis(IY, R),
difference

from

[above], however, is not allowed (IY,

&jjju

in

so

that

not said (IY), as

is

yJ
*

The

has not been heard (R).

it

between them

is

such as

that,

R)

and

Jf^I:!

6L.sxx-J being sometimes used complete, according to the


s '
o.

is

f. [707], it

allowable not to put the compensation;*


o^

whereas, the

o.

the compensation

is

Juouf occurs, as ^Jt


but the poet

is

^-o oib

obsolete

govern like the

ns. that

3)

(2,

[sound or broken (YS)] pi. [344J

the

(Fk)

(6)

the

gen.

[498]-,

(9)

the

quasi-inf.

"

saying

ns.

"

is

the pass,

pi.

(Fk)

n.

v. is

derived from

sound opinion [331] (Sh).


is

(5)

[187] (Sh,

and (MAd)]
(Sh,

KN).

Fk)

IHsh s

a case of predominance [320], because

because the

which

part, and

(4)

A]

(Sh,

the prep, and gen. are not a n. (MAd).

v.,

[342.

(10) the n. of superiority [351, 360]

(IY).

in the du. or

verbal

n.

are [ten (Sh,

(7, 8) the supported adv. and [prep

KN)

ibyis

o. /s.

ait.

even in the du. or

KN),

the assimilate ep. [348]

inf. n.

v.

KN), even

intensive paradigm [343] (Sh,

indeed,

by rule

[above],

to revert to

Fk),] (i\ the inf. n. [below]

part. [347] (Sh,

In poetry,

inseparable.

allowed

The

339.

/. of such as SU^ju being never found,

derived from

The
it

I begin with the

it,

inf. n.

(Fk).

If

according to the

governs like
the

v.

its

derived

1573

from

it

be intrant.,

wbat

is trans, to

it is

intrans.

and,

its #. is trans, to,

be trans.,

if its v

by means of

itself or of

a prep. (A). It therefore governs the as. in the now.


is trans, to

to

an

ofy'.

two or more

and

with or without a medium, and sometimes

And

[432].

objs.

the

augmented

inf. n.,

G x

as

The

[331] (Fk).
in

like

[332], governs

+\jf\

in/-

two matters (A)

w.,

(1)

(M, IH, A, Fk), contrary

whether the
or

some

inf. n.

as

pre.,

it

the unaugmented, as

however,
its

to the

be

may

ag.

from

differs

x-

o^3
its v.

suppressed

ag. of the v. [21] (A),

be aprothetic, as XG. 14, 15.


[below]

XXX.

2.

[below] (M)

for

relation

to

ag. or other is not comprised in the idea intelligible

from the

inf. n.

so that the

conception of that idea does


existence
not depend upon [the
of] an ag., contrary
to [the conception of the idea intelligible from] the r., the
act.

and pass, parto., and the assimilate

when
its

the

ag. is suppressed,

pron. [:U2], contrary to the opinion of

the inf.

n.

the pron.
in the

acting as a substitute for

where the

[below],

is

nom. [20] there

(a)

2?.,

(A), except

as in

fj^

li

assumes the pron., because

is a

dispute.

The

\\\\

*x

gn ?

* *

><

is

beaten,

the

in

it,

because,

when

'

^ ^^> ^ o-^t

beating, or being

hold this

adopted
but
Shi.
and
Akh,
(A);
others dis-

allow it,<m account of the ambiguity


e.

its

some

to be allowable, which opinion

in the Tasini

you say,

(Jm):

latent (Sn): (2) as to its governing the


pro-ag.

[construction]

by IM

inf. n.

ep.

the inf. n. does not assume

act.

sense

a t 'A mr'a

instinctively

1574

presents itself to the mind


allowable,

when

voice, like

*\

then

so

ivith

that

the

v.

[331],
G ox

cM

cold surprised

ft

x-

is

^ X

/,* '0-0

when

bath surprised

and *UJ!

because there is no ambiguity


^x<^
Zaid's being troubled
\
(C >u^.c!

me

is

is

Thus

allowable.

by Syt

The Kurans

me [below]
water

*->+

to the inf. n.,

(Sn).

Ham

in the

when
vX^Jjl

The

while

that

vid.

it

is

G-^x^x'ji
s*! v3

ng recited in

in VxiaJ

Fk),

is

^AASBLCI

^\breads

hot

the

being

believed to be in the

to thejfrra-a</., the inf. n*


n.

inf.

(1) positive,

with

the v.

iS ^1 or LljT

[the

KN), when

i.

governs [only
e.

infinitival

it

be

(A,Fk)

the past or future

as

II.

JjJ

J (Sh); or U

252.

(Fk),] if

[16,29,503],

(IM, Sh,

i.

e.,

KN),

meant (IA, A, Fk), as I4*^iUd


XXX. 27. Ye fearing them as ye

the present is

f*&&S

fear yourselves,

may

and

but in sense

^! (IY,IM, Sh,

meant (IA, A,

^AlTl &JU!

be

And, when attributed

replaceable by
]

being drunk, where the pro-ay

not altered [430] (Fk).

(A)

there are

'

(IY,A) on two conditions,

p.

from the pass.

inseparable

no ambiguity occurs, as in

i"u'

it id

-0

(a)

says that

adds a fourth, as being held by IKh,

allowable

is

AH

while

>

three opinions, transmitted

Dm

^iUaJ L^f Sh)

i.

e.,

jv^M^I

render the inf.

n.

by ^1 and

beating,

i.

e.

the act.

r.,

as

(a)

you

^^\

That thou didst

beat,

1575

'

* OX
c/

surprised we,

as ^v.o
^*tAw

i.

fjov

e.,

c-o

^j!

or the ^ass.

r.,

thou wast

27i

f-

^o^4 a

e.

\.

>

i. e.,

being beaten,

T/i?/

beaten, vexed me,

the two being distin-

guishable by the contexts (IY)

their

(b)

rendering

the inf.

when

by ^1 and the

n.

it is

in the sense of the present, because

prefixed to the aoi\,

makes
*

GGr render

of] the

not quite accurate

is

v.

it

it

<s

in the present, as Jo<X

&
f

when

but [some
'

~&

the exclusion of U>

to

by ^t

a pure future

cx

j^

x^-O-o s

u^l

even

s'

^^ Thy beating Zaid

Q f-

now is severe, because ^! is more frequent and

notorious in

usage than

and the

some of them

that

v.,

and, because of their rendering

fall into the error of

it

by ^1

supposing

does not govern when in the present [341], from

it

then rendering

the impossibility of

it

by,j!(R):

(e)

made peculiar

is

to the present,

notwithstanding that

pas and future also, in order to


give the preference to the p. more indicative of the past
it is

applicable to the

with the ^?vf., and of

tlie

future with the nor., vid.

past with

which denotes

i\ic

with the

contrary to U, whi-h

throe

'/o?-.,

tl;-

times unrestrictedly (Sn):

mentions the

is

(//)

;nul

in

the future

applicable

IM

tn the

the Tasini

vilh these two

*XXX*X >*
litoAjil^JU Tkntwtky
s

ps.,

as
x

i.e.,

x x

ou^o Jo

^!

^//^/

(///<

CM

203

ten

7<t

</,

157G

(
*

beaten,

*?

where <j!

contracted, because

is

ledge [525,526], and the position

nor supply the place of

(R)

v.

[so that]

only

and the

tival p.

not suitable for the

is

which does not occur after knowledge

infinitival (A),

resembles the

occurs after IcnoW-

it

two

when it

t\, i. e.,

when

its

when

it is

the

inf. n.

renderable by the

infini-

(Sn)

objs.

is

[571],

(e)

not an unrestricted obj.

it is

corrob. of its

or is govern-

o/?.,

ed in some

,x

or
e

it

beating,

as

it,

obj.

^,1

r.

x*"x
!j^<Xi bv^

(IY, R), since the

or

not c*j~o

is

jj!

that, its

by

^^

f--c

^xx?^!

x-

obj.]

is

while in

!jo^

L...O

a substitute for

[where

them/

n. is

in his

IM

its v.

v^o^o
^

is

impossible

beat

x'

not

obj.
*

is
*

^^> ^* b-4

(YS),

and

in

Ij^C

LJ>^

corrob. of its op. (YS),]


ljuj

on the

Commentary on

x-

>>^x-

"

f-0-ft

~A

[below] (Fk), where the inf. n.

be governed in the ace. by the inf.


to the opinion of

by
*

op. inf. n. is

suppressed, the full phrase being uoJUl ^*yi

(R)

is

but the unrestricted


C

>

when it

^_>^o :o?^o

governor beats the robber, the

really an unrestricted

government

(Fk): and, as for the saying uoJUl

L^

CAJ*-O (R) ;and,

6^-0

liim as the

of

meaning

>0^^,

not rcplaceal-le

,-

^y&

(R),] it is not renderable

&

and the

weM, or with

2atcJ

in

does not govern (IY), because, [when

an unrestricted

is

it

from

the v. derived
a ^
s
j^JoxJl oviaJI ^ &

way by

the

first

KN,

n.

oo^

may

not

(Aud,Fk), contrary

(Fk), because, says

IHsh

the in/, n. here is replace-

1577

able by the

alone without

v.

J,!

and

Co

and by common

second (YS), because

consent in the

the absence

of

of this condition (And): and for this reason the second


xx
*^
saying (Sh)] ^>yc aJ loU ** <&^*
[ cj^c (Sh)] in [their

r*xxxx

%L^ \&yo

is

[41]

a suppressed

by (Sh, Fk) the

not

v.,

^^ (Sh)

the first

c.,]

[i.

held to be governed in the ace.

IM

(f)

seems

n.

inf.

by

(Fk),

say that this

to

but in the Tasini he makes

condition is inseparable

general, saying, in the

CT,

"

The

inf.

it

being ren-

/?.'s

"derable by one of the three, [the contracted ^y or the


X

* f-

"infinitival

"of
u

or its

^,1

government; but

its

instance of

"

them

is

dUj

my

"be,

its

.*.
?-.,

e.,

d.

"

UK

s.

like

6!

7/,-r

A/-

so; while an

the d.

was, or

>i->x

J.^1^ dL^f

.'Sn)

^31
^.7.]

or

(1>)

*^-^ or

of

will

that"

J^jf^U
xx

uf

fo!

the

the sup;

a substitute

[^UJ. us

/.

iLLJ

in

s.

*"^

expression of (A)] the

^t L^

Jyu c'UJ

existed, or exists), saying

being the pron. [latent as


not the

not a condition
is

generally

hearing thy brother

when he

"

is

occurrence not renderablc by any of

ear ^

realized,

i.

it

(Sn),]

the saying of the Arabs

[below] (A), a
[29],

sister

IjL-C

U^

for

[tlje

[below],

'

(IA, A),

JL..I

^Ji

j^j

^joj
-I

[411,

.-

&'

ruff/nee,

fur-

//,<,/

/,,,

re

1578

I am afraid on account of

already committed.

& *X

terrified
is

where

(Sn),

S
,

\&tj

governed in the

inf.

because acting as a substitute for the

suppressed

v.,

like <JUJ!

by the

ace.

x"

and
n.

*2l* (A),]
I

as the

does (IA)

v.

there

by the

IM

no reason for mentioning

is

course of the exposition thereof (Sn)


&

s-

&*>

in the

it

not escape notice

(a) it will

from the language of

that this is excluded

so that

[here],

in the

it

as for their

(6)

saying in command, |J^ \jJ& Beat Zaid [above],


of the

GGr say

critical

judges hold that the op.

v.

),

according to the soundest opinion (A): while

the inf. n. contains a latent pron. governed by

nom

A,

not

v. (I A);

them,

*^.*

the

that

op.

of

|ju^
is

CLa

is

the

many
but

[suppressed]

that governs the inf. n. in the ace., the full phrase


0.VS

being

Ij^v

"

<=

Lyo

v/^

while, in

my

it

opinion,

is

not

,f.QS

improbable that the


of

its

n.

may govern \^j

acting as a substitute for the

of its being an inf.


1?.,

inf.

n.;

*1s

s^x

saying !jo>

b^

whereas,

if

v.,

not

because

by virtue

you expressed the

^y*\

Beat Zaid wdl, the

op. of

be only the ?., not the inf. n. (IY)


(c)
|j^ would
it appears from the language of the GGr that there
:

is

a dispute

about the unrestricted

obj.

whose

v.

is

necessarily or allowably suppressed [41], as to whether


it

or the

v.

be the

cither case, the

op.:

but

it

is

best to say that, in

government belongs

to the v.,

because the

1579

a substitute for the

inf. n. is not really

would not be governed


tute for the

v. y

since

it

the ace.] but

in

and the

it

so that

it,

is like

it

a substi-

not be expressed

may

r.

if

since,

r.,

would not be supplied before

r.

tlie

were,

together, as the substitute and original are not combined

(Rj: (2) negative,

!jJ

if

it

be not

*L^4 <****

because the resemblance of the

said,

by reason

remote,

(a)

a dim.
is

not

the

v. is

[292]

inf. n. to

of the dim. formation, which is a pecu-

liarity of ns. [274, 288]


is

(Fk),

c.,

A); so that

KN,

(Sh,

i.

(Fk) or rather, because the dim.


;

not the formation that the

v. is

derived from (YS)

(b)

apron. (KN, A), contrary to the opinion of the KIv


o
^ ^
9
'J^ox'J^Gx^
J^-o^J"^
(A, YS);so that
^^J! db^a is
^sxj!

^ ^^

^^

not said (Fk), because the letters of the


opinion of the

(a) the

(FkjSn):

^-w>*^"-'' X

ing

j>!\

9(uw0JI

attested

is

by the say-

,-X

L? [342],
s

tlk'

KK

are wanting

r.

where I^JLA is dependent on yp


o

pron, relating tOsi^JcaaJI;lrathere

it

governs only the

prep. and^(?7i.(YS): while IJaml lim allow

[prep. and]^"/L; and should, by analogy, allow


thr
i

",//-.

f..

(A

(c)

limited (Sli.KN',A) by the

ative of unity [33GJ (Sn); so that

iinlii

govern the

it to

to

govern

(Sh,

A,Fk\

it

JuJ*^

^1^\

(5

+ *s

\&.)

\<

QOl

that

Siiii.l.

tlir

<\

beoaiUe

is <l-ri\cil

of the poet, [desrriling


liim,

tin-

formation nf unity

from (Fk,Sn )
a

traveller,

wh

while
lias

ilir.

tin-

saying

water with

hut juiritics liimself with dust for prayer


(MN),]

1580

who

strong,

ly the stroke of his

is prudent,

on the dusty revives with

it, 1.

e.,

who was almost dying

rider,

(MN)

when

so that,

ous (MN, Fk)

it

occurs,

palms
water, a soul of a

the

of thirst

malous (A), because the limited

is

ano-

does not govern

decided to be anomal-

by an

(d) followed

(MN),

inf. n.

it is

tivo

other (A,

or

[ep.

Fk)] appos. before [the completion of (A, Fk)] its government [147] (Sh,KN, A) by the mention of all its regs. (Sn);
?

so that

w ^

-0

* X

"

ff

^7^ ^j;-** ^5*^^

!jc?j

surprised
reg.

>

"x-

me

is

Thy

not be separated (A,

Fk) by

its conj.,

but the

of me

desertion

[342]

(f)

letters

government (A,

of

separated from

it]

the

to. it

v.

would be

its reg.

(KN) by

its

reg.

[in

corresponds to the conj. in relation to the

conjunct, so that they


posterior

suppressed

(e)

extraneous expression [342], because

relation to

followed

Verily thy excessive

destructive (Fk)

is

(KN), because the

non-existent (Fk)

an

may be

inf. n.

cLsatf

on which the post-

after the completion of its

Fk), as viXJUU iy-Cll ^L>

may

occur, then, after the

is supplied,
cp. [or other appos.~\, a v.

pos. reg. depends (A)

they

the ep. or other appos. (Sn)

any supposed instance of that

by an appos.

Zaid

not said (A), because, the inf. n. with its

being like the conjunct with

and, if

severe beating

(KN),

i.

may
e.,

not be separated

to its reg.,

even

if it

(Fk)

(g)

be an adv.

1581

because

[342],

its

corresponds to the

rey.

The

does not precede the conjunct [177] (Fk).

must

n.

also be a sing.

(A,

Fk); and, as

which

conj.,

op< inf.

for the

saying

b!

[below] They have tried him,

and

their trials of Aba

Kudd-

ma have not increased aught but his glory and prosperity,


it is

This condition, though apparently

anomalous (A).

down by IHsh,

not laid

is

prescribed

by some, who disal-

low the government of the du. and pL

and

adopted by IM, because, says he, their form

from the form of the


so that,

if

we

inf.

?i.,

which

instance of such government,

made

to

t'/>/.,

as JkJuT
pAjSl

the robber pleased


the robber by the

A, And, Fk), as

The

(ISF),

v.

Arabs any

where the
governs

IM, Fk)

pi. is

[in three

to the ag. or

The governor's beating

^yoSl <jciU\

governor (M)

C*4

(SI,

(5-Ufv^l

me and

n.

inf.

is different

be accepted, but not

to

[above],

whence.

y-4

IM) and anarthrous


I

** 0^

govern (YS).

states (IY, IA)], (1)

it is

decidedly

the origin of the


of the

the language

find in

copied (Fk), as ^J!

is

is

(2)

^yA The

when

beating of

aprothetic (SI,

pronounced with Tanwln (IY,

iuLl>i

^ ^ ^ ^UL! ^fxC.14,

15.

Or feeding, on a day of hunger, an orphan [above] and

(IY,

A),

by AlMarrfir Ibn Munl<ilh atTamiml (MN,

1582

EC,

removed

their skulls

MN, EC,

(Jsh,

men ue

smiting witli the swords the heads of

By

J),

from

Sn, J)

the resting-place,

the necks

i e.,

when synarthrous (M, IM,

(3)

Fk), as

[below] (M, I A) Feeble in making havoc

fancying flight
9

xx

will defer

"x

[below] (IA)

his foes,

death (Jsh, AKB),

xx

among

For verily thou and

""9

c-x

the praising

x a x

Urwa

when dead, after that he called thee to save him from us,
when our hands ivere stretched out towards him to slay
him, but thou didst not save him, so that he died, thepm/.
of ^! being in the next verse
J

s"f.

ori^f.

to

J^Ox

xx"-

s '

[683], are

^!.

urge them on

Me

^/i

&

x-

maw

the journey,

xx

xx

singing

when

the

/^

to his

>

<o

xx

camels

fornoon

is

advanced, and the birds of the fates are sivoopiny down

upon them

[below]

(M

MN, EC,

(J),

J),

and

IA), by ADIarriir
as attributed

alAsadi

in the

AAz), correctly (AAz), according

to

Book

(S,

(IY)~|,

IY,

AA z,

but (IY,

some (IY), by Malik

Ibn Zughba alBahili (IY, AAz, AKB), a heathen poet

1583

(AKB), Assuredly the foremost of the charging cavalry have


known that I wheeled round, and recoiled not from smit-

(AKB)] Misma (MN, EC, AKB). But


government is most frequent when it is pre. (IA,Aud,
1

ing [their chief


its

KN, A)

Sh,

Fk), with the

to the ag. (Sh,

(Fk), as II. 252. [above] (Aud, Sh,

as (^SLc^

J^) XIV.

Thee [below],
est

in

i.e.,

<JU!

TanwSn, as

is said;

^"US

KN, A)
accept

one

Its

is

government, when
is

it is

rare;

and

pre. to the
is

(to

n. strong-

pronounced with

n.,

because

ag.,

as

it is

in resemblance to the

stronger

ag. mentioned,

my prayer

but the one pre. to the

then, the ag. being like a part of the inf.

the inf. n.

or omitted,

Them/

(Fk).

not the

is

government

And

42.

mentioned

obj.

<

fy'.,

(1)

of the
v.

P.,

(R).

with the

even said [by some (Sh)]

to

be peculiar to poetry (Sh, Fk), as

^*

35

by AlUkaisliir alAsadl, The knocl


ayainst the goblets by the mouths of the flagons has di
pated mine inheritance and what I have gathered tv<j< /A<
[below]

(Sh),

of real propc

///

the nom. (Sh), which


ace.,

showing

in

(MX),
is

that there

the version

with

sl^i!

in

refuted [by the version with the


is

(Sh)] by the saying of the

no exigency

Prophrt
204

fin

in the verse,

the

tradition

and

1584

until

(314)

"

he

gays

"ir

a way

House

the

to

by

him that

not forbidden in prose,

LXI.

Man

49.

[below] (Sh, Fk),


ever,

to

pronounced

according

ivearieth not
i,

by heart?, where

because by

(Sh, Fk),
(Sh)

^ ^ll^Tltlj i
praying for good
(Sh).

When, how-

[i. e.,]

when

it

one o/the acts of piety

constructively pronounced with

to the

rwiding with ^>y)^\ in the nom.j

KN, A)

its

is

33.

is

government

(IY, Aud, Sh,

find

XXII.
v^iUf &?&'(j^> 1^1*
&

^Z*

Tanwin, according

most Appropriate^ by analogy

is

to the

government

indeterminateness

it

of the

v.

(Sn),

resembles the

v.

Fk, Sn) more than the pre. and the synarti^jous do

(Sn), as

_
^>Jf

(his)

to

with Tanwin (IY, Aud, Sh, KN),


literally

of them
Verily the magnifying

(Sh,

of

paJ j"*5UJ ^*

e.,

or constructively, as

its

able

any one

aprothctic and anarthrous (A),

it is

(MAd),

is

[below]: (2) with the ay. omitted

to it

[and] is frequent (Fk), as vxijl Tlli

is

(MAd)]

perjormance of the

pilgrimage

is

'

XC.
i

14,15,

[above] (Aud, Sh,

vj^uaJb [above] (A)

Arab

-of
* tJL'I

*UiJ!
x
i

^ Set y*2

*&'

tf

'

and hence the saying of an

^ ^^^& I wondered
^^

>

JZurdn's being read in the hot bath [above],


in the

CU

J^

KN, A) and

-O

"

This, is

strange, I

mean

But

at the

IM

says

the government of the

.by the inf. n pronouned with Tan win, the case usually

governed by

it

being the ace.

for,

re-

though analogy

quires the occurrence of the nom., alone or with the ace.,


and,

when you are


still

worthier,

what

IM

[inf. n.

inf. n.

is

construction

is

the

have mentioned"

on the

restricted to one of them, the nom.

"

and IHsh says

The government

(MAd)]

of

weak, and so

is

is

government

ag. and obj.

the

is its

pronounced with Tan win

tlirous, its

in his

ay.

Glosses

by the pre>

and, as for

weak

occurring

government by the
the synarin both

unrestrictedly,

and therefore the result

ernment of the ag.


is

frequently

[in the nom.

is

that the

(MAd)] by the

govinf. n.

weak

unrestrictedly'

ment, when
rare (III,

it is

Its

govern-

(IH, And, Sh,

KN, A)

MAd).

(YS.

synarthrous,

is

Aul, Sh, A), weak

anomalous

(Aud), [and]

(IvX), because prefixion of the art. to what the op. inf. n.


is

renderable by, vid. the

(R)

p., is

[and] because the resemblance of the

inf. n. to the v. is

with Jf(Fk)

and

infinitival

as

remote, by reason of

pJ!

fj\ s^xijT^Jy

iJlXlT^*^

its

impossible

synarthrous

being conjoined

[above] (And, Sh, A)

vl^Xc JJif [above] (A), like


to

And how shall


riding?

//'

ng the hack of

//,<'

(KN) and

hence
(JQJU

jj

U.'i
;

irh<it (Jiou

IbU [above]

art

(A;; and

1586

/ wondered

[below] (Fk)
evil-doer by

his

at the giving subsistence to the

and

God,

being like determination by

swer

the

objected that, pro the sis

is
/

to be

His leaving some of

at
It

righteous destitute (Jsli).

ought

J!

the inf. n. with

remote from [resemblance

[also]

but the an-

to] the v.\

is that the post, is posterior to the inf. n.,

it

which there-

fore occupies the place of the v. before the preflxion, cono,^

trary to the inf.


inf. n.

n.

conjoined with

an ag. or a pure

Kur when governing

as

but to occur when made trans, by

obj.,
*

"

C5

SM

jv-Lb <j-

The synarthrous

(Fk).

said not to occur in the

is

a prtp

Jf

'*~0 X
1

JyL

xfc^'-o'jJ^oS

-0

j*Jb ^4^vJI

xJUl

s_^o 5

GW loveth not the crying aloud of evil speaking, save by


him, or that evil speaking be cried aloud, but loveth him,
or 'he crying aloud of evil speaking, save the crying of

him that hath been wronged, where


x

'

Jlk

^ x "

^M

the ac^.

is

the

voice,

renderable by
disj.; or

exc.

^1

the

that

i. e.,

being

the

is

KK,

i.

e.,

or

the pass,

in
exc.

is

cow/.,

>*xx"xa

jUJb

^^a.

suggests (A)] a dispute (A,

[below]

con;.;

^1 (R).

about the government of the pre.

government of

x-

(i

"S-

^^^0^0^1

that

^j^l

in
is

>

^4^^
x

suppressed,

inf. n

the ag. of the

X X

being

be said that

may

it

fi

the

inf.

[allowed by the

according to

MAd)

n.

the eve.

but a ^re.

There

is

?z.

is

no dispute

but some relate [what

about

it

(MAd).

pronounced with

BB;

whom

voice,

The

Tanwm

but (A)] disallowed by

the nom. or ace. [occurring

1587

(A)] after

As

governed by a

is

it

v.

understood (A, MAd).

government of the synarthrous, it is


allowed by S and those whu agree with him, but disand some of the BB (A). There
allowed by the
the

for

KK

are four different opinions about the synarthrous inf.

(MAd)
S

(R,

(1) its

unrestrictedly, as #S\ abUCJT oLuu^ and

MAd),

according to

and,

[above];

/ wondered at
ought
obi.

to

allowed by [Khl and (R)]

is

government

(he

(R):

the inf. n.

substantivity in
[514]

or

it

is

Mb

supplied,

i.

0-6.

'

-,

-o

ablXj aulCJf

>

its

is

prevented by the

to

it

out.a

govern,

with him

but disallows
:

l^t tX^

but they are K

t'ute<l

inf. n.

the inf. n. being

it is

the jj in

if

substitute for the [pott.] pron. [599], as in

[above]

Tan win

strong

government to be allowable, but

gant: (4) ITlh allows

an

as he

it,

and he says that 5*TXc! means

e., seliXrl

holds

is

[also] disallows its

understood, because the context indicative of


(R): (3)

governed in the ace. by an indet.

~~^

Z<dd

beating thee by

government, because, says he, this

<r

pronounced with

(MAd): while

[above], govern

&5l<Xel

^x

Kufi does not make

the

(2)

make

does not

*-

this,

be allowable, on the ground that the

[112]

n.

v~^i

it

inele-

be a

jJlXlf JLuua

Jlll(l

All agrees

by [the firM hemistieli in]


'I'hf

i'c. inf.

n.

has

1588

five states

(A)

(1) it is pre. to the ag.

A), because the ag. is its subject, in

Aud,

dent denoted by]

exists [343]

it

one word with the


than

better

is

than

ag.,

weak,

is

and then

(Aud)
the

because

like

and

exists

it

its

subject,
;

while

resemblance

remains

in

its

put (Aud, Aj, which

which

govern-

to

but

governs the ag. in the

it

and also

obj.:

strong, as respects

is

its

is

nothing

in the ace,

obj.

by]

its obj. is

that

so

WIH,
r

the ag.

that

so

made

of its prefixion thereto,

requirement of the ag.

its

weak

(R)

by means

accident denoted

ment

so that its being

acci-

governing the ag. in the nom.,

its

the reason, because


[the

(IY, IH, lA,

which [the

being made like one word with the

its

because

is

the

v.

prefixion
is

frequent

and

gen.,

(IY, IA), as II. 252. [above] (IY,

Aud, Jm, A) and

Jo

My

meeting in

it

with the whole tribe was when, before

the separation^

gaming and carousing were among them,

where the

supplies

the place

[29] (I Y),

whence

&&

IxX

d.s.

^j*

the saying of

(S) i4nd

he

is

(MN)

^/ie

(2)

pjf

in

[above] and

Ru'ba [Ibn Al'Ajjaj (MN)]

seeing of mine eyes the youth fhy brother is

giving largesse.
:

of the enunc., as

it is pre.

Then

that is

to the obj. (I Y,

when

incumbent upon thee

IH, I A, Aud, A), whether

1589

)
>

direct, adverbial, or causative, as

xx
x

leafing of the robber by the executioners, iU+^


*z

The beating of Friday, and

>

'

v/^ The

v^ooUJ!

beating

of correction or discipline (Jin): but only when there


exists a circumstance indicative of the post's being an
either the occurrence of

ofy'.,

an appos.

governed in

to it
x

the ace., according to the place [340], as


<x^
^

*>

v f.

^.o ^^s!

x *<>

The beating of the noble Zaid surprised me] or the

^jJJl

occurrence of the ag. plainly expressed after

[below] (IY, R), by AlHutai'a, Is

it

(R), as

it

from a rasing of an

abode b / rain of springtide and summertide that thine


eyes have

a dropping of the water of the tear-ducts? ( AKB);


*

or an

bread surprise

x x

O*

-o

J^l

iW. indication,

AA^x^l T/ie eating


(5

as^aJ!
me [below] (R): and then

(WIH, Aud, A);

so that

it

governs [the

its

ag. is put

obj. in the gen. y

^ ^\

and(IY)]the ag. in the nom. (IY, IA),as ^JiyS


[above] (Will),

whence

pJl

^W[252]

(IA, A), likr

and this[second (IA)]


yAslyjTgp [above] (Aud, A):

xjj!

not peculiar to poetry (IA,


of

UljJ

of the

some (IA, A), as


[above]; but

->J!
,

and

thfii

it

is

is

Aud

A), contrary to the opinion

proved by the tradition


rare (Aud, A)

the obj.

is

not

is

(3)

mention.

-I

it is

pre. to the

IV, Aud,

A),

1590

which

is

his

XIV.

42. [above] (Aud, A),

(Aud, Sn), and IX. 115. [508] (A),

^H>

i.e.,il r<!

from

frequent (And), as

Lord (Sn)

ag. is not mentioned, [which is frequent (Aud),] as

WIH,

49 [above] (IY,

and like

it is

&i*J*
s'

Aud, A),

and then the

(4) it is pre. to the obj.,

i.e.,

XLL

j^T*5Ua(Aud);
J^J XXXVIII. 23.

i.e.,

^JUii
Jill*
s S
s

Assuredly he hath wronged thee by his asking for thine

ewe

but, as for the saying of the poet

Then multiply not ye


your brother
it

'Amirlya,

is

tico

addicted

*'

the

a^r.,

e. t

^JL^ being the

I^JU

^ which

s ^s

is

pre. to the

5,

which is^re.

to

x-

rendered by & pass.


i.

ns.,

^Ul UXx^; and

the sense being


x

mentioning Laila al

to his

contains two inf.


' c

06;.,

your blaming me, for verily

Oou

v.

,jjo

ofy*.

(IY)

(a)

the inf. n.

(IY, R), whence

(IY)

XXX.

an

id.

[502],

and then governs the


S"'

in the nom., vid. with

maybe

2.

fit'-

obj.
' v.

indication, as +**> J^
o

Bread's having been eaten surprised me, i.

e.,^,

with a context indicative of the post's


being in the place of a worn., like the gerc.'s having an

butmaybe^re.

to

it

appos. governed in the nom., as

^JillT

vx^jfjir! ^XA^>JU

The fine white bread's being eaten surprises me (R)


(5) it is

[sometimes (Fk)]^re.

to the ac?v. (R,

IA, A, Fk),

1591

by extension [60] (Fk)


(I A)] the nom. and [the
Fk), as L+

and then governs [the

ag. in

ace. (R,
obj. in (IA)] the

IA, A,

&4\+yJ\ ^j.4
{

day's beating

Amr

The

340.

v^x^i I wondered at

to-

by Zaid (R, I A).


to the

n. post,

the place of a nom,: (2)

is in

inf.

an

if

an

n., (1) if

obj., is

in

ag.,

the place
" f-

of

(a)

an

the inf. n. be rendered by ^! and the

if

ace.,

act. v.] (b)

a nom.,

the pass.

v.

the

if

The

(A).

inf. n. (R,

the inf. n. be rendered by ^1 and

appos. of the gen. [post,


is

IA, Fk, Sn)]

to

put into the gen.

(1)

(IM, R, Fk), according to the letter (R, IA, And, A),

which

preferable (R, A, YS), for conformity with the


*s
* ^
"
6<
^
apparent inflection (R), as ot^ioJ Jo\ <^o ^* ^J^A
is

(i

'

I wondered

at

the

clever

Zaid's beating (A, Fk)

^^\

The eating of the meat


T
^icJ j^ psaJD Jkff
and the bread surprised me (Fk) but is restricted [by

and

DF

(YS)] in the Tasini to the case where no preventive

hinders

[it

(Sn)], as

[it is

hindered], says

t\j^ viUGt TJnj honoring

and

Dm,

in

(SJu^L\

the honoring by

Zaid

surprised me, where putting the <ippos. into the ge n.


would produce a coupling to the gen. pron. without
repetition of

Sn) by
with

otliiM-H

tin:

Ival op.,

tli

than

p1it<v(lM.

which

[1C [168] (Sn)


!?.

Fk),

(2)

\vlii-!j

forbidden (YS,

is

made

i^

:.;:>o(l

to

accord

(FM

1592

IA^\J

Jo^

and the ac.

with the ace.

v.

(YS)

upon them

and mankind,

tradition ^jUxAiaJ!

on

its

S cites

back

and

?!

to

and

is the

all

tailed serpent

be

JjfiLuJ

if it

</

is

6^y^!JjJb ^!

II. 156.

and

of the Angels

by IM, and the

ZTe ordered the short-

having two black stripes

the serpent

[59]

HB

attributed

is

by^l

reading [of

t
l^IJU dUJ
^ *

curse of God

killed

J5"J

be rendered by ^1

this the

to

of them

and as

the inf. n. be rendered

JUf
&XS5UT5
&
p

u^rj^iJ^

Those,

if

(Fk), and the nom.

v.

and the pass.


(K)]

V^A^XA (A, Fk)

vjjrfo <jxi

jv^JUT

ascribed by some

(YS)

while

and hence

(IA, And, A), by Labld, describing a he-ass and his sheass,

Until he journeyed at

the afternoon,

midday in

and urged her

of

on, to seek water, as the

injured importunate creditor

(A),

the beginning

seeks

his

due (MN),

by AlMutanakhkhil alHudhali, The traverser of

the pass, ivhose traverser is

wakeful from fear of

foes,

walking as ivalks the courtesan, oniohomis a sleeveless


shift,

loearing a singte garment (Jsh,

* uui

MN), and

;(

or

say

J),

by Ru'ba

(Jsh,

atTamlnil (Jsh),

and IY, which is*more correct (MN),

MN,

which

EC), Ibn Al'Aj jaj (Jsh,

to

me by

falling into poverty


is

MN)

maid-servant) in satis-

took her (the

faction of a debt due

of \\\$

And, A), by Ziyful aKYmbarl (IY, Jsh,

[346.A] (IA,

MN, EC,

1593

Ilassan, from my fear


and delaying payment (J),

followed by
**

He

is

good at the sale of real property and maid- ser-

vants (MN): but [R says that this

only

is]

when

it

cannot

be made to accord with the form and apparent [inflection]


(R).

Fk

does not relate any dispute here as to the allow-

ability of apposition to the place, but does relate

one in

the case of the act. part. [346. A]; so that he suggests the

notion that

but

is

it is

agreed upon here

allowed only by those

whereas

who do

it is

not so,

not prescribe as a

condition the existence of the requirer of the place

while those

who do

prescribe

it

understand an

op., as [is

explained] in [the extract from] the fourth chapter of the

ML

[given in

The language

538] (YS).

imply that apposition

appears

to

po*t. to

tlie

of

to the place [of the yen.

inf. n. (Sn)]

is

allowable in the whole of

apposs. [131]; and such

is

tin*

some of

the

him hold

nil:

that

but

Sand

IM

opinion of the
those

the.

K I\ and

BB who agrte with

apposition to the place

is

not allowable,

[because, says Shin, they prescribe, as a condition<.robsorv-

ance of

tli-

place, the exi-t-

:Il>

'

ouiivr

,,f

that

1594

because the

place,

which

the

does not gov&rn any word in the nom. or ace.

v.

except

when

is missing* here,

word or

while Jr makes a distinction, allowing


it

is

it

ant. (Sn)];

its

in the coupled

it

in the

Apparently, however,

[below].
it

and disallowing

subst.,

resembling

synarthrous, orpronounced with Tanwin,

it is

or pre. to something else than that

and

n.

and

corrob.

ep.

allowable, because

has been heard (A); and the ep. also

is

made

to accord

with the place of the gen., contrary to the opinion of

Jr (R).
.

341.

The

sense of the

&*+
(j^o!

K+A

yesterday

n.

inf.

WIH )]

IY,

+*<>

governs whether
past

M,

),

as

^A^If

Amr
^y& Zaid s having beaten
or [in the sense of
surprises me (Jm)
4

Ju^

other [time] (IH) than

(WIH, Jm)

present [339]

(IY,

WIH,

III

(WIH)] any

(M,

be [in the

it

Jm), as ^TlJJli

the past,

WJH, Jm)

r'l/j

i.

e.,

the

or future

^J? or

!<U

*Amr's honoring Rhalid to-day surprises, or to-morrow

me (Jm)

will surprise,

[only (IY)] on account of

because

its

its

government

[containing the

letters

is

of

and (IY)] being renderable by ^1 and the


[subsequent (IY)] v. [339] (IY, WIH), which sense is

the

v.,

found in
is

all the

rendered,

times (IY)

is past,

governs when

and, since the

v.,

by which

it

present, or future [402], the inf. n.

in the

sense of each of them

(WIH).

1595

by that the

sliows

and the inf.

when

it

because the

n.,

between the

difference

act.

part.

part, governs only

denotes the present or future [o45] (IY.)

not prescribed as a condition

ment (Fk)]

that

or

because

future,

origin of the

's

govern-

governs [not on account of

it

but (A)] on account of

v.,

contrary to

v.,

the inf. n.

[of

It is

should be in the sense of the present

it

resemblance to the

to the aor. [v. (YS)]

tion [of the act. part,


[in the sense of

so that

it is

its

Fk),

(A,

resemblance

prescribed as a condi-

government (YS)] that

's

its

being the

its

the act. part.

which governs [only (YS)] on account of

be

act.

it

should

the (YS)] present or future (A,


YS),

because they are the two [times] indicated by the aor.


[404] (A).
.

The

342.

n.

inf.

not preceded

is

the conjunct
[339] (M, IH, A), as
jiart

of the conj.

Thy beating Zaid


as

KJ vA=I u>*4i3

will be good for

because the inf.


tival p.

him
?z.,

so

that

is

not said (M).

and the

the
reg. of the v. that is
of the conj. does not

him

infinitival

inf. n.

conj. of the

prrrnlr the

R), say

This

op., is rendcrable

while the reg. of the

[similarly (IY,

viL^ |j^

is

not

said,

That thou should st beat Zaid

when

?.,

reg.

not preceded by
any

will be good for

^1 !j^)

with the

[1!)7, f>71]

(A)

[177]

is

its

by

they (R),]

]>.,

/>.

is

by an
i>

be

inh'ni.

conjunct

really

and

conjunct
the

is said to

the

.And

(R).
n.

tli.

is

not

1506

separated from

its

[339] (IY, R, A),

i.

reg.

by an extraneous expression

something not governed by the

e.,

inf. n. (IY), as the conjunct is not


Bf s

[177]

conj.
T/JC

(A)

so that

the beast by

riding of

.^
l

Amr

separated from
& a

-e

ljo\ JbljJ!

'

^?y*)

and

UT
^

not

^j

^CLLfTjjCljU
c-o
xx x

>

-*^

II.

Fasting hath been prescribed unto you, as

179,180.
it ivas

c.-e

v_*svt!

may

prescribed unto them that were before you

peradventure ye will guard yourselves (Jrom


(fast ye) for certain days

The

its
^

surprised Zaid would

not be allowable (IY), because part of the conj.

be separated from part [177]

>>

"

extraneous"

the inf.

to,

and the ag. and

obj. of

the "non-extraneous"

plementary

what

is

supplementary

lyc^o [below] (R).

not dependent upon, nor

is

n.,

lx>UJ

like the inch, and enunc.,

a word other than the inf. n.


is

what

the inf. n.,

to,

means

sins)

and

dependent upon, and suplike its ag. and obj., and the
is

adv. and [prep, and] gen. depending upon it (Sn). If any

supposed instance of such [constructions]


explained away.

azZimmani
' ^-O s

C -

.jUJ!
W/

it

supposed instance of precedence

the saying [of AlFind

,^

occur,

&JJJU Jn^sJ!
^ ^ ^ X

is
is

(T)]
O

-0

>

O*-^

Jo*S JL^'I
ydw.J
S
\^

a submis[And some forbearance, before ignorance, is


sion to dishonor (T)], where the J of &WJIJ is not
O

dependent upon the

^Uj! mentioned, but upon one

sup-

1597

pressed before

indicated by the mentioned, the full


9
C9x0 o^ 0,0 x o
c.0
Q
x
jo^ JLsvJ!
phrase being ^UJ! xaJjJU
^Lrj! JL^^sJI
ucjw,
x x
"
x
3
it,

-4nc?

J.

some forbearance before ignorance,

is (a

submis-

sion^ to dishonor, a submission, like the full phrase in

such as ^11. 20.

i.

(A),

[498]

**

e.,

\^

v^**J>

And

were (listless) about him (Sn. ) Aud a supof


posed instance
by an extraneous
separation
expression

is

LXXXVI. 8,

the text
9.

He

Verily

on the day when the

^ ^oUJ &*^

ilj

Ji^jT

cs

to life

where

secrets shall be tried,


(i

him

able to restore

is

^^ &\

is

by a*^ as Z [followed by B]
asserts, otherwise the inf. n. would be separated from its reg.
not governed in the ace.

xx-

by an extraneous expression [^UJ

the inf.

of

n.,

the sense

implying

would be predicated of
Oxx

sense would be

&JU

(Sn)] a conjunct

[in sense, not letter, since the


x>

xJU!

O^

sjJb

^,^ 6

^!v*uJI

,,*>

and the approved construction

accusatival op. for


^->

^Jl

a word, vid.

(5ly

>

x O ^

&ju^

before the completion of its conj. [by the adv.

(Sn),]

(Sn)]

&

and

j^JLo

(A), with

(7/ie

him

to

life)

Fath of the ^, from the trans.

Rcproaclihirj

iciili

And hence

tlv

to

supply an

the full phrase being

will restore

to the inf. n. (Sn).

is

fjf/t is

on

*ju=>.^>

the day, etc.

^^

for affinity

also the saying

GOndudlK

to

Maine

then

1598

so that thou be

reproach not thou^

found without praise,


x^x

or wealth, where the


W

dependent upon

AiujG

ctS

is

not

-'

x'

^J!

jj.JI,

governing A&*1\ in the #en.

v-

so as to

make

the construction be

although the sense accords with

this,

&

because the parsing would then be corrupt, since it would be

two objections mentioned,

liable to the

separation

[vid.

by an extraneous expression, and predication of the conjunct before the completion of

its conj.

(Sn)]

and that

is

avoided by the dependence of the <o upon a suppressed

[inf.

?i.],

s~a

'

& s^p

as though rtJuub &Jft

gb
9-

ing

is

conducive

to

second

said, the

suppressed, while
(A).

And

S>

*<*'

Reproach-

pijUU <j-JI
f

blame, (reproaching) with the gift


t,

were

<M

*<>

being a

,j^J|

its reg. is

but

subst. for the first,

retained as an indication of

similarly, say they, the inf. n.

may

it

not be sup-

pressed [339], and its reg. retained, because that would be


like suppression of the conjunct

retention of the other part


indicated,

in

(Sn),]

is

is

what

they say

(R).

its.

XXIV.
you and

jul

rtg^
2.

xx>

that

But, [says

I see nothing to prevent the inf. n.

preceded by

like

discussion on] the concomitate

[the

This

cow/., with

unless the inf. n. be strongly

which case the suppression

mentioned in
[68-70].

and part of the

when an adv. or its

XXXVII.

like, as

100.

from being

5^u SL

And let not pity for them take


b

obj..

hold of

And, when he

reached the age of working with Aim; and such precedence

1599

is

frequent in their language, while supplying the

such cases
of what

is

is

a forced construction.

(R, Sn)

in

For the predicament

renderable by something [else]

what

the same as the predicament of

v.

it is

is

not always

renderable by

so that there is nothing to prevent the inf.

n.

from being renderable, as respects the sense, by the


infinitival p.,

notwithstanding that the former

subject to the predicaments of the latter.


obj.,

indeed, does not precede

weak but a
:

of]

tinge of the

it,

because

v. suffices for

its

may not be
The genuine

government

[the

is

government

the adv. and its fellow, so that they are governed

even by what

extremely remote from government,

is

like the neg. p. in.

LXVIII.
yft

[339],

i.

e.,

L^ L

Co

?*^ Uj

2. [498],

# j
(R),

alMuzam (EM), addressing

and the pron.

Juli

Co $\

in

^dBj

by Zuhair[Ibn Abi Sulma

the clan of

Dhubyan and

Asad and Ghatafan, and urging them


to make peace with their cousins, the Banh Abs, and
deterring them from making war, the hardships of
their confederates,

which they had known in the

And war

War

of Dahis

(AKB)],

not aught but what ye have known,

is

aiJ

experienced nor is //, i. i\, ?/?// account, of it, the conjectural account (OI, AKI1). And tlic truth, says Sd,
;

is that the reg. of

the inf. n.

adv., because this

is

may pmvdc.

wlu-n

a word that a tinge of the


206

it

is

an

v. suffices

1600

for [governing] (Fk): while


n. is not preceded

inf.

mistaken
,pJ!

Jl^sJf

>

by

its reg., unrestrictedly,

u>av5

is

according to this, the

z'n/1 n.

dependent upon the

may

supplied (BS).

v.

not being

similarly the inf.

n may govern when understood, provided

As

And,

also be separated from

And

supplied, as II. 179, 180 [above].

exists (R).

x o

^U3J

^U <M

by an extraneous expression, the

it

are

Hamasi's saying

in the

[above]

tion of

that the

*x

mentioned, not upon another

its reg.

who think

those

and accordingly the J

c /<

^.

that an indica-

for the inf. n. occurring as

substitute for the expression of its v. [339], the soundest

opinion
tion

is

that

it is

equal to the act. part. (1) in assump-

of the pron.

government belongs
substituted for

is

to the inf. n., not to the v. that it is

while, according to the theory that the

government belongs
there

[according to the theory that the

to the v., the

pron.

is in

no pron. in the inf. n. (Sn)]: and


(a) the ace.

the

(2) in

v.,

and

allow-

ability of being preceded

by

governed by

it,

and (b) the gen. governed

by a prep, dependent upon

it,

because

it

does not correspond to a conjunct, nor

its reg.

whether we proceed upon the theory that


the government belongs to the v., for which the inf. n.
to the conj. (A),

acts as a substitute in sense alone

that the

government belongs

to

or upon the theory

the

inf.

expressly stated by A, on the ground that

n.,
it

as

is

is

an

1601

.Unrestricted obj> acting as a substitute for the

and government
342. A.

The

quasi-inf. n.

dent (Sn, MKh)]; but

what

is

differs

from

or

rad.

aug.

in being literally

in

is, [i.e.,

its

it

is

equal to ili^t [332] in sense

&&* giving,

"

found in

pensation for

its v.

(IA).

otl

^ia^t

without receiving any com-

So III defines

[332], because

it

is

devoid of the

of

Jjfls

not constructively, for which reason the

expressed,

by a

tii'

as JUxSj but converted into

it is

Tasini
(1)

literally,
is

jUs
but

sometimes

^ because preceded

pronounced with Kasr and (2) Hji [699],

letter

because

in the

it

following, therefore, are excluded:

The

(A).

it

but differs from

and constructively devoid of the

in being literally

Hamza

of the

without

v.,

like
[receiving (IA)] compensation (IA, A):

which

vid. acci

MKh),

it

MKh),]

(Sn,

equal to the

is

and constructively devoid of part of what


letters,

in sense

[41] (Sn).

indication [of its sense (A,

inf. n. in

v.

literally

but receives the

these are inf.

n,.,

not

and constructively devoid of the . of


as a compensation for

qua si- inf.

ns. (IA, A),

it

so that

contrary to

*^ from Cl^f [331], and jjC/from jU&f [below], because


and constructively devoid of part of
they arc literally
and one of the two double
what is in their vs., [vil. tlir

letters,

while the letter of prolongation

in

them

is

not a

1602

compensation (Sn)]
is to
$>

whereas the property of the

include the letters of

its v.,

& ss

y&j$

exactly, as

(^^

inf. n.

inf. n.

s s*-6.
,

* '

or with an addition, as
|JU! informed,

The

"(A).

v.
O

of which is

of

'pk?

"^

pJ&

is either

[or fjUS]

that fclJal is an inf. n., its


;

but this

declared by other

GG

is

whether

n.

1).

Hamza

contrary to what

The quasi-

(IA).

[sometimes (IA)] governs (IM, R) like the


it

-^f

jj/or |jU2 the real inf.

as IV. 162. [39] (IY on

being elided for lightness

inf. n.

n.

'.- ,-'

BD, however, asserts

is distinctly

inf

v.

(IA),

be pre., or aprothetic and anarthrous, or

synarthrous (Sn), like the inf.

n.

[339] (R), as

UGyTk5uV^u^^

'

# ^1 v^jf

jJ^Irf

Zufar Ibn AlHarith


[below] (IA), by AlKutaml, praising
What! Shall I be thankless after thy
alKilabl,
repelling of death from me,
the

hundred grazing camels

and

after thy giving

? (Jsh,

MN, AKB), whence

(MN)] i^^lf ^yf J^yT *LJ


man's kissing his wife is ablution

the tradition [of 'A'isha

On

account of the

necessary,

[When

[i. e.,

the Creator

helping the

does not find a difficult

made

eewy,

i. e.

me

man

comes true, he

one of the hopes aught but

and
&3UJ (MN),]

1603

[below] (IA.)

thine associating icith the noble iviltthou

By

Then do not thou be seen

be reckoned one of them.

familiar friend

to others,

i.

e.,

inf. n. [that

governs like

its

substantive

transferred

from

vdL^iLjtlj (J).

v.

is

(MAd)]
its

original

to be

The quasithe

generic

meaning

to

import accident, like ^"^[above] and v-Jy* [below] (Sh).


The quasi-inf. n. is [of three kinds (Sh, A),] (1) what
[indicates the sense of the inf. n.,

A) not denoting

aug. p (R, Sh,

like Joiii [333] (R,


J

(A),

Sh),

[333]

reciprocity [499] (Sh, A),

whence

sj^*

(Sh, A),

<1>^

O >

and -^o^x> (R)

(A)],

and (R)] begins with an

and

this

governs [like the

inf. n.

by common consent, as

by AlHarith Ibn Khalid (ID, Jsh,

(Sh, A),

MN, CD ) alMakhzumi, but wrongly attributed [ by H


in the D (MN)] to Al'Arji (Jsh, MN, CD),
( MN, CD)
O Zulaima, verily your afflicting a man that has offered
tl* salutation to

you

(Sh, Sn), because


inf. n.,

is

it is

oppression (Jsh,
really an inf. n. }

and sometimes, but only

lessly (MAd),] called a quasi-inf.

a [generic] proper
[8,

name

193] (Sh, A),

(Sh),

and ^LlS

leiii'j

[8]

[for

(A),

in easy

MN), i.e., Jjlil


named the mini!

tropically,

[i. e.,

n. (Sh): (2)

an accident
J,lilL

care-

what

is

(Sh)], like ^L^\J

[8, 41],

c&>

[193]

circumstances (A), a proper

1604

(
*

name

of

>

^*o

opp. of

^&

(Sn)

by common consent (Sh,) (A)


which is the kind meant by
concrete substantive, used
inf. n.

(R)

is orig.

to

and

this does not

govern

(3) other than these

IM

(A),

(R, Sh)

denote accident,

like

what

[vid.]

in the

^S'

two,
is

sense of the

which

[above],

a substantive denoting the words spoken, but


9

sense

transferred to the

[above],which

is onV/.a

of

is

3 xx

pxbo speaking

and

v^fy*

substantive denoting the recompense

of the workers, but is transferred to the sense of xlbl

recompensing (Sh)

and the government of

disputed, being allowed by the

KK

this [sort Sh)] is

and Bdd (Sh, A), on

the authorit}' of such (Sh) as


pjTl^/l [above] (R, Sh,A),
i. e.,

dblilc! thy giving,

though *Cka a gift

what

[concrete] substantive denoting

hence

is

is

orig.

given (R)

and

^J! dLyiju [above] (A),

T/ty speaking to

this poet),

while she

will heal

thee."

existed

"
!

is

i.e.,

(the beloved of

lending her ear

I said "True

(MAD),

Hind

dUJl&

is that.

to the speech,

Would

that it

(Sh)],

by Hassan Ibu Thabit alAnsarl (MN, AKB),


praising our Prophet Muhammad (AKB), Because God's

(Sh, A),

1605

recompensing every believer in His unity


dens of Paradise, wherein he shall be made

is

with gar-

to

abide for

slo
ever (MAd), and the saying of 'A'isha
pJf J^pl
[above] A): but

is

these aces, with

forbidden by the BB (Sh, A),

vs. to

who supply

govern them (Sh). The government

of the quasi-inf. n. is rare {IA,

A,),

though regular, as

is

deducible from the antithesis [between "rare" here and


"

anomalous'' below] (Sn).

government

Those who assert that

allowed by common consent are mistaken:

is

for the dispute about that,

[when the quasi-inf. n.


a proper name, and does not begin with an aug.

denoting reciprocity (IfKh),]


Sin says that

its

government

is

is

rarity

And

anomalous [above]

adDin Ibn Al

llj

not

not

And III

(I A,

A),

indicates

o ^^

by making J^A indet.

a quasi-inf.

is

notorious (IA); while

citing the verse ^JTtytfl [above] (IA).


its

its

n.

[in his

phrase

has a government] (A).

says in the Baslt

<c

And

it is

But Diyd
not unrea-

sonable that what stands in the place of the inf. n. should

govern like

it;

and one Grammarian

allowed that regularly

"

(IA).

is

reported to have

THE ACTIVE PARTICIPLE.

The

343.

act.

part,

is that [n.

(WIH, Jm)] which

derived from [the inf. n. of (Sh, Fk)] a

is

the person, [or

denote

to

v.,

Jm, YS),] whereby [the

thing (R,

accident denoted by (R, MAd)] that

v.

the sense of originating (IH, Sh, Fk),

exists
i.

[339], in

of [coming

e.,

newly into (Jm)] existence (Jm, YS) after having not


been (YS), and of existing restricted by one of the

Ox

"

three times (Jm), like v-jpLo striking and *jCo honoring


Q

Thus

(Sh).

v;^
X

means a [person^

whereof

or] thing,

striking is affirmable after having not been (YS).


But this definition does not include all the act. parts., as
*

>

.x

>

jv
x

Zaza

zs

>

going far from him or

Am,

w;^A

iwflr,

^Amr and

opposite

I am drawing near

^&

such a one or

to
X X G

&*x>

is

obj.,

act.

part,

is

Z.

6],

jk$L=l

of

> \i

&JLJ!

Croc?

by

e's

[263,312], etc.

the ep. [140] indicating an

the ag. of the accident denoted


[vid.

the

coming newly
x

syi

them

And

(R).

often used without importing

knowing [Note on j9. 344,

The

uf

auL

not existing by one

existence and originating, as in


jJLt

(YS).

xtl

^jjcjLo

or
^^ss^o combining,

t'wfo

>

>

specially, to the exclusion of the other

part,

x*

because these accidents are relations

between the ag. and

act.

r.

that

#.,

ep. (Sn),]

1607

when [that

ep. is] conformable, in both genders, totheaor.

[248,331] (A) in [arrangement of] vowels and

of its v.

quiescences without restriction [of sort], even though [only]


>x

>

according to the o./, as in the case of j.yb [703] and


jwls [708] (Sn)

importing the sense thereof,

[i. e.,

of the

present or future, and likewise innova-

aor., vid. the

tive continuity (Sn),] or the sense of the pret. [403]


I

M defines

in the Tasini

it

It

(A).

what

is

[351] and

and

its ag.

indicates

so that such as Judit superior

"
oribeautiful [348] are excluded by

^L^

gination," since they indicate only subsistence


O

so

" **

origination

*U

such as

struck [347] and


v;;-*^
" its
[402] by the mention of

and

.-

stood or has stood

ag"

The

(Aud).

act.

part, [derived] from [the inf. n. of (Sn)] [the unaugment-

ed

(III,

tril.

Aud)]

[v.

(WIH, IA, Aud,

Sh,

Sn)]

is

formed upon the measure of J^cG [347] (IH, IM, Sh,


Fk), whether the
(IM),

i.

tril.

be intrans. (A), like

Jll, act. part. 6tl flowing, and

q.

XX

^|j ^OZT?//

act. part.
o

|JL

was

srz/e

went,

[below], ac#. ^a?V.

^> "

jJL 5a/e

and

ay

z^as lively [below], said

O '

act.

flowed

!<X

i.

horso,

x x

part. s^U

nourished,

of a

U**ly
q.

v^o

^,

or

/ra?zs., like

reared,

act* ]><trt. j>Lc r*'(irin<j,


nourishiiiq^

struck, act. jxrrf.

[IM-IOW],

[!j^

(/e/.

J; L^

part v^l; ri// wfl


207

striking
r

(A).

and

That

is

1608

(I A),] in (1)

[frequent (And),] regular

with Fath [of the g


q.

[i.

like

Kasr

with

Jjii,

(2)

J^C

v_>ij

[of

or

Bur.

it is

Aud, A) of the g (IA, A),

(I A)]

the

when

(IA)],

like

trans.,

[above] (I A, Aud), and jJU

knoiving (IA).

[every

whether intrans, like

(I A)],

and

JLl (Aud),]

fcneit',

when

trans*,

act. part.

JU

Kasr (IA,

rare in (1) Jmi,[with


]

^>Jo

intrans. (IM), like

[above] (I A, Aud, A), the regular forms being (a)


fi

-e.

like ~il exalting [432] (IM) and


[in accidents (Aud, A)],
O x

_.j rejoicing [432, 484] (Aud, A)


>x

constitutions (Aud, A)], like


.

^t

unable

to see

'
*
*
(b) Jubl [in co/ors ?ind

"

6/acfc

j^t

in the sun

^^ji3

(c)

and (IA, Aud)]


[in

what

cates Jullness, like ^Ljj satisfied with drinking


^

insic/e

(Aud, A)], like


G

Jo

indii-

or foaJ

^^(Xo

thirsty

(IM)

while

x-

fiicfc

and ^^middle-aged, [in the case of the intrans.

i (Sn),]

are anomalous (A), the regular forms being

J and JL^ because they are

of vs,

denoting]

Pamna

(I A,

accidents

Aud, A) of the

[derived] from [the inf. ns.

(Sn)

(I A,

(Aud, A), the proper forms being

(2

jjj (IM), with

A), like
(a)

JuoJ,

regular (Aud, Sn), according to others than


O

like

[above]

[which

IM

(Sn),
6

**J.S?I

J^y^ comely, the

*1*

v.

of which is

is

1609

noble (IA, Aud), andoLjJb smart, clever, witty (And, A);


O

fix

(b) Joii,

[which

to Juuti

is inferior

bulky (IM) and ^^^ sharp-witted

(Aud, Sn),

(I

A, Aud, A)

"

like

while the

following are rare, [inferior to the two former (Aud),] in the


case of

(IM), like v^iaj*! dark-red (IA, Aud,

juii ,(a) LUi!

(A); (6) ju^(IM), like jLbj valiant (IA,

A) and jilJl roe^A


6 x

G x x

Aud, A) and ,j*^ beautiful (Aud, A)

Ox>

Ox'

x x

^\j^ cowardly ; (d)


8

Jl*i

n<>

9 9

like ^Jo* unclean [239]; (/) JULJ


x
O

(Aud, A)
*c>

JU3

(h)

>

(^) Joti

like

like

orifice

in the [Jh

to the teat

KF,

and]

so that perhaps

it

ox

(i)

9>x

Jyti

>

\y^^ having a

like

(;) Jjtj

like i+AJ* (A), but,


xx

j^^ rough, rugged, coarse [239],

And

[the

[with Fath (IA, Aud, A) of the


sometimes contents itself with another [measure

(IA, Aud, A)] than

Ox

O w x

J^U

(IM), like v_*Ib

ni'cc,

^ui oW,

Aoar^ (IA, And, A), and uU^c chaste.

But the

ft

v.AA-i!

like WAC bold, crafty


' s

has two dial. vars. (Sn).

act. part, of (IA)] jii

c (IA),]

> >

Jmi

narrow

(e)

inexperienced in affairs

*+'&

^Lo^ [252]

>

-^a

like

gl^ui 6rave

like

jUi

(c)

whole of these rps.arc assimilate rps. [348], except J^cU,


X
O

like

when

O -^x

-x

^L<3
it is

sistence,

and
pre.

[i. e.,

jjftlio
'

^U

[above],

to its

which

is

an

nom., vid, when

act. part.,
it

except

indicates sub-

continuance, not origination (Sn),] like

pure of heart and x Jjjj

ka>l<i
X

dJstait in

1610

abode, in which case

IH

(Aud, A).
part,

is

which

is

it

also

tril. is

9t> *>

nor JjuU**.l

ep. [349]

for this reason

the act.

[from the expression jLclj,

the measure of the

s *

an assimilate

is

Bays that (R)

named JL&UJI^I

because the

act. part, of the tril. (R),]

(WIH,R)

frequent

not JoiljT

jJ

|V,J

But what he says requires

[below].

*<

consideration, because

J^UJ

Didoes not mean

the n. de*

noting the (formation occurring upon the measu


but the n. denoting what does (the thing) ; while
j^jJjLLJl

and the like do not occur

in the

sense of what
</>.,

does

(the

j
A*!

that one

thing), so
If,

].

indeed, he

unrestrictedly to

[or

had said "They apply


that does not do

an

act,

-'>

as ~wJCuo broken [491],

.^jo*

rolled

down

[495. A],

him

might say J^LaJ p-J

JjoU* ignorant, and ooLo slender [349], because what this

shape

is

formed

to

denote does, in most cases, do an


*

'

^G standing and

act,

as

'

out" it would have been


^j^^ bringing

something (R). The ac. /w r. [derived] from [the inf. n. of


other than the[unaugmented(IH, Aud, A)]/n7.
(Sn)]any[v.]

is formed upon

the measure of the a or [of the a ct. voice (R,


.

Jm)J,byputtingan[awg-.(IM)] r (IH,IM,Sh,Fk) pronounc-

ed with Darnm (IH, IM, Sh),inplaceof theaoristicletter (R,


Sh,

Aud,Jm, A, Fk),atits beginning (WIH, IM), whether

1611

the aoristic letter be proiiounced with Daniin or not (Jm)

Kasr

and pronouncing the penultimate with

(III,

IM, Sh,

Fk), literally, as in ^jCo honoring^ or constructively, as

and I^sioo being red (WIH), without


in^Uciuo choosing

whether the penultimate of the


aor. be pronounced with Kasr (WIH, R, IA, Aud, A),

restriction (IM, Sh),

[i. e.,]

as J^Juo introducing and ^JLX^JO

asking forgiveness
6

(IH), or Fatfc

IA, Aud, A), as JlxJ trying


Xx

(WIH, E,

Sometimes

remember (WIH).

to

with Kasr of
of

its

by

its

alliteration to the

[252]: (2) replaced

by

bage, act. part.

u*p

-4nc

w?e

i.

Ox

^^

part.

and

^?arf.

*AJ! ^rrez^

up, became

and

9x6)
ac/. /?ar^.
^>JJLo
^" 9
x
x

e.,

o >

v^>Ls>JiJlc
'
*

,
;

(B)

like

(b) JjUx,'

^L
^
as

*0

^*a:t married, took a

tvife,

x xO

>

^ %n-<v^

^jU! helped,

x O

part. ^$~JQ

ac.

i.

^ i^^J[23]
8

act.

the yellow plant

xx<-*

and hence l^iy


-LpTlIily^ XV.
Aave sent the winds fertilizing, according

oL^Ol in

went far,

^jU for Jjjclo'

one interpretation (R),


q.

Damm

or with

X '(!&

-**

to

or

pronounced

^^\ produced her-

as

,jjux>

adult, act. part. *sLj


22.

as

s^Lt ^^f produced

act.

J^L*

(a)

O *x

called

>

alliteration to the

by

j*

JUIA* is (1)

(R).

wJLe

->AJ|

became bankrupt,

destitute,
e

But Kasr of the

* in

^^AXXJ

from

8 x

from^U! raided, and ^uuo from

plain, by alliteration

to the

^iJl

vowel of the following

1612

)
x

q.
9

>

ft

i.

anomalous (Tsr).

is

letter,

JiAX)

i.

e.,

>

"

that J^tU occurs


n

<jytXx>;

r*

>

e<

and xxolp

;]

rel.

rx

as (j^to fcU

They say

the rel. n.

have a

&yovx>

e.,

but these are rather

'

*>

since the jLtb

[312],

not obliged to have no

is

v. ;

i.

Job and v_^b

like

7i5.,

&xiuui

but

v.,

and the same expression

may

also

and

to the rel. n.

act. part.
O

does not occur

i.

truth

*-

that Jccb

is

*x

>

q. J^JLJUO

explainedbytheBBas

The

(R).

q.

common

then

is

i.

the

rel. ns.

instances

cited

being

and by the Rhetoricians as

cases of tropical attribution, the proper phrases being


9 9

'

'J^Ox

'

iu^Lo

\JfrM*

whose possessor

whose possessor

is

is

pouring

hiding, and &x=*Lo ^cL whose posses-

And

sor is finding is pleasant [312] (BS).

part,

said to be [sometimes] on the

is

LuU

part., as

promise

is

x**<

sjJ^'

coming,
'&

cot. of wo^l! c>jo!

au^Lo *3#

out,

J6

XIX.

i.e.,

Co!

measure of the^ass.
Verily He, His

62.

but this

so the act.

is

rather of the

99*"

/ did

the matter,

i.

e., &AJjij,

meaning

done (R). The act. part, governs like its v. (M, Fk),
5yt^o
in the act. voice, intrans. or trans. (Fk), whether it be

#o^)
prcpos. or postpos
that his

young
l

honoring

man

Amr;

as L*^
is

>

&x>^Lfc

striking

xox

u^Lo Jo\ Zaid

'Amr and

*,JCx)

>)

He

is

beating Zaid,

and (beating)

such

U+^y*

expressed or understood, as

i*

-ffe

y;^ ^'
Amr [346. A,

1613

i.

538],

; (Wi
v;^
s

Iv**

e.,

anc^

**r**
s

^ ow

^ r^

'<**>'

(beating)Zaid, beating

him

as though you said

ajsL^ ^Io! !jo;>[G2] (IY): except that (1) the act. part,

tf

^Lo\

may be

^re. to its reg. [346. A], while that is not allowable in the v.;
(2) the

of the

J [346. B, 504]
v.,

while that

act- part.,
(3) the

is

not prefixed to the postpos. reg.

allowable here, as XLI. 16. [312];

is

when an enunc.
"

of a du., does not govern


6

,-

a preceding word, so that


&S^U ^

The

t<X?\

'

,-,.

[below] or a non-red, p., as in


i_>sLlj 1jo\

;
^

* *

<~

v^?>vx>

>r

e*5

[above] the words

of the act. part., as

r,

?io/

while

O us

striking

t,i>j.

docs

by a
i

j^re.
*

?z.

pLc. Ijo^ Ij^o and


:

to
contrary
^

,'^jJ
U-TS

>5<

Jjoo
"

J^!
\

&&
^L^
^
I

so [says Syt] in the

Amr, though some

except from the pre. n.

many

S
,

and JJ!^

(21 the inch.

+ *'

!jo\

Ham*

vcrns the two advs. [G4, 498], the


{?/.),

'

disallow the last

Zaid

J3U

which are disallowed

L*-c !J^)\ ^/^^/

^Lflj

not

would not be good here (YS).

v.

the act. part, is governed in the gen.

when

^
is
^j^<3^
"^

'Jo)

may precede (1) the act. part.


IX^ -t/us man ^5 striking Z nd except

* *'

'

[344], as y;L*3

"X

ac. part,

reg. of the
&

S*

u^Lo
^

***

allowable, because the

7%i*J
(Sn).

man

is strlki
HCJ

And, as

d. s. [75],

its v.

the inf. n.

132, 435], the causative obj. [72], the concomitate


[OS],
it

anl

the rest of

(Will, .Jmj.
t<>

the

It

the complements

[19],

so

governs only because of

its

<wr- in

measure and gender [248],

in

1614

indicating the inf. n. and admitting of denoting one of


the

two times

[G04] prefixed to

it

jUb

form of (Fk)] Jlxl

[the

or

J\JUIA

o *<>*>

the quality (YS), as xJL*J!


^

in

well-versed,

and

(MAd),

or

frequently, and

Jyu

MAd), as

of

Zaid islearned

question
O **

^Lsxj

Jo^

slaughterer of the fatted

(Sh,
^

'

-o

;V^

KN)

Q os

*Jlfc <^>;
s<Xg-?
&
*s
^
S

multiplication
to

this

(Fk,

of the tril. (Fk),] into

MAd)

rarely, to denote intensification (Sh,

^<

or

intensive paradigm is

transmuted from [the form of

is

part. (Fk,

[act.

The

(Fk).

(MAd)] which

that [ep.

(Fk)]

and in having the J of inception

[404],

beast

and

repetition

Fk),

of the

Zairf

act

a great

fMAd), [Thus] JLulo

.^

JUi

or

[below],

JyLT

is

and

[importing intensive ness

in

frequentativeness (IM) of the

sense

same

the

to

(Aud,
It

(Sn).
o

entitled

jUu

(Aud, A)] substituted for

[often

is

A)]
then

government as JccU had (IM)

before the transmutation (A); and therefore governs like


the
the

t;,,

in the

same way as the

conditions

mentioned
Its

[345, 346] (Aud, Sn).

the

act.

part.,

as conj.

is

part, [above] (I A), on

(Aud,

A)

for

is

the

latter

predicament being that

divisible

into

what

of

occurs

which [kind] governs


unrestrictedly
denuded of jf, which [kind] governs

of jf,

and what
on the

it

act.

two conditions

mentioned

(Sh).

And hence

1615

AlKulakh Ibn Hazn

(IA, Aud, Sh, A), by


Jsh,

atTamimi (IY) asSa'dl

Ibn Janab (UN)

JIN)

(AAz, Jsh) alllinkan (AAz), the


ing himself (Jsh), Being a

man

trappings in readiness for

its

Rfijiz (ID),

of war, wont

them (IA)]
I am wont

v_>C& Gl3 J^jJt


to

saying

is

wont

to

*
I

Lgjl+^w

by S

transmitted

(A)

^>

I3t

"

slaughter their fat ones

oK 1^^^

ox'O>^

o^ ^****H

by Abu Talib

[below] (Sh, Aud, A),


4

(I A, A)]

and

'

viLU

^iii

the saying [of one of

Arabs

[below] (IA, Sh, And, A), also

knock-kneed

whatever betide, honey

Lot

one of the

[of

Verily he

(And, A)

hide

to

jI^T

'

put on

to

drink [below], transmitted by S (IA,A)

the

MN), and

Jsh,

describ-

and not wont

it.

inside the tent-poles, here meaning tents

from fricjlit (AAz,

AAz,

(IY,

(Sh,

Abd Manaf Ibn 'AM AlMuttalib (MN),

J^J-*-?

V^T^

MN, AKB)

uncle of the

Umayya Ibn
Amr Ibn Makhzum

Prophet (AKB), lamenting [Abu (AKB)]

AlMughira [Ibn AM Allah Ibn


(AKB) alMakhzumi (MN), the husband
'

'Atika (AKB)], (lie


the

sword

lack

the

wont

/.)

shanks of

prov

ih<*n.

(MN, AKI5).an

cnalljigc

to strike

th> IT f<it

verily

thou

208

sister

with the blade of

ones.

When

art a

from the 3rd

(AKB), and

of his

to tlh-

t!

ihterer
L'JI

p<

1616

(
6

"

"

>

by ArRa'I, On an evening such


Su'dd had shown herself to an anchorite at

(IA,

A),

below

whom were

traders

and pilgrims,

hated his religion, and been roused


she

is

wont

(M),

Talib,

when

noble, wont

he would have

to

lust.

Verily
to

lust

cites

by Abti

versity,

zy

Duma,

of asceticism

to rouse the brothers

(MN). And S

that,

to

his

[J bewailed the brother of ad-

day was being praised.

(He was)

smite the heads of the mail-clad

(AAz),]

which contains an indication that Jyw may be preceded

by

its reg.

three

is

[below]

frequent

(IY).

The government

And

(Sh).

of these

the government of

more frequent than that of the next

JL3

ia

two, being regular

according to the soundest opinion (YS). But this [substituo

tion for

J^u

is rare in

with survival of
Q

Jo^j and

rarer than JUAJ (S).


the Arabs ali3
to
[

hearken

to the

Jjii

(IM, Sh).

And hence

tlij

Jp

the government

++"

x-UI

the

below] (IA,Sh), like

And Jxi

is

much

saying of one of

^| Verily God

prayer of him

(Sn),]

'*

that

prays

is

to

wont

Him

1617

Lo!
'

[below] (Aud, A), by

Ubaid Allah Ibn Kais arRukay-

(They are) two damsels, such

yat,

them, she

is

closely

one o/

as for

that,

resembling a new moon, and^

moon

as for another of them, she resembles the full

(MN, EC)

and

by Zaid AlKhail

[below] (IA, Sh, Aud, A),

come

to

me

that they are

my

tearing

It

(Sh),

has

reputation

to

of AlKirmaldn (a water in the


mountain ofTayyi), making a noise (MN, AKB), and
shreds, the

young

o*o

asses

Lo

[below] (I A, A)
not,

and

decrees

(He

careless

is]

wS

* jf

^1

!so|

><

harm

that

of what does not save him from


of

(IA, A), the slur cast on which

wary of matters

(MN, EC, AKB)

envious (A).

^^
o!

cites also

[as

God (EC),
is

cited

the

by S

a fabrication of the

evidence of the govern-

ment of JuJ (A)] the saying of Labid [describing

his

she-camel (AKB),]
Xx

[below] (IY, A) Or a wild he-ass sticking


<r

long-backed she-ass, on her back,

wounds from

BB,

[i.

e.,

his biting her

to

the side

that has scars

(Dw, AKP).

Jr (MAd),] agrees with

And one
him about

of

and

of the

1618

because

it is

on the measure of the

him about

v.

but disagrees with

Ju*s, because

it is

on the measure of the assimi-

late ep. [348], like

obJb, which does not govern the obj. in

The

the ace. (Sh).

intensive paradigms governing,


o

common consent

of the

BB, are three, Jl*j,

which are formed from the


+ G x

'^fsO^sVs

<

& " "

lxjjix>

[by Sad Ibn Nashib alMazini,

^ l^sow^

as

tril.,

xxx*

by

,and Jj*3,

<J\juuo

[unaugmented]

^ x

-o

USuwll^l^^wjiJI^JU #
of

Ox*

fix

L3
jjjjj

Then, 0, I call the clan

Rizdm, make ye ready in me an advanced guard for


apt to wade through the squadrons to it (AKB ],
6
xo xJO
<^
*x.
9>x
sLssoJ &j^ [above], and *>J! v^uJ! JC^LXJ v;r^ [above]

battle,

^O
.^J!

<

x*

and sometimes from Jowl as

9x

sensible oj,
[344],

jjZ.

of

and

Jl^>

e x

o
,

xx*

from J;^! [below] ;and

^l^o from ^lil

when transmuted

sensitive from

^L-^

(R).

He cites,

jv/o j*J

J^-Ut c^Lj^ LfLIs v^j'Lj 4

[as

that

into Ju*3 or JmS

S says

[below].
^

O
,

ss

also governs,

**

evidence of the government of

(IY, R),

by Sa4da Ibn Juwayya

(IY)

alHudhati,

Until lightning tiring out a time of the night, incessantly

plying, roused them.

and

it

(the

They passed the night cheerfully,

lightning)

passed

where J*J.r governs

\lff>^>

the night, not


sleeping

in the ace. (IY,

AKB)

1619

as a direct obj.

say that U*yo

is

because JoJ^

is

to j^l*, there

AKB). That
an adv. to

disallowed by others,

is

IjeLi, [not

intrans.; and that,

would be no evidence

adv., for which a tinge of the

v.

who

a direct obj. (AKB),]


if it

in

it,

even belonged
because

But [a

suffices (R).

is

plea
2
i.

<>

>

as vi^/oujL>!

and uyyo

that case,

there
it is

is

In

c7a^ is said.

/iy

is

>

an intensive form of Jaw*

(AKB)]

and

say that

no evidence in the ambiguous, especially when

government of

And S

Jc*3

say that the verse

is

made

is

as evidence
(R)]

^jf

of the

Cx!

disallowed by others,

forged: AlLahlki

S having asked me

ness of JuJ

cites,

[the saying

But that

[above] (IY, R).

said

trope,

extraordinary

improbable (R).

"

(n6

by a

obj.

however, Ju*i

is rare,

its [direct]

fired

&at?0
6

[which

<

advanced, in justification of S, that (B)] JoyL^is

jXo (IY, R)

q.

an

it is

is

who

reported to have

for evidence of the transitive-

this verse for

him

"

(R). But, if

S be

reproached with [credulity in accepting] this verse, he


lias cited in
is

evidence another verse, in respect of which ho

irreproachable,
-~

^J!

J^~uc

we have

vitl.

the saying of Labld

a : s iliabl
;

o ^
;

[above]

and, says

Am,

followed by ISB,

found in the poetry of Zaid AlKhail

a^Sahftbl another irrq>r>acliable verse,

vitl.

[a cm-]

(AKB).

When, however,

J+JL-

and jou arc not

1620

transmuted from the


sagacious, there
ace., since

act. part.,

as v^u Jb smart and

no dispute that they do not govern the

is

our discussion is about the intensive paradigms,


Q

not about the assimilate eps. [348] (R). JuxS [often (IY)]
occurs as an intensive form of Juulo [above], as in
II.

9.

jvxl?

grievous chastisement (IY>R),

i.

(IY), according to one opinion (R), and L..w g!5,

^Iji
J^o

q.

i.q.

*+*Lo

[246] (IY), whence

(Iy,R),

by

Amr

Ibn Ma'dikarib (IY) azZubaidi a^Sahabi,

summoner making one hear from Raihdna keeping me atvake, while my comrades are slumbering $
/5

^7ie

But, as for the Jcx*S

(AKB).

v^ju^ calling

to

i.q.

jLcQ^

account [246, 247, 269],

like

^^ and

it is

not inten-

sive

(R).

and therefore does not govern, by common consent


According to the KK, not one of the [five (Sh,

Fk) intensive (R)] formations governs (R, Sh, Fk),


because of the loss of the form wherein the act. part.
resembles the

v.

(R)

[any of (Sh)] them,

and,

But

that their

government

made

to accord

repeated,

what

this is

ace. occurs after

governed by a supplied

it is

Sh, Fk).

whenever an

far-fetched (Sh).
is

The

v.

(R,

truth

is

allowable, because they are

with the act. part., since they import,


it

imports

and because their government

1621

is

transmitted by

<-<

^.

5^J|

JuwiJ

Co!

hearsay, as in what
-*}

and

is

reported by S,

&M [above], the sayings of


^J! >LsuJ

the Arabs
jjuelijf J*jJ *yU
to

*^<jl Vtrily God

forgive the trespass of the sinners and

vj>Jl

[above], and the poet's saying pJ|

The BB say

(Fk).

yJJ\

g+L

^j

13!

ready
^t

[above]

that the intensive paradigms govern

notwithstanding the loss of the


v.],

^!

is

lit.

resemblance

[to the

because the intensiveness in sense makes up for that

deficiency

part.,

and also because, being derivs. of the

which resembles the

v.,

they do not

act.

fall short

of

the assimilate ep. in resemblance to the act. part., for

which reason the sense of the present or future

is

not

prescribed as a condition [of government] for them,

as

it is

not for the assimilate ep. [348].

that they do not govern,


,

when in

But IBdh says

the sense of ihepast, like

the act. part. [345]; and, in the verses cited, they obviously

denote

unrestricted ness

the

[Note on p. 344,
the act. part.,

I.

may

6].

The

importing

continuity

intensive formations, like

be preceded by their ace. [above]:

but Fr disallows this, because of their weakness [in

government]

and

this is a

government belongs

to

proof that, in his opinion, the

them.

The general

opinion

is

that

these paradigms do not differ in intensiveness (Fk). II

mentions that(Y8)tlic paradigm formed [by thcArabs(YS)],


to denote (1)

one that does the thing once, is jUlj

as

1622

(2) one that repeats the

slayer:

act,

is

one that goes

to

Jl*5

as

r.

JUjJ slaughterer [252]:

(3)

and

zs

in the

strong,

patient

the act,

252

269
as

is J\jJuc,

when she

is

by turns:

accustomed
one that

(5)

D)

extremes,

as

JJ.SLS

>

^ery
accustomed to

is

N^A-O

and vi>uc [269]; and LjU*x>

male and female


[like (CD/] an instrument, and
O ^c
Ox*

to

is

give birth

JLalo

to

(a) JOL^O (D, YS), as

act, is

'

one that

sLx>|

J&juo

apparatus, for the


warlike

is

act,

>

as iCiLLo

vr^

(CD). But

[328]

IBr observes that the distinction mentioned by H between


o

to

&,,

JL*3

JLjLLo

whom

>

and J^LS

they are
n

all
^

"substituted for J^Ls

gms

not

is

known to

the GGr, according

synonymous (YS).

"

IM's phrase

[above] implies that these paradi-

are not formed from the non-tril., [because the


o

part, of the non-tril.

and such
6 x

like

is

is

not upon the measure of Jc&U (Sn)];

the case, except in

what

is

extraordinary (A),
^ ^ of.

*"

*ju^

act.

in the foregoing verse, since

it

is

from x^l

resembled (Sn). But he says in the Tasini "And JL*i J(JLO,


,

are sometimes formed from


Jjjil,and JUULS

js*i!

[above]

",

O Cx

alluding to their saying


xx

from

J!^ quick in comprehension


Q

vita!

comprehended
xt
sl*J

a heel-tap from
s

[above] from

[above],

and

& s
%(Lw zyo?i^ to

leave
-^ x

Z^ a residue
a

&

kt! gave

in the cup

fcUanx

and ^(^44

t(?o??#

fo

?ay

?OM?

from

1623

laid low [above]

JJUD!

<7&zci
G

x< JS
.joi

??iade to

*-"'

hear [above], and

tuarned (A).

The numbers

344.

other than the sing. (IM),

(IA, A), the du. and the [sound or broken

(M,IH, IA, And,

(3#\!

XX

and *+* from

oJo earner from


.

oysx quick, active from

.x

A) of the act. part.

(II,

i.

R, Jm)]

e.,

pi.

(M,WIH, R, And, Jm,

Sn) and intensive paradigms (M, R, Aud, Jm,Sn) are [made

(IM)] like the sing. (M,IH,IM) in government [339] (M,

W1H,

IM, Jm) and conditions (IM, Jm).

the du. and sound pi. [345], the reason

they retain the form of the

resembles the

v.

not slandered themnot, to

shed

dare not try

XXXIII.

it

35.

my

the

GodandikJ vLli^^

Hood, while in

Jjja

IA1 (B)] with Tanwin (K,

(R).

You say

my

XXXIX.

JJD

i.

see,

e.,

presence they
*^J1

is

39,

<j-^A%

that

it

And
is

Shall they

A] (And, A), read [by

B), according to the

in the ace. (B).

aLJC*

part.

men and women often remembering

be dispelling ///. affliction 9 [346.

broken pL, the reason

act.

when I have

ivhen I meet,

(EM)]; and oOuJt} Uy^"

And

and with sli

which the

reputation,

and vowiny,

my

obvious, because

Hence

[343] (R).

[by 'Antara, Slanderers of

them

sing., in

is

In the case of

o.

f. (K),

in the case of

a dcrir. of

the

^iLi' j& They are inhabiting


209

the

sing.

M<ikka

1624

and
the

A ,* x 'x
aJJl C*AJ

{!

&

x x

a^fZ*

>

They are making a pilgrimage

\j>

to

House of God (M) and hence


;

(M, R, IA, Aud, A), by Tarafa (M), Moreover they have

surpassed their peers in #*

ready

to

they are,

among

their people,

forgive their trespass, not boastful (MN), ^AA

[with two

Dammas (MN)]

being pi

of l*fc [246] (IY,

Aud),

ant}

[343],

by AlKumait (M) Ibn Zaid alAsadi, Haughty,

^vont to lay

law the bodies of the fatted

beast, very

hungry

in the evenings, because they put off supper on account of

the guests coming by night, not faint, nor

and

^LaJ

by Ibn Kathir,
f}

> 9

7.

[80, 83] (Aud), so read (K,

Uaj!
;

J^G

B)

Nafi',

Ibn 'Amir, and A?irn (B),l


'

which

vid.

the dial, of those

is

because this

pi. is

And

"

who say &uL

That [government]

Tayyi (K).

sound pi [247] (IY).

i,

e.,

frequent

hence

>

when they
(women) have conceived
the waist-cloth,

is

as universal in aULcU as the

.M R, A), by Abh Kabir allludhali,

of

ff.

[21,1461,
in

LIV.

ills*

mean (AKB)

Of

those that they

ivere tying the strings

not prepared for bed,

so

that

1625

he

to

grew up

the

youth praised, liked, not execrated ivith

"Thy mother

malison

be bereft
c

0,0
!

x G x

(JUj

of

^A

.-:

&&Q

"

thee

(T)

and

LftJlj

(M, IA, A), by Al'Ajjaj (M) Haunting Makka, namely

dusky pigeons (MN),


I

orig. r CsJ!

(IY, IA, BS,

MN),

the

being elided [for lightness (IY)j by poetic license (BS),

because

&

>

x-x

the second

MN), from

(IY, BS,
)

MN)] and

(IY,

at/g.

dislike to the reduplication (IY),

O Xx

as in o^yoJu for o^LoJij [685]


ing]

changed into

(MN)

and the [remain-

then pronounced with Kasr for affinity

and for

of the

rectification

sound or broken pi.


the sing. [343], as
>

~x-&

*>

^y

TAese

100

T/zese

Hinds are
of the

synarthrous [du. and

(Will, Jm) of the


in
[its reg.
obj.

(Jm)],

because,

ore strik-

o(re

striking Zaid^

'Amr, and

part.

'Amr

striking
|

(IY).

sound (Will)

(Will)],

^?.

when governing

(Will, Jin) the ace. (Will, R, Jm) as an

may he

tin;

rt////".

[the verse of

R), like the

with

act.

ace., like

2atcZl are striking

The ^

du. and

!jo\ ^tjoo

^L^li

The

(BS).

be preceded by their

may
^

rhyme

[to the ^5],

SjJLaJ!

tin-

elided, for the

is

sake of lightness

long ly reason of the

Hook (WIH)]

n-adin-of

^J! ^hjliJf

11 IJ in
[

in the ace. as

an

^ (Jm\

obj.

,K;]

|iV. I]

X XI 1.

oG.

(III),

as in

(Will,
[112],

(Jm), by supplying the

1626

For the J

(K).

[176, 177]

is [in

the sense of

while the conj.

because governing the

is

elided in

v>JI

,j

as the

C -0

s +

But, as for elision of the

jtj^A [H2,

599,],

it is

37. [234], with the ace., elision of the

is

with the

XXXVII.

while the

not one to be relied upon (Jin).

345.

The

(A,

[anarthrous

MAd)

or synarthrous

pass. (R)] part., in order to govern [the

act. [or

(MAd)]

&

^is weak, because

the act. part, does not occur as conj. of the J

reading

because of prothesis

And, in the case of the anarthrous, as in

(R).

may

it

of the conjunct
<j

'f

>

so that

v^uJLT^j [178] and ^J| ool~* &&)\

[117, 176, 178].


gen., as Ju\

x-

the ace.

in

obj.

a conjunct

(WIH)]

deemed long (WIH, R),

is

be lightened by elision of the


*

must not be a dim. [288, 292], nor


qualified [147] (WIH, R, Sh, A, Fk) by an ep. (WIH),
contrary to the opinion of Ks on both (A, YS) conditions
direct obj. (Sn)],

(YS), because

by

it

qualification,

zation,

from

its

is

excluded by the dim. formation and

though not by dualization or plurali-

renderability

by the

allow the dim. and the qualified


to the

du.

and pi. [344]

but

to

i\ [343, 347].

Some

govern, by analogy

this

is

of no account,

because of what we have mentioned and, as for their


#
s*S<>s9s O ,* ^
* am 9 oin9 on fti
saying LLU,*J j*.y** J^-V
fwwl
;

>

nearly travelling a league,


the reg.

is

it is

allowable only because

an adv., for which a tinge of the

v.

suffices

1627

Some

(R).

[among the Westerns (MN),]


no non-dim, be remembered for it,

of the moderns,

say that the dim.,

if

may

govern, as

(AJ,

by Mudarris Ibn Rib'I (MN),

77ien a taste of wine

in the glass, whose juice is dark-red,


XX

sparkles in the hands, where


the two
ep. of

ci>

s (Sn)]

kcliX*

(MN,

Sn).

This, however,

is

by an

act.

in the gen.

(MN)]

as ep. of

_K

not a case of government

while the assertion

part.,

'

ou^is

that

is

while

curtailed of one of

UM^'

the place of the nom. as

oJ^

direct obj.

of the

is [in

wine that

not

is

XX

a dim.

act.

part, obviously requires consi-

if

The allowance

deration [274, 289].


of the dim.

is

attributed

by

Fr, say, while

44

when a

44

opinion that what is regarded


.

in

dim., does govern.

sense, not appearance

opinion

is

And

the

to the

KK,

agrees with them, that the

44

government

Ham'

Syt in the

except Fr, his language being

Ns

of the

valid as

is

They base

is

and

that

except

act. part.,

upon

resemblance

IM

KK,

their

to the

says that this

proved by the fact that the

act.

"part., when transmuted for intensivcness [343], governs,


u from
regard to the sense, not the appearance while
:

44

44

Ns

allows the dim. to govern by analogy to the broken

pi

[344]

"
(Sn).

Nor

is

any argument

for the govern-

1628

ment

of the qualified to be found in the saying

[of Bisbi'

Ibn Abl Khazim (MN, EC),]


x

<

[When an
children,

>

>

^5 ^g+A-Lu,

x Ox

/ remember Sulaima

(MN, EC)],

being ^J-^Y-* ^^Xo


to its v. in

since

,j^**

*&*

because

q. the rel. n.

iy>f

is

the full phrase

not
(A),

[312]

having a suckling, like

AA-o^

governed in the

is

does not gdvern [the ace.

/*^

i.

the departing

(Sn)], since LijJ^


is

of) two

because jJfU not being conformable

femininization,

^a^o
^r^X

'

by a supplied v. expounded by joG


9x X
*x 6 x*x>>

#o?.

(bereft

among

* *

neighbours

<*

ia*&#0>**2 (J^t* iLxkk JoU !M

bereaved mother,

afflicted

softs,

'*'**.*

said

[-J68],

meaning c^b
fi

Job

[above],

u^U.

[268],

*
n

and

"

>

[252, 268],

jLikxj
^

>

JJL? ^y!J

little

one (Sn).

It is

Or after
to

Sn), according to

be the language of IU,


;

>

o!i

qualified, either before

the government (YS,

preferred by 111 (Sn)

J^

[apparently (YS)] implied

that the op. act. part, must not be

to

having a bereave-

o!3 having menstruation, and


u^j^
*

having a

Seems

?
*

97(671^,

meaning

>

and that

which,

Ks

Dm

what

says, is

allows the qualified

govern unrestrictedly [below]. Some, however, say that

Ks

Gl
allows ^>LS ^T
L-yL^f34)

|juC

V)^>

qualified

btit

not

t^lo

LM

which necessarily implies that he allows the

to

govern only when

it is

qualified after the

1629

CT

Ill says in the

government (YS).
school agree with

Ks

some of our

that

in allowing the qualified to

govern

before [the mention of (Sn)] the ep., [as !jo\


v-^Ls !<Xp
^ S*
* + *s *
JjjU and
C^ 11 ) i] because its weak-

^ V;^ ^) ^*

v;^

ness arises after [the mention of] the


(A, YS),

by the

But others relate

BB

and Fr, while

ep.,

not hefore

the

The

correct practice,

[147], is to
is

either

make

as laid

down

[above]

act.
a

denuded (IA, Sh) of

it

governs (IH, IM, Sh,

KN)

strictedly (III,

ML

in the

The

this distinction (Sn).

conjoined with [the

KK

rest of the

allow the qualified to govern unrestrictedly


(A).

made

that this distinction is

Ks and

conjunct (Sh)]

part.
^

J!

or

If conjoined with jf,

(Sh).

like its v, (Sh,

Aud, Sh, KN), whether

it

Fk\

it

unre-

[in the sense of

the (III, R)l past, present, or future (IM, R, Sh, Fk),

supported or unsupported (Fk),


in the place of the v., since
to

it

then occurs

the property of the conj. is

be a prop. [177] (I A, Fk), [or rather], because

really a v. (Will, R),


of the

v. to

^\

made

that of the

prefixiouof jfto the


or

because

or \A^

//<

to-morrow will

v.

n.,

to deviate

from the shape

because of their dislike to

(Will), as u^l \J^ J^LlfT^Ll

that yesterday beat, or

heat,

it is

Zaid has

now

bea/t, or

lima alKais

conic (Fk).

says

[Who

slew the

valiant

Idnrj,t1t<

b* *t

of

Ma add
(

in

1630

)
x*x

honor and bounty


withstanding

by

"

making

(Jsh)],

the valiant king

"

and others

in the Idah

Then I passed

not-

its

governing when a

cite as

evidence the saying

f U
L JaJ!

[quoted

he means his father; and this

verse also contains a proof of


[344] (Sh).

govern

being in the sense of the past, because

its

Mb

^r^Jb'UJ!

pL

'

^o

by F, who attributes

to Jarir,

it

the night, ivhile the nocturnal visitants

of distress were overpowering me from fear of

the

,.

departure, and fear

(0^5 being

here suppressed, accord-

ing to F) of the separation, of the travellers on the

morrow (AKB)] but (& may be governed


:

"

in the ace.

by

[one of three ops. (AKB),] EJU^ or ^^o or ^r^JLtL^Jl while


,

the evidence of the equivocal


discussion is about
.tlift

ace.,

This

what governs a

while a tinge of the

is the

weak and moreover our

is

direct obj. [below] in

v. suffices

for the adv. (R).

well-known opinion (IA,A), that the act part.

conjoined with jf governs unrestrictedly, because


in a place

however

(R),

it

them (IA)] Rm, assert

(I A),

and

it

occurs

must be renderable by the v. (A). F,


[and] many of the GGr (IA), and [among

where

(R, I A), not

it

that

when present
is

it

governs only when past

tir fatter e ;

transmitted from

Hz

while some assert

(R), that

it

does not

1631

govern at

by a

and

all,

(I A) that the ace. after it is

understood (R, IA), because, the J

v.

him, not being conjunct, the synarthrous

(R)

is

governed

according to

not really a

IM

and these two opinions are mentioned by

v.

in the

Tasini [below] (I A).

And Akh

when

tlie_p$, governs the ace. only as

in the sense of

says that the synarthrous,

being assimilated

to the direct obj.,

[350], not as

being a direct obj.

what he says

is

when

ft

*^J

'

S^rO

-*

f0

^^^J

*>

Jo\

but the weakness of

IM, however, in the CK,

obvious (R).

followed by (A) his son

as in

(IA)], says that

[BD

by common

past, present, or future,

it

governs,

consent (IA,

A): whereas in the Tashil [above] he transmits the dispute,

saying that the ace. in what follows the

[act.

part. (Sn)]

O."

conjoined with

J! is

the opinion of

Mz

not peculiar to the past, contrary to

and those who agree with him

governed by assimilation
the opinion of

the

to

Akh, [according

to

direct obj., contrary to

which the J ,says Dm,

a p. of determination, not a conjunct (Sn)]

understood

IM, Sh,

(111,

its v. (Ill,

IM,

KN)
KN)

of jl
tin-

Sli,
.

nor by an

;;nd arc.
t\v-

<
.

\\

II. 'lin.

(IA\

like

WI1T,

If

Fk), the act. part.

one or

to

<

,Iin)J

contrary to the opinion of some (A).

v.,

denuded (LA, And, Sh,


governs

nor

Sh, u|,cn two con-

dition8[343](lll, IM,Sli, KN), whidiarr indispcn^ililr to


the validity

\i<

-nvci'iniicnt of the <irr.

210

(Kk

).

contra ry to

1632

its

The

government of the nom. [below] (YS).

tion is that

it

first

condi-

should be [in the sense of the (IH, And, Sh,

A}] present or future (IH, IM, Sh, KN), real or historic


or of innovative continuity

(WIH, IM),
because

it

to

agreement

v.,

[i. e.,

governs only on account of

whose sense

A), which

is

in

conformability

vowels and quiescences with, the

imports, vid. (I A)] the aor. [343] (IA,

it

like that (A),

present ov future

i.

is

e.,

in the

sense of the

innovative continuity] (Sn)

[or of

that the act. part,

then resembles the

The reason

sense (I A).

its

[343] (Sn),

v.

in

so

form and

for prescribing one of the

two

is to

complete the resemblance of the act. part,

to the v. in

form and sense, because, when in the sense

times

of the past,
it

is

it

resembles the

v.

in sense, not form, since

If the

never commensurable with the pret. (R).

[trans.

(Jm)] act. part, denote the past.,

it

must bo

ideally pre. [Ill] (IH) to [what is (R)] its obj*

B,

Jm)

in sense

must prefix the


And, since
in

the

is

it

sense

contrary to the opinion of

(R),

You do

[below] (IH).

(WIH,

not say

act. part.,

<JM*! !jo)

v;^ &*

the

past,

does

not

pre. to the

det. [Ill]

have another reg.


Jm)], this

is

[than

governed

(R).

And,

what

it

[in the ace.

is

if

when

govern,

prothesis must be id., producing determination,


it is

but

saying Jo^ y^Li [111] (IA).

established that the act. part.,


of

Ks

its

when

the act. part.

pre. to (Will,

(WIH, Jm)] by a

1(533

supplied

v.

as

(+&)3

y~>ot

by the

indicated

(Ill),

is^^

5*4-

f*

^)

act.

[below

(WlH),

part.

where U4*%>|

I,

<r

is

ace.

the

governed in

The government

Jm).

(Sh),

(R),] is

of

la^U

<XyopG **J;

While their dog

17.

Ks

allowed by

[when

[above]

Jm, A, Fk), Hsh, and IMda

Sh,

on the authority

XVIII.

(WIH,

supplied

^kit!

of the act. part., however;

in the sense of the past.

(WIH, R, IA, Aud,

by

is

faJJ)
out his

stretching

forelegs at the entrance (R,IA, Aud, Sh, Jm, A, Fk).

But others explain

this

away (RJA, Aud,

Fk)
which
A, Fk, MAd),

as a historic present (R, IA, Aud,


is said

as

An

by

mean

you assume yourself to be,


that time; or assume that time to

to

that

were, present at
it were,
as
be,
present
it

mean

Sh, A,

now and
:

is

admirably said by

you assume that past act to be occurring at


the time of speaking (R), what has occurred being
assumed to be occurring now, for which reason the

to

act.

that

is

part
O

interpreted
t

being *A*IJ3

^^
f

that [the

reason

in

[Ix'fore

it

(And, A), as

is

proved by the fact

jt-f^>;

(Fk)]

by the aor. (Fk), the sense

9^

denotative of state, for which

i*

f^lUjj

(A)], not

And We

^lill^

(And,

turn
A,
*

11

t-

upon the allowal'ility

was

terday a

giving

Uj^y^t

2+&
^

>*

terday

f<>

'

^Lb JoC

Z>/i<l

mi*

s } and VI. 96,

'

relies

f*'-r
&2* ^'

^^-

said

is

Ks

Fk).

/l*'
f
W^s^ u^l jv*^

<t

f/t(>m

1uc

dir/ntw

"'

(WIH,

R),

A in r

yes-

//////A'/////

[;U;. A, 538,

Note

1634

on p. 346,

I.

Sf says that the best course here

6],

say that the act. part, governs


necessity, because

pre. to the
in the act.

cannot be pre. thereto,

it

first obj,

so that the verbal

make

it

withstanding the frequency of

F,

is

nowhere found

e.

when

(j^ol

And what

a 9

^+c

deemed

is

this

and

occurrence

the

that

by the

in the

first obj.

But

second obj.

act. part., as

is

though,

were

said, the

hearer asked

did he give ?", and the speaker then replied


*

meaning

U#o
<,

Of-

slkt!

(He gave him) a dirham$


9

like the ag. in *J!


JoC> SJUJ
^\^>
interpretation, the necessity for

govern,

is

go^

15-^** &*)

&

Utf>J>,

indicated

v.
^

its

govern the

to

and with him many, say

governed by a

it

sense of the past, not-

therefore the act. part, in the

language,

since

But, says he, government

govern.

not allowable without such a necessity as

is

by

obj.

sense contained

part, in the sense of the past

sufficient to

"

second

the

is to

when

And, though

in

An

the

[23]

so that,

this

the act. part,

making

sense of the past,

is

avoided.

refutation of F, that this is


o^ & ^
* ~s
<
as U5U' ,J~AJ!
<X# This man

says, in

o-e.

not correct in such

<x>^

was thinking Zaid yesterday

to

F may

assert

indication [443], even though

of F, that the ace.

is

^b

be

because suppression of one of the

would ensue,

by

standing [346 A],

two

objs.

of ^LJb

that this is allowable with


it

be rare

and the opinion

governed by a supplied v^ not by

1635

the act, part, forced to govern

opinion of Sf,

^1

L+j

saying

*X

jo^

it

>

<

.-

is

put L*^ into the ace., as Sf asserts of

have two other

objs.,

subaudition of the
**
y^jo!

c.0

>

And

know him

'<>

since

the

sQ ; J^

JjL^ jjj

making

Amr

most erudite of the learned

to be the

nom. by the

of the

act.

to

and

(WIH).

and

^9^55.

allowable unrestrictedly, whether


they be in

sense of the past, present, or future, or denote

none of the three

bnt

times,
>

the
^

X Q

'

unrestrictedness
^

importing continuity, as iOiaj^oLi jo^ Za/d


>

in his

belli/

and

>

'

&x!<X=*

government

extreme

of

peculiarity

^s

slender

Q & *>

v^
4

^ as wett-trained servants

the least resemblance


[349], because
for

is

they are governed in the ace. by


[346 A], as juiil

v.

The government
is

it

the act. part.

if

similarly with the rest of the complements [19]

parts,

to

L^j

similarly,

Za^o was yesterday

feLJLxJ!

the

the appos. agree with the apparent inflec-

a nt. (R).

tion of the

of your

no necessity here
*

make

the

with

[346 A],

better to

is

v;^ '^

coupled in the ace., because there


^

by necessity, as

by the allowability

fortified

is

the

nom.,

of the

on

nom.

to

the

v. suffices

account
to

the

v.

of

the

(R on

And Fk

appears to say that the act. part. '$


government of the nom. [above] does not depend upon
Prothcsis).

either of the

two conditions.

independence of] the

first

As

for [the act.

[condition in its

part:*

government of

1G3G

the 7iow/J, that is expressly declared by

and

11

[For example,

others (YS),

say that] the condition that the

[anarthrous act* part, should be [in the sense of the]

present or future (R), [as also] this dispute [between


the majority and

Ks

about the anarthrous [act.

(Sn)]

part, in the sense of the] past (A), relates only to

government of the

[direct (A)] obj. (R,A), not of the ag.

because no condition of time


of

the nom., as

its

is

needed for [government

we mentioned

in [the foregoing extract

from] the chapter on Prothesis (R on the Act. Part.}.

As

to its

of the

governing the ag.

moderns (YS),] hold that


[in the

explicit n.

does,

in the

which

is

preferred by

nom. (YS)]

nom., IJ, Shi, [and most


it

does not govern the

while

many

hold that

apparently the language of S, [and

IU

(A)]:

and IU says that

pro 7i., by common consent

government of the pron.

it

is

governs the

while others relate that

is

it

its

disallowed by IKli and [his

master (YS)] ITr (A,YS), which

is

improbable (A).

And,

as for [the act. part's independence of] the second


[condition in its

government

for that also, because]

of the nom., there

IHsh says

in the

is

ML

authority
that the

most obvious reason for the disallowance of


^Ijud?
[24,25,346] by the majority [of the
condition requisite for the

nom.

to

BB]

is

Isis

want of the

be a sufficient substi-

tute for the enunc., vid. precedence of a


ney. or interrog. t

not

want of the condition of government,

vitl.

rt

[346]

1637

and assigns two reasons for

second of which

the

that,

support and the qual.'s being in

is that

the sense of the present or future are prescribed as


conditions

only for government of

soundest

the

that

opinion,

part, governs the explicit

And,

Iving supported [346].


of

the government

not

support,
the nor.

the

n.

of

the

for

anarthrous
on

only

act.

condition

of

in that case, the condition

the explicit

??..

nom.

the

in

part's being in the

act.,

not

ace.,

But Syt says, which

government unrestrictedly (YS).


is

the

while the saying of [IHsh in] the

is

sense of

ML,

that the

majority prescribe support and the qual.'s being in the


si-

of the

use

or future as conditions only for

/>/''.

government of the

acr.

means

that they prescribe the

combination of the two matters; for support


according

also: so say
$.

,,

r*h<>uld

!<;.

Dm

nom,

and Shin (Sn).

The second

condition

is

that the act. part.

be supported, [even though only constructively

(Sh,

Fk)J upon (HI, IM, Sh, KX) what

it to

thr<|iiality of

;i),

a condition,

majority, for government of the

the

to

is

(1) its

(Jin), (a)

subjtvt

p.,

vid. (A),

(III),

i.

o.,

L4<ta

i><irt.

'/-"" J

(IM,

approximate

one of four "things],

i.

thr

[;/.]

an inch. (Will. IM. R, Sh,


.

will

JSh),

()

'';/ '^^^/'

c|iialifiahli-

KN,

Jin),

by

c.,
it

whose

actually (1\,A), as

HA);

1638

as

O *x

"f-

b;^ Jo\ jjl^ Za^cZ t(;a5 beating /us


.L dUcs I thought thee to be beating

slil

ther (R),and

Uo

llUa

!^

^J^l

llC^

brother,

thy bro-

7 warfe Zaid

to

know Amr
(

to be

beating

Bakr

(I A),

(b)

|jo\

LXV.

3.

[44,

346 A] (Sh):

KN, Jm) by

a n. qualified (Will, IM, R, Sh,

two men-servants

aLc^Ca Verily Zaie? is such that his

are going away (R), whence

and ^jato

theacJ.

such n. being (a) mentioned (A),


part. (IM, Sh),
IJoC ^>>L^
"/
*' }
(I A,

Sh)

I passed by

J^Cj
'/
*
/' ^>)V
'

(M

1^ [below],

i.e.,

i^ L
*

(Fk)
G

x-

(c)

(IA, Jm, A, Fk), which sort

"
in the " qualified

R, Sh,

beating

Zaid

(1A, A)

*.

5.

(WIH, R, IA,

Jm, A, Fk), as Lwwj L5K Jox gU

Hamza

man

supplied, as will be seen (A), whence lllUb

+ SS

mare

&

a&

Zaid came riding a


is

included [by

IM

(2) the [interrog.

(IA)]

(Jm)]

(IH), or rather, as Jz says (R), an interrog. (D{>

KN) p.

(R), (a) expressed (R, A),

as

(Sh\ by Ktassan Ibn Thabit, ^4re #7i?/ men purposing


the slaying of a man that in exchange for a high
estate in thy love, has taken a low estate ? (MAd), whence
}

^Ire

?/e

^70^1/7 to fulfil

have ye

all

a promise that

I trusted

followed the path of'Urkub? (A);

to ?

Or

(b) sup-

1639

,,--&#xSoxO
plied (R, A), as *joj&>

j*l

L+^ tX^

/s

^^^

Zaid abasing

>tf

him ?

'-4mr or honoring

(A),

i.e., ,j-isg-l

a ncg. (WIH, IM, R, Sh,

(3)

(Su)',

^. (R, Jm), like

(Jm)

KN, Jm)

[below]

Co (IH),

Si

or

,jl

(Jm),

expressed (R, Sn), as

(a)

Li

:C

keep not the covenant of a promise-

(Sb) Friends

breaker, but he that keeps faith finds the friend to be a

friend (MAd)

(b) implied,

as

the
^iJopl ^Ls L2j 0?z?y
^

Zaids are standing,

two

any 6w^

i.

e.,

Cgj ^^

^JJoJf

g;

iff

f5

,^,s

Lx>

,wLj>

two Zaids are standing (R, Sn)

^7ie

JTo(

(4)

(IA,

A).

But IM's saying that it is supported upon the


p. is an inadvertence (Aud): while the correct

voc.

a voc. p. (IM), as

nion

11^

lIJL

[below]

is that being in the voc.

is

opi-

not one of those (A) per-

missives of government (Sn), because the voc. p. being


peculiar to the
v.

(Aud, Sn)

?i.,

and that the permissive

upon the supplied


CjCL [below]

cannot be an approximative

The

(A).

act.

not govern

the,

<///.

and

the

only the support

qualified, the full phrase

being SL=^

and pass, parts., notwith-

standing their resemblance to the

may

is

to

obj.

v.

in

form nnd sense,

primarily, like the

v. }

because their requirement, and government, of the ag.

and

n?,j.

arc contrary to their constitution, since they are

constituted, as

we

mentioned,
211

to

denote the thing cha

1640

racterized by [the accident denoted by] the inf.

w.,

whe-

ther [such accident be] existing by the thing, as in the

case of the act. part.


the pass. part.

or falling

upon

it,

as in the case of

while the thing so circumstanced requires

neither ag. nor obj. It

therefore prescribed, as a con-

is

dition of their government, that they should be strength-

by the mention of what they are constitutionally


need of, vid. what particularizes them, because they are

ened
in

(1)

constituted to denote a vague thing,[which is]characteri-

zed by the accident [denoted by the inf.

are derived from, [and

is]

preceded by

what particularizes
ing or beaten

or (2)

more appropriate
p. (R).

The

indication,

it,

as

>

by

the

mention of

or

\^f6*

a man beat-

"their occurrence after

act.

part,

is

sometimes known [by some

oral or circumstantial (Sn),] to be


(I A)], in

which case
> >

it is

xJJ O

the government described (IM), as &jfy

its colors,

an ep. of a
entitled to
>

oUUscuo
O

(A kind) varying in

a p.

and neg.

to the v., like the interrog. p.

suppressed [qualified

25.

that they

9*0.0

^^ J^;

n.^\

i. e.,

XXXV

"

oLLo (Aud, A),

whence

Umar Ibn Abl Rabl'a alMakhzumi, referring to


daughter of Marwan Ibn AlHakam, And how many
4

[by
the

(a person)

there

is

in the days

of Mina,

bootlessly

1641

filling his eyes with the

women fair,

like

ing of the pebble

images of ivory, go at eve


!

when

thing of another,

(MN)],

i.

the

to the cast-

e.,

and [similarly (IA)J

Mainmn Ibn

[by AlA'sha

goat) butting a rock one

harmed
(MN)],

it not,
i.

and

the

blj

e.,

Kais, .Lz&e fa

day

to

mountain

mountain

he-

shake

it,

lie-goat

broke his horn

(IA,

And, A), and

J^? [below]

so that he

l*JLb

3^*1*
i.

e., llJliS

part.,

(man) climbing a mountain [above],

lS

&4j L

IM

[48] (Aud, A).

when znenunc.,

or even a

e?.

5.,

says that the act.


is

supported upon
This, how-

the qualified, but that the latter is supplied.

ever, is a forced construction, especially in the case of the


d.

5.,

by a

because the

d.

s.

seldom occurs as a prim, qualified

deriv., as in XII. 2. [77],

subsidiary d.

s.

And

[74] (R).

supplied \interrog. also (A)]


the expressed, as

(Aud, A).

is

which

what

like [support

[above],

named

upon (Aud)]
O

[above],

i.

e.,

>*

,JJL$*|

"
" even
though only constructively
+ s *

is

is

[support upon (Aud)] the

>^.OxO<'>
*J!
Jo^ ^^4*

My saying

is

an allusion

to

[abovrl,

such as *J!

S^dc

1642

[Would

I knew

that

my people would

(whether)

uphold

theexcuse for me, or they wouldbe upbraiding me for lovO

ing (MAd)]
in reply to

and L+A L>li (I saw him) striking 'Amr

"How

sawest

tliou

Zaid?"

for these [act.

parts.} govern because supported upon a supplied [word],


since the o.f.

is

J^e^S" [above],

^Jsb

(Sh).

Thus IHsh's saying refers to

of the

s. 5.;

and

to the inttrrog.
*

inch, also, as L*x

the qualified, inclusive

and apparently

v;^ (^e Z5 )

"Is Zaid striking 'Amr

?, i. e.,

is

'

but not to the

any of the preceding

(A).

Its

of the things mentioned, as

(R), on

MAd).
it

the evidence of

^iJoJT

tions are

only for

prescribed

And

ace. [345] (YS).


o

because (Fk)]

that
its

(IY,

pjts [24,25,345]

^Jfvy^^wu^

explained

Akh

MAd) upon

[24] (Fk,

But here the qual. does not govern an

has already been

^u^

government,

KK and (MAd)]

R, A, Fk, MAd), without support (IY, R,

any

to

y^Lo yo

If not supported upon

allowed by [the

^Amr in reply

striking

the act. part, does not govern

however,

to the

neg. (MAd).

and L?>Lo Jok

jv^!

the

ace.,

while

two condi-

government of the

[there is no evidence in the verse

>s &

^^J ^o

s
*.xx~

is

attributable to hyst.-prot.,

being assumed to be like ^-Jb (KN) in

LXVI.

4.

[24,571] (Fk).

346 A.

The

existence of these two conditions does

mot necessitate government of the act.part.^ which may, on

1643

the contrary, be pre. to its obj. (Fk).

the ag.

(YS)

[nor to the d.

or sp. (YS,

s.

but [only (Sn)] to the

;]

transmitted in JL^\

XX ^\f
X

brother (YS, Sn, UKh), as

MKh)

obj.; or to

~
is

It is not pre. to

the pred., which

/ am about

LM

or the like

IHsh says

be

to

(Sn), because of

resemblance to the obj. [19,97] (YS, MKh).

its

[obj. (I

is

(IA)]

which immediately follows the op.

governed by

in the gen.

LXV.

3.

(Ill)

That

[act.

part.

in the ace. [as a direct obj.]

it

And

by prothesis (Aud, A).

XXXIX.

[44,346] and

his

among

But every other

i.

[obj. (I A,

Fk),

e.,

or

the texts

39. [344] are read

both constructions (Aud, A, Fk)

with

the Seven (Sn).

such as

is

separat-

ed from the qual. (MKh),] must be governed in the

ace. (Ill, Fk), as

0>

,.

U*^

Jo^

.,

^Iajt/5
& *x

Zae'd a

dirham

dirham

to

(I A,

Zaid

A) or

[432]

assumption that J^tU>

is

cX# 27us

man

!jo\

is

giving

>

|^<> (5^*^

giving a

(IA), VI. 96. [345,538] on the

a historic present [below] (A), or,

as some contend, denotes continuity [Note on^>. 346,


*

(Sn),and

Ujb

know Amr
{

**,'

** X

!^ Jo

to be

< >

*X

jjlxx>

Jo^

>

Zaid

is

standing (A), even

if

/.

6]

making Bakr

to

the separative be
*>f o<o

not post, to the qual. (Sn,liKh), whence


frAylj! II.
X

28.

Verily 1

am

about

a vicegerent (And, A, MKh).

to place, in the

If,

which immediately follows [the op.

however, that

actf.

'

^^ ^ tUU* ^
!

earth
[ot>j.]

^ar^.Jbe such as

1644

be interposed between the pre. and post., the other

may

[obj.]

may be governed

its

XIV.

does not notice that,

ed in

it

As

the

(MKh)

[all (Sn)]

for the

which immediately follows

in the ace., unrestrictedly,


(Sn),] as

(^^

[i. e.,

jj^a

mentioned, because

it

is

which

is

inop.

(Sn).

man was
C

^1

>

*>

JLxx>

to

be

(A), not by the act. part.

it

nor by an act. part.

would be

i.

q. the

But Sf allows

mento

it

be

and his opinion


f* o s
xx>
strengthened by their saying U3l? U^JQ\ Jo^ ^Lb y&

governed by the

act.

part, [mentioned]

^ -_,-

is

Jo

know Khalid

to

inop.

supplied, as is said, because

that which

This

giving Zaid yesterday a diram and JjJU*

v.

Di's

must be governed
whether it be one or

tioned,

appears in

(Sn)]

[it

Jo^ ^io**

standing, by an understood

but

inop. [qual],

And

op." (Sn).

U5U making Bakr yesterday

<x#

must be govern-

it

"

does not immediately follow

yen. by prothesis, as intimated by

language (A), since he says

more

48. [1*25]

because

proper place (Sn, MKh).

that [obj.]

C#o ^k**

in the gen., as joC

[below] (Sn, MKli) and

IM

[345],

where C^b must be governed


*

because,

if

first of

and that

it,

the two objs. of the understood

and of the second of the two

ensue

by ^Lb

an accusatival op. were understood for

suppression of the
op.,

in the ace.

i>

is disallowed, since

objs. of ^Lib

would

you may not confine

yourself to one of the two objs. of Jj* [443].

What IM

1645

mentions as

to the

allowability of the two

is in the case of the explicit

the attached pron.,

it

man

it

(Sn)], as

honoring thee (A); though

is

for

in [the place of (Sn)] the

gen. by prefixion [of the qual. to

This

As

[as exemplified].

rc.,

must be

constructions

iLcJLo \j&
in the

is

it

place of the ace. also, as being an obj. in sense.

This

is

the opinion of S and most of the critical judges, and is

by the

indicated

elision of the

Tanwln

^ from

the

But Akhand Hsh

qual. [110, 113, 228, 234, 609] (Sn).

hold

or the

be in the place of the ace. [163], like


09
Q(js9sV*s
in such as aXxiuuo
j^ ^jJl The dirham is such

t\\z

to

pron.

9s

the

Zaid

that

better is to
it,

giving thee it [164], That the ace.


be understood from IM's giving precedence
is

and appears

o. f.

but

Ks

language of

S,

because

it is

to

the

says that the two [constructions] are equal

while prothesis

The

ness (A).

to be the

is

is said to

act.

be better, because of

part. pre.

anomalously separated from

it

to its

by

(1}

obj. is

its light-

sometimes

an adv., as

[by AlAkhtal, the Christian, praising Hishfun Ibn Mutnrrif atTaghiabl, And wontto turn his steed back to the
encounter behind the panic-struck, when not a

woman

X X

is

defended by her husband (AKB)],


an

J'j.

as

.c.

^^'

^-**

i.

e.,

>

cM^^L5^j

giving *Amr the dirham

1646

whence VI.

in the case of the inf. n.,


[above], as occurs

The appos.

138. [125] (R).

of [the obj. governed in

(IA, Fk)] the gen. [by the act. part. (IA, Fk)]

(IA, Aud, A, Fk), which

is

unless some preventive hinder

it,

the proper construction,


c

[112]; though

that

is

as in

allowed by

from him (YS): (2) the

differ

be

the form [of the

in (1) the gen. (Ill, Fk), according to


ant."]

may

'

'

Jo\^

ace.

-o >

C5

y^LiJ!

Mb

and IS

while

S,

55

J^J!

Fk), (a) by

(Ill,

coupling to the place

(IA, Aud, A, Fk), according to

some (Aud, Fk), which

is [said

opinion (IA)

v.

to be] the

general

by subaudition of [an op., vid.

or (b)

by IA

(Fk)]

in the pret., or aor.


(YS), or a qual.

(IA, Aud, Fk)

[pronounced with Tan win (Aud, YS)], according to


(Aud, Fk) which

is

The saying

the truth.

[112, 1738] is related with

Jui

*J|

all

^*\J\

in the gen. or ace.


(IA).

Fk

Aud, though the language of [III and]

only about

is

the ace.

from the allowability of


by subaudition of what has been mentioned, that

the ace.

is

the op. [gwaZ.], one

may

allowable

infer,

when the

qual.

not op. (YS).

is

If

the act. part, be in the sense of the past, as


<ojli ij^o
^

f-

3^5

*'

u***l 0^?)

SRMnnantOflU beating Zaid yesterday and

'Amr, the preferable construction


into the gen., in accordance with
*

ace.,

is

to

the

put the coupled

form

while the

**

L*^ and

by subaudition

(lie

beat]

of a

v\,

Amr

which

[345],

is

is

allowable,

but

expounded by the crude-

1647

form of the
for
is

act. part.,

though the latter does not govern,

which reason the ace.

is

only a pret., in order that

the contrary, as
tras beating

morrow.

!cX

weak but

** *

it

may
Cs

*f.

L*-^

^c\

(J

<X>^

Zaid yesterday, and

But,

if

agree
9

s
I

man

TK'%
i

Amr

to-

the act. part, be in the sense of the

are allowable

[in

whether the

the place, or

by reason of a supplied

ace.

is

put by concord with


op.

but,

if

it

of a supplied op., as is the opinion of S,

the act. part, should be supplied rather than the

order that the supplied and the

pond (R).

with

<X#

(will beat)

tioned] as to

by reason

v.

though concord with the form [of the ant.]


and here remains the dispute [above men-

the appos.]
better

supplied

[in time]

'

<^lo

present OT future, the ace. and gen

is

that

be something indicative of

the exponent, unless there


* s

Aud

may

then
v.,

in

corres-

hence

(R, IA, A), by Ta'abbata Sharri

Art thou going

expressed

be

to

(K,Bon XXVI.

38),

send Dinar for our need, or 'Abd

Eabb, or or (wilt thou send) Abd Rabb, the brother


of Amr Ibn .Mikhrak ? (MN, N, AKB), or (O)
4

brother, etc t

(N,

AKB),

cited

by S

(R),

with J^li in

the ace., by coupling to the place of sLL^ (IA,A),


is

a man's name (A)


julj1 (IA).

or

by subaudition of a

Z means by
212

which
v.,

i.

his exposition

e.,

of

1648

tnat

343).

IM

y u cou i)le

wlien

to

governed by a supplied op. (IY on


says that there is no need to supply an

the ace.

>

is

accusatival op. other than the op. of the

ant.

but

the condisays that one should be supplied (A), because


tion of coupling to the place, according

to

him,

is

the

existence of the requirer of that place, which here is

governs the ace. only


pronounced with Tan win, or conjoined with

non-existent, since the act. part,

when
Ji

it is

or pre. to one

^1*3

in

L+j

the ace. in

of its
*

<>s

v;^

Jop

Jo^

is

part,

objs.

so

that

is

[848 f 538]

requirer of

not a

but of the gen. (Sn). And, according to

S's saying (A), sonic


act.

two or more

**

supply a

v. (I A,

in the sense of the v m

original op. (A)

and some an

A,) because the

(IY), which is the

act. part,

pronounced

with Tanwin (IY, A), indicated by the expressed (IY),


for the sake of correspondence

sed and expressed (Sn).


is

YS

preferable [as

to the mentioned,

term

is less

(YS, Sn).

(A) between the suppres-

But subaudition of the qual.

says (Sn)],

because

it

corresponds

and because suppression of the single

[violent (Sn)] than suppression of the prop.

The

truth,

however,

is

that the coupled is put

into the ace. according to the sense [426, 538] of the ant.,

because

it is

like

v>Jf

is

an

obj.,

and Tanwin

^Sb^f i^L^J

is

in the

meant

so that this

case of the inf. n.

[340]

there

And,

if

oj

inop., a v.

as VI, 96.
the ace*
i.

cXxfc

Were

in the gen., it

[538] (Aud, A),

[to

(A), unless J^L*. be

would be allowable

govern the ace. (A)],

where ^IxcJl

by subaudition of a

is

governed in

not otherwise (Aud),

v.,

and (He hath made)


assumed

(IY).

however, the qual. be

If,

must be understood

pJ! yL+jjl Ju^>j

e.,

in the ace. is expres-

it

no need to supply a suppressed

is

nay, preferable (Sn).

and, since what governs

sed,

(A)

1649

the sun, etc.,

be a historic present

to

[above] (Aud, A), in which case the ace.

allowable by

is

coupling to the place of the gen., because the qual.

then op., and there


op.,

is

except according

But the dec.

is

no need to understand an accusatival


to the

in the act.

preceding saying of S (Sn).


[after the op.

stronger, because the general rule

act.

part.]

is

for the act. part, to

is

be pronounced with Tanwin, and govern the ace. (IY).

And

the appos* of the ace.

may

not be governed in the


^

yen<

though the Bdd allow

it,

relying upon

>

s s

slgJb J^Iai

|JH7,&38] (YS).

346B. The act. part, and

direct obj.
*s

OoJ

&

'

v;^

may

inf.. n.

self-trans, to the

be supported by the J [343,504], as Qf


<"

^ am beating Zaid and JoJ

'*

vJU_o

&

(5Ax^-tl

Thy

bfitniy Zaid surprised me, because they are weak by


reason of

tin -ir

subnnlinutimi to

tlic

v.,

as the

?;.,

when

1650

preceded by the ace.,

be supported by the J

may

[498,504] and v^I^i

43.

Cl

y>L

Zai'd ^5 beating

*^>

Amr

as XIT.

You say

(R).

[504]

jly

or

jvjj

being

allowed the option of making the act. part, trans, by


itself or

by the prep., because

like of that is [said


v.,

as

<xj

vIJp.

weakness

of its

[to be] allowable in the

by IY] not

Kur has XXVI.

the

but the

19. [201],

LXXXV. 16.

being made trans, by

itself

being made

by the J (IY). [According

trans,

but

however,] that [construction with the

the v.

[31], the v.
to

Mb

though best

v.~\,

when

the obj. is prepos., because the

when

the J has already governed, as XII. 43. [above],

is

good Arabic when the

v.

then comes only

obj. is postpos., as

XXXIX.

the chaste dials, being comprised in


[413], all

and the

GG

say that

XXVII.

while Kuthayyir says #J\

[construction]

because

it

is

74. [504]

^3 Jo

peculiar to the J

* X

S X X

by the

such as

[503] (B).

o^

because

it

'

X
,

all the

That
prep$.

appropriate to

the

but the act. part, and

<5^>, |%ls

may

is

Kur

only pC/^,

[504] (Mb).

among

[imports peculiarity, which

connection, of the v. with the obj.


inf. n. of

is

the

14.

and

J^^

are supported

be red. with their

vs. also

THE PASSIVE PARTICIPLE.


.

The

347.

inf. n. of (Sh,

is

pass. part,

Fk)] a

to

#.,

what

derived from [the

is

denote the person [or thing

(YS)] whereon the act falls (IH, Sh, Fk), like

btaten and
is

honored [below] (Sh, Fk). Thus


denote something or nther, whereon beati

^JCc

applied to

The

ing falls (YS, MAd).

what

defined as]

(Aud, A), like

indicates

^r^

>

allc^

fr*-*

tril. \v.

[above] (Aud).
att.

WIH,

Aud, Sh, A, Fk),

Oy**

broken

^^Xo

N^Lo bound

(IH

^J^> [above]

(Sh),

>

and

and intrans., like j^J^ J^Joo entered upon

(Tsr), and

hence

upon the mea-

intended (IA, Aud, A),


xx

known

The pass.

IM, Sh, Fk), regularly (IA), univer-

sally (IM), from the trans. (Tsr), like

killed

is

obj.

unangmented

(TsrJ,

Tar)]

its

x-

give of J^juU (IH,

I A,

[otherwise

an accident and

part, of the [whole (R), plastic,

(WIH, Aud, Jm)]

is

pass. part,

&j

>

"

A^O ,soW and

(Tsr)]^o

And

^^x> passed by [below] (IA, Aud, A).

.<?7io#

JyLo

5zW

[709],

and

[^-eJoc

ca^erfand

[722], except that they are altered (Aud,


a

>

>

>

A) from the shape of J^jUx?, lcin^or?^.^uuo and J^yi*, and


"
and (Tsr)]
[ l^ju*
(Tsr, Sn).
By tril." [in his
saying

"

^^

Tlic pass. part, of the

the plastic (A), and so in his

19

tril.

(Sn)]

saying" The

IM mcana
act.

part.

1652

[derived] from [the inf. n. of] the [unaugmented] triL


9

[v.] is

formed upon the measure of

aplastic,

J^U"

[343]; for the

and IjuandyLlj
^A!C [459], gill [447],
X

like

[468], is excluded, no act. or pass* part, being obtainable

from

Analogy requires that the pass, part*


should be on the measure of its aor., like the act. part.
it

(Sn).

as <-+>&

[343],

"

beaten pass*part.,
of the
Os

Hamza

ff

was beaten, aor. v^v^

ydx>
the

in

is,

or will be,

beaten', but, since the elision

cat. of juijl [428] leads

them

to

JuUx>

they intend

distinction.

triL,

to alter

They

one of the two, for the sake of

therefore alter [ike pass. part, of] the

where alteration takes place

part., because

[in the triL],

in its fellow, the act.

though the act part,

is

like

theaor.in [arrangement of] vowelsandquiescences without


restriction [of sort], still the
is

augment

[of the act. part.],

not in the position of the augment [of the aor.], nor are the
>

vowels of most act. 2^arts* like its vowels,


9

kelp, act. part,

"

^ob

>

helping, and

asy^helps or Witt

x x x

cX*aEkj

praise, act. part. JooL^ praising

praises, orwill

whereas in

act. part, is like its aor. in the position of the

and

in the nature of tbc vowels.

They

J^tif the

augment,

alter the pass,

part, of the triL by adding the ^ and then pronounce the


;

with

Fat!?, to avoid

by a

.
,

which

is

a succession of two

pammas

..

followed

heavy, rare, as in j.yto [252, 379],

1653

bodkin used in applying collyrium

yLH

The pass. part,

[253, 396].

to the

of the

eye, and

tril.,

after the

alteration mentioned, remains quasi-conformable to its v.


[252], because the

the

Damma

of the

the predicament of the

is in

impletion, as

inj^kjU^j! [497]

is supplied

while

from

letter arising

But JuyJ [some-

(R).
6

>

times (Aud)] acts as a substitute for


indication
JjjJuo [in
of its sense (IA) and is then of common gender (IA,A)],
;

as JucsO"

and J^s^

15**

a youth, and a damsel,

sUcs

ha ving the edges of the eyelids blackened with collyrium


(IM),

and^j^ wounded (I A, Aud," A), JuOS killed(IA,

A),

anointed with
^

and

oil,

^ ^sJ
5

A)

in

(IA,

But

[IM

says

is

J^

been

has
i

q.

its

consent

(IA,

consent

to

frequency (A)]
A).

But

^ye^xj

that

regular,

is

is

q.

this,

being

(I A)]

(IM).
(IA,

BD
BS,

but [notwith-

not regular, by
assertion

and

(Tsr)]

frequent

Arabs (A)

[his

that requires

(IA),

transmitted

Jyt^o"

the

the language of

standing

[not

i.

O^ox

x-

Jycix)

what
A),

"

Tsr),

[though frequent (Tsr),]

says

>

<IA,

(Tsr).

confined to

^.^ cast away (Aud),


O

<

of

common

common

consideration, because

(IA)]

said [by his father in the Tasini not to be regular,


"
"contrary to the opinion of some (I A, A), which plainly
it

is

indicates

;i

dispute

A)

and

in the

CT

to

be held by some

1654

in the case of the


(IA,A)] to be regular
i.

as
Jctli [343] (IA, Aud, A),

q.

the
(Tsr, Sn), not of

v.

^^ was

have

\,Sn),]

A),

Jooii
i.

q.

i.

J^-J

q.

;*>ls

and ^fp

&*f* (IA, Sn) and Juas


r

that has JuuJ

as uXjfuaw potent and

i.

fJJjf

Hl^lo

mercijul, [which two

and

like
^>jj>

is

that juuJ acts as a substitute for

i.

>

IM

[means

J^ [often

J^JLOXJ

in indication [of its

sense (IA)], not in government (IA,A) and


;

seldom, as ^-?3

^jjii

in indication
JyuLt only

kixj

q.

strange, as in

of its sense: for he (A)] says in the Tasini,


for

vs.

j*x^ (And,

But ocXS

i,Tsr).

j&3 [346A, 538] (BS).

a substitute
(A)] acts as

(IA, Tsr),

J^U

q.

meaning cooked in the cooking-pot,


.s3\

that has no Jou

v.

Jots

animal for slaughter,

Joi/,

(jaJ

and

game,

and iivc quantity scooped up in the hand (A): and,


according to this, you do not say a<x^

making

f>3.f*

govern

s<Xx* in the

nom.

^-f^ ^T* ^7*


;

>

but others plain-

construction to be allowable (IA).


The
ly declare this
other (IH, IM, Sh, Fk) than the
pass. part, of any [v.']

[unaugmented (WIH,IM,Jm)]

tril.

WIH,

IM, E, Jm)

is

in the form of the aor.; but has a ^ pronounced with


Pamin (Aud, Sh, Fk), in place of the aoristic letter

(Aud,

Sh) at

its

beginning (Fk), as in the act. part. [343] (Tsr);

1655

and has the penultimate pronounced with Fath (Tsr,


Fk): or. you may say, it (Aud) is in the form of
but has

the act. part.]

with Fath (IH, IM),


constructively, as

the

literally, as

?lttu>

pronounced

penultimate

J^Joo introduced, or

chosen (WIH), because

pronounced in the aor. whose government

by the pass, part.,


is

so

exercised

is

vid. the aor. in the pass, voice (R).

formed from the trans., in which case

it

It

needs no adjunct
.-

A) and

(Tsr), as _ls2uL*A> extracted (IH, Aud, Sh,

ju awaited (IM)

brought out (Sh), like

contended with in beating (IA)


in

which case

and

1.

and [from the intrans.,

needs an adjunct (Tsrj,] as KJ (jjljolo

it

And

departed with (Aud).

-ciJ!

(5
O

'

s *

>

"&

C^AJUO!

meaning /

doubled the thing, pass. part, oyudx doubled,


O

malous (R).
9 s*

But

>

for JjiA*

boiling

as

it,

ano-

sometimes acts as a substitute

J^AAJ

.o^

is

of.

/ thickened

the

honey by

pass. part. &+&. thickened, and

^^J? &JU!

Juwju'l

v^JJi^l

7%e disease sickened him, pass. part. Jul^ sickened,


n ^
i.

e.,

2 -

>

jui'^o

and

Jouo

formed from the


n

then,

h)trvn*., exeejit

made trans, by a prep.,


O

ofy.,

The

(Tsr).

as

>

"^

ju;^o

like

the

is

not

after the latter

lias

^a5.9.

since the intrant, lias no

[above] or
v.,

is

U^

neither

part,

or

dualised

contrary to the pass. part, formed from


213

or

,j^j

and

it

nor pluralised,
tlie

trans. (Fk).

1656

If the

be trans., the 2}ass * part, is formed from

v.

without restriction of & prep.


then, if

the

but, if

v.

be intrans.,

be not trans, by means of a prep., H\Q pass.

it

part., like the ^ass.

not be formed from

may

v.,

the

must have a

attribute

^jo 3

not said

is

2}rrP'>

by a

but, if

P ass

ne

may

part,

>

subject, so that ^>yc juo

be trans, to a #en.

it

since

it,
*

>

like

governed

be formed from
^x^0

when

it

attributed to the prep, and gen., as jJLJ!

it,

'

^1

^~wu

"-'Ox

/ journeyed

And

to.

journeyed

its direct obj.

a prep., as i^yU!

^v

shot from, the


their saying
&j

^!

JyiAj!

act is done

mentioned
&

as

Ucu^

v^*/>

auJ[

~o

ouuc

J^jLa+J!

it,

and

is

made

XX

trans,
X*

[508]

by
<l

pass. part.

being the person.

And hence

^!

T7ie

passive participle,

i. e. y

>

<j-

$Ao

e^o

part.

'

so In the ease of a trans, that has

suppressed from
* ^"-C

country, 2}ass

the

to

noun denoting

TVie

the

to,

Jf*Ju)

the

person that the

act done being the inf.

n.,

as

we

If the intrans. be attributed to an adv.,

[39].
x-o x

9 *

VAA*,

j.jJ!

T7ie present

of a league

on, to the extent

day has been journeyed

[436], the pass. part, is not

with the prep., the present


applicable to the adv., except
O

day being
league
^jci.

aui

wu*x>

journeyed on, and similarly the

but, if the v. be attributed to the inf. n., as

wj>-o ^.

Aarc beating was beaten [436], the

1657

part,

not applicable to the latter, so that you do not say

is

that the

hard beating

2wrt. governs like

is

its v.

(KN) in

the pass, voice, putting

the pro. og. into the nom., as sju*e

such that his slave

beaten, like

is

The pass.

beaten (R).

Vjr"**

vj;^ ^) Zaid is
sju^ C>o and the
;

other regs. into the ace., literally or constructively (Fk).

All (BI) the conditions laid


of

down

for [the

government

Sh, Jm, Fk)] the act. part, are [equally

(WIH, R,

to [the

(BI)] applicable

government of (WIH, R, Sh, Jm,

Fk)] the pass. part. (IH, IM, Sh, Fk), which, therefore,
be with

[if it

governs unrestrictedly; and,

Jl,

if

not,

governs on condition of being supported, and of denoting


the present or future (IA, And, A)

and,

when

it

fulfils

sense

all those conditions (A),] is like the pass.

v.

in

[and government (IA, Aud, A): so that,

v.

be trans.

to

one

the pass

obj.,

as a

as

pro-ag.,

/,/>/''////'/

or three

nom. as
*

s * ^

objs.,
a
^

cunt> at

s *

ag.,
*

;]

if

ia

the nom.

Vjr^ <^ Zaid

is

such that

and,

if

the

part,

v.

be trans, to two

one in the

governs

and the rest

in the ace. (A;J, as

^'

^kau'l

//'

that

/s

////'

/i

a sufficiency

[M), where ^kiLtoantH ins a jpron. relating

conjunct (A, Tsr)]


>

in

the pass.

pro.
*

Ulft^

^Jo

In <if< 'ii

/.s*

the
it

governs

part,

>&

Sj.?!

if

J! (I

A, And, A V and lu-ino-

nom. as a pro-ag. (IA,


the

second

(I \.

A), which

And.

A.),

is

and

is

to;"tlic,

n the [jdar,'

the first obj.,

as

JJM

jo^

1658

; (/

L^

>SU>

&ft0w

'

Zaid

Sjj|

Amr

to be

^5

such that A/s father

There

standing (A).

is

wa<^e to

^5

nothing in the

language of the ancients, which indicates that the present


or future is prescribed as a condition for the pass. part.

but the moderns, like

and later authorities, distinctly

declare that to be prescribed

act. part, in

n.

for

it,

But the pass, part,

[345] (R).

as for the

act part.

is [dissociated

from the

being (Aud)] sometimes pre. [below]

governed [by

it

(IA, Aud, A, Fk)]

the

in

to the

nom. in

sense (IM, Fk) after (1) transfer of the attribution [from


that n. (Aud, A)] to a pron. relating to the n. qualified

(Aud, A, Fk) by the pass. part. (Fk), and


of the former n. in the ace.

by assimilation (Aud, A)

is

praiseworthy in hi s pur suits (IM),

<XoUx>

I A,

Aud, A) with [<xJJLo governed in (A)] the

nom. (A, Tsr) as a pro-ag. (A)


with the ace. v Aud, A)

from the nom.

>

'

vid. the

Jl

>

which then

put as a compensation

according to the opinion of the


^'0<0

then

then JooUjl
d^Js^o

fx

becomes latent in t^+^uo, while


it,

the attribution being transferred

to the post, pron.,


6

for

orig.

x^

x x

to

<XoUjT 3 J-saJ Lj( The

the [direct (A)] obj. (A, Tsr), as

pious

government

(2)

KK

[599] (Tsr)

<XoUJ! 4>^^oo with the

</en.

(Aud, A).

And,

in that case, the pass. part, is treated like the assimilate

ep. [348] (Fk).

But that

is

not allowable in the act.

1659

part.

so that

meanin^

!jo\

*'

(1)

he intimates by his saying


times pre." [above]
(a)

when

meaning
[not

"

nom., as

its

But the pass. part,

some-

is

though that require analysis

for

the act. part, is intrans., and subsistence of its


is

intended,

it is

be^7*e. to

its

nom.

like the assimilate ep.

treated

upon the measure of the

act. part.

[after transfer

explained (Sn

and may

(Sn)],

of the attribution, as

before

whose

the dissociation of the pass. part, from the

part, in the allowability of prefixion to

act.

man

IM's language necessarily implies two

[below] (MKh).
things:

^H v;^

I have passed by a

^>>Lo

->!

!<X^

beating Zaid (IA), according to the majority

is

father

you do not say


*^

"/

^\

in the

on the principle of &:^JT

^^^

],

as iJSt

^5(3 Jo^

with
9

nom.,
[350]

ace.,
:

(b)

or gen.,

when
to

(a) according
treated,

the act. part, is trans, to one [obj.], then,

IM, who agrees with F,

it is

similarly

upon condition of freedom from ambiguity,

from the chance that prefixion

to

the

ag.

may

[i.

e.,

be miso ^

for prefixion to
Jltej

JJLJ^I!

and oppressive

j^lp

in

sons are merciful,


it

of

the context
the

the

obj.; so

Zaid
his

and

merciful

his

in
1

servants,

meaning

sons,

that

his

his servants opprc >>/>/-, then,

import praise

servants, the

is

that if you say ju\

phrase

of the
is

son*, and

blame

allowable, because the

1660

context indicates that the prefixion is to the ay.


but
if not, it is not allowable (Sn)] (6) the majority [above]
disallow this construction, [unrestrictedly] : (c) some
;

make

a distinction, saying that, if the obj. of the pass.


part, be suppressed for the sake of brevity, this construction is allowable,
[because the act. part, thus

becomes like the intrans.


this [opinion] is preferred

accords with

it,

(Sn)]

and, if not, not

and

by IU and IAR and hearsay


;

as

The merciful of heart is not an oppressor, even if


he be oppressed ; nor is the generous a curmudgeon,
even if he be rebuffed (MN) (c) when the act. part.
:

trans, to more [than one obj.], it may not be co-ordinated with the assimilate '7?., without dispute, say some :
is

that [construction] to
(2) the peculiarity of

the

intrans.

pass. part., which is the one formed from [the inf. n. of


the ft;. trans, to one obj., as is intimated by IM in his
1

declared by him elsewhere than in


this book while, as for the trans., the preceding observations on the trans, act. part, are applicable to it (A).

and

ex.,

is distinctly
;

says in the Tasini "The act. part., if subsistence


of the meaning be intended, is treated like the assimilate

IM

and the soundest opinion


[formed from the inf. ?i.] of the
ep.

that the

is

one obj.
If the pass. part, be pre.

belongs

to this cat.'

(Tsr).

[v.~]

trans
a

to its reg.,

whether a pro
9 9

'

ag., as

**>

'

pas s. part.

in

to

o^

zf,

v^r*

ptJ^sJ!

[ 349 ]

c ''

Jo\
or not, as in XJO^A
+&jd Jajuo

Zaid

is

such that his

0^0

servant

is

given a dirham,

i.

#0*^

Uj^taax)

its prefixion,

1G61

is

But,

improper [111].

prefix ion

is

if it

be not pre. to

respect of the sense, as in

hi )n

pi ni

?s

his slayer!

(R

in

Ox-

the

25

<**<*

vjr^

Jyt&i p^JLlT

AlHusain (peace

co-ordination of

with the assimilate ep.

is

be

&od abase

At faff*

slain of

f/*e

The

)*.+.

>

>

or not, as in our saying

aJJ! ^fU*! uikJl

i'

11

its

whether the post, be an ag.

proper,

beaten of ''Amr

its reg.,

the pass. purt.

when

allowable only
O

>

on

is

it

measure, vid. the measure of JytA^ from the


and the measure of the aor. in the ^;Y.S,?. voice from

its original
//v7.,

the non-tril.

be transmuted from that [measure]

for, if it

to Ju^3 or the like, such

co-ordination

not allowable,

is

[from dislike to the multiplicity of alteration (Sn


f

>x->"xx-

x-

that &xxt Juc\5" Jo*,o


* "*
>x
;'

v^>>yo

'

indeed allows

it

O^.

import that

&jLct

but
>

or

y>

it

*
x-o!
x-

"^

J^-o
"x-

is

f^.

These

so,

allowable

and

because the pass. part, mentioned

this
i?

x-

<*

>

*X X

I passed by a
as *4=*j ^j-~~ J^rJ
^>;r*
Xx-

acc, by prefixiou of

ireak [860]

(&\\.)

<j.*+*>

to

&-o!

J^AAX

obviously

is

treated like the

assimilate cp., in which that [construction


'

cxs.

man

passed by a

having his eye blackened with collyrium or


is

IU

not said.

>*ix-x-

J^Xo J^j ^j /

killed by his father

,]

--

needs hearsay (A).

fcx-

so

is

allowable,

man fair

in

///s

x-

&^.^

although

that is

THE ASSIMILATE EPITHET.


The

348.

assimilate ep.

is

that [n.

(WIH)] which

is

derived from [the inf. n. of (R)] an intrans.

to

denote the person, [or thing (Jm,)] whereby [the acci-

dent denoted by the inf.

of] that

n.

the sense of subsisting (IH),


(R), not of

inseparable

is
X

by

it,

\j*~=* [below],

an

logically

a*/.,

[below], in

being continuous and


It is

as

transferable to the pron.


>

x-

x^^

,-

S*X

,j-*^ Jo\ Zaid

with

in] the

[&^

since the

is

beauti-

The

ful in his face, with the ace. or gen. [350].

*4^;

[349J

originating [349] (Jm).

every ep. whose attribution


of the n. qualified

e.

i.

v. exists

v.

o.f. is

nom., because

it is

beauty really belongs only

to

the face: but, meaning to intensify, you transfer the attrix

bution to theorem.
o/Jo)* Zata,

making Zaid himself

beautiful

and put the *=j face afterwards, as a comple-

ment, governing
obj. [below]

it

in the ace.

by assimilation

and, after that,

prothesis, in

you may govern

which case also the

gen.

by

late,

because the gen., according

is

educed from the

ace., not

of the thing to itself [120]

to the direct

to the

it

in the

ep. is assimi-

soundest opinion,

from the nom.,

lest prefixion

be entailed, since the ep.

is

always identical with its nom., [because the face is


identical with the beautiful (MAd),] and different from
its

ace.

[trans,

(Sh).
to

The

one obj.

ep.

assimilated to the act. part,

(Aud)]

is

an ep. whose

putting

1663

(Aud)] logically an ag. into the gen.

is

[what

able (IM), as

*z*y$\

is

approv-

beautiful in the face [below]

^j*+s

99^xOx*'*
governed

in

the ag. into the gen.]


*

O x

<>

you do not say L^c ^^! u^vd

^uc/

such that hi* father

t5

part, trans, to one obj.

act.

This [putting of

[350].

not allowable in other ep$.

is

^^^

tXj)
?'s

*
.

>

is

K^^

& s '

nom by

the

J 9 &

^**z> [above], where

4^

(LA, Aud), orig.

>

>

for
x

meaning L+^ s^l y^Lo

beating 'Amr, [since the


not be pre. to

may

according to the majority, even

if

its a#.,

subsisting be intended

because this prefixion might be mistaken for pre~' O *


C^-0
X
meanfixion to the o?y
(MKh)]; nor \&
p3\J

by

it,

ing |J^

^Sis

sjjj

fi

^\

Zazd

such that

e*5

fo's

Jo^

father will be

standing to-morrow (IA),becausethee*wrans. [act. part^\

may

not be pre,

ed by

it.

Ho

its ag.~]

when originating

the intrans. act. part,

an assimilate ep.

is

being then unrestrictedly applicable to


part,

>

>tf

5jj! jiSui

J^

it

the connected

may govern
x

intend-

however, continuance be intended by

If,

act.

is

this

Ijja TAe's

(MKh). For the


in

the worn., as

z*3

raara

qualify

whose father
the

man

is

stand-

by the act

of another, because of the connection between the

when

the act.
*

ep. in]

name

ing [145], where you

and,

it,

intrans.,

two

and

governing the connect r


part, resembles the cat. of [the assimilate
'*

**r

<!

^^^

the act [from

[above]

so

that you

may

transfer

the ag.] to the qualified, and afterwards


214

1664

prefix the act. part, explicatively to


> ,
tfo-o
~,
<

what was an ag,

^\

saying

pZ\j>

^^

2Vus

jj^a

es

man

wlio^Q father

standing^ where ^SU contains a pron.


o

in the

your saying \Jy\

father

is

9tfxO-o

man

as

is

proved by

7%zs

fe+jU 8Lx>l aj^

zs

woman

whose

standing, where the femininization of JUoU

a proof of what

we have

it

n<m., relating to the J^,


f-o^

governed by

t's

said

is

And, as before

(1Y).

mentioned [347], the pass. part, may by pre. to the n.


-0>^flox
T
1'
in the now. by it, as (.Jy\
[or?,#.J governed
^>^o Juv
'

Zaid

beaten in respect of father, [provided that continuance be intended (MKh),] it being then treated like
is

the assimilated ep.

a one
c-o

they say J jjf;j+**' ,j^*

such that /us abode

is

Cf

And

I A).

inhabited and*

is

>

^ i5

^
and

servants

are well

trained,

y>cs>

x^lJc:^

the
ujJyo [347] treating

&^Jf

^>*AO

is criticised

>ass.

part.

above (IY).

The

by BD on the ground

that appro vability of prefixion to the ag.


for the definition,
ep.,

and

is

not suitable

differentiation, of the

because the knowledge of it

is

defines the assimilate ep. as that

intrans.
[the inf.n. of (Sn)]an
to [the

v.

assimilate

dependent upon know-

an assimilate ep.
ledge of the word's being

of the accident

e. r

>

like [the assimilate ep. in

definition[last]mentioned

i.

which

is

And

he

formed from

to import attributability

person^ or thing denoted by] the


t

1665

n. qualified

by that

[351] (A).

When you

without importing the sense


of originating, and which does not denote superiority
ep.,

[below],

it

say

,^M^

means that beauty

is

e>x-

Ziid

Jo\

is

affirmable of him,

continuing in all the times of his existence


it is

beautiful

the assimilate ep.


so also

is

that, as

not constituted to denote originating,

not constituted to denote continuing in all

it is

because origination and continuity are res-

the times,
trictions

is

not that

novel originating (Fk). But what I think

and

on the

which

ep., of

it

contains no indication.
8 * x

For, by constitution, such a word as

^^^ beautiful means

only possessing beauty, whether in one, or all, of the times

and the

expression

contains no

The

therefore,

restriction.

quantity

ep.,

common

to

indication

of either

properly denotes the

both of them

vid.

qualifiability

by beauty unrestrictedly but, since that is unrestricted,


and not appropriate to one time more than another, while
:

it

may

the times, because


you
so
it must occur in some
that
affirmability,

not be negatived in

predicate

its

time, therefore

it is

all

apparently afflrmable in all the times,

unless there exist some context indicative of

when you say

arity to one of them, as

This
i_:_.^

is

man was beautiful and


He

only

continuity

is

beautiful

peculi-

^1 U*

then became ugly,

will become beautiful, or

now

its

so that

^^^ k*

its

apparent sense of

not const ilutional (R). Its

ll'.'ront

1666

from that of the


in

act. part.,

(WIH, Jm)]

[varying

accordance with hearsay, as

^Ls^ beautiful,
and
jojJo severe (IH). The assimilate
hard,

not regular, like the act. and pass, parts, as

SH

[the following extract from] the


>^

upon the measure of

larly

'

v.

[the

(external)

ep.,

6Ze'm

and
*

white,
o/*

[derived]

and

(Jrb),]

Ox

like (RV|

one
from

(1)

^P colic
G

is

on the

-^3 joyful, mostly (SH),

[and even] regularly in the case of

pam

occurs regu-

00

(jdjo!

or appearanr.es

defects,

measure of (a) [JaJ

in

on the measure of JjJ with Kasr

9 ^

like

shown

was joyful, (a) when not denoting colors,

(R), such as 'vj


";

is

>

assimilate

whose pret.

is

Jowl in the case of colors

tf

having wide black eyes and ^c!

The

it

ep.

f.

external defects, like j^*! &Zac& and

[below] (R).

but

is

^^o

(/3)

(a)

internal ailments,

internal defects akin

'"

B ' ^

B * *

%W

such as jJo meanness,


y^? ill-nature
niggardliness) and the like (y) excitement and levity,

to ailments,

other than Aeaf o/

^e

inside and

repletion,

like

r J exhaling a strong odour, ^^LiinsoJence,^] [327,331]


jj^. gladness,

ly

[331],

J-U pregnancy,

and JLL,

continence of urine (R) the assimilate ep. is mostly


derived from the v. whose pret. is pronounced with Kasr
:

t?i

of the
ed]

and,

when [derived] from

with Kasr of the

(Jrb)

it, is

mostly [pronounc-

but in some instances

1667

Pamm

occurs with Kasr, as

^Ju

*&> wary,

intelligent,

and J^xi hasty [below] (SH), all three with Damm and Kasr

(MASH)

(b)

[jLj

like

(R, Jrb)j *^L*safe (SH), in the

case of what ought to have JJLJ

while

jwJLv

is

made

but

and

sordid

and

&

[ Jjt3

like

(Jrb)]
:

JLI

is
O
[

vjUT^ ^A^iJt

_AJuJ intelligent,
*

wretched (R)

(S

like

[368] (SH), as in tradition ouuJl


^txj* &JUf

the redupli-

&

yJLZ perverse
(e)

in

the defective belonging to the

like^jtf^^s and

^ free

(Jrb)]

in

medicine,

ill',

the regular

jdj^jo

mostly occurs

skilled in

v^-k
*

cat. of the

JUUL*

and odj*.x

sick

p+JL

Ox

cated, like
(j^uivy^

as

with

to accord

form being
jJL*

(d)

jjj

(c)

like

(Jrb)]

Jy^M

<j.

Verily thehouse emptiest ofgood

empty of the book of God most High(3rV):(f)


O
the Jh gives wasc. and
like ( Jrb)
<}*. jealous (SH)

the house
9

'

JJAJ

**

fern. *}*. jealous, pi. masc. and/em.,

>x*

xfc

^^^',

[246] and masc.


;

masc.
Fath and
^?^.
^^& with
^\^ jealous, fern. ^^ xxx
x
Damm ofthe^,^./em. ^^ (J r^) (^)(j^*' P>tow], re,

>

"

gularly in the case of (a) Olxx>! repletion,


O xx

71655,

(^8)

^drinking

one's fill)

^>^ hunger,
Ox-

and

Acaf o/ fAe inside, like yiJaA thirst,

^cJL anger, and J^J (R)

(b)

Jl drunken8x x
.xxi

satiety;

^*>

when denoting

hunger,
colors,

1668

(
x x

blackness and \jcto whiteness

[like &\y

* x

blindness of one eye and


^4^ blindness

>j

appearances,

[like

<_^ hairiness,
Ox x
JLo

a x x

larkness of belly, and

jv^ajfi

on the measure of

larly (R)]

masc. and /em.

(a) hence the blind

this defect
x*

327]

is

internal
9x*0

(6) *ks!

not used, but

of heart
x

>

maimed and

is

is

and

is

i'1l'
and

p;

xff

appearances, as

c*x-&

'

and

though these are

<Xsxxj

>

^*

i"
^^

>xtf

ys^l

from which

(c) Jj^t some-

and

timid,

xC

jj^Jij

and

Ox

and so Jow
X

the case of external defects and


>

x of.

and &juz\ having shaggy hair,

Ox
humpbacked, XstXTand
x

>

.JJI turbid,

and

>

in the sense
>

fxO'fi

^"^^

having a protuberant chest

(jMxil

mentioned [above

x*ft

and Jowl

for the latter],

>x*x

OX

^Ux* thirsty and


:

Ox

substitute for J^xi

is

Sx

and tju^ stupid


X

LjtX^-l
>

AjJfi!

said,

Joii! in

as

as

called

Ox

similarly ^s.^^!

and

is

an internal defect, so that the regular form

encroaches upon

upon

Joi3

because

mutilated are

Ox

whioh

in the ^?a55. voice,

^loiLo

times encroaches upon

called

^tXa.!

Oox

>Z.

XC

6/md of eye

while the

and j^.
^

Iki'

the regular form

Axi

*3CjJ

/e?7i.

[above], ,^| [above],

jy*,t

as though formed from


and
^Xa.
^JoS

Ox

[regu-

having a clear space between the eyebrows

^JL?I

^^t

(R), like

is

"Of.

(Jrb)

(SH),
t

X *

Jk*3

^^ hairless,

baldness (R),]

Joii!

and

external (R)]

G"

defects, [like
(R),] or

>
,

as a
^^Lxi sometimes acts

like ^jUxiA

angry, the regular form

1669

being ^^Lfc
^

anger is an exciteme nt but that is only

since

because heat of the inside

mostly inseparable from

is

Ox

Ox

anger: and they say ^SLsLcand J^LC A a sty, J^t [above]


O

from regard to the unsteadiness and levity, and ^^SJLC


from regard to the/jea of the inside in short, since the
:

three [measures] mentioned approximate [in sense] one


to another, they sometimes participate one with another,

and sometimes act as substitutes one


9

they say ,jl-^ [below] of a cup when

are not used, but

ifc

and ota3
half full, though ^>3
'x

is

**

^G> and

v_ko3

with the sense,

accord,

(d)

nearly full,
^

and ^Uxaj when

ep.

it is

another

for

i.

making the form of the

e.,

repletion

j!cli

(e)

occurs in the sense of the assimilate ep., denoting unrestricted qualifiability by [the accident denoted by]

derived from, without the sense of origination

tuhatit is

in this cat. or

any other, although jLcb orig. denotes

Ox

afraid,
origination [331], as yili*
*
*jL^ hungry (R)

nounced with

(2)

Damm

from [the

of the

mostly

(b)

JJ,

like

^11 [239,

like (R)]

() Jii

lik, ]

[J-uis

(R)]

^L

"jLc htrd:

whose

j^retf. is

pro-

(d)
(f)

is

Ox

**

(a)

343]

g (Jrb), such as pJ$ [331 j,


O

upon the measure of

v.

angry, and

ioi*L

like

(R)J vJ.J'[246],

[239, 343]

jJa

JLii

like]

(c)

like]

[Jii

[above]:

^CI

[246,

1670

343]

(g)

jlii

like

gl^u* [below]

(R)]

form of J^*J
O

cl^Ji [246, 343]

seldom

more

J.:^

,of

like

[ Jlii

(i)

(3)

from

'x

The

(SH).
j^jj
X

cat., as

if

the

tall

J!JLL

and

^*a^

(R)

be doubled,
:

(h)

[239,

fern. *ll&~

(k)

JUU

is

because this formation

(j)

^.i'

(Jrb)] is
(Jrb)]; but

it

covetous, ^$&\ [343], and ^jua


'

assimilate ep.

like]

like

.with Fath of the

jJti

it is

(SH)

343]

being used instead of

rare, [the act. part,


\ja?.f*>

and,

like]

J^i^l coarse,

barren (R)

occurs, as

'

b very

intensive, as

jfaui

Ox

>

*>usui
Jl^is [246],

wonderful and

and

any other

in

<&*

often, but not urii-

O ^

as
Jo^is
versally, in this cat.,

SH

*i

occurs, as an intensive

narrow

frequent in the conjug. of


is

common

the case of

in

internal ailments, external defects, and appearances


three of which are mostly inseparable from

all

[484 \

their subject; while the assimilate ep. [also]

and apparently continuous

[349],

intrans.

is

and similarly

J^jJ

denotes natures [484], which are intrans., and continuous: whereas

Juts is

not commonly an intrans.

even when intrans.,


O

in^f,

>

is

not continuous

"
|

VI
like

jortti *Ui' standing, and


going
-5>^
^
^sa
'""^

\L

v.

'

and,

'

Jf^&o enter'

'

oyii*

sitting

t.

>

[331].

But

v^Axi!

[above]

swaying from JLo

is

extraordinary

aor. J^MJ (Rj.

And

and so

is

*&

Juy

the assimilate

1671

)
x

measure of <j^^

ep. occurs on the

from

[derived]

all,

[i.e.,

from JuJ with Fath,

Kasr

sense of hunger, thirst,

(Jrh).] in the

as

or

Damm,

(R, Jrb) of the

*M

their opps.,

ijLc* hungry, ^ULkt thirsty [250, 385], Jut+x


Sated, glutted, and ^C^ having drunk one's Jill (SH).
such as gL^ hungered,

Ill says this in order to include

a or. ^j> hut the assimilate ep [derived] from a conjug.


:

hunger and

thirst,

dciri-ved
x-

full and

seldom occurs

and

made

is

from] the conjug. of

made

[above] are

having the

being put into the

and

in (1) its

(IY).

in

t/u.,

an

and into the

accident,

most cases (Sn

and, in most cases,


[1 :)9,248].

not

say

it

(II).

is

not [like the


[to

letters

We

kloxj!

to it (IY);]

pi.

and

(M) wilh the

Its re.semblance to the act. jxirt. consi

denoting

with

conformable

and J prefixed

the accident exists [above]


tlir s

only assimilated thereto in being made masc.

in

///.:

\\\\\j'<

in

is

~~

as ^^Lo

and number of

their vs. in vowels, quicscences

but

>

agrees with the qualified in

it

act. part, in being (IY)J one of the eps.

JJL*

to accord

as the act. part, does (IY),]

its inflection,

to accord

"

Ox

,jljw>

assimilate ep., [though

(I Y)]

the sense of

in

"

with [the fp

The

with Kasr of the

than JjU

other

into
k -

say
or

]:

in

^^L^\

(2) its

(':;)

tlie

and

its

the

person whereby

having

\\

/,<>//.

bcin^ put into

[/^ rf. ^Sn

y/.

[witli

tlio

(A) wasc.

most cases" because one


in tlic

215

du.\

<!>, s

case of such as JoLl

1672

(
O

nor

[249],

Ox

case

the

>

x "x

^
x

/e??z. (5

are treat-

This ep. participates with

ed as assimilate eps. (Sn^.

the act. part. in*(l indicating accident


>

being made masc. smAfem.


>.: (3)

notwithstanding

as

^^^3

and ^^jti

such

of

and

x * x

that Joo! yfem. i^xi

and (Fk)]

.x * x

.,

,jjjLy^& in

[250], as one says Jo^Lo


9

and

its

ag.

2)

and being put into the [du.

being supported (Tsr, Fk), when an-

arthrous (,Tsr) T upon one of the things mentioned [846]

when

(Fk),

it

governs the ace. after the manner of a

direct obj. [below]

while

of another ace., is not

with the

case

act.

its

government

dependent upon

part, also (YS).

governs like its v.

(M

being disregarded in what


x x

is

Jo^ [above]

originating, in

means

is

It [therefore

(IH),

(M)]
e. r

i.

(WIH, R, Jm), time

indicated

by

it,

because

beauty is subsisting, not


But support [upon one of

prescribed as a condition

R, Jm), because of what


aft. part. [346]

that

him <WIH\

the five things (R)]

we mentioned

(WIH, R)

nay,

is

witli the v., nor does

WIH

more appropriate

the assimilate ep. governs, although

commensurable

it

in the case of the

the assimilate ep., because of its weakness.

Kojji

the

is

r "x

^^^

why

as

that,

III), unrestrictedly

without any condition of time [345]


o

of the nom., or

its

to

The reason
shape

is

not

denote the present

future [349], whereas the act part, governs because

of its resemblance to the

v.

in latter

and sense [343]

is

1673

that

resembles the

it

because the [assimilate]

act. part.,

ep. is [significant of] that

[person or thing] whereby the


accident [denoted by the inf. ??.] that it is derived
from
>

being

'*ts,
*

>

i.

like

to its inf. n.,

^ pre.

q.

<j~*^

i.

q.

,j-u^jj
*

the act. part,

as

dent [denoted by the


"

inf.
"

the subject

is

that

n.~\

it is

of the acci-

derived from,

'

like

l-

V;"-

v/^

<!

)*>

there

no

being

difference

between them, except as regards the origination constitutionally [implied] in one of them, and the unrestrict-

ed ness in the other (R).


act. part, trans, [to

It

has the government of the

one obj. (A)], according

to the rule

already laid down (III) for the act. part., vid. that

mu-t be supported

(I A, A)

upon what has been mentioned


^ 0^0*3 O

(A).

'

governs the

It

nom. and
where

id is beautiful in face,

<r

pron., which

the ay., and

is

by assimilation

&^l

to the direct obj.

,x"^0x^

one

obj.,

as

.<j**^
is

[below]

the

wliirh

is

suhnrdiiuitc to

which

is

tin-

<>s

nom

(I

in the ace.

The

A).

to the act.

ace.

j>rt. trans.

0<^

intrans., and so

is

]nv!i.\inn to

?,

a^j

which

by

contains a

governed

sequence of the transitiviMiess of


v., is

^ ^

&^Jt ^j^^ jo\

<j-~^ &*) L alj oveJ, is not in


because the ep. is frans. only in con-

in

the ace. as an o&/.,

ace., as

* **

governed by the ep. assimilated


to

it

it

/>ron.,

the truth,

is

nor as a

its

v.,

thrrrfu: c
>/>..

that the

>-y.

is

is

Ix-cnus.-

while the opinion

^^

while

its
it

is

det.

tin-

\\\\.

not de^, [83^:

and,

oi'

1674

since these

the

direct

[above],

assimilated

j^+*> being

assimilated

it

to%Lo in that each of them

to

is

that

said, vid.

obj.

remains

nullified, there

two constructions are

only what we have


to

is

an ep. that

is

dualized,

and femininized, and that requires something

pluralizcd,

follow

to

in the ace.

governed

Zaid

L+

after receiving its ag.

it

is

by assimilation

Amr

beating

needs a cop., wliich

<>{).

so that the

(Sh).

The

to

&^ is
in ^)^
<^)

L+

reg. of the assimilate

[relating to

only the pron

is

the n. qualified by the assimilate ep. (DM*], expressed,


as

x.g>j ^^w^. Jo\

*juo

lg<*2

[where

[where *.$^

is

L^j

lation to the direct obj.


o

Lg.:^
9

[below].

[349]

some say

J! is

that

XAX> is

a substitute for the

and, according to this, IHsh's phrase


u
only the pron. or
[above] means

With the
or
is

^^Jl

ace.

or gen.,

^1^

must be

is

needed,

and the result

ep., it suffices; but, if

in the reg. of the ep.:

to the objection that in

however as

no cop.

present in the ep.

a pron. be present in the

Bet, the pron

open

and some that

because the pron.


is that, if

nom. 350]

the

substitute".
,j>ww^

<jo)

a dispute about Jov

is

^M^ with

be supplied

x^J!

There

only the pron.'

its

by assimi-

or supplied, as ij**^

or

pron. [599] (ML)


"

in the ace.

governed

(DM)]

^^w^ (DM),]

(i

e., XAX>

i.

x"-C 9

*:>y!
to

>

is ag. of

L^U ^*L

though

this is

the ep. contains

167-,

/>/()??.,

and yet they supply the pron. in


^Ox-O^fj

(DM;

and [the truth

is that] in

KK,

according

ed,

or]

<*

or the [,ron. is supplipron.,~]


o^^

conclusively proved by the fact that you say v^wo

is

ggr;

tx/<

x-

governs the [expli-it]

that, in

when

it

does

the

making

worn., [and
it

when

(BS).

And

it

therefore contains no

it

assumes the pron. of the

it

governs the

ace.,

and you

x*>^x-a)"a-'

^ x

L$^ *iU^a

masc. when

ej9

governs the jew., which shows

governing the jew.,

qualified, as

is

X-

beautiful or &^JI xx^^^.

pron.,'] and/e??i.

woman whose face

I passed by a

SlvoL?

(j-*^

1 ^&,

say

put as a substitute

as

X"

x^^\^+*>

theBB, although the ^.contains a

to

.,

like, [a cop.i* needed, but] J! is

for ttiepron., [according to the

[above]
^^"G

**

[*yl ,j-^
o

and the

its rej.
*

j,

^.^sJ

[similarly]

.^jOUzJLJ
^
x ^t.
^

XXXVIII.

X^ ^LxV
vltpST^ Ls^o' ut
'
^

v^

And

a beautiful retreat, gar-

(t

verily for the pious

is

of abiding, having the gates thrown open

?ts

X O

must be construed as orig.

LgJuo

X<)

^1^?^!

(DM)];

to

them

t"

the gates
X

[the coj9. being suppressed

50.

49,

>

fc

of them,

tf

or L^J!^J!

Mejr

gates,

J!

acting as a substitute for the pron. (ML).


.

(And,

349.

ML)

The
five

art.

like

q<ix>

ML),

_^^,jc>^o

[or rather j

(And)

(1) the act. part, is


[v. (Tar)],

part, and the assimilate

r/>.

differ in

eleven (ML) matters

formed from the twin*, and intrant.


*

v;^*

'

^''"'"'.Y

al >d

-^^

^U

,-->

ttfiwlhuj (And,

167G

(ML)

[343]
[v.

but the assimilate ep.


[only (ML)] from the

(Tsr)] intran*. [348]

like

^M^

*"^=

intention, like
>

>

<

constitution (Tsr),

u"lwjL4 whose father


slave

when

pass, parts.,

Tashll (Tsr)

act.

or

by

is

a beater, and

is

since

the act. and

intended

by them, are

beaten,

subsisting

is

IM

treated like the assimilate ep. [below], as

and the

ML)

'

V;T^ WA0M

&*JL)\

(Aud,ML) by

beautiful and Ju*^ cornel?/ (And,

"-o-o

like,

(a)

as

for

says in the

^^ merciful, ^JU knowing,

they are confined

to

hearsay (A):

part denotes [one of (Aud)]

(2) the

the three times [343]

but the assimilate ep. only the [continual (An&J] present

ML)

(Aud,

time

(And, DM),

i.

e.,

speaker, explained by Illsh [and Kh] as


t\\Q

time

the

(DM) meaning

past continuous with the present time (ML, Tsr),

not the discontinuous past or the /uture


since Sf holds that
it

of the

it

(And):

denotes the past, and

IM

(a)

that

denotes the present, IHsh, in order to reconcile these

two opinions, intimates that those who say the past

mean

the past continuous with the present

who say
past

is

the

mean

present

continuous with

the

so that

it

present

and those
that

the

has no indication of

originating, nor of subsisting in all the times [348]; but


indicates only the

part,

is

present accident (DM)

always comformable

quiescences [343] (Aud,

to the

ML),

like

a or. in

its

uL* and

(3) the

act.

vowels and

1677

Tsr),

<j.lia>J

and ^JLko (ML), whence

^U

absolute identity of the vowels is dislyb; though


regarded (ML, Tsr), what is meant being correspondence

or/7.

of vowel to vowel, and quiescence to quiescence (Tsr), as


9

is

proved by

for

s-*#to

s O s

>

and

jo

>

and JoU and Joib (ML),

which reason IKhb says that

this

[agreement of the

act. part,

with the aor. in vowels,

ment

a prosodical, not an etymological measure (ML,

in ]

Tsr): but the assimilate ep.

ML), whether
(Tsr), like

fluent in tongue,

[to the aor.

(Aud), like
*i

71

which

in the [ep.]

the preva-

is

formed from the

Ju^

comely (Aud, ML), ^**~ beauti-

8 * *

i*.*1 *

^Lo full

AHlj, and

comformable

is

^LJjf JjItU
mind (ML) and

ML)

[Z, 1H, Ibn

[of

(Aud

or the non-tril.

Ox

and
fiuo bulky,

ful,

(And)]

[an agree-

vice,

>

u^^jJ! ,j^Jxo eas//

lent [formation] (Aud,


tril.

x-

is

to the aor.

tril.

from

free

-c

(DM),J

comformable

be formed from the

it

^!Jfy0Uc

unconformable

is

etc.

(Tsr)]

(Aud)

many

(a)

that

the

it is

saying of

always un-

refuted by their agreement that the


saying

Adi Ibn Zaid atTamlml. a heathen poet (MN),]

[Whether a Jr tend, or a trusty companion, or a foe


tant in abode

(MN)]

is

dis-

a case of assimilate ep. (ML,

Tsr), since k*>Li is comformable to hg\.vj (Tsr, DM), so


that

tin-

'

i>.

a gives

with the aor.

in

measure (DM):

(4)

1678

the act. part,


vI>;L^

be preceded by

may

L+r JuC Zaid

is

x x

<

while ^w.^ *4^;>

[343] (ML,Tsr)

not preceded by

to the ace.

(Aud, ML), as

its ace.

^Amr

beating
is

but the assimilate ep.

being subordinate

its ace.

(Aud),

part, in government

(Tsr)j

no^ a ll waD l e (ML, Tsr)

*s

^)

is correct

hence the ace.


beating) Zaid,

lam
8

K*L4

in such as

a*

u!

(a)

<x

!JL^

aw

(/

beating him [62]; but disallowed in

xxCO*x
***^

such as &

-?^

beautiful in his face

^rJ

.7.
is such
Zaid

(Aud

(5)

the re#. of the act. part r

conjoined with a pron. relating to the


**> _ X
X->O
xS
and extraneous, as L^r^ auo^i
qualified (DM),]
JoJ

is connected, [i.e.,

>

j?az'<2 is

beating his young


^

is connected,
re^f.

and

man and

^L^
[where u&&

^Amr,

!^D

of the assimilate

extraneous (DM)]
ep.

joined with the pron. of

but

must be connected,
its

>x*xO x x Ox
(Aud),] as x^^^^^w^^ &*j Zaid

(ML) the
[i.

con-

e.,

qualified, either literally

beautiful in his face

is

[below]; or [ideally, as (Aud)] n^jf

^L^

Jo^

ZaW

is-

beautiful in the face [348](Aud,ML),i.e.,iOx>o/A/?^(Aud),

meaning Jo^

^ of Zaid

(Tsr)

while C-c ^.1^ joC

disallowed (ML): (a) this opinion [that the cop.


pressed]

is

held by the

BB (Tar);

that there is no suppression,


stitute for the post.

but

it is

&

that the allowability of such as

(b) the

viL

sup-

KK

said [by the

and (Tsr)] that J?

[pron. (Tsr)]

is

is

is

a sub-

saying of

BD

jo;

Zaid

is

joy-

1679

ful in thee
reg.

falsifies the

generality of IM's saying that the

must be connected [350] and postpos.,

because by " the reg.

what the
[to

1'

IM's saying (Tsr)

[in

governs by right of

ep.

the act. part.

(Tsr)]

is

whereas

refuted,
is

meant

resemblance

[its]

government of

its

the adv. is by reason of the verbal sense contained in it;

as also

is its

(Aud):

(6) the act.

government
governs the

government of the

d.

s.,

and the like

sp.,

part, does not vary from

while the assimilate ep. does, since

ace.,

as K^S-J

with the

^M^^

ace.

of some,

is

-Y

the

[who

^ -

<:

*UjJV
that

direct
x

x x

ojJ!

is

govern the

to

(DM)]

^SxO^o

v. is

the bloody

i.

as

c.,

it is

forms

by assimilation

for

the

tradition

e,

>

[where

aor.

e.,

xi'M

it

ace.

may

be objected

by oLgJ*

^55.

of

j*jJf

notwithstanding that this


is

the^?r0-a#., the

that (DM),] *U>J! is (a) n .^., J! being rec?.,

Verily a

woman

in respect of blood the


this reply

Js?)

opinion

that

v.

ace.

trans, to only one 06;., which here

iTply to
[''.

(a)

governed in the

or quiescence of the

^aed shed

to the

intrans.

the

oW* ^^ *M u
ft

whereas &4^j \j~*^

disallowed, contrary

obj.

>xx-x>''O*x

Jos [above]

allow

an assimilate ep.
to

it

notwithstanding the intransitiveness of

>"<xOxxOx
its v.,

its v. in

(DM)]; or (M,

that

was poured out by others

woman being
.says

216

IM, an

slain, according to
obj.,

the &,/. being

1680

was pouring out

blood, [and the

woman being

a slayer, according to this reply (DM),] and the Kasrathen


converted in to Fatha, and the

and

which

is refuted,

&

into

mobility of the

is

XjyoG forelock, and

^ remained

allow

(a)

&

>,

x^lo

\4^\

subaudition of a

to those

who

L>!

[62];

&

as in

sLolS

(7) the act.

iL^Li girl.

part,

may

remains: and therefore they

#*

and

(b)

v;^ ^

*^>

L+^

tX^

by

Tan win

the place, according

to

by coupling

~"

x-

or of a qual. pronounced with

v.,

not

[346. A], but

its reg.

Cx

slpli

because the condition of that

[conversion (DM)]

be suppressed, while

as in

! ,

prescribe, as a condition [of such coupling

(DM)], the existence of the require r of the place [538]

(ML), because the

act.

the ace. except

when it

Tanwm, while

here

part, does not govern the obj. in


is

synarthrous or pronounced with


^
> x-

JoiAJ!
*

x^J!
"

^^>
*

it is

neither (DM): whereas

with &jJ! in the gen., and

ace., is not allowable,

nor

XJUM^.

*$-*)

(I

j.

J^o ^>wo

JuuLl!
*

in the

^^ ^^o with the

in the ace. [by a suppressed ep. after


*^j governed
the manner of distraction (DM)], because the [assimilate] ep.

does not govern when suppressed, [which

a cause of disallowance in both exs.


because

it

is

not

its

preceded by

not govern what precedes

it,]

reg.,

[i.e.,

and
doea

and what does not govern

does not expound an op., [which


ance in the second ex.

(DM)];

is

is

(DM)]: (8)

a cause of disallow-

it is

not inelegant to

1G81

suppress the

by the

n. qualified

and prefix the

act. part.,

latter to the n.pre. to tliepron. of the


[suppressed
*

f.

qualified, as XAJ!

of his father,
*

(DM)]

***>*>

JoUb

^^o I passed

J^L (DM)]

Jots

[i. e., XAJ>|

by a (man) slayer

^^

whereas

x$>3 ^~+&^ I passed by a (man) beautiful in his face,


i.

*^j ,j^
f

e., ' '

nom. and
[from

it

ace.

J^l>
' ' (DM),]
&

inelegant (ML): (9) the

is

governed by the ace. part, are separable

(DM)], as

\^

5^!

y jjf'^i ^U*
L

that his father is beating

Amr

Ju^

Za/d

in the house

such

es

whereas,

9 ^

according to the majority, x-&^j v.>v^!

such that his face

^5

is

the reg. of the* ac. part,

followed by the

cp.

may

is

disallowed,

is

nom. or

(ML), because, being subject


it is

co-ordinated with

description of the

them (ML); though

t>r

to the

not qualified [147] (DM): (a) so say Zj


;

in tlie

ace.: (10)

of the assimilate ep. is not

reg.

and the modern Westerns but the tradition


[o.")0],

^"2^

be followed by all the

condition of being connected [above],

the pron., which

<>x

&^ into (DM)] the

appos.; whereas the

^^w.^. Jo\

beautiful in battle
<j

whether you put [the

it is

O^

Q^>

9 ^(j-f.

^\ aax^^f

(5

Antichrist,

is

awkward

sometimes replied that

V JU

(5

l4jJI the right is the enunc. of a suppressed [inch.'],


-

^\ ^

(5

i.

e.,

(It is) the

this

right,

prop, being a reply

an assumed question "Which eye?"; or that


*

of a suppressed

[^.],

i.

e .,

<

"

<-

^v

'

it is

to

the ohj.

ftff

^-'

(f

mean)

th<'<

right

1682

(DM):
part,
those

(11) the appos. of the gen. governed

may be in apposition with the


who do not prescribe, as a

apposition

and -Jl

is

it

condition

^Jo

and

the body, with the


>

'***<>

strong in the leg

the nom. [or ace.

who allows

[346.

A, 347,

the

(a)

where

538],

arm

Bdd allow

the

^
w

^ x

*&

with the coupled in

ing) boiled meat,

weaZ (EM,] the

the appos.
[i. e.,

the

according to them, is

or

o. f. is

v^cxS'
'

^?re.

is

vJ<AJ>

^?lb

^o.Juo
x
^L

explicable
*<-f.

^\

or (cook-

(dressing)

or that jjjo*
*

is

coupled to

/,.

vicinity [130. A], or

^ ^ll

to the place

(DM).

Sf^

boiled

being suppressed, and the post.

gen., as in the reading of VIII. 68.

left in the

gen., like

*-><X3

but the gen. in otXS

on the theory that the

by

&^

and assimilate ep. (DM),] as


^Jf^LTnL^Jo Jki

coupled to oLft^

-o

^x

and

(DM)];

JuJf: JL^ J!
*

of the ace. to be in the gen. in both the cats.,


act. part,

A, 538]

in the ace., is not allowable, con-

trary to the opinion of Fr,


is

such

[of

whereas ,j<X^ &^p! c^w^y&

beautiful in the face

in the gen., and the

He

act.

place, according to

jILT^U^ VI. 96. [346.

a possible instance of

He

by the

(DM)], the existence of the requirer of the

place [above]
is

JL^,
'

but

is

[127]

put into the gen.


*

by imagining JUA^O

to be in the

[426, 538] (ML), not

by coupling

1683

IM

mentions in the Tasini that the reg. of


the assimilate ep. is [sometimes] a prominent attached
350.

pron.,

not detached, independent, whether

[i.e.

be con-

it

tiguous to the ep. (Sn),] as


3

**w-0

X *<>

"f

OxO-oJx-'

^5 oo! xJLLJo Jt^-H ^**A.


j-gjaXx) ^.^
(A) Fair offace, bright of it, art thou in peace ; and
LJv^J!

in

^ ij

|V-L*Jt

war frowning, stern (MN)

or separated from

it

by

U^-pt^ Sb)J> ^LJ! iU^Lj u^y> Jpforaish are the noble of mankind in offspring, and the

another pron., as

And

generous of them therein


[below] (Sn).
'
O

be a latent pron., as

Gx

^^^ &jj

intention is to mention

what

Zaid
is

is

so

beautiful

it

but the

governed by the ep. as

being an assimilate ep.; whereas the covert \pronJ\

erned by

it

may

is

gov-

as being an ep., not with the restriction of its

being assimilate (DM).

The connected [governed

ace., really or virtually,

being in the latter case a nom.

susceptible of being governed in the ace.


to the direct obj.,
*>va,

divisible

into

twelve

[by 'Umar 11m Abl Rabl'a (MN),

in their waists,

wrapped

over,

plump
i.

e.

the

coiij.

the

first

sorts, (1)

Long

and third

a conjunct, as

in bodies, slender

in what the waist-cloths are


buttocks

resembling the conjunct [in


the

by assimilation

as in the second of the verses cited below,

gen. susceptible of that, as in

(Sn),] is

in the

(Sn,]

its ep.'s

of the conjunct (Sn)], as

(2) a qualified

being a prop., like

1084

aw!

&

J^J

will visit

[I

has

ma n such that

made ready for him

S4X|

(J!j->

is

great

L*^

ljX>l

a largesse that he

that has

repaired

to

him,

seeking a competence against the hardship of the time


Ox''

(Sn)], the evidence being in J!y>

fl

U=:

(3,4) pre. to one of

the two, as
X

XX

'X

-^

[by AlFarazdak,

/ turned them

T7ien

(the she-camels')

towards the exalted in rank, and the nice in all that


the waist
aw
XX

(jjilaj

#Ae

wrappers are wound round (MN)] and oo!^


!** SWj / saw a man slender as to
(j^-**

f**\
^^

"

Aead o/a spear that he was thrusting with


x f x*-o O

^^2* beautiful in

synarthrous, as &^J!
>

(6) anarthrous, as

the face [348]

^y\ beautiful as
X
beautiful as

to

one of the [last] two, as

^j

father's face and ^J

to the

S?

a father's face:
9

of the qualified, as

jj-^^ beautiful in his face

&^5

(7,8) pre. to

(5)

O X ^

[below]

x x

(9)

pre.

to

O x x

*L^ ^^^ [above]:

(10) pre. to the n.

f- 9

O x x

pre. to the pron. of the qualified, as KJO!*^ <j-*^ beautiful

as

to his father's

to the

prow, relating

pron. of the
J

X*t

face

(11) pre. to the pron. of,

to (Sn),]

qualified, as

[i.e.,

a n.pre. to aw. pre. to the

Lg-x^U* at^

^"^

!woL

c^wo

&>! xJU^a.

I passed by a woman

girl's face,

comely as

to its nose,

beautiful as to her
[because the sense

is

1G85

xJU^
^
^

AJ!
^

*'

the Tashll

(Sn)]

mentioned by

this is

J^+2*
"
+ '

(Sn)] LgJLi*

'

the

last

in

x) I
J^r? ^)r
passed by a
XX
v

LI)'"^

"
*^~"3-'t
'

and similarly in

ex.,

**

X--"

beautiful in the cheek, comely in

cept that here the rcg. of the other ep.

CT

mentioned in the

this is

IM

(12) pre. to the prow, of the rcg. of another

[assimilate] ep., as [in

man

its

mole, [ex-

not pre. (Sn)]:

is

by IM, who holds the

saying

[The damsel plump in the naked body elegant in


flank, captivated me,

when I Jancied

in x-sj^iy relating to

(b),

(Sn).

jy^ujt

has three cases, being

it

theprcm.

(A),

'

I should

not that

be captivated (Sn),] to be an instance of

its

(1) in the

The

nom.,

reg. of this ep.

(a) as

an

ag.- or

says F, as a [partial (Sn)] subst.for the prorc. latent

in the ep.,

[meaning where substitution

unreatrictedly, so that their saying

woman

/passed by a

is possible,

nLjf^j^L

sllcL
#/

beautijul in the face

"

is

not

^p
//

not to

be quoted against him, because here the substitution

is

prevented by lack of thefeminiiiizatioii of the cp., which


is

necessary

when

in the ace., (a)


act.

be

t.:

(:>)

assumes the pron. (Sn)]: (2)


to the direct

by assimilation

part. (Sn)],

///'/

the ep.

if

the reg. be

in the gen.,

by

</r/.;

and

prothcsis.

obj. [of the

(b) as

sp., if it

And, with each

nf the three [ruse* of the reg.], the ep. is either indct. or

1G8G

det.

[by reason of

its

being synartlirous (Sn)]

and

tliese

of] the [twelve (Sn)]

in [each

arise

six [constructions]

sorts of the connected already mentioned; so that there are

Such of them as involve prefixion of the

72 constructions.

synarthrons [ep. in tliesing. number(Sn)]to the anarthrous


[reg.]

as

devoid of prefixion to the synartlirous [112], and,

IM expressly adds

in the Tashil, to tliepron. of the sy-

These are 9 constructions,

nartlirous, are disallowed.

^ivJ!

(2)

^^lijj

O^

(Sn)]

X^XOX

(4)

x^

XAJ!

^^sJcJ!

(5)

X*XXu,>x^^

(G) a->Uu o^>oLx>

(8) 20

(i

anarthrous, like Jo^

^^ww^svJ!

*L^; ^^^J\

in the three next exs., is


'
*
9
^ * <>*

[when the qualified here, as

Lo

(3)

(1)

^LL

xj

J^jiL

^ ^^^S\
^IssJi

when

(A),

(7)
(9)

the qualified

>'C<'x' o x

is

such as ju# Hind, not such as


X

(Sn).

But

LgJLb.

>

Jou^J!

the cheek, the comely in

X*

X-

'

LJ!

ivoman

&A^I ^^svJI
its

!T/ie

!T/ie

mole [below]

is

beautiful in

not one [of the

disallowed (Sn)], because the reg. ispre. to the pron. of


the synartlirous; though

Mb[below].

it is

And the other

weak, because disallowed by

[constructions (Sn)] are allow-

able; but [not equally allowable, being (Sn)] divisible into

three kinds, bad, weak, and good.

The bad are where

the

whether anarthrous or synarthrous, governs, in the


nom., a [reg. aprothetic and] denuded of the^rcw., or pre.
ep.)

1G87

denuded thereof (A), because here the

to a [n.]

of SL pr on. relating to the qualified (Sn).


tructions, (1)

\j*+&J] (2) o!

^ ^L

(4)

vj

(7)

LLpf Jj^J

(5)

[348]

(8)

These are 8

cons-

*^ ^^l^jf; (S

*^pf ,jl^jf;

ep. is devoid

(6)

wj^lT*^

J3f *Ij ^l^

but the

first

four are worse

than the second, because [in the second

four (Sn)]

a substitute for the pron. (A), as

J! is

KK

the opinion of the

[599]

(Sn).

is

Those [construc-

tions],

though bad, [from the absence of connectedness in

letter

(Sn),]

sense

are

allowable, because connectedness in

taken as equivalent

is

^0^^

since the sense of

to

connectedness in letter,
'

^ is x) &

&^

'

9o

9 " x

^^

or

XAX>

while

the proof of the allowability [from hearsay (Sn)] is the

saying

an

by
not a

heart,

expert,

glances

q^(MN, EC,

invincible warrior, stout of

wielder of a blunt sword, that

Sn)]; and

what proves

this cons-

truction to be allowable proves the cognate constructions


to be allowable, since

there is no [material] difference

[between them]. The weak are (1) where the indet ep.
governs, (a) in the ace., dcts. without

whether made
the gen.,

restriction,

det.

[i. e.,

by jf or by prothcsis (Sn) (b)


dHs. other than tho s\ n.irthrous and the prc.

the synurtliPMis: (2)

where the synartlirous


217

ep.

in

to

1G88

in the yen., a [reg>] p^e.

to'

the pron. of the synarthrous.

These are 15 constructions,


Fx o

x<>/

xx

j'e".*}

*=

\Jy\

(2)

xx

[8 of the 1st sort (Sn),] (1)


s x x

^*^

^O
(10)

x-ot

r*,[6
x

x,,x

x^^

^A^^

&-W=^

auLfti

(11)

J^i (lo)
i

(15)

in the

Lx)

(a) as

^-^^
(f>)

^^A^^.

^-v^ui*

intrans.

Tsr

(6)

x^.>

(12)

..v^o.
v>

(14)

[and one of the 3rd sort (Sn),

like

ep.

The reason

(A).

sort, is that it

involves

the trans.: so [says

(2) in the 2nd sort, is that

(8)

X X

weakness, (1) in the 1st

treating the

fi

xxx >*x6xx

aujf &JLx4^.
"
Lg.X.^L*.
x'Xx^,

l^Li JU*^^Uayr^lijf [above]

of the

Kh]

o^rSVJ

.''**'

"
^ * XO^>

(4)

C>

'*xx>xx

Lo

L^JCj^L^. ^L^^

of the 2nd sort (Sn),]

,j.^^

9 x ^

Lo ..VA*^

(7) &AJ|

n x ^

*^

(3)

it

involves

mentioned below by A, the semblance of pre-

fixion of a thing to itself

dance of an unnecdcd

[120]; (b) as

pron., for

is

said,

redun-

which reason the

synarthrous and the pre. to the synarthrous are cxcepted, because

there is no redundance in them: (3) in

the 3rd sort, is that

it is

disallowed by

Mb

[above] (Sn).

The

proof of allowability, (1) in the 1st and 2nd [aces.,

i.e.,

the synarthrous and tlivpre. to the synarthrous (Sn),]

is

the saying -Jj" a jJu

w^J!

in the ace.,

<Ub

[this

[83, 425] in the version

being a proof in the 2nd

with
also-,

because the pre. to the synarthvous ranks with the

1689

synarthrous

(Sii)]

in the

(2)

rest of the aces., is the

saying [attributed by lAr to one of the Asaclis, describing


ramels, and by

whom
Ibn

Al'Ainl to

Umair Ibn Laha' atTaimi,

do not know, the well-known poet being

Uniar

atTaimi (AKB)]

LJIJ.I'

[I describe them

verily I

am

one of

J/ieaV

describers

of the humps, having their navels


hanging down from fatness (AKB)], since there is no
[material] difference between them (3) in the gens.,
cis to

t"/ty

the tops

except the
^

last, is
-*"

the saying [of


''"*

AshShainmakh (EC)]
"

SS-'XXX-

^*X

*XX^

Xx-

v-i

neighbours (meaning

stones

^6'0

cooking-pot) of a smooth stone

the

(put

that support
at one end of

them as an additional support) abode in their two homes,


dark red in their uppermost parts, black in their lower
part exposed

disallows

(Sn),] Ixicausc

UiiK-e the

by

heat of the fire (EC)]: (a) in this


to S, is a poetic license

the gen., according

i,

Ml

to the

it

>7>. is

absolutely,

resembles
identical

nom. (Sn)]

in the

it

it

[i.e.,

empty as
O

>

which
to
x

,VXA

is

while

or

in poetry

prose

pivfi.\i<m of a thing to itself,

in sense with the n.

governed

KK. allow

but the

it
x

in prose,

correct, as in the tradition

[cvon|
x

L^Lij

>

UL&

her girdle, [meaning Janfc in the belly (Sn),]


x*ft

;>

////'/

///

',

"i

iu

another version

1690

.J! left

(Sn),] eye [349], and, in the description of the


* x

x-

prophet xjwLo!

en

/^'c&

^^i
-,

last is the

'

fo's

fingers

the

in

(4)

* x-

^z*** [above]. And the good

sLxAJ!

saying ^J!

"

''fc.O

are all the rest, amounting to 40 constructions, divisible


into good and very good: for such as contain one pron.,
> >

[like

X^

<*^

xg>j ^^ssJ! (Sn),] are better than such as contain

two (A), like *^>j ^^IJaJ!


>

which, besides the

^ *

a latent pron., ag. of ^^^J!

because the former

from redundance of an unneeded pron.


opsis of] the foregoing
ep. (Sn)] I

contains

(Sn).

For

is free

[a syn-

[constructions of the assimilate

have compiled a

table,

from which their

exs.

and predicaments, [as disallowed, very bad, bad, weak,

good and very good (Sn),] according


tioned, will easily be

known and

figure to the proof that

to the detail

men-

have referred by a

some of them

possess, combin-

ing in that [proof] each pair of cognate [kinds,


O ^
f^f-0>xf--*o
^

like

>

and L^|

&**>

(Sn)]

and this

is it (A).

1692

10 references to 10 evidentiary verses, each of

gircs

which

is

evidence for two constructions, except the 7th,

which

is

evidence for one (Sn).

The

^^ and

[the evidence for the gen. in .?

the

vid.

saying

(A), describing a wild he-ass,

fat back

saying
fc

* x

>

OS

>

i*

(Sn),

by

Amr

XXX

SL? x^xicuo Lo^>


4

Lank

in belly, with a

not knocking his legs together in the step,

nor over-reaching ( AAz)


^

*J\ t

Humaid alArkat (AAz]

of

(Sn)

1st reference is to

k^U.
Ibn

^Jl

Slia's

and, in

>

some MSS, also the

Cx x

I^^Jb U

13!

^Xx^

vg)

(MM), Nor bad

xx-

in garb

whenever they busy themselves, for a need some day,


with (she-camels) subdued, that have cut their tushes,
(EC)
x

the

x/ O x

2nd

is

to

and

to [the evidence
'*L,

(A),

evidence for

vid. the

the

vid.

for the

ace. in

saying (Sn) of

buttocks

ace.

in

saying (Sn)]

mentioned above (Sn)

L^;

when

(IY)

evidence for the nom.

,.*>.2.

in *s;

the 3rd

and

is

^1^

atTa'i (IY)]

when advancing,

retiring,

back, well made, fine in teeth

^^

Abu Zubaid

describing a woman, Slender

large in the

the

O x x

uj^l a^j <j>^^

(A),

vJ

[the

*f-o '

smooth in the

the 4th is to [the

and

&=>

1G93

~
vid. the

saying (Sn)]

above (Sn): the 5th


and

XAJ!

aij

>

ooOx>

J!

is to

)
6 >

**-S^

evidence for

the

\j-~+^

vid.

L^J

oJUi

Gth

is to

and

xj

[the

;;)'

nom.

in

.x

wx

>

owr number.

ZTI

her, verily the generous are few: the

evidence

nom.

the

for

u^ ^^

,jjtiij

x E

bj>!j^ J^ii- b!

reproaches w5 ^/m^ ^e are /etu

Then said I to

the

the saying (Sn)]


O

JJCN ^!

JuJj-

mentioned

(A),

cX^!

the

vid.

in

^^^

Jf^j

saying (Sn)]

(A), mentioned above (Sn): the 7th is to


"

'T'

"

"

>

x-o

>

x-

fx

[the evidence for the #e?i. in aJL*. Juw^u! iU^y! ^vg^xJ!


vid. the

saying (Sn)]

above (Sn): the 8th


tojJ!

^.^^vJt

(Sn

pJI

-fj\

is to

and v^l

kllxL

iLujf ^uuLy (A), mentioned

[the

evidence

^.^^J!

&^.^

^^i Ui

(A)

[83]

for

the

ace. in

vid.

the

saying

and,

some MSS,

in

the

9th

Q>j

^.M^XJI

and

of

Ru'l.a

Ibn

also the saying


j^J [239] (Sn)
pJJ kjbSflfjUfi
is to

[tlie
^ Ox

v^j

&=>^

ijj

evidence

the

ace.

in

^.-u^

the

vid.

saying

(S)

(AKH)]

(A),

describing a

Then

th<it

the

for

fellow

ts

man
a

as

extremely

churl) that

hard in door, and

t/r

Ii< <</>-

in

inhospitable.
T?.O^

reproach

dog (AKJ5)

and

1694

10th

the
xjLaj

is to

nom.

evidence for the

[the

and

Lo

oA..s\ji

c^3\J>

aoLiij

Lo

in

^w^\J(

Jk5^

^
vid. the

saying (Sn)]
*

Then repair thou to Yazid, the man such that those


who repair to him are dear. When the reg. of the
ep.

is,

contact with
(a) the gen.,

t\\e

by

[below] (A)

ep. (1) if in
}

pron., and anarthrous, governs

prothesis, as xlx*^ *^jJl

I passed by a man

obj.,

a pron., the

as before mentioned,

^j.****

it

J^j-?

in

^>*

beaut ifid in face, comely in

b) the ace.,

by assimilation

to the

it

direct

as IM, agreeing with Ks, allows in the Tashil, the

to this, being prevalent, not


necessary, as
gen., according
is

observed by

Dm, who says

that the difference between

intending, and not intending,


t^^

as

Of.

SyA^o!

'
^f

intheface
prothesis

ft

xCX

is

cM*-r^
--'S'

'

prothesis appears in such


<>

ss

^>;y
/J
it,

I passed by a man red


with Kasr of the, when

intended [17], and Fath

when

it is

not (Sn)

from the pron., or synarthrous, governs


ilx^j
and (Sn)]
yio^s (above)
[pJt (jJjjf

^jf n^Jt ^^l^sJ! [below]

being in the place of an

The

'

not yellow in

in the ace., as

y_JA

*f

^vf! y+^t
x'
^

(2) if separated
it

'

ace.,

cases where prothesis

is

(A), the

pron. in xJL*sJ|

according to S [113] (Sn).


disallowed are only where

the ep. is a sing., as you have seen

whereas,

if

the ep.

1G95

or a pi. analogous to the du. [234],

be a

flu-.,

pn\

unrestrictedly [112] (A),

may be

it

whether the

i.e.,

ep.

be

synarthrous or not; and whether i\\Qpost. be anarthrous,

and devoid of prcfixion


of the

To

synarthrous, or not (Sn).

tions, then,

and to tlicpron.

to the synarthrous,

must be added

the 72 construc-

where the

three,

reg. of the

ep. is apron., (1) a,gen., in contact with the anarthrous


*

^*-o

as aJU+r* *=;J!

ej}.,

(Tsr),] separated

^Jt ^lllT [above]

>

^^^

(2) [an ace.

as ^IxacJ u^r*

ep.,

(3) [an ace. (Tsr),] contiguous to the


*

so that the constructions

O-o

become

8 multiplied into

S^

75.

The

moreover,

ep.,

broken pi., masc.

or/e??i.;

75 make GOO: and the ep.

nom., ace., or gen.\ and these

[itself (Tsr] also is in the

3 multiplied into GOO

^ox>

i^^l ^u^^M jo^ [above]:

the sing., du., or sound or

make

1,800: and the rcy. of the rp.

[also (Tsr)] is in the sing., du,.,


'<c.

[above]

from the anarthrous

and these

V^s

c^y

<^>-?

synarthrous ep., as K-U+^J!

is in

or sound or broken pL,

or fern.; and these 8 multiplied into

1,800

make

14,400, from which 144 are to be deducted, because the

pronominal reg. has no sound or broken pi .; while the


rrniaiiiin-- rnnstrwtions are
1,256, sonic allowable, and
1

flOme disallowed, the lattrr of which should h


r

from

Kh

th'-in,

in the

tantive

is

as liefore nientionc<l

Tsr

(Sn).

made

to

l\sr,

says in the

Sn)

K..

ti

excluded

80 oh

a M

imply the scn^r of the *p<

1
\

he subs1-];

and

1696

is

then used as

it is

used, though such a construction is

weak". The following sayings are instances where the


is

prim,

made

to

imply the sense of the deriv., and

is

given the predicament of the assimilate ep.,


*
X X
'""
X XX
*' ')***"
'*
>>* X
-0
v_JUo sljo s_>-Liij 3 <jj ^!JotJ! (J^r* (JLAJI auiLj
9

>

*>

butterfly

in gravity, a Pharoah in chastisement;

ifthou seek his bounty, a dog in whose front

is

dog, and
x

<<

'

<>&

ix

V^^UW;^'^- ^ oo^f
5

SSx>

-0 >

)f-0

# ^(XM^Jl^Jlj

[by AlMundliir Ibn Hassan, Then, but for

> Jj -0

xxx

iJL'I^^Jb

God and

the

blessed colt, thouwouldst have returned, being a sieve in


O X XX

hide (MN)], aLiLs being made

>x

C-~x
jjiolt?

inconstant,

of
^jyfi-j*

perforated, riddled

to

imply the

6x
and Jb-^
jiUJ! grievous,

6^

ace,,

though,
it

if

OSx>
of V^AA^O

and therefore treated as these eps.

one treated in respect of prefixion to what


ag.

sense of

they were made

v ould be allowable (A).

to

is

logically

an

govern the nom. or

THE
.

351.

OF SUPERIORITY.

It is the ep.

participation, and
the v.(Fk)], like

indicating

be called the

(Fk)]

of

more generous [287] (KN). iHsh

says in the Glosses on the Tashll that


>

subject's

[its

excess [over others, in the root

it

should rather

Of.

of

JOLT!

excess, because

it

is

sometimes

formed from what contains no superiority, as J^u! more

niggardly and JL^! more ignorant (Ys, MAd).


diptote
ep.,

It

is

because of the inseparability of the quality of

and of the measure of the


9

vary from the shape of

And

v. [18].

it

does not

O^

Joti!

except that the Ilamza

GO s

is

mostly elided in w^> better and ~i worse, from fre-

quency of usage, and ^.=J dea rer is sometimes treated


like them in that [elision of the Ilamza (Sn)] as

And

a thing most dear


9*

refused] while
in^ to the

to

man

is

what he has been

1 x

andyfe

f>.

are sometimes treated accord-

as in the reading [of

o. f.,

Tsr)] /!i5lT vJJJOT

^ LIV.

2(3.

IFAo

i*

Abu

Ivilaba

(I),

the worst liar?

**

and the saying

(A), whciv J^L>

made

diptote

by

poetic lioenae (^\\),

1G98

Bildl

The

the best (Jsh).

^"f.

of superiority is

jJtil

formed from the intrant., like

and the trans., like


more
|JU|
formed only from what the two'

more

JLai!

of men, and the son of

the best

is
>

excellent',

knowing (Sh). It is
vs. of wonder are formed from [477] (And),
aft. plastic

ctjf.

triL [352]

v.

meant by]

[354], such that [what

is

and not forming

ep.

in

[353]

vid.

every

the act.

voice

admits of emulation,

it

>

,x

its

>

i^*i [352] (Tsr)

so that one says

X X

to strike

ready
x

>

.x

rtor.

[from |JU,

>>0 X

JL^OAJ (Tsr)],
!

**

jjiju

of.

y&

/Tie es

wore

***'*'

& ff

^>x-

-ft

(Tsr)], andjodj)

>

v-^dj (Tsr)], and JU|

<ror.

u-y3l

>xx**x
Lo
as one says
&.^t

>xx

strike

-*

>

^*

^~o

[from

upon the measure of Juul,/era.

77oi(;
>

or.

[from J^dJ,

ready

is

lie

to

knowing and &JLaj| JEToto excellent


*C*
0*fi
xj JU! and ao Jocusl (Tsr).
And
^5-0! and xx'x
x^x
'/

and &JL&!

1010

X*

(Aad), and io
xx
what is used as a connective for [deriving an expression
of]

wonder from

raorphons

v.

of

that [v.]

which does not form a homo-

wonder [477]

is

used as a connective for

[deriving an expression of] superiority, the inf. n. of that


v.

being put after the connective as a

He

iLLscJC-^l

as

stronger in extracting and *1^L

in fairness (And).

intense
.

is

sp.,

Whatever has been heard contrary

352.

we have mentioned
>

is

not regular (Sh).

The

to

what

formation

x*

of the JJLS

of superiority from

what exceeds three

letters

1G90

anomalous, as S-A
*"

,^

is

^o ^L^\

x^

pjJJ\

'

<

IJjc Zvit*

wore concise than any other (And), where


from loJc-J

speech

v*a~>t,

is

being

?ms made concise contains two anomalies,

//

being pass. [354] and exceeding three letters (Tsr).


But, as to [its formation from the pret. v. upon the

measure of(Tsr)] J^"l, there are the three opinions (And)


held as to [the formation of the two vs. of] wonder (Tsr),
(1)

that

two

vs.

it

allowable

is

of wonder),

transport [488] or
critical

i.

not,

e.,

whether

which

its

Commentary

Hamza

its

denote

the opinion of S and the

is

judges of his school, and

Tashil and

(And on the

unrestrictedly

is

adopted by

(Tsr): (2) that

it is

IM

in the

disallowed

unrestrictedly (Audi, except in the case of some anomalies

remembered, not imitated, which

to be

of

is

the opinion

Mz. Akh, Mb, IS, F, and those who agree with them

(Tsr):

that

(3)

it is

allowed

if

the

(And j, and disallowed

tra

IU

opinion of

Hamza

if it

do,

but this distinction, says

do not denote

which
Slit, is

is

the

not laid

do\vn by any one, nor adopted by any grammarian, and


is

being

contrary to the

consent [of thr learned] (Tsr).

The Revelation

sufficiently

common
lias

sjlilU

be fairer in
the

f'
t

refuted

j^i-f j

by

Jj?jUA JLLfff&

th<' >/<//// <>f (1<><L

ttimony, from k~^


^

its

vC

and

A
II'

i*

<i

n<l

^
the

11.282.

Tlmt

,////

more confirmatory of
(Sli)

while

^Lia^! yo

most liberal of them

1700

in giving dirhams,

and
<

confer kindness and


is

of them

the most read?/


x *6

x^ ^

XX

>

-is;|

,0

^IXJ!

to

jjjo

This place

more desolate than any other have been heard (And)

and among their [current (IY)] provs.

^T^ Jjbf

is

ijJ&J? Poorer than Ibn AlMudhallak (M), a [needy


of the Banu Abd Shams (Md,
poverty-stricken (IY)] man
c

IY) Ibn Sa'd Ibn Zaid Manat (Md)

and S holds that

X X

to be regular

KK allow the

when
>

xo

Job

the

augmented

**

\v.~] is Jots!

The

(Sh).

-e.

of superiority to be
O

O x x

formed from the

x-

two words 4>!^ blackness and ^cLo ivhiteness, because,


say they, these arc the two original colors, whence

[by Hu'ba Ibn Al Ajjaj,


l

ivhiter
x i

<

maid

than the sister oj the


>x"*x **^

^A^

jJLliJl ^.x)

[by

^3

J>^-w!

hast no

that

shift

Binu Abdd (AKB)] and


>x
xJ

Begone

ADIutiinabbi,

ivhiteness

oJ^ ^

in her wide

xx

u^^? ^

thou

(mayst

lustre.

#xx x"

^^?

^->tX*j

i^erish

BB, are anomalous

(R).

/],

Assuredly thou art

blacker in mine eye than the three dark nights at

end of the month (W, AKB)]

*x<>

Jou!

the

which, according to the

The saying

of some,

on the

[preceding] verse of Al Mutanabbi, addressing hoariness,


*.

^J|

>x*

juul

that ^jo is dependent

upon

o^-*!

necessarily

>x e*

implies that Jy*l

is

?i.

of superiority

allowed in colors, and the truth

is that

but
JljlJl

that is disis

an

1701

ep. of

jyj

i.

e.

jJliaJI

&JU^

^ ^&

jy*!

a black

tiling,

being one of the aggregate of the three dark nights,


[like ylsJ

^o 2La free man, offree men, and 'r lJj


.

?ttea?i

o/ wea?i

fellow,

i.

fellows,

e.,

^xlf

of
f^JU^
^/>
^
' *
X
\

aggregate, and the saying of the poet


x
^ o^
x
x>o5-o x"9x
,JS
L^c -Jj cM^^ l^ oLg-ci 3RE *3l5 JocX^xJ! &lx>

//je/r

x x

8*3

,j^o

>

^oe

ud-o!

a w/uVe sword, of water of iron, flashing as

-4?id

though

were a shooting-star that appeared when the

it

shades of night were dark, as though he said


* "O

svJ! *Lo
-0

(AKB)]: and, similarly, in


X

-O

>

XrX

[7/e wi'M ??iee^

blood,

^/ie

or with a red sword of blood,

the necks

and

it

has gotten (DM),]

ff't)i,i.e.,on account

blood

of

Ci

^^
(its

either

>

being accompanied

The

by

hud become blood

blood,

Joiil

of

formed from

is

superiority

^^i

^
-

is

b//)

x"0

denoting] internal defects, as

one

denotes causa-

or is an ep., as though the sword, by reason of its

bring often accompanied

(ML).

whose brightness

have taken away with their blood

livers

that

red because of

a sword

girt with

duller

t/c'it

^3 sillier and jJ!

[vs.

JjL!
^

such a one and ^3+^! stupider and


;//"/'

<l

i</t

'Rations and JjCi!


>

perverse notwithstanding that the

wore

Jou! not denoting super-

1702

)
*

-<

iority is

formed from some of them, like

fern. ili^.

and

silly, fern.
^J!
x^6x x
x
>

their provs.

&Lu^.

is

^<

stupid,

And among
Stupider than Ea-

t\j^ (R).
0*J

i3+W|

bannata (M), the cognomen

f.

^^!

of Yazid Ibn

Tharwan

(ID,

Md, IY) Ibn Kais Ibn Tha'laba (IY), one of the Bauu
Kais Ibn Tha'laba (Md), who was proverbial (ID, IY)
for stupidity (IY).

from [a substantive or (Tsr)]

Its formation

353.

**

an

ep.

lie

is

having no

v. is

^j+s\

more voracious of the two camels

the

dll^ palate, which

ya //e

is

worthier of
^

(j^iL^ (Tsr),]

and

>o9^ ''f-^)
>

from

(357),

a substantive; and (Tsr)] like

is

<1

anomalous, [like ^juuuJl dlx^l yo

felfitA

it,

[from ^4J' worthy,

i.

e.,

wore o/a

(j^aJ!

t obiter

than

Shizaz (AudJ, a well-known robber, of the Banu Dabl)a,


2

.from

(ji!

robber,

the last, vid.

cording to

i.

but IKtt transmits a

the property

u*Lj fooA;

this,

"

e., (Ji\L*

secretly

there is no anomaly in
X

x>

X>

their provs. is *jUaaJ! oLuL>

it

v.

for

and, ac-

(Tsr).

Among

> ^ -^.

^x Jo! More

skilled in

good management of camels [357] f^a?i Ilunaif

al-

Jlanatim (M), a man of the Banii Taim alLat Ibn


Tha'laba (Md, IY)

but this

derived from

is

The man

jJ^pf

Jj>f

ivas skilled in the good management of


o x sf.
9 ^,'
G ~
camels, aor. JoL> , inf. n. iUL! act. part Jo! ; so that
,

1703

(
it is

derived from a

from

v.

tril. v. }

as though they had formed a

camels, and then conjugated

Ju>

354.

By

rule

over others in the

more than

it

denotes superiority of the agr

act, like

of the

the rest

y^>! [351],

of the

than the

obj,, since, in

t4

say

in

most cases"

possessed by a

is

^^

no

is

but

obj.

we

not true; though

^^^

such as

to provide against

devil and

more than

more frequent

is

most cases, there

has an ag., whereas the converse

striking

i, e.,

strikers, not struck

struck, because the ag.

the rest

like other vs+

it

But

confounded.

sometimes they use


9

for the

it

obj., irregularly,

s Of.

<

as sj^l
x

more excusable,
[357], ^\ more,
^^\ more notorious
9 x e
^ sf.
blamcable, JJL| more busy (R), and o^l more feared
9

f.

',

formidable, dreadful [below] (R on the verses cited

from S

in

It

360).

has been heard formed from the


a-f.

>\

v. [360],

as (1)

db^ ^*>

conceited than a cock, [from

though

proud
to

but

it is

(2)

^jus3^\

which,

is

more

self-

Jh says in

ID

in the sense of the art., vid. *J3o

transmits

what he transmits, there


<*X*w^>

^\

He

the

spoken by the Arabs, except in the 7^55.

Sahali, is not
voice,

^!

^>

yc

X<*

is

q. ,-Jo'

and,

no anomaly in

according
it

(Tsr)]:

>XX

^>!3 ,j^o Jjui!

the two skins of butt*

i.

lij

ica*

r,

[a

Busier than the

woman

of the

owner of
Bairn

Taim

1704

who used

Allah Ibn Tha'laba,

butter in

to sell clarified

the days of heathenism (Md, Tsr), from JJL* ivas busied


x
:

(Tsr)]

(3)

dU^L^o

^jLtl

<

need (And), from J^t


x

hence

(5

Afore anxious about thy

ivas troubled,
xx
x J5

in S's saying
^l x3L-o
(5

JLc!

more anxious

to

it

explain

(R)

the ac. voice, has been heard

anxious (Tsr) ;and


>

but

>Lc

(5

they are

like

^^

in

according to this,

and,

-4^

x *ff

there

is

no anomaly

llt

verses, like

in

being

The

355.

it is

(4)

o^l

J^t [357]

(AKB).
1

has three states,

Jmi! of superiority

(I A,

[above] in the

x*ff

anarthrous and aprothetic

(1)

pre. [118]

(3)

(Tsr)

[above] and
9

it

And).

synarthrous

(2)

If anarthrous and aprothetic,

always conjoined [below],

literally or constructivelyr

with ^xj (IM) governing the inferior in the gen. (IA>

Aud, A), both [constructions] being combined


ifrxx

(5

*>f-

Lw -j\ }

if

!^Lx> JL>Lo

XVIII.

than thou in wealth


X

in people,
is

i. e.,

[85],

and more mighty

[357] (A), where

suppressed, because

if* is disputed (A)

those

I am more abundant

32.

viLuo

known

(Sn).

who agree with him

(A),

it

(than thou)

with

its

The sense

(1) according to

Mb

denotes

in

better than he (Sn)

superiority
;

^re?2!.

of this

(A,YS)

aiirt

beginning of
9

extent (A, Fk)

Gt

in lif?

(Fk, Sn), as &A*

or inferiority

(Fk, Sn), as *lo

1705

worse than he (YS, Sn) and


that,

together with this [sense],


fX

the sense of partition, saying that

more

excellent

to one,

and

CT (A,
"

>

ijjt
*

'Amr

imports

J^^ii!

'

He

y&

is

according to

(2)

IM

the

in

Jo^'

^*

in excellence

^M might

partition

'

denotes^assm^ (A, Fk), as though, by

speaker said Zaid has surpassed

J^iit [499], the

intended,

<\j\

it

than Zaid pronounces him superior

not general

it

YS),

x-

2f+.
4*

is

by S but

this opinion is held

he intimates

and he says

occur after

beginning were

and that
its

its

denoting

not being re-

placeable by u*i*j
X-

general, as

by two matters,

is falsified
6

it

that, if

and
M,

its

>

^^& <&

gen.'s being [sometimes


9

jjacl

(Sn)]

>1)^

God

xJJ\

is

greater

than every great one (A, YS) and in that he was


But IUK says that [Mb's
anticipated by IW (YS).
:

opinion
is

is

apparently correct: while (A)] LM's criticism

not [universally (Sn)] applicable, since the announce-

ment of the
//'////

is

''//'//////

is

sometimes omitted, because the

not known, or not

intended to be announced

mid that [omission of the announcement of the


is

(Sn)]

lu-anT

more emphatic
is

This

rW///

in declaring superiority, since the

not informed of the place of the ending (A, YS).


t

and

superiority in
,

(to jfen.
tin-

together stand towards the

same

]H>itinn as the post,

and therefore may nut precede

it,

Jots!

of

towards the

as the post. m:iy

1706

But sometimes

not precede ihvpre. (I A).

J^

precedes

in poetry, as

it

(R), from the celebrated abbreviated ode of Ibn Duraid,


And he brought down AlZabbd, by force, when she was

higher than the eagle of the air of the sky in soaring

(AKB). And,

the gen. governed

if

by J^o be an interrog.

(R, IA) or pre. to an interrog.

[n.

(R, IA, And) n. (R,

IA)], they always precede (IM, R) the JoLjf of superiority


O

>

(R, And, A), as J^dil


>

excellent f and

man

JCCLS!

fi

,.

,j*jo

"

ool

Than whom art thou more


X

>

oo! T/m?i W*ose young


^^Lc J^c

art thou more

excellent? (Aud), because the


takes
precedence (A, Tsr) of what governs it,
interrog.
vid.

JowT (Sn)

[but they do] not [precede] the whole


Of

sentence, as

Than wliom
f

<*t

oo!

IM makes them

do (A), like

^
x

ou!

^*

art thou better? (IM) and [similarly (Sn)]


.*

>

jv^jf j*^L& jjjo

TAe?^

#7ie

young man of which of

art thou more exellent?, since his exemplification


involves a separation between the op. and its reg. by an

extraneous word, [the inch, not being one of the regs. of


the enunc. (Sn),] while no one maintains [the allowability of] that (A).
is

And

no interrogation

in enunciation,

>

with

its

[i. e.,

where there

(I A, Aud, A),] the precedence [of J

gen. before

anomalously (IA)a a^

^"f-

Jobl

(Tsr)]

occurs rarely

1707

by Janr (MN, Tsr), TFAen Asmd (a


woman) journeys one day wfih a lady in a litter, then
(IA, Aud, A),

Asmd

prettier than that lady in the litter (MN); and

is

hence

LJ
Lc JL?

J^x

[by AlFarazdak, T/te n she (his beloved) 5a^/


hast come to) kinsfolk,
(place)" (GO)

and

and

(hast

come

to

us

il

(Thou
a smooth

to)

she provided honey of the bees

nay, what she provided was nicer than it (MN)] and


x*
O
>*
xx x
fixx*
x*x
7

(IA, A), by Dhu-r

them

(the

Rumma, And

women mentioned

in the

there is no fault in

beginning of the ode),

except that their quick ones are slow,


is

and that not a thing

more indolent than they (MN, EC), indolence being a

quality

praiseworthy among women,

worthy among men (EC)

but this

is

though blamea poetic license

(Aud), according to the majority; and extraordinary,


according to

IM

(Tsr).

The (Yompunitival (R)]

^
X

not be separated from the Jcu! (R,A) of superiority


"
conjoini'tr
(R), as is necessarily implied by IM's saying

\\\\\>\

>

[above] (A), because

That, however,

is

it

completes the sense of

not unrestrictedly true (A)

Joiil
:

(K).

but they

1708

arc sometimes separated by

nearer

(1) the reg.

of

JJtf XXXIII.

f
is

to the believers

(R,A), as

JoLit

The Prophet

6.

than themselves (AKB, Sn),

whence.
S

#'

-O

^x

&6L
[360] (U), hy

0-0

u^lJ

x"S

Lof^

we held honor

.For verily

more in need, one hour, of preservation from

be

to

Aus Ibn Hajar,

pollution than fine striped

yamam

clothes

(AKB)

(2)

jj

and

(R,A), as

its v.

r*

And

(A)

bestow

assuredly thy mouth

it o?i

wine (MN)
^

I have,

a voc.

(3)

nicer, if thou wouldst

than water of a hollow in a rock upon

us,

xS

xx

is

Sn), as says Jarir

(AKB,

x "^

=*

"x

>

<<

>

not met by night a fouler

x x O*

x*xx

set,

"x

Farazdak,

than you, and by day a fouler in the day (AKB)


9

though not by any thing


formed from what

ity is

J^o

may

else.
is

When

trans, by

be combined with the

<

<j.jQ

than

Joti!

of superior-

means of ^*
X

this

the inferior,

as

>

w^ (^ Zaid
y*A

it,

"f-

A* prefixed to

being put either before or after


Ox

the

"

wyb.

Amr

near than ^Amr to every good deed or


x^
nearer to every good deed
JkT
is

(A).

>

>

yjj|

The

#e?i,

governed by the comparatival

1709

participates with the superior in the


*

root of the
is

either really, as
j^+z
&

v.],

handsomer than

#^
saying

,^G

x-

Ixy. ^ki!

^t

'

^
'

meaning
x

>

j^j>\ JL^ Zaid

Amr or constructively,
^
x* ^
S-ix*
;

<

as in 'All's
x * xff

^ L^

v_^l ,jU*^
^JJ

[of the

G *x

Of-

rr

o!

that I should fast on a day of


^jLd^ ^jo assuredly
of Sha^bdn is dearer to me than that I should break

on a day of Ramadan, because breaking the


on the day of doubt, which may be [the first day] of

the fast
fast

Ramadan

the last of Sha'ban], being dear to the

[or
i

adversary,

All supposes

it

to be dear to himself also,

and then affirms [fasting on] the

[last]

be dearer to him, as though he said


to

me

than

also.

it

"

day of Sha'ban

Grant that

it is

to

dear

Is not fasting on a day of Sha'ban dearer

?" And, in irony,

you say ^CsJ?

pLlT

vlJ>f

Thou

art more learned than the ass, as though you said " If
it

be possible for the ass to have learning, then thou art

like

him with an excess

",

the intention being not to

declare the excess [of the person addressed over the ass];

but to associate the two in a thing

known

to

be non-

existent in the ass, [and consequently non-existent in the

And [R

person addressed ](R).


**

-o

>*-xJ!

sayings

OfS

~>\

LJ!

\&S Jyu

<j!

^o

^iajtl

the intention is

not

Breaker

y,

/<

v^6!

to

I am

says that (Su)] in their


too old

Thou art

affirm

for poetry and

too great to

say

so,

the superiority oftha

or of the person addressed to the

1710

saying

but to declare their remote ness from poetry and

the saying, the

of superiority here importing the

Joii!

remoteness of the superior [person] from the inferior


(i

[thing],

and his passing

away from

so that

it:

in the
9

like is not comparatival

0^O
Oos
"/
*

but resembles the


t

I separated from Zaid and

L-v
^* +

sense of xjUca* swrpasszfi^rand

too

^^ vib^t

^^

to

I de-

d-f.

used in the

Juti!

And therefore

dear

me for me

to

^ ^L

siL^o! ^!

the possibility of w?/ beating thee

dear ness

,,

oJLaJbt

^j^

^pW separate, without any

assertion of superiority (R,Sn).

means

in

~x

*Juo
*

parted from him, being dependent upon

^x

from

Jil^

to beat thee

separate from

the excess

of thy

me, that being allowable because the compa>

ratival J^o depends

upon the
*>

x*

of superiority in a sense

Joii!
x

>

* 9

.^t ^jo J^di! jo^ [above] means


2aid surpasses the degree of ^Amr in excellence; so that

approximate to

the {j* that

we

this, since

are discussing

is like

except in the sense of superiority (R).

rous and the pre., they

(I A,

may

the comparatival

As for

MKh).
'

the synarth-

not be conjoined with the

A) mentioned (A, MKh), which

the inferior (Sn,

And

[thus]

is

prefixed to

two opposite states

"(

take possession of Job! by turns,

when accompanied by

[this]

it

being always indet.

and det. when parted

from
I

it

One does

(M).

A), because J^o

it

not say

when attached

y*&

J^diSH jo\ (M,

f X C
to this Juiit

imparts to

a sort of particularisation, for which reason

occurs

it

after the distinctive [pron.] in

XVIII.

37. [166,419]

when

contains

more determi-

while the J

prefixed to

it,

nation than
that they disJ^o imports particularisation, so
a

like to combine the two (IY)


(I A),

because

is

&

nor )*+*

inferior,

expressly mentioned in the pre. (MKh).


the saying [of AlA'sha.

* of-

4"*-

which

And, as

is

for

(MX)]

not more

might belongs only

>

mentioned only as a medium for

communicating the knowledge of the

[And thoH art

-o

^JUJI J^di! jo\

to the

and J with the word

than they in number ; and

many, where

the poet combines

(MN)], and the saying [of


Sa'd alkarktira, according to Jh,or of Kais Ibn AlKhaiim
the

al Ansari, according to

\Weare more knowing

Jj.*

IU (MN,)]

in the /yJfintinfj

<iofth<' cot<r*crs

freest/'

day-break, where the

poet

.Vo (MN)], tliry arc cxplaiiKvl


"
is

arcounted

of jfonng palm

f"i

in

combines

away

four \vay, (1) that

prothesis
)

for

at

with

j^L* tJ^5t*

does not denote

1712

beginning of extent, but explanation of the genus, as in


cl^JLl!

o^CLM
^x~y

{^,

cavalier,
that

i.

Thou

oo!

f^aJuo
^4

art.
/

c.

of them the qallant


t

c/

^ /raw amo-ng them

.V^AJU

-XX

\J

[359]

(2)

dependent upon a suppressed [word] the


"
"'f
xx
^"f., x
phrase being +$**X Xvi5 b J^^ljx o*J^ ^/zcZ ^Acm
x
is

x-

full

ar

7io

more, (more) than they[3by], where the

fAe

Cl

suppressed

is

for the

s ubst.

mentioned; (3) that

J!

is

red, and therefore does not prevent the introduction


of

(4) that J^o is

among them

post, being

the

meant

i. e.

c5

nor JLrLJLki

i^JLLftJl

(MN).

^Ae 9?^ore

jjCcI

[does

one say

nor ^LJLki

The

&LlLJ|
Juti!

J^ii!^! the

nor

most excellent

JL^JI Jc^i! the most ex-

c5

JLki

^/ie

most excellent of

of superiority is always used

(IY, R) with one of the three mentioned (R),


the [comparatival]

nor J^l> [18]: but they must be made

the most excellent,

(M).

Nor

Jdi nor ^Lli!

of the men and

women

^^ J^^t?

be understood as rejected, like

to

by the J or by prothesis, as

cellent

the

and, similarly, in the fern., du., and pt,

one does not say

and

in J! IaJ f
L^JL^y ^ [78]

(IY)] jJxs! jo^

det.

q.

while llo UjL^i is constructively llo

tlie

Jk^Gl

i.

[i. e.,]

the art., or prothesis (IY),

with
not

being devoid of all; nor having two of them combined,

except extraordinarily,

It is

not devoid of

all,

because

1713

it

is

applied

another

deuute

to

superiority of

^ and

and, with

tit

an indication of the

ed with

as,

it,

Joiil

That

is

more

more

is

toe say,

virtually

to indicate a speci-

that has the inferior mention-

when a person seeks a more

Zaid, and you say J^As^M


i. e.,

being used

art.-,

it is

previously mentioned, literally or virtually*

fied object
is

thinfj

prothesis, the inferior is ex-

pressly mentioned; while, with the art.,

mentioned, because the

P.

excellent than

^^ 'Amr is the more excellent,

excellent,

i.

e.,

the

is

Za id.

excellent than

person

And

that,

according

y ^<i~f-

to this, in

every

case, the art. With the Juu1 of superiority

denotes knowledge [599], in order that

jjiit

may

entirely divested of the mention of the inferior.

two

of the three combined, because each of


of

instead

not be

Nor

are

them serves

the others in importing the mention

of the

them having any import except


that, the mention of another, when one has been mentioned. would be a mere pleonasm
inferior

and, none of

The

of superiority

wl

is of.

three

kinds,

and gander] with wlint


(1) what must agree [in number
it belongs
to, which
[kind] is the synarthrous, as
>/?".</

most excellent
s x

>"-o

LJ^flX

and ^j^-Ui^l
or

JoJ^\ JoUC

and

^,'JojJI
<

^J^l

[or JuiLi^!

M Ad
;

10*>

^aJj\

ami

'

s *f.o-c

/'/

^M$\

/////'/.
>

rjrrJ/' nt

(2)

what

mils*

noi

and

1714

but be always in the sing, masc., [whether

be sing., du., or
O

"

Hind

or Juw# Zaid, or
X

more

is,

of

is

anarthrous and aprothetic, as jJii!

sorts, (a) the

two

qualified

(MAd),] which

masc. or fern.

pi.,

its

than

excellent

O x

^
^

":

J^c J^kil
x *

>

^lOopi

*x

>

v^^f-N

>

o:

"

a ^d J^aj!
(jjJoyl

*x

or ^1 JJL^J! (Sh) [here] agreement is not allowable;


:

5r

,!^o

and therefore it

is

said that 1^1 [18] is made to deviate from

IbJ, [which ouglit to be used (Sn)]; and that


(357,359] is a solecism (A)

'

Zaid

Jov

ii!

man

a most excellent

is

^^>

\J6

an indet., as

(b) the pre. to

-^S\

and

of-

Hind

aJ>!

and

a most excellent woman,


^

is

ipaJL4 jLAil jjlJo^J!

H^ Jolif ^IJuLjf

and

(Sh)

and

Jcis!

that [indet. (Sh)

(A)] must agree [in

number and gender (MAd) with the

n.

MAd) by

(A,

qualified

(MAd)], as exemplified
x

in full

j& Lx^r*

A),

(Sh,
X

y*>

J^l
jife'
'
x

4.

^ie

and, as for II.

^r5^ (party)

38. [118],
to

it

is

disbelieve

it

&.f^ J;T would be said or is


S
X X
3^^^!? $) Nor (let each of yoii) be etc., like
'

liCuo

XXIV.

J^

of superiority

jJiil

otherwise

**

Xwt

s~f-

the

J^\^ J^^jJL^ti Scourge


ye (every one of) them (MAd)
(3) what admits of
[40] (Sh),

i.

e.,

L^JUQ

both constructions, which

affirmation of

is

the pre. to

superiority

to

the pa<tf.

det.,
is

[when

intended

The
cUit ^IJ^pf and
Zaith, and The Zciids, are the most excellent of the
as

(MAd),]

men, and ^LllH


x
?.<?,

^^\

r^)f

and
jo#
^

jJii!

and The two Hind*, and The Hiwl*

are the most

of the women

excellent

and

r yLM

p^Sjf

LlIf LJ^X

o-

>

u^^

you

and

Alii

an(l

-J---0

x *

& Lu.xJ!

^^di

is better, [or

^IJJ^^
x

the

usage (MAd),] as in

prevalent

II.
^xa. ^JLt ^lll!

them

be thr

to

and

<>x^
:

dis-

(a)

xc

^^1

Tsr, is

a ^

j^O^V^Jj

thou wilt assuredly Jind

90.

^4/ir/

n)<>.<t

greedy of

///'//

for

life,

not

'

-C

^jlJoy!

And and

as said in the

'

>

va>LuuAJ

,*

x ot

^Ldi!

please,

"

jJUu! ^j.cXjU!

x-

agreement

'*

x*.e

x</-o

or, if

Hind

and cJJoLgJ!
^

^IjJl^J!
x

and in

Rumma, And

[by Dhu-r

M<>

is

</>/</

the most beautiful

of'man I; /'IK/ find genii in neck, and front of the neck,

and

of them in back of

the most beautiful

(AAz)] not

*~*^ and

^IjjLiJf

^ULLs*

(S

head

the

and IS

related to have held disagreement to be necessary

he

is

refuted by the texts

tl,.

and

ir/tn

l)oth

arr the
usages are conbinrd

X^LxA.

^c^

'

ft*

^'///

-*

s
i

t/j..

^
*-

^^ f*

/ inform

in
^ **

^-*^

for^i^'t P\

you

<>f

but

XI. 29. Save

and VI. 123.

''"*>'
^1

llhf ^^jjjf $

is

[248] (Sh)

the Prophet's saying


6
i s&
Jf. sl
1}
A A *^-^
fV^vX^^' ^1

the

<1

_r*i

*>

Barest of

yon

to

1716

and

-me,

of

nearest of you

the

you in morals (IA, A)

who allow hoth

in the assemblies

(they are) the

which

say that

reason [Th
-

Fa ? ih

of the

is

blamed

best

of

while [IA asserts that] those

constructions
for

elegant,

me

to

day of resurrection

the

more

for saying

agreement
,

author

the

]
^

J^^ajj

is

"

&

-x

iLx^Li in

which case we have chosen the most elegant of them,


G
where, say they, he ought to have said JjaLsLoJ (IA)
9

'

affirmation of superiority be not intended (IA,

(b) if

Aud, A, MAd) at

all

intended (A, Tsr,MAd,

MKh),

i.e.

and over

MAd, MKh),

[357] (A,

MKh)

unrestrictedly (Tsr,

MAd,

(MKh), not over the post, alone, but over

others (A,
[all (A)]

the qualified (Tsr,

MAd)]

MKh), then agreement


is

>

determinateness and

in

MKh),

The reducer,
AlWalld Ibn

[i. e.,

Abd AlMalik Ibn Marwan,

A,

x"t

(MKh)]

devoid of J^o in letter and sense (Tsr,

it

[with

necessary (IA, Aud,

MAd), because of the resemblance of this Jju!


arthrous

or bo

so

to the

in

syn-

being

as yosUJJ

Yazld Jbn

named

be-

cause he reduced the allowances of the soldiers (Tsr, Sn,

MAd, MKh)], and

the scarred,

i.

e.,

Unmr Ibn

Abd

Al Aziz Ibn Marwan, so named because of a scar (Tsr, Sn,


c

MAd, MKh)

on his forehead (Tsr), from the blow of a beast

or two justest of men,


(Tsr, Sn, MAd),] are the two just,
"
-

of the

Banu Marwan, [where

"f

*$&\ admits of being ren-

dered by what contains no affirmation of superiority (Tsr,

1717

MAd),]

e.,

^1^

^-o

SbU

MAd), because

(IA, Aud, A,

none of the Bami Marwiiii participates with them in


since there is no just

MAd),

justice (Tar, Sn,

man among

them besides these two (MKh), or of meaning unres* -

tricted excess ^Tsr,


yioli' Jciki! |JL*

MAd)

Muhammad

and as xJLi

x)

J,

*JU!

S,

^JLo

bless

(God

'

<x-s3oo

him and

him peace !) is the most excellent of (mankind,


'
**
m
s
from among) %uraish i.e.
^LJ! jJii):
fa^s ^^o

(lire

prothesis of these

the

(c)

as being,
the

of a certain tribe,

e.g.,

inferior (Sn)]

be
^ "

sorts

tAvo

* "&

[mentioned in

denotes mere part icularizat ion [of the qualified,

(b)]

*G

to

pre.

what

and therefore

it

this

in

which the sense of

of what
being always* part
t

it is

>

>

of,

meant

is

in

JjLtl

not part

is

f-

Jufci!

not explanation

of
them may

contrary to the
be understood,

to

pre. to and for what


:

reason &jy=J ,j-*^! ouv^o Joseph

is

handsomest of

the

mankind, from among his brethren, or the handsome

man of

his brethren, is allowable if

^AO

faA*^ be intended but is disallowed


handsomer than they be intended (A).
or

357.
its

AYheu the

gen. (E, IA. And,

K, IA,

inferior is

A)]

is

known

if

(R),

[with

sometimes suppressed (M,

And, A), because indicated


w

(I

A), as in

X YIIJ.

,;

[355],

i.

e, dUx?
occur

Aud),

(IA,

and

in

where

expression

and

.^Ilii^STj LXX X VII.17.

1718

And

come

the life to

is

and more

better

* w *e

Ae present life)

Aud),

i.

e. LAJ jJ!

than

lasting
c -o

s^A^J

^o

(Tsr)

being then supplied, [and therefore like the spoken


that

you do not put the

you do not put

art., as

it

so

with J^o

because the virtually present is like the literally present


C
,>>< ^
^ o
XX. G. He knoweth the
and
hence
(IY)]:
V5 A^*.J!
f.

(JljJ

secret,

and a

thing more hidden (than the secret), [vid.

the inmost thought of the soul (B)J

i.

e.,

*-wJ!

and the saying of the poet [looking at some


belonging

to other

vJvi

^T^u

^x>
fat

^5*^5
camels

men (AAz)]

^ sUji

]\

**

^u JoV^i:

[0 would that they were camels for my people, or had


been made lean in a drought of a year before (this year)!
(AAz)],i.

God

is

(IY)]
9

e.

lifftl#

and your say ing

^Jy;

greater (than every thing),

[i. e.,

and the saying of AlFarazdak

J^

^i!

> >

-^x ^

* "'
\

"I

'"

~~' S

juSUj buu

# LJ^o^L

He

that raised the

[below] (M) Verily

heaven has

built

for us a house, whose pillars are mightier (than the


pillars of every house),
L^Lo JjL\

and

taller

(than they),

e.

ouo J^fjliS <j*j*\ (AAz). That suppression


>

occurs (1) often

when

^ji

Juu! is an enunc. (IY, R, IA,

A), actually or orig. (Tsr), as in the text (IA, A),


32. (Sn),

i.

and the

like,

being frequent in the

Aud,

XVIIL

Kur

(IA);

1719

and hence
-0

and

Ilfl *JU|

^Jf
xx*C x

X x-Cf-O

JuviM

o^oj!

&+L ^ jJT ^1
*

I.M
<

[by 'Antara, addressing

[above] and
C

Of.

iS

Lo!

^j! ^-JU

Umara Ibn Ziyad

al 'Absl

Thou shalt know which of us is nearer to death than his


fellow, when thon bringest near to me the thirsty
X

spears,

i.

&xa>Lo

e.

X *5

^jl (AKB)]

though, in such
9

cases,
*<5-

it

Jy

may

be said that the elided

the greatest

is

the post.,

of everything and jwllS


>x

i.

,*

e.,-^1

111

most

OJ

mighty pillars (R) : (2) seldom when JOL! is (I Y, R,


I A, Aud, A) not an enunc. (R, I A), [but] (a) an ep.
(IY, Aud, A), as in

J^^lJ^i^ij^ #
(And, A), by Uhaiha Ibn
palm-tree,

and come

to,

^lAja^tjj^J^^s
Al Julah Grow tall,
young

i.

[reach and (EC)] take

e.,

a place more Jit [than any other that thou should sleep
at noon,

i.

e.,

shouldst grow

tomorrow, by the two sides of


EC),

i.

e.,

**j

(Aud, A), as

IM

(g

L*&

and
cool,

flourish,

therein

shady water (FA,

^W^J^JiWGLfe^ ^js

says in the

CK

(Tsr)

or (b) a d.

s.

'Aud, Aj, as in

[Thou drewest near, more fair (than the full moon),


<^nwe had fancied to be like the full moon "//'/ /////
;

heart became seduced info love of thee (MN)J,

i.

e.,

1720

;4

XJT &*

j^f (I A,

Aud, A), as III says

suppression of the enunc.

for, since

suppression of the ep. and d.


also is

it

is

XVII.

2/cm(IA,A;,

i.

to

be

XXX.
creation,
;

and

yftj

it is

easy

to

j^Jlaftju

(IA); and
x>^

Him

g's

*s

?7ie

and *Jt

One

f/a^ beginneth

(after their destruc-

it

(R,IA,A),

one thing

is said, since

is

i.

e.,

aui^

not easier to

^j3l ^3*

0*

f.

|^T!5 lyLo! r^3-

i.

e.,

M ^ 1^
r

cast out from good,

O race

<>s

jo }

s~
J!

Him

^oJf ^1

&l^b s^t mighty,


ss*

tf*f-

5*

(j-*

[503] (IA,

(IA,Sn) and J^\l lSn,J); and

viJd [above] (IA,A),

ye,

acquainted with

>

26. u47ic7 ZTe

than another (R)


e.,

is

^IU

>

and then repeateth

(IA,Sn), as

i.

part. (R,Sn), as

(I A,Sn): or (2) an assimilate


>C> ^* *<>*> i>sQ^
C>o
x
5<x^? (^ ^^J! ^<x^ ^5<3JI y5

po

e.,

whence

^e

[said

act.

Your Lord

56.

p]\

is

,.

Ijo JU! pJos

A),

more frequent than

(IA ,A)]

Jill [of superiority

v f.

tion)

(Tsr)

suppression of part of

s.,

(R,IA,A) and renderable by fl) an


y

CT

sometimes used divested of the sense of superiority

(I A)]

in the

more frequent than suppression of part of them

The

(R).

tall

>

L |0^4i

of Zaid, as a family!

(Ye are) a most ignoble people, small or great (A.KB)],


i.

e.,

CXA^)

AJui

and

1721

[by an Arab of the desert, And, if not (of the race of

Hashim), then of the race of (Akil} alMurdr, (kings of


AlYaman; for verily they are great kings of great
kings (AKB)],

i.

e.,

JJiD (R) and


;

^^

>

(A) v by Hassan [Ibn Thabit (SR)], What I dost thou

when thou art

rize him,

him

not like unto

bad one of you two shall be

est

it is

CT

when

that (A),

(R\] adherence

the

to

number and gender], because


which

riority with

ralized
-x**-e

^
t

regular; but

is

ijje

the original
[35GJ (R)

when what
x*

*-

li

,:ui

pi;

[by Al Farazdak,

Jrom you, ye
will be the

it

And

but

belongs to

l>*

\uo\jf

it is

is pi.,

,*&

Joti!

sometimes plu-

f-

*<*

while ye, so long as

ignoble (MN),

^
s

*r\ $&>*

When mount "Black-eyed "

will be noble

of supe-

as

"*~o

^^^

the

i. e.,

that

>

more

is

qualified in

>

in this

treated like the pre-

Of

Joti!

used

masc.

[with the

it is
9

it is

sing.

common (R, A) than agreement

valent,

is

confined to hearsay (R, I A, A).

says in the

sense

the

in the Tashll that (A)], according to the sound-

opinion,

[III

Then

for the good one

the sacrifice

of you (Sn). According to Mb, that usage

[IM says

sati-

b!

vanishes
it

abides^

meaning ye will always 6s

will not vanish (HN,Sn)];


ignoble, because this mountain

and, says he, since

it

may

be plunilized, because divested

of the sense of superiority,

it

may

be made/cm., so that

1722

^
the

X*

Gf-S

>

saying ^J! ^r*-

-^ s

^j&

though swaZZ

As

[356, 359] is correct (A).

efc.

^Tand

[the fern. (IY)]

pLo^l

jiit

and

R), as

pi

[the

^!

being Jo^ (IY)

as

its

and g being a

not used, except in

no

v.,

Jl^f ,

like Jo!

being

[having

Jj<

Hamza

it

is

orig.

and

(M)

like

J^,

^^5

variations (R)

its

its

first
*

and jy

that J^f

Jh

>,]

from
while

reverted,

J!

[state],
>

-6.

(R)

J^t

having

J^T

but some say that

from

being

spor^

it is

J!^'

orig.

escaped\

others say

because every

J Stf.

thing reverts to

fern.

this composition is

though

for its medial

ty

because escape lies in outstripping


that

^11
BB hold

majority of the

^1 Y)

[353]

y^\

[below],

composition of

the

and

38. [248],
J>!

of

j^f (M),

fern. (IY)]
,

1)

proved by

LXXIV.

(a) the

is

it is

1G,f,

orig.

is

*s

fern. jlflj

great

JJ former,

fern. ^yuaJI, pi. fern. JLaJ!

**<t^

^Pbt pl

for

BB

JjJf (M, R), according to the

like

am

'S*

being

^ Of.

JUL*!

in the

tif.

sense of the pass., like >$-! and <X+&1 more prais eioorthy
[354]

and

in the

lously converted into


Jl^

[its o.f.

two cases the Hamza

[last]
^

(2)

say, of the composition of


first

J^

anoma-

KK, (a) from


Hamza being trans-

say the

being J!^, and (KF)] the

ferred to the position of the

(Jh)] the

jUy

is

or (b)

[its o.

/.

as some of them

being

being converted into Hamza.

J^ and
,

But

its

1723

being declined like the

used with
its

,-vo

Joy

being

of superiority, and its being

jutit

and, as for

lfy

and ^bfy

[first] j [of ^Jyy

which

the

is

of

o. /.]

the opinion of the majority of the BB,

Hamza, on account of

verted into
the

first

which

of]

^!

is

like [the first

Hamza,
[G83]

the

of

o. f.

Hamza, as

^pf

bli LIII.

with

its

51.

^^

the

Jj!

[orig.

into

of

pi.

that

is

J^l

being converted

and then

of

^^t
Hamza

The

first

[GG1],
in
l

the second,

which

for

Kalun's read-

Ad, because the

J of the art. being mobilized

(B)], so

removed.

is

Juotj!

as in

its o. f.

[Damma

two Hamzas

of

vid.

'

who say

[237, G83]

elided, the

i] is

vowel

is

according to

>

into

returns to

[Ilamz

^!

>

s^l

it

first

in

Hamza

quiescent,

reason

such as

^ in]

necessarily converted

is

but, according to those

from J! j

ing

The

necessarily con-

its pi.,

into

they belong

speech of the vulgar, and are not correct.

to the

Jjj

KK as to]

assertion of the

falsify [the

that the

Thus

J^l

combination
like

is

former

a f.

{ju\ anterior, prior, more preceding


in

out&tri in>i IKJ,

or

struction.

You

say,

declension

sense,

in declining

<''

sing.
'*H

Jfl\

or prei

it,

(1)

[715]

(R)

(b) du.

^^^11; (?) pi.

and ^JjSf

by

con-

masc., (a)
>&ex

x-6tlx

the first

and

^^

transposition

and
(Jh,

1724

KF;

fern., (a) sing.

2)

vLlJ/^f

and

(KF).

^;

jyl\

(b) du,.

[248] (R) [or JJV], like

J^ilT

And Jjl

is

(c) pi.

!J and

used [as an ep.] for the [broken] pi.

masc., considered as being [tropically] /em. [270]

the

poet says
*a

" "

"

"\T
j^xJL^

LA^J

'

x **

*"^

JyJL ^^j #

j;

^yol

(camel) upon an old (road) belonging

and

peoples, that dies by abandonment,


A

(Jh on

J! ;

if

but,

x
i.

),

e. 7

-*

you please, you say

say, in construction, s-Ai J^o J^l


>

#Ae

opinion,

AJU

^r5#.

But

r,

since

respect to the

jo^

2aia

z*5

^Ae first

is

prior

since,

of them, and Jj^Myo

according to the correct

v.,

like

^^!

nor from a substan-

the sense of qualificativity in

qualificativity

word

is

apparent

'x*

x*

(JU!

only

it is

with

that the qual. is derived from,

qualifiability of that derived qual.

as in

And

; ).

*x

the expression J l is not derived from anything


;

tive, like siiL>! [353],

to the

(Jh on

Jfif'-cx

used, neither from a

obscure,

lives

former
by work

^^! ye ^e

^o others,

to

(Jh on j

>S

o^

>

^^ ^.x)

jjo vj-lo

you

**

f -

^JU

more learned,

i.

e.,

and

by that word,
x'"

s^ ^ ^ j&\

to

.'

p-Lfc 5

anpossessed of learning more than the learning of


S"*xx
,xC^
<Xl dUo.
other and JU^I more voracious, i. e.,

sw^viL^ possessed of a palate,


than the palate,

[i, e.,

[i. e.,

aj{?6t#6,]

<

more

appetite^ of another', whereas the

1725

>ats

qualificativity of J^t

apparent only by reason of

is

"

'

being renderable by the deriv.,

becomes like

[<xll

jJ*! J^,-?
^;vo,

in]

when
t-zf.

it,

as

the

qualified

i.

e.,

so that

^^

J^!

[142].

expressly mentioned before

**

LjJ on a former day] or when the comparatival


expressly mentioned after it, since this J^c is an

Jjl

is

indication that
O *

is

'&*

<j^l

mnst not be regarded, ex-

Its qualificativity, therefore,

cept

vid.

ita

"*

s Qf.

is

JULSJ

^ *f-

not a substantive, like JjCs! and

v-f.

it be devoid of both
together, and
gjo! [249], If, then,
be not synarthrous or pre., Tan win and the sign of the

gen. are introduced into

it,

because of the obscurity of

/~.

\j\ $j

&*&

x-x

Himfirst,

Is-

^T &J

last (R),

"

S'

7iew (IY on

/ have not

^ C>tX5(H
But

324).

pressed, and be uninfi.

not met

him

^J

as ep. of r Lc

~
^>J!

^o!

Lo

year).

J^l ^Lc.

\&&

And some

..wo
^

J.l r Lt

of the

first,

nor

nor a

old,

^^

J-jtJ

[201],

i.e.,

of its going in the


<J

>

juc &AXAJ Lo

former year, with

'x

(^o this

J^l

And you say

i.e., -LiJl

an

neither

the first (of the times

since a

him a

left to

>c* O

early morning).

f.

may have its post, supupon Pamm, when it is renderable

time, as

y at

at the beginning, and. in the saying

l>J^

by the adv. of

"

'

v^5\j' Lo

i.e.,

>

in 'All's saying Lj^L


S^l 8<X*^!

qualificativity, ai

will praise

^ ft *

**

its

J^l

/ 7m ve

in the

nom.

a year anterior

Arabs say

J^f

^U J^

1726

with Fatli of

J^l

but this

&

(*^

but

foremost of
the parts

the

because,

difficulty,

fc

its

the

thing being

means in the foremost of

or

of its nights,

whereas dLx>U JLO means

preceding the whole of


X

the

involves a

Juj>-

of the year, either of its days,


^

x OX

by

Jj!

of

first

its parts, viLoUT


j^l

or of its times

as

since a ytar before (thy year)

<3oo

rendering of

the,

an adv

it

"f-

were said

on the

relates

make

authority of Khi, that [here] they

though dLoU

rare.

is

parts and,
:

if

#Ae time

were

J^l

i.

q.,

>"

sdUU &+s be fore (thy year),it& post, would be suppressed,


X
and therefore
J^l

(to
x

would necessarily be uninfl. upon

it

however, here

be

may

i.

q.,

dLoL^

thy year), the ac?v. being an ep


x x

viLolc

J^o

of

J^o j^l anterior

^ll

And

thy year).

an

ep. of the nom.<

it is

may

not improbable that


j^ though
be put into the gen. by imagin,

ing the qualified to be in the gen., because


is

ding to

pJI

v^G

this, j^l

the former

% and LXIII.
is

in

10. [426,538]

construction].

seen Zaid for a day, you


not seen

him

so that

it

and, accor-

the gen.; not in the ace., [as in

And, when you have


C f.

I have

what follows

sometimes governed in the gen. [203]

is like

^1^*1^

e.,

^ a 3/ear (being in a time) anterior

^jLtj

(to

jj>

i.

xx

tS

^3-x-ww!

Damm

say

since the

u^o\

day

l^f.
J!J|

&*

>0

not
x

jajK Lc

before yesterday

1727

when you have

and,
Of.

s^f.

\j*X

o***t
>

day

ty

(J^X

358.

things
_!&>!

is

I h ave n

Jj'

j\

The

i,

q.,

Joii!

But

but

it

has a predi-

to

qualified, as w:>L? j

!tX5

x-

and by another,
du., pi,

)] ^//

Jjjc

or with pro-

Jj.x>

is

not

supplied

o^Aera

that they treat

and

,"-'''

fern.

and

[356]

it

(IY).

others, and

[in the

They

^H^H [r

/em. (IY)]

^^b

and

^>L^b

6y

222

^^

say

;^L>
[nr

(,Ih,

SllLL

(KF)] by another, [du. (IY)J ^.^O^L? by two

(IY)]^L>

as a substantive,

xx

[pi.

with the

so often used apart from the


^\
>X
J^j cy^o I passed by such a man

I passed by two

altogether obliterated from

For
^ '

.^IkTj

is

agrees in gender and number with what

Kb

being

used either anarthrous or synarthrous,

is

belongs to (R).

it

[the fern,

^sT

not used either with

it is

anarthrous*

ing

And, since the sense of

it

meaning one of two

another [90] (KF), because jjT^jo J^uj


*

sense of superiority

thesis

since the

any of its fellows, vid. that


always suppressed from it when indet. [355] (M).

so that

it:

KU

Jh,KF); except that it contains the sense of ( Jh)] an

cament not belonging


is

him

seen

substantive,

[a

found only in the ep, (Jh).

Jjjo

&AJ

but you do not go beyond that (R).

on the measure of (Jh)]

ep. (IY),
is

two days,

for

>

before yesterday

him

not seen

&f

crtAers

<

(M): the Kin-

,-,,,,i

lias

1728

IX. 103.

and

And others have confessed

Ll^Ll^

a mistake to say
^^Ji

*^^

III. 5 [593] (IY).

^*4l /

1^**

It is

bought

a male slave and another slave-girl, because the Arabs


qualify by ^&.| and

^^\

and

their

[such words as denote] what

is

and] pis. only

[dus.

homogeneous with the

[person or thing] previously mentioned, as vL^JT jJs>G|

<5v^l &)uJt

Lix>j

considered AlLdt and Al'Uzza and


the other ? and L*OJ~C ^t> J^o

r^^lQ tj^
of you

is

s^X*^ r*-^
(5^

be a fast of a

is sick,

Uzzh,,

1^1-

>

and

*U by

ous with

is

Y> !|

ye then

the third^

*JCoo Jcg^i

^W*

Therefore whoseover
let

him fast

there-

or on a journey, for him shall

number ofother days,

^j*\ because Manat

Al

x^xxJo

H-

Manat

present during the month,

and whosoever

in,

^^

Have

LIII. 19,20.

&f*ft )

gllx>

being qualified by

homogeneous with AlLdt and

because the days are homogeneILf


*

month; whereas, the slave-girl not being


homogeneous with the male slave, since the former is
the,

&^

fern.,

by
i

while the latter

jcC^f
*~'j

is

masc., *JsU^

as one does not say


>

^1

may

not be qualified

C\A*
Jk^*
^
jj

^* L. Hind

and another man came. For^fis

of the cat. of

person or thing denoted by] which

is

the [person or thing] mentioned after

jJtil,

[the

homogeneous with

it,

as

is

proved by the

1729

fact that,

when you say ,-jl

azZhnmunl

^Ul JUUJ
Hamasa

[one of the poets of the

and another
!

the

says,

full

(CD),] says,

is

phrase

a iid a nother (of the poets) says. And, as for the

saying of the poet


9

#
Compassionate

and

Laila,

bless

Azza and her daughter

her other female neighbours!,

bless

attributable to the poet's having

made her daughter

it

is

to be

a female neighbour of hers (D).


,-*

359. LujJ!

world

and

(R),]

in the sense of the

[when

^j!

[when

affair (R\] are sometimes


thetic

present

life or

in the sense of the great

used anarthrous [and apro-

(AKB)], as in
*'

oy^

'Iff

)yo3

"

'

jf
6

upjuo

(M, R)> by Al
rection (N)],

JLj

*Q

ss s

^*
CD tX^I
O

Jo UJLb LjJ

Ajjaj (M, N,

AKB), On the day

when the souls shall

see

[of resur-

what provision they

have made ready, when affairs shall reach their en<l


in the strife of a life that has long been extended (N,

A KB), and

the tradition of

Iprfytf

^ ^ ^7^

see one

of you

cs*

idle t not

'Umar

^6-^

^jjj ^\ J,!
F'creVy

y V ^1

/ rfe/^

to

busy in an affair of the present

1730

'nor

life,

intention
,

x*

an affair of the life


being to make the matter
in

to

JuC

<5jAJ4>
(5
'
*

^ in a worldly

strife

'

f>

[397], the

indet., as
*
x* >

>

come

and i^joJ yd
*
'<
x-

though

^ in a
X

temporal matter and ^yh^ eternal were said (K on


72.), and in

[by one of the Banu Kais Ibn Tlia'laba, or t as

XX.

is said,

by

Bashama Ibn Hazn anNahshali, And, if thou summon


a great affair and a noble feat the chiefs of the
nobles of mankind^ then summon us (T r IY)], because
to

they are prevalently applied (M, R) to the two things


mentioned, so that the sense of superiority
ated from them (R)

substantives

and

which

reason they, like

hv([149], seldom follow a qualified (AKB).

[725]
is

and thus they are confounded with

for

(M),

is obliter-

is orig.

^^1

an

ep.,

on the measure of
(

the nearest, from

converted into

&

afterwards [the

in

&

^jj I drew near,

^S$\
into

&1: and

its

the

L^JLff

masc.
being

because fourth [727], and


because mobile and pre-

ceded by a letter pronounced with Fath [684] (IY).


is a disgraceful mistake, and a hideous solecism, to

JX>*S>.I

$u*juo

Lo^

sj^D

all

words on

the

Tanwin

its

This

is

It

say

X 0>

a weary world, because LJ^ and

measure are diptote whether

not being affixed to

them

det. or indet.,

in either state

1731

The

(D).

Lexicologists, however, say that the Arabs do


#

>

so that H's
sometimes pronounce Leo with Tan win
declaring it to be a mistake is a mistake on his part and
;

IHL

says that LXJJ has been heard declined as a triptote

though, as IJ says,

we know

it is

extraordinary, strange

anything, ending in an

~~

been heard [so declined] in #J\

which

is

ss

00

Ulb

>

and

Loj ^x^ ^i[above],

not a poetic license because the measure does not

IAjf is an

riot fern,

[248]

because,

indet.CTf
(5

of

when an

inf. n.,

it

may

^!H and

that

be made det. and

-u*^ in the reading

And, as for

like

the greatest,

J^Sf

is

^^\ [248,272]and d^IIJ

inf. n., like

331] ;

has

it

vary in either case (CD). But the correct opinion


(5

nor do

of femininization, that

declined as a triptote [18], except this word

is

t5

^LJU \^^

jLww^ II. 77.

And my

to

ye

men good and

&*y*t in the

saying [of Abu-1 Ghul at Tuhawi (T, IY)]

requite not any wzY/*

ey^ for good, nor

requite any with softness for roughness (T, IY)], they


>

are not the fern, of <j-*^

are inf.
1

[Abu

n*.,

like

^ju^

and

AH AlHasan (UN)]

as Abfc

mistake

i^

6e#er and

^^

saying

worse

[above] (M, R).

but

But

Ibn Hani [alHakaml, known

Nuwas (MN),] has been


in his

\^

taxed with making a

H32

As though smaller and greater of

[356,357] (M)

bubbles were pebbles of pearl on a

MN)

while in

^L> fift G

*j!

its

ground of gold (IY,


the

s^uLfj [355]

is

not coraparatival (M,R),but partitive (R), being like the


in
;*>

gl^uUfJ^UJTjL^Ui
or the J

v^of [355] (M),

i.

e., J^x>

be judged to be red^

may

vLl)j
being

comparatival, as in

[by

Amr

Ibn Kulthum atTaghlabi,

I have

inherited

Amr's maternal ancestor), and


(the glory q/] a better than him, Zuhair (his paternal
Then most excellent is the treasiwe of the
ancestor).
[the glory q/]

Muhalhil

AKB)]

treasurer-keepers, (glory!) (EM,

what

verses, according to
rous,

may

is said,

another

or in both

Joti

be supplied, on which J^o depends,

^L 'jf\ [355] and

*Ix>

\^^^J^ the

i.

anarth-

e.,

pb$l

better, (a better)

than him (R).


9

360.

'

The Jou

*
\

superiority does not govern

of

like the v. (M), because, not being


fern. [356],

part.
are

it is

remote from resemblance

and becomes

not derived

placeable by a

made du.

v.

like

from
in the

or pl. 9 nor
to

the act.

prim, substantives, which

vs.

(IY).

It

same aense as

either

is

re;

it,

or is not

1735

(I A, A), it

does not govern in the nom. (R,

(I A, Sh), rare

(Aud,

except in a [weak

anomalous (Sn)] dial. (IA,

A),

Aud, Sh, A, Fk) transmitted by S


because

resemblance

its

the act. part.,

is

weak

throus and aprothetic,

v.,

Sh, A, Tsr, Fk),

and likewise (R)]

(R, A), inasmuch as,

made

not

it is

of superiority because of

to

anar-

nor du. or pi.

fern.,

resemblance [288]

its

to

jJilf

the

"f-

Jaw

of

wonder [477]

in

measure, origin, and intensive

Most

(ML).

signification

>>*>

Arabs do not say s^l


Sh, A,

*Juo

or oo! (Aud),

Fk)

of

s s

(Tsr,
Is

*"f-

J^j! J^vJ

MKh)

Fk,

the

1<i's

^>>vx>

(M, I A, Aud,

making <kb! govern

s^JT [or

oJl (Tsr)]
ground

in the

that the

passed by a

man

nom.

sense
to

Tsr) as an

(IA,
is

whom

ay! jJillf
his

as a [prepos.

MKh)

(IY, Tsr,

MKh) to yf (Tsr, MKh)


[in flic jmsition of

cp. (IY, Tsr,

MKh)

of

on the

or slo!

<lf.

but put J^oj! in the nom.

(M, Tsr,

prop, being

*s\

ag.,

father was, or thou wast,


,

superior in excellence Tsr)

an

when

detached pron.] in the nom. by the

plicit n. [or

the

[to

(I A,

disallow the government of the ex-

They

[356] (A).

IA,Aud,

A) an expressed ag, (Sh), [whether] an explicit


iR, I A, And, KN, A) or a [prominent (A) detached

(Aud, Fk, Sn)] pron. (Aud, A, Fk),

^ *

same sense

the

in

v.

KN,

Sh,
n.

by a

If not replaceable

(I A).

(Tsr,

or

MKh)] enunc.
JLJf (Tsr), the

(IY, Tsr) a gen. as (Tsr)]

(Tsr,

MKh),

as in

1734

I passed by a man whose father was


thy brother (IY); and the cop. being the pron. governed
in the gen.

by

(Tsr). Y, however, relates that (R)

Arabs allow [the

of the

explicit n, (or detached

jJu! of superiority to

from the

#.,

its

although

(IY,R), because

resemblance to the

remote (IY): but that [construction]


(R)

while S says that

is rare,

it

what we have mentioned (IY).


by a

v.

(IA, Aud, A,

>

[e.g.] in the

(I A,

is

act.

derived

part,

is

corrupt, because of
if

replaceable by

same sense (IA, Tsr,

case of J^xXlf! [below] (Sh),

an expressed nom.
(I A,

it

^1*

not well-known

is

But,

in the

Fk)
J

Fk).

govern the

pron.) in the nom., as (R)]

XA* Jw*ii! J^=*C? [or c^Jl

jj!

some

it

governs

Aud, Sh, A, Fk) universally

Aud), by common consent (Sh, Fk) of the Arabs

when

(Sh), vid.

J^i! is [cp. of a generic substantive (Sh,

Tsr, Fk, Sn)J preceded by negation [or the like (I A,

Fk\

vid prohibition and disapprobatory interrogation (MKhJ],

and when

its

nom.

is

[extraneous

(IA, Aud, A, Fk),

not connected with the pron. of the qualified (Tsr,

MKh),] declared superior to

itself

respects, as in

[the saying

ju\ ..jj^,^
"
^^

^ss

*Juo

+ "/ ^r

seen a

than

it

man
is

XXXD

""

in two

of the

eye,

Sn,

[different (Tsr)]

Arabs (Sh, Tsr)]

-***^

e.,

I*

have not

'

in whose eye collyrium

in the

i.

is

more beautiful

of Zaid (IA, Aud, Sh, A, Fk),

1735

where the collyriuin,

of Zaid,

in respect of its being* in the

superior, and, in respect of

is

other

any

o/e of

of Zaid

colly ri urn hi the eye


itself in the eye

more biautiftd than

is

man

of any other

known

<X^

ijjLC.

yon may say &**.


O

x-

x-

>

>

putting the

(And),

>

reason that the

/ Aa^e

able by a v. in

v.

nom.

were made an

^^^o

whereas

(Sn)],

^L=^

Lo

man

in

Jotil

'

^c ^

&.

^^!

while the

'*

iuuo

[l)fl)\vj

tf

S.

govern the

has no

it

ex.

it is

and,

if

in

v.

its

replacethe

n<

enunc. (Fk, Sn),]

tlirn

extraneous word,

[vid.

xjjf

And

^! J^|

similar

jjjf

^U

**

|^oJt L^xi
///////

to

of-

Prophet,

fasting dearer to Go<l

pOCt[Suliaim

unable

would ensue (A, Fk).

Ibi.

(Tsr)

in this

^ by an

from

are the saying of the

Dhu-lHijj".

eye of
^

IM

is

hich., [and juttl its

(YS),]

*-

ook

in place of

sense, as you see (A)

its

>^*fi

reparation of

>

seen a

?zo^

only that

is

>

^3

'

of superiority

Joti!

sense [of excess

'

*-

explicit n. in the

x^sxJ!

^j^^^

without altering the sense: so says

inch.

X>

xJUvuSxT J.^^XJ!

the

colly rum is so beautiful as in the

trhose eye

Za Id

as the case of J^jCII [above] (Sh,


x-

For

Fk).

from which

(Tsr),
>

ex. the case is

eye

being n the
i

the sen&e being that

is inferior,

man,

its

/'/

is ///

A, Sh)

in

JTo<

///<

<ni

<l<i>f.<

i'n

;uid thr

Watl.il (S). ,-itnl by

>/

Baying

A J
)

>r

14

1736

(S, IA)

I passedby

know any

not

the vale

XA>

y!

of Wild Beasts

&j

sl

and I do

when

vale like the vale of Wild Beasts,

it

grows dark, wherein riders that have come to it tarry


less [than they do in if], and more dreadful save so
as
eo

God guards a wayfarer (MN), where


p,A* ^$07

a->

but suppresses that

[*j

means

lie

for
^Juo (AKB)]

the sake of brevity (S), because of the

know-

hearer's
^ *

ledge (AKB), the phrase being like Jo\

t ""f-s

oo!>

^**f

^
Lx

(MN) and

[below]
>

the saying

>

_
(Sh)
to

I have not seen a man

than

it is to

thee,

a ^

governed by

^^1

that lavishness

Ibn Sindn

in the tradition

from the

s_*=*l is

act.

this explicit n. should


first

dearer

is

But the nom.

(Jsh).

f.

a pro-ag., because
[354], not

v-A

and the

[last]

formed from

The

(Sh).

verse

is

the pass. v.

general rule

is

occur between two prons.,

that

the

belonging to the qualified, and the second to the

xplicit

?i.,

the second

pro 71.

is

as exemplified, [the

by the

in &** (Tsr)]

first

by the

in aJUc,

but sometimes the second

suppressed, and J^o prefixed to the explicit

[vid. jJ-J'(Tsr),] as Js?)

rium of the eye of Zaid

^**
;

and

J^"

&

than

or to its place,

[i. e.,

the

n.,

colly-

the place

1737

* X

the

^^ ^ than
x-

of) the eye of Zaid, [one pre.

'colly rt urn

(And, A)]

pressed

"^

(Tsr).] as Jo^

j^.

or to the

owner

n.

(the

being* sup-

of the place, [vid.

**

(Tsr),] as Jo\

<X>\

fAan

Jjjo

colly r turn

(/*e

of the eye

of) Zaid (And, A, Fk), two pre. ns. being* suppressed

and
O

sometimes
"

-0

>

J^oC'l L^xi ^j-**^

eye Zi&e

/ie

^)

0^

5x

icherein

'

iaye n
the

they say

j^o^

one

is

a7iy

^^

Jo^s-jf

prefix

(Tsr)

it

&j

it

becomes

Jo)

(And,

Jo }
^

is

Jx^jr^,

because of hi<

A), saying Jo\

(Tsr).

And

like

is

fasting

dearer

'"ys oftheten[u\wv],

(Ju
^^ioJI r

Lx>

**

b!

it

is

the

Pro-

^f^o ^li** "ilf^i^f ^f

Not any days

x^

Tv^l

and then they suppress the pre. (And, AJ, so

phet's saying
Iyti*l\

^1^!

to

Jou^
x

[119]

ox

that

man

more beauti-

nection with

Lo

good behaviour more beautiful in


X

similarly

is

than (good behaviour in) Zaid the o.f.


then they
joo;
V'-

^11

is

not seen any

Zaid, in whose eye the collyrium

And

see n

"^X

>

Jo^ c^ I have

ful (Sn).

colliji-iani

(And, A), and

[above]
*5
*XX
^l

as

the nom.,

u^^^^^-!;

eye o/ Zaid,

more beautiful
>

*X X

put after

is

nothing

x"*

then

"<

S*

to U<,<l

in

vi't'.

x*.

U rro J^, tlien^juH ^Ll j^


^dU)| r

This construction docs not occur

in the

Kur

(Sjj,

(A).

Fk),

1738

IM

CT

says in the

but (A)]

that

it

tion or interrogation (A, Tsr)

KN

on the

is better to confine

The

it

in the

Commentary

has been heard

Fk]

the

latent

Sh). [It exercises

(R,

IA, Aud, Sh, A,

<?.

O "^

J^di!

cV.?s

ypz.

^A

government]

its

in

(R)

every
i.

e.,

be preceded by negation or not (MAd), as

it

this

is

without restriction (Sh),

dial. (Aud, A, Fk), [and]

whether

it

nom.

governs [in the

Fk) pron. (R, JA, Aud, A, Fk), which


(R,

and

oneself to what the Arabs have said

J^u! of superiority

(R, IA, Aud, A,

arj.

(Tsr).

containing the sense of

and IHsh follows him

but no instance of

only after negation,

[occurs

be used [by analogy (Tsr)] after prohibi-

may

negation (A)

Zfiid

more

zs

excellent

than

Amr

>s of.

(IA, And), where Jaw! contains a latent pron. [in the nom.
d,

as an ag. (Tsr)], relating to Jo^ (IA, Tsr), because such


government [is weak, its effect not being literally ap-

parent

so that

(Sn)] does not

it

IM

op. (R, Sn).

says in the

soundest opinion (Fk),

(R,

KN, A;]

it

cause

co-ordinated

vs.
if

does not govern

e.,

KN,

whether an explicit

i.

is

(A), According to the

the direct obj. (R, Sh,

tedly (KN),
it

CK

need strength of the

[in

[in

the ace.

A), unrestric-

n. or not (Fk),

be-

intransitiveness] with

the

denoting natural dispositions [432, 484] (YS)

any

n.

but,

suggesting [the allowability of (A)] that [con-

struction] be found after

governed

in the ace.

it,

such n.

is

[held

by a [supplied (A)]

v.

to

be (A)]

indicated

by

(R, A), as in xJLx^


is

wiser (than every one

from His path,


hence

VL

i.

e.,

J^?J>x> jJU! yc VF.117.

He

pJf

knoweth) who stray eth


txil

jjju

J^J^

JU!(R); and

124. [64,201,202], vLLi being a direct

oft;

the place of an ace., governed by a supplied

(Sn)] indicated by

(A^; and the saying [of

pJlit

in
^ O^

Jl^

v. [

Al Abbas
4

Ibn Mii-das as Sulami (T)]

.3

(R,A)

And I

have not seen the

of the tribe of the

like

Banti Asad, as a tribe assailed at

morning; nor

the

of us, on the day that we encountered, as cavaliers ;


and I have not seen any tribe returning more boldly to
like

and more vigorous in defending


dard than they, and not any more ready
the charge,

than we, (we smote, or smiting)


being

J^jLlli

(AKB)]

v, [

governed in the

lljli or

>

stan-

to

smite

crests with the


ace.

(A KI*)]

v/^
*

the

swords

by a [suppressed
indicated by

J^f

to be the
(T) while some allow Jou!

op.,

of the sense of superiority [.>57] (A).

because divested

Nor docs

it

govern

the ace. assimilated to the diiv.rt uhj [348], either because


t

it

docs

n<>t

govern

the,

direct obj. in the ace.,

does not govern the ace. assimilated


or because the [assimilate

<
\

/>.'s

to

and therefore

the direct obj.\

government of that

ace.

1740

sidiary to its

government of the nom., and subprefixion to what was governed by it in the

nom.

whereas

subordinate to

is

its

>

[348];

IM

it

f!

does not govern the explicit

on the conditions mentioned [above];

n. in the nom., except

and, if

-*

Juii

do govern that in the?iom.,


s

CK

says in the

(A),

The

is

not pre. to

it

(R).

f-

Joti

of superiority (R,8h,

A,Fk), (1) when formed from a self-trans,

v.,

(a) if the

be not indicative of knowledge [or ignorance], nor of

v.

made

trans,

by the J (R, Sh, A,


Fk) to the direct obj. (R, Sh,Fk), which belonged to the
^ O
^J & Z
*
^
v. before the formation of Jow (R), as **3 1^
^LcJLJ ^JUblya
love or hatred (A),

i*

f-

>

*>

>

f.

L^JU

7/tf

/.?

'

*s

quicker

to benefit the

to seek blood-revenge,

neighbour (A), because the resemblance

of Jotil to the

and

v.

act. part,

is

weak

the case of the act. part, and inf. n.,

support by the J [346.B, 498,504]

obj.,

and readier

and, since in

when
is

allowable, not-

withstanding their strength, that [support]


in the case of

the

(R), is
KA.M
+ *

>

made
^

because of

its

necessary

weakness (R

(b) if

ted with

[346.B, 503] (R,A,Fk), as

jJLa.
*
o^t!
*

Khdhd is better acquain-

trans, by the
&

f-

b JL^U j&JJ
*
s

La
'

f.

grammar, and more ignorant of law

because the
obj. of

is

be indicative of knowledge (R,A) or ignorance,

v.

Of-o

j*l

trans, to an

such

is

vs.,

and similarly

sometimes redundantly prefixed

parts, and inf. ns. (R):

(c^ if

[to the obj.

the

v.

of

(Fk),
to the

their act.

be indicative of love

1741

or hatred,

is

the obj. and

made trans, by the J

by

504] (R, A),i.

aJU!

what

&&H*AJ

**\

500,

^t^c^jf

'

>

x-

is logically

logically the ag.

is

the lover or hater (R), as

e.,

OJ

what

to

to

JQ

aJJ

The believer

loves

God more dearly than himself, and he is beloved by


God more dearly than any other (A), e., more deari.

ly than the unbeliver

such
as

vs.

JuJl 44^ XLIX.


,jU^T
&
&
>

>

.^

and J^J

(vX^.

trans,

to

you (R)

obj

7.

(2)

belief dear

-4;irZ

when formed from a

t\L 15

irurt'f,

And

fa

sin,

^W! Jll

-^e

m ore

abstinent

and more quick to do good, and more


and more covetous of praise, and

more worthy of clemency, and more averse


nity.

made

Aa^/i

by means of & prep.,

*S

^'5
to

_ff

by that ^rep. (R, A) alone, as


!

n(je

means of

Hath made

7.

XLIX.

^^

the direct

trans, [to

ili<'

(Sn), because

unbelief hatejul

made

Him

are trans, to the lover or hater by

v.

beloved by

is

the

wonder [477] shares with J^fin


i
JSxtfxx'
x
>o.e6x* ^
^
iJJ
&x^l
Lo^
^^J ^^1 Lx /A///;
^H

of

v.
1

to obsce-

-e

this usage, as &JJ!

dearly (he heli^rtr loves God, and how dearly he


x

ts s

**

beloved by God!, *~JLL> ^-^f


'
xx x
^^^"

>

^ x *r

-'-*^' 'V*^--

is

*>

L?

How

well

he

Lx

Hot0 quickly he cuts


through

1742

(
*

obstacles

from
is

to

do good
xj

vA^vJ
xlie-

^t

aLfc^*!

*^s^l

LT JEfew

>

If the

v.

be trans, to two

to the first

by the J

in the ace., (1)

> ^o-f.

mm

wore

a??i

JJi.il

as

&

__, *o

to

.^jj

(A).

made trans.
is

governed

Jj^>

^"*-

-**

^f\ b!

(5

'Amr: (I

clothe

>

clothe

>x-"t

>^

Aim) with garments and UJLiiuo Joy)

than thou

is

(R, Fk), according to the

C?llxJ!

^AaTi fAow ^o

it !

of

while (R)] the second


v.

he

^ *

o&/*., [ J**l 18

by a supplied

BB, indicated by

is

he

quick

covetous

l/oty

//ow worthy he

Uo

s>J^!

he abstains

Lo 7/ow; strictly

s sjoo\!

the world!,

of it!, and

x x &

>

Lu jJ

/,

dLuo

know Zaid : (I know him)

^JLt!

to be

better able

departing^

^o-e.

the second obj. of

J^ti!

and the

v.

with

...e****:

being suppressed,

by jmit

(2)

as some

first

06;'.,

*>>>xfe^
UJUo^o *LjU! (R):
#

s^^l and

(R, Fk), according to the

itself

unrestrictedly,

v^uxJ

i.e.,

its

say; but, as

KK

others

(R),

say, if

renderable by what contains no declaration of superiority,


>

which opinion, says Dm,

would be made trans,

same

place,

sort, like

(R).

two

v. is

Nor does

analogy,

<if.

Joti!

by the J

not trans, to two things of

direct ofy's. or

by means of two preps, alike


>

By

good (Fk).

to the second 067. also

but for the fact that the


the

is

two

ns. of time or

in

form and sense

[in the ace.

(Fk)] the unre-

x*5

Juti!

govern

stricted or causative or concomitate obj. (Sh, Fk).

But

it

1743

governs [in the ace. (R)]

oK

U^Jlo Zaid is
to

f-

the

xjuo

adv

f-

the
*

Li

v. is suffi-

2) the d.s. (R, Sh), as ^llf? ^^1^1 J^x

handsomest of men when smiling and

v^uyb! y-u? !jk55 [77] (Sh),

because this resembles

[74] (R); (3) the sp. (R, Sh), as

355, 357] and

XIX.

75. [147] (Sh),

erned in the ace. by what


v.,

the adv. (R, Sh), as

[355] (Sh), because a tinge of the

cient for this (R)

LJsj

(1)

is

as in !xi oy>K [85] (R).

221

XVIII.

because this

32. [85,
is

gov-

devoid of the sense of the

THE NOUNS OF TIME AND PLACE.

361.

They

arc applied to denote time &n& place,

with respect to the occurrence of the act therein, without


G ^

restriction of person or time, as

place,
not

^o-^ meaning time, or


of unrestricted going out. And hence they are

made

to

govern [365] an

obj. or

adv*

so

|Jo\ time, or place,

or place,

become
motions

restricted (Jrb).
is

The

object of using these pro-

a kind of conciseness and abridgment, since


to

import the time, 01 place, of the act


9

xx

,jLo\

not said, lest they should

is

but for them, you would be obliged to use the


O

"

of killing Zaid or ^J\ ^v^uo

of going out to-day

they serve

word

that

x Cx<-o Q x

& GX

v.

and,

with the

x x

time or ^Uoo place (IY).

They

upon the measure of the aor. (IY, R)

t;.

are formed

&

JJiiJ

except that

you put the ^ in place of the aoristic letter, to distinguish


Such of them as are formed
the n. from the v. (IY).
from the unaugmented

tril.

are of two kinds, pronounced

with Fath, and pronounced with Kasr, of the g (M).

formed from an unaugmented


the measure of
(R^],

when they

(1)

jjil*

tril. (Jrb),

they are upon

[with Fath (R, Jrb) of the

are formed from (a) the

pronounced with (a) Fath of the g


x

place, of drinking, [from

If

G~i

as

v.

whose aor.

v.yu
>

drank, aor.

is

time, or
O

1745

MASH

(b)

Darnm

of the

as Jojo vital part, where


) t

a wound

is

fatal [372] (SH), from

MASH):

(Jrb,

the defective, [i.e., the

(b)

the J (Jrb),] as
^C^Q

birft

(SH\ from ^^

aor.

Jutf killed,

unsound

shot, aor.

in

^^J

>

(MASH), even

if

they be formed from JOLO with Kasr of


O

&*

the

likef^^o

abode, or be quasi-sound,

^^o

and]

to the cat. of the

belonging

of government (R),

like

^^Q meaning place

in order that the

word may be

lightO

ened (R, Jrb) by conversion of the J into

(R)

JuU*

(2)

x-

[with Kasr (R, Jrb) of the

from
the

the

(a)

as

vj>v*i>o

is

are formed

pronounced with Kasr of

time, or place, of striking, [from

stru< k, aor.
<Lj*ij. (Jrb,

MASH)]

the unsound in the

i. e.,

(R)],

whose aor.

v.

when they

Cr^

(b) the quasi-sound,

(Jrb), belonging to the cat.

of the

(R),]

as

tX^o time or place, of appointment

(SH), from JLC^ promised, aor. JoLr(M^J3II), even


>

aor. be on the measure of JUIA.)

^
,

like

if

the

>

J^^o dreadful pi

of the aor.be pronoun


(R).[or more f ully] whether the g
witli

Fath,

is lighter

place

tlie

or

Kasr (AAz\ because Kasr with the

Fath (Jrb)

than

and some

occur on
[18

Damm,

ns.,

but the

neither inf.

measure of JiLo

Klv transmit

ns.

nor

/>*.

witli Fath.

^hilu

^yo

of pLi

like

tin- <juj\si-souii(l

174G

belonging to the cat. of the

,5

which the

[in

^ is a
&** time,
O x

(S),] is

treated like the sound (S,


'

R)

as

vJ

or

place, of waking, from JaJio wakes (R), because [the aor.

and

in] it is complete,

is

not altered, since the ,5 with the

[than with the

^5 is lighter

The reason why

^ ] (S).

Damm of

and place are not pronounced with

ns. of time

tbe

when

the

>

the aor. is so pronounced, is that JOLW does

not occur [in the language (R)], except [extraordinarily,


o

>

^-

>

as (R)] in

Ju and ,jyw

because

is

it

so that they deviate to Fath T

But the following [twelve

light (R, Jrb).

(Jrb) words (R, Jrb), formed from Jm^Twith


8

the

(R),]

Kasr iR,
for

occur [upon the measure of JoU^ (R) with

Jrb), because

Kasra

aor. of the same

v.,
>

like
c

>

often occur in the

^^ collected, gathered together,

mustered, aor. v-i^u (Jrb)]


O

Damma

the sister of

is

Damm

reason Kasr and

which

Ditmm of

dL*uuo

(1)

place ofwor-

ship [below]; (2) ^^o place where camels are slaugh9

lered
,

'

(3) ouJLo

place where plants grow

or place of rising [below]

(5)

9"x
west
time>

(7) (jyax>

crown

oftJie

head [below]

w place, oj fatting or dropping


8

of abode [below]
[below]

(12)

(10) ^jJ^o elboiv

(9)
o

o^,
;

east

(J^J>

(G)

Oo^,
;

(8) iaju*x>

^xlji place
t,

(11) tX^u^x;

lsJU wo5/r/? [372] (SH).

^
JLJbjc

(4)

mosque

And hence

1747

place where a thing

kliaJo

And

to

analogy (MASH),

(R)] has been heard, vid (1)

9"*x

siJL^Juc

(above)

Udljuo

XXII.

worship]
<Xs\w**jc

(R,

is

(3) JyL'; (4) ^xJ^ (5)


^LC (MASH)
9 x
x
MASH) (6) ^^^o place of congregation or
;

allowable, even

while Fr says that in all of them

have not been heard (MASH).

if it

But jL^oo meaning place of alighting


because

its

aor.

is

read with both vowels;


c

explained] (R).

As

for

s'

is [so

XX.

biform, J^xli in
Q

[and ~^LX>

83. [411]

is

being

be similarly

may

^sJuo

nostril [372],

[252, 343] (SH); but both are

while there

pronounced]

[formed by alliteration to the Kasra of the

^1*

x x

Have We appointed a place of

35, 60.

muster [below] (R)


2

both being read in LJLx>

MASH),

(R,

(2)

Fath

thought to be [362] (R).

is

some words Fath, [according

in

as well as Kasr, of the

no other (SH), since

not one of the formations (Jrb).

it is

a deriv.,

(Jrb),] like

extraordinary (Jrb),

jjilo

with two Kasras

And some

is

words, formed

from JouL with Kasr, occur with Fath and Kasr, vid
2 s '

*-0

xpx

^joo track or course and Jo^l

^Lo nightly resting-place

of camels (R); whereas

the

in

case of

anything but

^Lo with Fath is said (L).


IH says in the CM th;it (Jrb) the 5

came/5, only
J62.

of fnniiiini-

zation is sometimes aflixt-d to borne of these ns. (M, Jrb),

1748

as though they meant the &*jb plot, or patch,

(IY)

whether they conform

[place of slipping, which

to
is

analogy (Jrb

its

aor.

place of burying (IY),

which
wjlLj

by IY

[said

from

fa

differ

from

[said

by IY

from

^B

to be]

it

the

sun

(IY)], and iiiyi

pronounced

[361] (M, Jrb), which

with Fath, because

Damm

(IY).

is

being

(j,

with Fath [482] (IY)

like kilo*

(Jrb),

to be]

&

aor.

or
is

it is

But, as

which occur on the measure of &i*I^ with


Jrb), like

^!Li[ place of graves

place in which exposure

ns.

[place oftliQ sun's shining,

thought^ aor. J^ik> with

Damni (M,

are

Kasr

.o^

pronounced with Fath of the

alighted,

for those

chamber

ky>

place ivhereon the bird alights, which

(M

kiLciuc

of sitting in

the place

is

like

pronounced (IY)], Hllix (M, Jrb

so

is

with

pronounced
9

because

of ground

(IY), and fcjLLi

v.

yL^

sun occurs,
'^^^ upperhair on the breast (M), they

to the

made

not
[so constituted (AAz),]

course of the

(IY)],

to

follow the

in them not
(M,Jrb), the act's proceeding
>

but are
being meant (AAz),
(Jrb)

[above],

The

like

^^3 flask,

bottle,

phial

were meant,
'^J^
be
said
would
and abLLo with Fath
(IY).
*$pL?,

and,

if

the place of the

affixion of the

act

in (Jrb) such [a formation] as

&Ifaui

or

8Cl

is

not regular (SH), but

confined to hearsay

1749

(Jrb), since the rule is that


place,
.

and in the

And whatever
the quad,

is

Jjboin the

of time

n.

should be denuded of the

inf. n.,

is in

All of that

363.

the

unaugmented

(R).'

tril. (Jrb).

formed from the augmented

is

and

tril.

or

identical in expression with fat pass, part*

(M, R, Jrb), with unbroken regularity, as in the case of


like
the inj. n. beginning with
r [333] (R),
9

or place,

g-^*

time,

>

of including, )\JUQ
(S,

AAz)]

(M)

And

she

in the saying [of

the tribe

^Uu

their say ing

Qumaid Ibn Thaur

not clad save in a waist-wrapper

is

a shift at the time of Ibn

he makes

of excluding (M, R, Jrb), J^Joo time or place


C ^

upon

and

Hammdm's making a raid

of Khath'am Ibn Annmr (AAz\ where

a [n. of] time, an adv. (S),

^^\ ^^^^3

Such a one

is

JXx>

in

(IY)

noble in ori-

gin (M), JolLo time, or place offighting (M, R), ^,JaJLc


time, or place,

of seeking gain, ^Jl^Lo place oftrau-la-

'

'\

'

'

tion ajter death, J^oLssuuo time, or place, of oppression


(M),

v^u^c

tniip, or

place, of extracting (R),

time t or place of rolling


,

down

down

place, of being rolled

(M, R*, _^.<xLo time, or

(R), and .yflj^ui /nne,or

place, of crowding together (M, R).


^*

JuoL^J

.Hjlo'

rv-^VJv^XX"

APAjjKJ

1750

(M) The place of the crowding together of the herd of


camels with their herdsmen and owners, and the
shallow trenches dug round the tent

water [243] (AAz), and the

to

keep out the

like (Jrb), each of

which

admits of four meanings (R), this expression being com-

mon

to the n. of time, the n. of place, the


It

pass. part. <IY).


place,

being meant

seems that the

it is

ns.

resemble the [aor.]

to

are made conformable

because

inf. n.

of

time and

v. in

measure,

the pass. part.

to

[347],

(1)

lighter than the act. part., since the act.

pronounced with Kasr [of the g


pass, with Fath, while Fath is lighter and
part,

and the

is

and the

],

(2) because,

the ns. of time and place being adverbial objs. as respects

the sense, the use of the expression denoting the obj. to

represent them
.

3G4.

formed,

is

more agreeable with analogy

and
iiiLi [with Fath of the
r

[to indicate

in a place (R,

L)

and serves

wherein such objects abound (BY)

that

(L), as
^

BY)]

^^

provided that the

in Jll3 wolves (R, L)

BY),

either un8

^1 land

abounding in

tX**l

lions (R, L,

(L,

BY), by

f-<i

BY) and i! joo

or augmented, as sUuLo Jk|

abounding in gUt vipers

glx**
9

'

wild beasts and sjL^U in

(R,

land

9 o^

O ^^ a *
&*x**x)

is

abound (R, L,

to qualify the

substantives be of three rad. letters (L,

augmented

(R,

abundance (ARf),] from [prim.

ARf)] substantives denoting objects

BY)

(Jrb).

land

elision of the

1751

Hamza

^w! (ARf>, and

of

in

sCJauo

v^ll^ serpents

{below] (L), and BL&otn l\J3 cucumbers [below] (L, BY),

nates (L).

&

one

elision of

by

(ARf), and

IA1 says,

to recite cm the

It

has reached us that 'Uniar used

Makka

to

way

in ^Lo> pomegra-

sjJoJo

though her rider were a branch in a windy place,

-4

when

she

(D).

They

urged gently by him, vr a tipsy drinker

is

the

distinguish

because of their lightness

>^
forming

fl

[above], because its

some assert that


says s!^2oi

<jc>J

it

Dm

ls

disputed,

The mode

Go

of

S saying sL^*
;

the

saying

of

while the Author of the Aiu


4

truth,

says,

g according to him, is a ^ while


and the Author of the Ain
is a
^

but

(S).

6 ^

from JU^

*JLjUx>

by that [formation]

trils.

Q *

is said to

be the

is

unknown.

And

<i

Urn says, The vulgar take sUU^ [above]

to

mean

the

place where cucumbers and other things, like melons,

grow, altering the expression by putting an

in place of

the Ilam/a, and not observing the sense of abundance.

Since this formation contains some

advs.

beginning

But

them (ARf).

witli
[11

it

r [3G1],

is

resemblance
co-ordinated

to

with

says that (AKf)], notwithstanding


-

its

frequency,

it

is

not regular, universal


*--

abv
(K. ARf).

'a

IM

hywnas
add.-,

i.

or

in the

so that wi^cii

ijjJw

in 0k>n*yj

is

not said

Tasini iLuL/with Fath of the

1752

and

from

Damm

KhA

of the

Dm

while

with
'*&y> dung-heap,

JJtll

abounds in a place (L, BY); so that


>ar.

is said

(L

as

ci*o

9 c"

^^

n^
cc?

^n z/;ua beasts, act. part.

beasts upon the

abounded in herbage,

act.

\jbj$

that

object
T

oJUst

act.

The land abound-

>

abounding in wild

autx**x>

measure of the

ARf).

"

OX*XA!
o

upon the measure

v.

from a substantive denoting an

o J
O
aULaUjo

transmits

Damm and Fath

Sometimes they form a [quad. (BY)]


of

AU

says that

act. part.,
C^ o >
aUxiouo

part.

and

oJLc^c.!

abounding in

G '-6

> of- cf-

herbage (BY), whence ^CN^! o^yo! the land abounded in


lizards, act. part.

iLydx>

and

^>Lb'

-"

abounded in cucum-

'-^"^

This xJiixf

6er5, ac^. |>a?^. xXxAx> (L).

is

not formed from


O

the substantive of four [or

more (R)]

(R, L, BY), loIS/bo; (R), and

rads., like

j^Ii

jM^nce (B Y), such

phrases as gjU^jTawCcT abounding in frogs (L) [and]


s^JLxiJI wsi?

abounding in foxes ^R) being used instead

(R,L), except in the extraordinary sayings Ljl*^


9^_^

abounding in foxes and


transmitted

of the r and

kjyijCo

by S (L, BY).

[above], says

IM

As

m
for

scorpions [below]

Lju*' and LJiJ

says in the CT, both are with

Kasr

^3 land

Damm

of the penultimate,
according to

of

AZ,

upon the measure of the act. part, from the non-tril

1753

[343J

Damm

but are transmitted by S with

of the

Fath of the penultimate; and ought therefore


with Fath, because S

though

and,

AZ

was

is

You say

(ARf).

foxes and
9

<,

read

more truthful

is

>

v_JLxA*

a place abounding in

<jUo<r

in scorpions and

yJuw

to be

a better authority than any other,

his master, stil

and

frogs and

<xL<Lo in

>

in scum, with Kasr of the

v_J^jJax>

first

as an act.

part.: Labld says

makes springs in the


or in mount Ajd, dwindle

It

stony tract called Lubiu\


to

frog-ponds, all of which

are covered with scum(R), meaning g^LLdJ


S

slytf'
'
'

s-

(Jh).

If

formed from the quad.,


8
&IXjii>o

of

the

of

the pass. part. (R),]

tril.,

upon the analogy

t/x>

iuljixxj

[and

^^y

would be

measure

the

upon

because the

said,

&

in the case of what exceeds


counterpart of JuU*"[3Gl]
*
1

three [letters],

is

upon the measure of the pass. part.

[3G3](S,R): but, [says


with Fath of the

[first]

(ARf),]

L&U

have not been hoard

think that S's saying means that iuJuio

have actually
if

used from

h-

ru hr-anl

tin-

hut his

*y*^
s.

d<

not

^1 and

kjyuj
language moans that,

thoy would ho said (R, ARf).

Those, however, [says S (R),J who

abounding in foxes

and

sa

(S,R), beaiuse iL'UJ

[7],
is ////.

say

|&

(R).

And

1754

^,

some,

Jh

[says

(R),] say slajuo

abounding in scorpions

(Jh, R, ARf), with elision of the


9

reduced ^LC

which

is
O

that

v_,

(R), as

though they

to three letters,

anomalous (R)

and then formed

but

Dm

"

says

it

We do

be

not

it

and

_ 1^

derived from JLC meaning

wound, because a wound

not admit

derived from the expression ^>

is

why may

ARf)

So

(i

su*

(Jh,

often results from the sting of


O xc

the scorpion ?" and, according to this, iQai

is

the

land

producing the wound that proceeds from scorpions


*

(ARf).

And &JUU*

is

also sometimes formed to denote the

cause of the abundance of the object denoted by the


Ox ^

expression

* x

Ox^O^,

x -. c/x

>

as yJ&uuc sJu^jc jJ^l! children are a cause

of much cowardice, much niggardliness [331] (ARf).


365.

No

n. of

time or place governs [361] (M) like


ft

fehe

inf. n,

[33$] (IY).

And^i

in the

saying of An-

Nabigha [adhDhubyanl (ABk)]

--'O

xOx^
li*

[u4s

though

it

by the

dust were a parchment that artistic hands had


in xlLc over it relating to the
x>

engrossed (AAz), the


,5^3

mce, o/) Ae dragging of


winds burying traces under

(the place, or

their skirts over


the

&A-U

trench dug round the tent mentioned in the preced3

ing verse (ABk),]

is

an

inf, n.

(M, Jrb),

i.

q.T

(M),

1755

pre. to the ay., and governing- Lp^.S in the ace. (Jrb) :


while a pre. n. is suppressed (M, Jib) before it (M) the
7

full

phrase being

AAz), as
or (2)

IH

(1) cA*lx>!J

holds (AAz),

^LLclpr^pT

(M) as Z holds (AAz).


7

fO

i.

M.

Iwsvi
e.,

>

^^0

ff^

(IT, Jrb,

THE INSTRUMENTAL NOUN.

.366.
for

It is

every

n. derived

what is used as an instrument

like _U*x>

key

[379],

which

is

v.

and made a name

in that act (Jrb,

name

what

for

open with, and SLsxUCo broom, which

what

what

to
loosely applied

such as

is

used

is

act

the

is

a name for

And sometimes

used to sweep with (Jrb).

is

ARf),

9 ^ ^

to

from a

done

is

in,

it

when

is

it

is

used for an instrument (Jrb, ARf), like v^JL^x?


O

milk-pail (Jrb).

The

So says Jrb (ARf).

'

v^JLssuc is

not

the place o/ milking, that being the place in which


the milker sits to milk

milking

but

tril v.

Llia>o
^

is

The

is effected (R).

from the
JjUx>

(IY, L, BY).

an instrument wherewith
instrumental n.

is

formed

on the measure of

It is

and JUJuo (M, SH, L, BY),


x

all

three

the
as though
r (IY, R, L, BY),
(BY) with Kasr of
meant to be distinguished from the inf. n. [333] and n.
of
(BY), like
[361] (IY), and with Fath of the
place

^JJauo [above] (M, SH, L, BY) and uoox> blade of scissors


(M, L),

uL'
^*

*^X* [above] (M,


[above] (M,

SH) and Li^w> comb

SH, L, BY) and J^tyL blade of


9

shears or scissors [310] (M, L) and


B

(L, BY).

(R, L),

^+&* lamp

[253]

They make JJu*

fern.,

as they

make

the

1757

(IY)

but

'

n. of

place fern.

[362]

'

*
*.

said to be

kJLiAx? is
*

s O

*l

And some say

confined to hearsay (Jrb).


*~.

1 S

<j

contracted from Jljulo

and that [saying]

ft

[above],

and
^>.ftx>

more often used

s o

JULAXJ is

allowable, as

^Lx*o [above]
o

^M and ^1
Juulo

JLo

not

is

is

allowable

and

for that

reason, say they, the

is

Ox-"

whereas

whenever JLiLo

allowable

is

confirmed by the fact that J L&L

is

allowable whenever

although Juulo

that JkjUx ia

is

sound

o s

in Jsvx> s/*(/i
-

and kx^uo
^

*>

needle [712], not being converted, as in JULo and *Ux


R

because they are contracted from

Jfu> and IsL^o, where

it

must be sound, because of the occurrence of the

it

(IY).

after

'

or

Every instrumental

mentioned

elrgy on a groom
>

'

like the

and hence the saying of AlFurazdak

&*

^'^

" " '

'

on the measure of JiLo

pronounced with Kasr of the *

is

&JLxAx>

n.

'

1*

s O

in

?is.

an
*

L>t

ilvAxs

^
4> juMuSJuo^
iLc^Juo ^

*
"^; i

^*

^r

ahe-mule, and a she-mule^and a nose-bag of evil,


?/7/0se barley has been wasted, and a rejected brvvm,

and a curry-comb, and a yellow whip whose thongs are


worn out, be wail Abu-lKhansd /; while IA1 says that
iv^jvx

LJ^lc

wi'li

Futh nf

thesis

the

with Kasr thr//// (D).

ffac

[:>(i 1J,

and

1758

367.

few words are formed anomalously,- the

being pronounced with


w

(1) Fatfr in

.*

[some instances of slil*,

o^

like slLx ladder, stair-case, and s\ULo lamp-stand, because

these objects are instruments in one respect


in another, a subtle distinction noticed
Q

,x

O ^

xlftJLo

farrier's flea

Q
;

and^aces

by few, and (CD)]

while s\jL*Jodri7ikiny -fountain,


x-

x-

gULo [above], and


vessel for purification are pro*^$b.A

nounced with Kasr, conformably with rule, and Fath,


because these objects are not transportable by hand

Danim i\\^j&&A oil-flask,


'

JojuLo tubs
'

,_m

and

[below]

pestle,

(JiJuo

'

'

though Jjju

The following;
n

trumental

Damm

s.

occur [upon the measure of

[of the r

(1)

(5)JLsvX-*; (6)

oJi (^) *^r^->

(L, BY), which

They

^t\x>

(2)k*^x>

added by

is

(L

Jouix>

(3) Jk^Juuo

,]

with
alli-

(4) J^o^uo

vessel for holding potash

IM

in the

Tashil (BY).

are names for

those things

BY), which are not treated as mere implements


o
6

to

ins-

o >

are so formed [by assimilation to concrete substan-

tives (BY)], because they


(L,

>

and g (ARfj, anomalously (BY), by

teration (L)]:

t'

J^o^o sword, Jc^vJCo

mallet

according to rule (D).

is said,

(2)

for injecting medi-

c^7^e Z7^^o ^/ie nose, Jk^\Juo sieve [o7JJ,

colly rium-box,

work with

(R),]and

Lo

(L).

'

Such [formations] as ^

,[these five being]meutionea by S,

(M,SH), the

last being

mentioned by

1759

(R), which occur with

Damm of the ^ (M, R, Jrb) and g (M

Jrb), are not regular (SII): and (R),

S says, are not made

to follow the course of the v., but arc

these vessels {M, R), which

peculiar

means that

fellows (R); the sense

of,

IH

7i5.]

does

confined to hearsay

pronounced with

is

and similarly

and derivation from, the

being observed in them (IY).


this formation is

*JUxX/> does not

collyrium, but

the particular vessel;

to

strumental

used as names for

that contains

denote every thing

not

v.

mean

not

that

but that the

its

[in-

Damm of the * and c

are

not like their fellows in unrestricted applicability to


every

instrument, being only


so that only vessels

though

oil

names

for particular instruments

made for

oil are called

be put in another vessel, this

is

not

^JJ>
named

(Jrb, ARf): and similarly with the others (Jrb)

Jrb (ARf).
denotes

may

When, however

(BY)], working

is

intended by

c c -o

it

s ^

v^JLixj
(BY)], as JdouJL*
' *
*
?

/ brayed with

/ sifted with

JL*

so says

them,

what
they

according to rule

the sieve and

the pestle (L, BY).

220

and,

[derivation from

be pronounced with Kasrfof the


*

CHAPTER

XV.

THE TRILITERAL NOUN.


368.

The

of two kinds,

n. is

unaugmcnted (IA,

Aud, A), none of whose letters is dropped in the original


formation (IA) and augmented (IA, And, A), some of
;

whose letters are dropped in the original formation

The

(I A).

of the [decl. (IY, Jrh)] n.


[rad. (SH)] formations
tril.

are [three (IY),]

The

[below], quad. [392], and quin.

S and the majority of


the GGr is that the quad, and quin. are two species
different from the tril. (R) while Fr and Ks hold that
[401] (IY, SH).

opinion of

the [only] rad. formation

is

the tril. (IY,

R)

and that

the quad, contains an angment of one letter, and the


quin. an augment of two (IY), Fr saying that the aug-

ment

is the last letter in

and

letters in the quin.,

quad,

is

the quad., and the last two

Ks

that the

the penultimate letter

what they say (R)

and the

augment

but there

is

in the

no proof of

[correct] opinion is the

former, which is held by S; and for that reason

we

and J whereas,
measure the quad, and quin. by the o
if the matter were as is mentioned [by Fr and
Ks],the aug.
,

would be represented by
*'

rad"

as

because the

w^ [373]

its

tril. n. is

two, as

v;*^

like [671] (IY).

augmented by one
I

3 ?9]

three,

as

IH

says

[letter],

17G1

[371,387]; and four, as *\'^&jil^ [332]: and ihequad. by


Q x

one, as g-f*>&* [393]


8

two, as

x '

_^=ju*
by a

[393]: but the quin. only

pUaj^t

ation before the final, as JuuuuJL* and


Q XX

after

with or without the

it,

letters

[of letters (IA,


is

mented,

(Aud).

(IM), as

five

The

is

rel. n., as

The augmented,

as in

^LLx^Il

if

?i.,

"

(Sn),

du. of

sound pi." (A), as in

[401] (IA, Aud,

du.,

sound

does not exceed seven [letters],


of femiuinization

"

(A), as in

or the two augs. of the

du"

as in

'-

or of tho

used as a proper

^U^i!

not to be taken

frit, lias ten

Bubstantivea and cps. (IY,

(A),

(Dm),
into

is

that theso

account [381

385], because constructively separate [283] (A).

unaugmented

A)

here does not except the

^L..^! when

rcl. n.,

known

be unaug*

if it

two augs. of the

'i

augs. are

The extreme number

vllC^Jj [391] (Dm),


^

name, or of the

or

he does in the Tashll, where he says

except by reason of the

Lillli [above]

X^

seven (IM), as _Lsjxz*J [above]

of femininization, and the

and

and fcu-Uko!

(HII),]

j^jll

why IM

reason

#X

Aud, A)] reached by a n^

be augmented,

if it

and,

fi^J*^ [401]

augmented by three

is

Jh says

as

HH),

(Jh,

carrot are extraordinary (R).

"

as

as SL&uS and ^V^JLO [401];

while kj^Llcls porpoise, [which

pl. t

three,

letter of prolongQ >x

and

The

formations [237] (M, SII, A) of


Jrl)),

often used, not neglected,

1762

nor extraordinary (A),

vid., (1)

A), as (rJl small copper coin

knowledge (M); (b) ep.

(I

(a)

ep.

(IY,A),aB^'&taer (IY, Jrb):

(a)

substantive (IY,A), as

ep.

(1Y,A), as
O

[2391 (A): J^3


it

IY,A) and

and

(a)

substantive

substantive (IY,A), as

(a)

earned [238,257] (M,8H,A)and

jii,

(4)

JoJ

(IY,A), as

&* he-camel (M);(b)*p. (IY,A), aftj^wrffcftt

[343] (IY,Jrb, A): (5)

flank

(b) ep.

substantive (IY,A), as jis foc& (IY,SH,A); (b)

<P,

stance of

Y,A),asyLe empty[S4] (Jrb):

(3)

(IY,A),as

(a) substantive (IY,

(SH,A)

<&,

difficult (IY, Jrb): (2)

j^,

is

to us (A)]

the

is

only

in-

substantives (Akh,

among

(Akb,A): but [among substantives (A)J

is cited

is

Jrb, A) and Jot prolific

(IY,

rare (IY): Ssays, Jo

[known
eps.

s/ow^

JLloJ ^a7ifc(Mb);(b)

(IY,A) by

Akb (I Y),

Mb

mentioned by

as a dial. var. of

and the saying of Imra

alKais
*

Aas the two flanks


legs

of an

ostrich,

and

o/a

gazette,

the back

and

of a wild he-ass stand-

observation
ing upon a raised plact of

Kasr

of the

is,

though the Kasr

',

and &s+peg,

related with

be an allitera-

&&* comb, and

cited as dial, vars. of

is

is said to

tion

the two fore-

JJ

JJMJJ

kii, and y^

date-juice are

(A); and

[Akh

17G3

asserts that (Mb)] the

yellowness (Mb,A),

Arabs say s~<^ julljl? In


(A), though that
f&
\~

i.e.,

known (Mb); and they


and

00,

ijjLs jjJLa.

call the boys'

and they say

[below], and Jix^ as a

name

siJu^ as

is

is

not wello

**

game ^J

a dial. var.

of a country (A); and Sf says

that Jaj

his teeth

o
!

armpit

occurs,

and that

dried curd

ki't

is

said

as a dial. var. of ks!

while

Th

says,

The only

upon the measure of Jaw are Jb said of

eps. that occur

a woman, and

(R)

<X?[

said of a she-ass (Jrb, A): but, as for

the saying

the

[Our brethren,

Banu

//7,

taught us the drinking

of must, and dancing with

the leg (MN)],

transfer [of the inflectional

Kasra

cent] because of pause [G41], or

so that

is

it

(IY,A),as

Jli

'

'

^^r

is

a case of

preceding quies-

a case of alliteration

original (A): (G) J*i

neck (IY,SII,A);

_ -**

rare (A), as
9

not

to the

it is

substantive

(a)

(b) ep. (IY,A), wliieh is

swift said of a she-camel (IY, Jrb, A),


o

.7/4

>

>

r>

'

s^u^ unclean [239], JJLi ague (A), and ^JJo unsltakled


being the [only] instances remembered of

(IY), these
(A): (T)Joi

(a)

it

substantive (1Y,A), as wix5 shoulder-

blade [below] M.S1I)


f

(b) ep.

(IY, Jrb, A): (*) JjU,

(a)

(IY,A),

as^ wary [348]

substantive (IY,A), us

11^

1764

upper arm (IY,SH,A);


[239]

(A):

(9)

(b) ep. (IY,A), as JaiT

wakeful

JU*

j^i, (a) substantive (IY,A), as


o

(b) ep. (IY), as

grapes (IY, SH,A);

^x dispersed

scat-

substantives

(BS\

6 X

tered

Jrb): Jxi

is

frequent

among

as

L* H6 (M,BS):

but, as for eps. (BS),

A),

We

it

do not know

unsoutid

to occur as

S says (BS,

an ep. except in an

word ^<Xt [239, 257], which

generic, n.

is [a

(IY)] used to qualify the pi. (IY, BS, A), like yLl and
as ^<Xc
v_>sf [257] (IY
strange, or hostile, people (IY,

BS); and

is

not a broken^?/. because

it

has no counterpart
o

among

pis. (IY)

among
,

eps.,

and so ISk says,

Juu does

except in ono word, ^ti^ ^j>

not occur

i. e.,

iGi

or

as says the poet

Lo

TTAen <Aow art among a strange, or hostile, people, that


thou art not of, then eat what tkou art fed with, both
nasty and nice. (BS
eps. occurring

but others mention [that the only

upon the measure of

ijUU* [above] (BS,A) and

^J^

Joi3

are (A)
^s

i.

a quasi-pl. n. [above]

(A), as in this verse and in the saying of the other


^

*"

''^

**x

q.

^
!

&f

^'xlx *<*
JLJ

siJLi

1705

She

(the poet's she-camel)

passed three nights,

vid. the

nights of the three days next after the day of sacrifice,

and afterwards

ran away, and passed

one night at

an encampment whose

Dhu-lMajCtz, watching

people

were dispersed (ABk), or whose herbage was


,C.^*' x<'>

tered],

i.e.

or^

^UxJ!

the reading [of Ibn

Uls iLj VI. 162.

.4

(BS); and

Amir,

inf. n.,

i.

q.

^Us

'Asirn,

Hamza, and Ks

right religion (BS,A)

(A), used as

(B)]

may be cited

perhaps S might say that

correction of S, though

an

scat9^
in
[Sf says that (A)]

it

in
is

an ep. (K,B): and [some

GG cite other expressions in correction of S, vid.(A)]^Lv


* + *

midway

^^ ULCc XX.

[239] in

(BS,A), and ^0^

J^

dant water

and

juIio

t5^l

(A),

man liked [143], and


^ye

^Lo

^ iU

abun-

stagnant water (BS,A), and

persons taken captive lawfully or/a eWy, which

onicrs explain
(10) Jij

A place midway

60.

(a)

away (A)

as inf. ns. used as eps. (Sn

substantive (IY, A), as

sparrow-hawk

^LL rough, hard (IY, A), whence


*^x-e>^
^
C-o>
'*< '
L^il Jo # ^JJL| ^jUi. ^'LJt

(M,SII, A); (b) ep., as


* *

pjb^

* '

o!^

'."

JuJL

(IV), by Ku>laid

two shanL
f

Item for a

ll)ii

Ruin.iid

hi step, the night

hard driver

rla^sitiratinn

exacts

(Aud, A) of the

aVAmbari,

(T).

The

/'//^

having

///

collet

[theoretical (A, Tsr)]

twelve (SH, And, A) formations

unau^mrnti'd

/;//.,

because

it^

first

1766

vowels, but not quiescence,

three

[letter] receives the

since beginning with a quiescent is not possible [667]

second receives the three vowels and quiescence

while

its

also

and the product of multiplying three into four

is

These, then, are the whole of the mea-

twelve [392].

sures of the unaugmented

IM

as

tril.,

indicates

But, out of the twelve formations, there are

one of which

tions,

neglected, and

is

(A).

two forma-

the

other rare

For, out of these measures

(IA).

(A), Jjw is

neglected

(IM), because they dislike the transition from Kasra to

Damma

(A, Tsr), since

heavier than

it

(Tsr).

Kasra

This statement of

upon the opinion that dl^ [below]

As

for the reading [of

{Ibn Hilal

by IJ

to

heavy, and

is

is

IM

is

Damma
founded

not authentic

(IA).

Abu-s Sammal (And, Sn) Ka'nab

(MINH)J al'Adaw! (MINE, KF),

attributed

Abii Malik {Ghazwan (IHjr)| alGhifari (Tsr)

a!Kufl(IHjr),]d)L^To!SrClJl^LL 7. By the sky adorned with streaks, with Kasr of the _, and Damm of the ^,
[it is

said not to be

assumption of
[in

two ways

its

authentic

and (Aud, Sn), on the


is

explained

by intermixture of two

dial. vars.

authenticity (A, Tsr),]

(A),] (1)

in

two

letters of the word, because viLc*

are said (Aud,

A)

so

that

it

and dU^> [above]

the reader compounds this

reading from them (A, Tsr), taking the Kasr of the

from

dl^ and
,

the

Damm

of the <o from dll^ (Tsr)

(a)

17G7

IJ says

He means

ivad with Kasr

to

but after pronouncing the

well-known
with

Damm

but this

therefore

u If this
explanation
Tsr), wlio says

want of orthoepy, and a vicious

(A)

by

alliteration of the

in

Kasr (Aud, A),

(2)

o of o!3

pronounces the

CK

by IM

Damm

the

AH

God

with

be

it

better

ns. (IA), in the

beaten

instances of

is

a barrier not

of the J

(Tsr)

(A).

by

and

[29G], used as a
.f

AAD

(IA, Aud, A)]


killed

occur

name

t'r a tribe of

that (1Kb)]

said [by

is

rare

is

(IM)

traced (Aj: for

Akh

v.

to

make
like

(IM),

[43G] (IA,

The

A).

are (1) jbj jackal, weasel

that

is

I.

alliteration to

this

And j^J

I.

language of the Arabs (A), like

and Juo was


it

"

[of viL^Jt (Tsr)] to the,

Juo [below] (IA), because of their intention


peculiar to the [/"/*>.

to

the quiescent J not being

Damm

of the ^ before

(Sn)] to

among

!,

(A,

style of reading*

insuperable (A, Tsr), like the reading sJJ <xl^jf


to

would indicate

it

taken into account, because the quiescent

Praise be

<.,

were confessed

by the reputed author of this reading,


a

and

inclines to the

lie

refuted in the

is

the

ut'

with Kasr,

reading, and
:"

[had

Kinana,

[AHni

to

which the

r.-eiti-d

^IKb)] recited

it

to

to

me,

him

IK
'

'

IK1.

\V

b]

Kfl b

0>^*>

'

Lx>

c^

Ibn Milik

:il

Aiis-iri

(A),

de<eribin.r

1768

as small and contemptible the

when he made

a raid upon AlMadina

brought an army

such that, if

would

measured,

it

the weasel

(MN)

so that this

anus, podex

of

J^j

transmitted by

Sn),

They

halting-ground were

its

measure

certainly rare, as

used (Sn): (2)

is

Kill.

It

is

proved, then, by

formation

this

who

is

(R, Jrb) of the unaugmcnted

not neglected,

assert that; though

IM mentions (A).
n

of

mountain-goat a dial. var.

contrary to the opinion of those

reduced to others:

(MN,

>

(3) JLC^

these expressions that

it is

Abit Sufyan,

be only like the halting-ground

pjj

of

army

Some [measures

(R)] are sometimes

tril.

(1) Jcai

when

(a)

its

second

is

guttural letter, as in <XapJ thigh [468, 482], where A&Jaiul


are allowable and similarly [ joJ
<X&J and j^aJ
' s
s
s
;

v.

[when the

is

'

in (R)] the

guttural (R),] like jLa^i witnessed [468]

(SH), where the three variations are allowable


Juot3,

when

its

ration of its

to its

in

Kasr, as Ju^** martyr [372],


'

Omju* prosperous,
"'

->.^
"

7
7
< ^ slender,
round
"
spare and oix^s
' '

,f

cake of bread (R)


O

while

guttural, shares with Jc*i in theallite-

is

and

(b)

[when
O

is

its
'

not guttural

(R),] as in oix^above], where oU*' and ^Juf are allowaa

ble: (2) such as

'

'

Jua^ [408], where JL^O^


>

and similarly in the

v.

also,

as

J^Jf

is

allowable (SH)

^*x

The

man was

as mentioned in the Verb of Wonder,


generous for**/; and,

1769

(
~^

*x

*>J!

^^^

allowable

is

06

JL

such as
and
Jo|

(4)

[above],

Qo

"

where Ju| and


are allowable (SH): but
yJb
a

more frequent

tion is

[476] (R): (3) such as <jji* [above],

o t

where <j^
S

'

<5

L$J

*Jj.x&e

JAJ that contains the sense of wonder,

Joi; is said for the

as

in such as {$*& than in such as


Jo|,

twoDammas

because the

this allevia-

>

are heavier than the two Kasras;


x

so that even

in the
J

<l

apostles end

Kur, which

>

Hijazi, UJLwv

is

p$Lj Their

Apostles [24G] occur

and

better in the pi. than in the sing., because the pi. i&
O

in sense

(R)

Our

Of

(5)

>

such as cU$ [above], where

it is

heavy

> 9

Jute is

allow-

according to one opinion (SH), transmitted from

able,

Akh

[246]

made

IIU

while

light by

likewise says that every JL^

some of the Arabs, and heavy by

difficulty

others,

Off

Qfc)

is

and~*u easiness

(R), because

^^

and

occur (SH): but the majority do not allow that, since


tin

ol.ji

vid. alleviation, is not realized

r,

while one

is

may say

that

from

it

(Jrb)

the [measure] quiescent in the

a deriv. of the [measure] pronounced with l)amm of


> >

the

as

is

means

III

the case, by
in

that,

common consent,

the case of words

in

or more measures, one of their measures


I

said to

of

tlir

But

l>e

all

the o.f.
i^

<|

said

t<>

<>t

^^

[above],

that have
is

two

sometimes

the nthers,a84X*u with quit'scenec


he a

<1<

riv. of

tiMi.s

<XU

arc in

with Kasr of

the

it.

language of

1770

Tamim;

and, as for the people of Alllijaz, tlicy do not

The augmented

alter or vary the formation (K).

(Jrb)J has [very (IYjj

formations (M,

many

Imt perhaps the paradigms that

comprise

all,

them (M).

or most, of

The

369.

of

meaning

being

that there should be adjoined to the


letters not belonging

SH, And);

mention will

shall

[tril.

"

rad.

some

letters

such as drop

to theln,

is

augmented

some

in

off

variations of the word; and are not represented by a


,

The

or J [071].

objeet of that

is (1) to

import a mean-

ing not existing [in the iinaugmented form], like

(a) the

fx

of

an

ay. [343,

v^wd* beaten, which

imports

[373], which imports being

\^\^beat\ng

o *

>

673];

(b) the

of

objectivity

[347,

676];

means

which

the

of

arc numerous:

(c)

aoristic

co-ordinate

(2) to

another, like (a) the & in


i

letters,

with

varies

expression

meaning [404]: and

of the

variation

the

such

one

by
the

augments
with

formation

i>Juu>

near in lineage

to th<-

<*

highest a ncestor and ^JL$X

Uahdad [375], a woman's


G

>

name,

t>

which are co-ordinated with ,jX? and Jta*. [392],

for

which

reason the two similar letters are not incorporated in them,


S

as in

o^<

>

^^ love

and

affection [731]
Q*

jewels, gems and the ^5 in

owyo money-changer

and multiply the formation, like the


[574], the

of

in

yc^>

(3)

only to extend

0^1

of

^^ y<>>^n
O

\^^^ old woma

[253, 373],

* ^

which are co-ordinated with jju=>[392]:


1

(b) the

o^

M n<l

the

///

'

of C\A*^

prospc-

1771

nuts

The augment

[till] IY).

)
is

homogeneous P>^| with

the letters of the word, [being

it

word

second ^ in iXXa/ancI

the

itself (IY),] like

repetition of a letter of

(lie

jj^p

above]; or not homogeneous with them (M), being one of

the letters of jL^iS

&
-*=>! red [2-10,372]:
9*0 '
is

fit

ofshivcrincj and
H

like the

co-ordinative, like

tlie

tion of (1) the

from

of Jjctf [*T3]

>

S,

-C

fJlkJ!

co-ordinative,

[369]

and

<Xai>.

[above] (M).

augment

ostrich went

T/^e

(2) the

is

a rcpcti-

of

the ostrirh,

swiftly (IY),] and

as in j>JoU^ swift [291, 378]

Y)]; (3) the _jand g

^X^ [meaning WA-//

"'-'

as in u^wcwo d\[) incaninn-

Ot'

fixxx
<

calain% [2(53], from

^y.sv?v??-////(IY

////// //^

grov i^li

and q>

<>n //, fr

herbage

scrt place, lniri,i<i no lu'rbaye (IY)]; (-t)the^ and

I^3^[385](M).incauiiinnil-ailing

And

cfaar

o,|,n

/>/;/,

A^//c// (1

sail

the other 0M9*< arrfoiily (IN')

Tlr

|<i71](M).
.....

if

tQ

MM?

>

as in JU*AA=> swift^ [said

"

"O^^

and
(M), also said of the ostrich (I Y),

is /<a/''

is

s s '

v.AS hem}} [374]

and

The homogeneous

370.

of joG?

<*

*>=* [above] and J^J^ rivulet[3T4]', or

of

s<>

Hamza

[071] (IY), like the

^J!

fust [kind]

tinj

ni'

;i

in

(IY).

h-Kcrs o

f<>r

^a^ancl r /*t>)

>

Xjc^^j^M)

woman

isn-gular; and

I'-

Y..U |jkr.

Y), and

J,a

llu-

/n// ;/

you

1772

Ox

O C

and ^JJ [above]


or

yiy^

vjps

but not

"

'^Ll [249, 372] (IY'

^^

four (M, Jrb), as in

j&*

Ox *
oLx^&t [891],

number reached by

the J

two (M. Jrb\ as

or

^ w^

or

by analogy to

one [letter] (M, Jrb), as in

is

(IY) or three (M, Jrb), as in

before the

S x

[369, 373] (IY).

The augment

371.

it

JiLCo' [382]

[3G8, 387] (IY)

or

that being the extreme

Its positions are [four (M),]

(IY).

between the

in

o and the

and after the J (M, Jrb).

between the

And

g and

occurs either

it

separated or united (M).

The

372.

(IY)] in such as

Hamza
mation

an

single

is (a)

ep., like

which has

dial

five

them

^J (IY)

is (1)

Jj^f[249, 253] (M)

J$ [348] and ^\
:

of

(a)

[the

this for-

a substantive, like JjJlf and JX*T[249];

antimony [249]

known

augment before the

(d)

(c)

(6)

[249, 672] (IY)


[249,

^[finger

L^l

vars., (a)

^! [below]

g$

[above]

(e)

(c)

(6)

(b) <IJ!

253, 672]

(M),

the

best

[above],

^Jil

Jf leaf

(d)

^t;

(e)

of Thebaic

(M), which has several dial vars., (a) jjbf [249],


which [formation] we do not know to occur as an ep.] (b)

palm

Ji

(c)

J4

(IY): (f )

"J\ [237,256]

(M), pi. of

IJSdog,

there being no sing. n. on the measure ol jis! [255] (IY):


(2) [the

(IY)] in such as

(a)

^Jufa

certain thorny

1773

tree [253, 395,. 678]

(b)

Kjo strength to repel enemies

[331] (M), which [formation] occurs

among

substan-

(a)

O xo

lives, like

by some

678], held

^Jy [274,

to

be an ep.

i.

q.

established as in
C

And we had an
like

e/>s.,

'

xx

Ul

established superiority over

Ox

f6j

-o

>

mankind

>

niving milk before the stallion

iuJLsJo

covers her, said ol a she-camel, as also &JLs>o and kJLsu


^
*

(IY)

(c) jLftx^

(M), a name of the fox, which has four


O

<ZmZ. vors., (a)

^Jp

[392];

iacA;

o/a

with
(IY):

We

**><-

as above

JJU3

(c)

co-ordinated

^.[392]

>

Juixj',

[above],

I^Ju

[373,

392];

isu ^Aaf

(d)
:

Ju&j, co-ordinated with

(6)

like

vlJJ^

[274]

(3) [the

&

15

(IY)]

(c?)

as

though

Jljtf,

pared

like

such as

in

8x

shining white stones [674] (M); and similarly ^Jbc/oafc


?c,
which is Persian, Arabicized but JoOj with Daram of the
:

&

and Kasr of the g does not occur among substantives

or eps. (IY): (4) [the r (I.Y)] in such as (a)


(b)

"jjjuo

pulpit
,

jyJiJI

a^JU.

is

rare in the rp. (IY)

(a) their saying

>

<

I)

AlMughira

bfnit'.y

(e)

volume [oro^un

>x

for

[361,676]:

(c)^**!^ nia'fi^-p2ocr.(d)Jjouu[S67]:

which [formation]
X

feL

[:U6|,^A*j

ra?iM

/.

MM

is

not of the

ca^. of

^uui

tXx^i [36S].as nn instance of

1774

which A'/ cited the saying of one of


xJLJ! JuLfr .
*
x *

olL Paradise

threat of God

for him that has feared the

is

for in this [cat.] the alliteration is only in

Fath of the

the [word] pronounced with

SvuUJl, being an act. part, from

nounced with Da mm of the


9

is

343] and

but SyA*^
X x^

[above]

^jL-ci

regular, all of

only of the cat. of

(T)

and

The

37,).

is (1)

[the

signet-ring
oo^Tjw^*-

and

pro-

*"

[252,

^JuLx?
^ "

(5)

whereas

this is not regular;


o

Juo

slender

(IY)] in such as

[the

single

to

and the

withers [247,369],

(IY)]

in

[247,

283 673] (M), and

Jjtti

to

be rad. [392] (IY).

augment between the

such as

is

^Li

v*u* long [679] (IY), according

>U. ^c/^re,

^lL
from

decided the matter, and said also of the raven,


6

because he decrees separation; and,


369. 673] and
(I

is

its initial
9

is

(M); while S holds the

and Kasr of

[above], s_*U^ [368], and

it

voracious (M)

Akh

initial,

made a raid,

"

^j^>

the cat. of

sill

whereas

initial;

*x

90

anomalous

Arabs j

the

^killing, deadly

among eps

o>pLo [278

(IY): -2) [the

Hamza

Y)j in such as JooLi north-wind [672] (M), transposed

from

JU2 [374] (Jh), its

say ^h-N oJUxi TAc

measure being

-^z'/i^

measure] we do not know

blew

from

to occur as

J^U

because they

the north,

which

an ep. (IY)
9

the

(3)

(IY)] in [the aubstiiEtive.suchaSvyJ^) Zainab (18)

1775

and

(253, 383); and the ep. (IY),] such as

tortoise

jjli

O - o x

said of the lion, because of his biting,


jU^o &tfer[674] (M),
since
JU^ means biting, and as owyo expert [253,369,383,

money-changer: but we do not know in

674], said of the

Damm; nor Juili with Kasr,

the language, says S, Jotli witli


.

eptin the unsound [251, 716] (IY y


such as

in

bird, the

[217] (M), arid wJLS

yj

in

it

being

among

no (formation like] *^JL^ with Fath of the

,Ai

and as

o ?arft without a .. (IY):


/
^^ \
1

[253, 372, 383, 677] and

<>

.,

J^

e x

SICK/*

O X

(IY)

is

(5) [the

JlU

(I\T)

374.
)

(FY)| in such as

^5

The

Dingle

(2) [the

ass [246, 283],

&

(I

Y)] in

and the
(b)[ j^xi

which

is

and because
"

&

^Jo^

[383,677]

male
(I\l

).

wolf went swiftly


X

f>^^ a

Li/i'l v/'

thorn

onstellation [253] (IY).

Ilamxn]

[tliu

(M)

the
j

and

(1

'J

(:;)

^x

of a she-camel) from ^>3jJ! &*c.the

ns there

fix
j

(IY)

a well-known

tarfc,

because

-w/.,

4) [the

augment between the


such as

in

JlU

(IY)] in such as

and j!li
(a) [the
<-p.,

yow?/flf

and the

north-wind [373,

jt^

man

gazelle [246],

[246, 369]

(M)

substantive (IY),] such as


JL*T

sud. as

^.L

1<>.

:300,

343] (IY):

istive (1 Y),] sucli


as^Axic

is a

(/

Ox;

.,

(M):

(H'i; (r)

and an

'

/'

7'

Mirh as

lM)

l|iOll

^Jo
tlu'

/'///,

said of a

IlirasuiT Of

1776

by S (Bk), the name

so mentioned

va lley [belonging

to

Hudhail

in

of a [well

known (ZJ)]

Tihama (Bk)], an extraor-

dinary formation, [there being no Juki in the language


except this (ZJ),] since no other

occurs pronounced

n.

with Bainm of the o, quiescence of the g, and Fath of the


^5

(IY)

joj

(IY)] in such as]

(4) [the

[677] (M)

1I^

a stout bowstring, transmitted by

J>j

(IY): (5) [the

(IY)] in (a) [j^B

>

i.

S,

e.,

as

<>JJL

J^ [246] (IY)

JjJ^

(b)

[369, 675]

colt

(M)

(6) ep.,

ji

such

said of a

(b) ep., such as

as (IY)]

57**

man

as^j^o

(IY)

o^
5

truthful

(a) substantive (IY),] such

f,

voice

*i

young he-camel, when ridden (M), and

lamb, and sometimes

and

ioxic

(a) substantive (IY),]

such as

as

XO

J^J
which

loud in
is

rare,

castor-oil plant (M), and also every

weak

(c) [

Jyu

Q s*

bending plant, and j^xr ^Itwad


or,

in

as is said

stantives

of

to occur as

such as

an

(j*5<X^

name

of

a valley

these

being

the

(IY)

(d) [J^ii

(7) in

not

know

(a) substantive (IY),]

&

(b)
O 6

(a) substantive (IY),]

ladder, staircase [253] (M)


:

[rough

two sub-

a kind of colored hood or scarf (M)

6s'
in [Juu
ep. (IY): (6)

(IY)

only

we do

measure which

this
ep.

mountain in Syria,

the

(Bk),]
(Bk)],

passage

[a

(a)

ep.,

(b)

such as

such as

Jo^'

>

jJU

[252]

substantive (IY),] such as J^!'

a well-known plant
[370] (M),

(b)

ep.,

such as

ix!

1777

weak-minded, having no

opinion of his

and

own,

following every saying [672] (IY).


.

The single augment

375.

which

then of two kinds,

is

such as

Jol

258, 272, 673

and

.after

both co-ordinated

[392] (IY)

(1) [the

(M) and

ffl [248,

[392] (IY)

with^Ll

with

co-ordinated

[272, 673, 676] (M),

^Lo

is

co-ordinative (IY),] in

(a)

[248, 253, 258, 272]


1,

the J

jUy

[denotative of femininization (IY),] in

(b

(M)
^1 [258, 272, 327] J& [272]
and
^b [248, 272], which last by some pronounced
such as

is

with TiinwTn, and co-ordinated with


[248, 272, 673]

&J?* [248, 272]

and

n x

.IY)] in such as (a)

(2) [the <j

of a

ma n,

^j
o

^JL

^^^

eloquent (M),

i.

of the she-carnd

nation with

c,,

ybU

iJlj

and similarly

liveliness, said

the

i:^2],

<>f

in these

"p^,

gated] in such as
nf

tli-

with

[and

(a)

Miejbui:,',

^.

guest,

i.

q.

(c)

<j-^

the /torse, and vj^c

being

Ox

'I

^J^>

hoof of the camel-,

^ji

an from

lett

[272] (Mj

and shaking, said of a he-camel because of his

(IY)]: (b)

i'

^1L

trembling, [said
x

in hi*

briskness in journeying, and similarly

oui

(IY)

rm</., for co-ordi-

JALj]

(IY)

(3) [the

jj>J>

rugged [253] (M),

M'l'l-attMl

f..|

en (.rdilia-

\o similar

1778
letters are not

incorporated [721]
8

[369] (IY)

place, and

and similarly

(M), a certain tree, or, as is said, a

>

name

the

jo*-vu

of a place, the
8

'.,

* 9 9

(b) _o*.,
>

for co-ordination with

[369] (IY)

(c)

and ^ being<