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Contents

A.

Purpose/Scope ...................................................................................................................................... 3

B.

Earth electrode rods: ............................................................................................................................ 4

C.

Earth round conductor electrode: ...................................................................................................... 10

D.

Earth rod with round conductor electrodes combination earthing network: .................................... 11

E.

Interconnection of MV and LV Earths ................................................................................................. 12

F.

Calculation of Touch and Step Potentials ........................................................................................... 14

G.

Allowable touch and step potentials .................................................................................................. 15

H.

Current Density at Surface of Earth Electrode .................................................................................... 16

I.

Appendices : ........................................................................................................................................ 19

Page 2 of 19

A. Purpose/Scope
The purpose of this report to obtain the MV&LV earthing calculation study
for load centre A of KAIA project according to BS Code books
(BS 7430:1998), (BS 7354:1990) and the design report.
All the formulas and tables are copied from BS 7430:1998 and
BS 7354:1990
This study is to be used to aid in specifying the following:

Earth electrode rod length.


Number of earth electrode rods per each loop.
Length of Earth round conductor electrode.
Resistance of MV earthing network.
Resistance of LV earthing network.
Combined earth resistance interconnection of the MV and LV
networks.
Touch and Step Potentials.
Current Density at Surface of Earth Electrode.

Page 3 of 19

B. Earth electrode rods:


The resistance to earth of a rod or pipe electrode R, in ohms, is given by
the following equation:

Load Centre A - Structural floor level is 7m above MSL with the design
water table level at 4m above MSL, this level is based on recommendations
of HUTA and is subject to final confirmation by them.
So the effective length of the electrode rod through the wet soil (10 ohm.m
resistivity) will be [(3*2.4)-(7-4)] =4.2 m, where the total length of electrode
rod 3*2.4 = 7.2 m.
L = Effective Length of the electrode exist in the wet soil = 4.2 m
d =Diameter of the earthing rod

= 0.02 m
Page 4 of 19

= wet Soil resistivity (according to the design report)


Then, R = 2.486 ohm for one earthing rod.

Page 5 of 19

= 10 ohm.m

Page 6 of 19

Page 7 of 19

Page 8 of 19

The total number of electrodes around the rectangle = 24 rods each of the
length of 9.6 m.
So, n = 7 and s = 41 m
R = earthing resistivity for one earthing rod

= 2.486 ohm

= wet Soil resistivity

= 10 ohm.m

s = distance between adjacent rods

= 41 m

= factor given in Table 3

= 7.03

Then, The combined resistance of all earth rod electrodes in parallel


Rn =0.394 ohm.

Page 9 of 19

C. Earth round conductor electrode:


For the round conductor electrode the resistance R, in ohms is given by the
following equation:

= wet Soil resistivity

= 200 ohm.m

L = length of the conductor

= 1500 m

h = depth of electrode

=2m

W = diameter of 240 mm2 bare copper conductor

= 0.02 m

P = coefficient given in Table 5 for Two lengths at 90 electrode


arrangement
=4
Q = coefficient given in Table 5 for Two lengths at 90 electrode
arrangement
= 0.9
Then, the resistance R for the round conductor electrode = 0.206 ohm.
Page 10 of 19

D. Earth rod with round conductor electrodes


combination earthing network:

The equivalent resistance of the earthing network RLV for LV system


RLV = 0.1353ohm
The equivalent resistance of the earthing network RMV for MV system
RMV = 0.1353 ohm
According to the design report to ensure the ground potential rise meets
the requirement the resistance of the earth at the load center must be: -

This condition will be achieved as R = 0.1353 ohm less than 0.143 ohm

Page 11 of 19

E. Interconnection of MV and LV Earths


The MV and LV earth electrodes shall be interconnected within the ground
via a disconnectable test link.
So the combined earth resistance interconnection of the MV and LV
systems can be determined from the following equation:

Then,
RT = 0.067 ohm

Page 12 of 19

Page 13 of 19

F. Calculation of Touch and Step Potentials

- [m] Ground resistivity = 200


V - [V] Ground potential rise = 201
L - [m] Earth round electrode length = 1500
h - [m] Depth of earth conductor = 2
d - [m] Diameter of buried conductor = 0.02
D - [m] spacing between parallel conductors = 41
ki= (0.15n+0.7) = 1.75, where n = 7
Then, r = 171.13, where grid area equal to 92000
R = 0.4255 ohm
Then,
VT = 93.6 V and VS = 10.48 V
Page 14 of 19

G. Allowable touch and step potentials


BS7354 defines the following equations for calculating the allowable touch
and step potentials: -

Where:
Body resistance = 1,000
Footwear resistance = 4,000
Contact resistance = 3
It is taken from curve c2, Figure 5 of PD 6519-1:1988. At 1 second this
can be taken as 50mA.so Allowable Touch and Step Voltages as
following table:

Alternatively, Figure 3(a) in BS7354 graphs allowable touch and step


potentials as a function of the duration of the fault. Taking the maximum
time of 1 second and the minimum resistivity value gives VT < 240V and
VS < 720V.
Page 15 of 19

H. Current Density at Surface of Earth Electrode


Section 15 of BS7430 gives the following equation for the allowable
current density at the surface of an electrode:

Where =200 ohm.m in the electrode level and t= 1 sec.


Then,
J= 537 A/m2
Tabulating the above equation against the soil resistivity data from 3.6 to
12m within Table 1 gives the following:

Page 16 of 19

Considering a 16mm diameter earth electrode, its surface area is given


by:
=.
Where:

SA - [m2] The surface area


l - [m] The electrode length
d - [m] The electrode diameter
and the earth fault current is 3000A, the minimum electrode length can
be calculated using the following formula:
3000/ .
Where:

J - [A/m2] The maximum current density of the earth electrode


d - [m] The electrode diameter
3000 [A] - Earth fault current
Page 17 of 19

Page 18 of 19

I. Appendices :
1- ATK005-422-C100-FD-X-RPT-0000: Design Report Load Centres
A, B, C and AC.
2- Appendix G. Earthing Calculations.
3- 422-C240-FD-E-RPT-00010-B: MV ELECTRICAL EARTHING
GENERAL REQUIREMENTS.

Page 19 of 19

100% Design Report Load Centres A, B, C and AC

14. Earthing
The earthing design for each Load Centre will generally follow the guiding principles as defined in
Atkins Report 422-C240-FD-E-RPT-0004 which sets out the design basis for the Medium Voltage
and Low Voltage earthing systems. The earthing system is being designed in accordance with the
British Standard Code of Practice for Earthing BS 7430:1998 and also Section 7 Earthing of BS
7354:1990 and in particular the guidance given in this document regarding the management of
Step and Touch Potentials.

14.1.

Earth Electrode Design

The general ground conditions across the KAIA site are indicated to be a mix of sands, gravels and
clays which in a dry state would generally exhibit relatively high values of electrical resistivity.
However the ground water table is also at a generally high level and the ground water is indicated
to be of a saline nature which, from an earth electrode design basis, provides good conditions for
achieving an earth electrode of low ohmic value without need to install an extensive earth electrode
network. The depth of the water table does vary across the site with water tables at the Load
Centre locations being as follows:
Load Centre A - Structural floor level is 7m above MSL with the design water table level at 4m
above MSL
Load Centre B - Structural floor level is 8.3m above MSL with the design water table level at 4.3m
above MSL
Load Centre C - Structural floor level is 26.5m above MSL with the design water table level at
20.75m above MSL
Load Centre AC - Structural floor level is 25.75m above MSL with the design water table level at
22m above MSL
Note: The design water table level is based on a long-term uncontrolled design of groundwater
level = existing groundwater level plus 2m. These levels are based on recommendations of HUTA
and are subject to final confirmation by them.
In order to take advantage of the ground water requires a relatively deep electrode system to be
installed and would need to be in some form of deep bored or driven electrode such as earth rods.
In such instances advantage can be taken of other deep structures such as re-inforced concrete
foundations or deep bored piles.
In respect of the Load Centres the foundation design of the majority of the buildings are
constructed from raft type foundations the depths of with are such that they will not necessarily sit
below the ground water table. Originally an architectural screen was proposed to be installed
around a number of the Load Centre buildings, the height of which necessitated the need for deep
bored piles to form the support for the foundation beam upon which the screen would sit. The piles
will generally be in accordance with the parameters as given below and depending on the footprint
of the particular Load Centre which would require in excess of 100 piles to be installed per Load
Centre.
Table 21 - Foundation pile details
Parameter

Value

Atkins Tracker Number: ATK005-422-C100-FD-X-RPT-00001

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100% Design Report Load Centres A, B, C and AC

Depth of pile (approximate)

Typically 12.5 metres - occasional piles up to 17m

Pile diameter

800 mm

Size of reinforcement

H25S

Length of reinforcement

Full length of pile

No. of reinforcing
bars/formation

11 bars arranged in a ring

Spacing between piles

2m to 4m

The architectural screen is no longer part of the scope for the Load Centres however, it is
proposed to retain a number of the pile foundation in the design to form the primary MV and LV
earth electrodes.
Using an assumed worst case for Load Centre C where the ground water is typically just under 6
metres below the finished ground level would mean that for a 12.5 metre long pile the effective
length of pile within the water table would be 6.5 metres. Using the formulae from BS 7430:1998
and assumed resistivities of wet soil and concrete of 10 ohm metres and 30 ohm metres
respectively would give a typical effective resistance to earth for each pile of approximately 1.8.
In accordance with Atkins report 422-C240-FD-E-RPT-0004 the maximum resistance of the earth
electrode shall be 0.143 in order to limit the maximum Ground Potential Rise to 430 volts. Thus
this value of earth electrode resistance could be achieved by connecting a minimum of 14 piles in
parallel to achieve the maximum required earth electrode resistance for both the MV and LV earth
electrodes. It shall be noted that the piles selected to be connected to the earth electrode system
shall be at least 13 metres apart (twice the effective length of the piled foundation) to ensure that
the maximum effectiveness of each pile is achieved and is not diminished by interaction with
adjacent piles.
It is therefore proposed that a minimum number of 16 piles per electrode will be used to form the
earth electrode using piles at each change of direction in the foundation. In other words 16 piles
will be used to form the MV earth electrode and a further 16 shall be used to form the LV electrode.
In addition a horizontal earth electrode will be installed buried typically at a depth of 2 metres below
finished ground level which will be used to interconnect each of the piles forming the earth
electrode and in addition will be laid around the perimeter of each of the primary buildings and
structures within the Load Centre. The horizontal earth electrode will be formed from either copper
strip or bare stranded copper conductor having a minimum cross sectional area of 120mm2. It is
envisaged that a minimum length of 1,500 metres of interconnecting conductor laid directly in the
ground will be required per Load Centre. Since this will typically be laid at a position in the ground
which is above the water table and assuming reasonably dry conditions at this level it is envisaged
the soil resistivity seen by the horizontal electrode will be in the order of 200 ohm metres. Based
on the formulae in BS 7430:1998 this length of conductor and assumed soil resistivity would have
a typical effective resistance to earth of 0.8 ohms which can further contribute to an overall
lowering of the earth electrode resistance.
Calculation sheets for the above are available in Appendix G.
The calculation for Ground Potential Rise is shown in Appendix G. The configuration of earth
electrode as defined above gives a Ground Potential Rise of 215.6V.

Atkins Tracker Number: ATK005-422-C100-FD-X-RPT-00001

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100% Design Report Load Centres A, B, C and AC

Maximum Allowable Touch and Step potentials have been determined from Figure 3 (a) of BS
7354:1990 as set out below:
Table 22 - Load Centre Touch and Step Potentials
Touch and Step Potentials

Allowable Value
(V)

Touch Potential

240

Step Potential

750

The above figures were determined using the most conservative values possible. It is clear that as
the Ground Potential Rise is less than the maximum allowable value for Touch potential hence it
is unnecessary to calculate the Touch and Step potentials as clearly it is not possible for them to
exceed the limits shown in Table 22.

14.2.

Perimeter Fence

Perimeter fences formed of conductive materials have to be earthed in order to protect personnel
both within the site and outside of the site of being exposed to potentially injurious voltage and
current during system faults on the electrical network. The fence can either be connected to the
main earth electrode within the site or independently earthed. Where a fence is tied to the main
earth electrode it can in some instances be required to install an additional equipotential
counterpoise conductor on the outside of the fence throughout the whole length of the fence. This
is to ensure that under system fault conditions where the ground potential within the site becomes
higher than the general body of earth that personnel outside of the site that come into contact with
the fence are at the same ground potential as the ground within the site.
The alternative approach is to independently earth the fence and in such instances it has to be
ensured that the main earth electrode is a minimum distance from the fence (typically a minimum
of 3.0 metres). Since for the Load Centres the earth electrode will in the majority of the area be
quite significant distances from the fence and the touch and step potentials are well below the
acceptable limits it is proposed that the fence shall be independently earthed. This will be
achieved by employing earth rods of typical depths of 5.66metres (12 feet) driven into the ground
at each change of direction in the fence and also at maximum intervals of 100 metres in straight
sections of fences. Where the fence is not continuous such as at gate positions earth rods shall
also be located at either side of the break in continuity and an interconnecting conductor shall be
installed to connect the two earth rods together and maintain electrical continuity of the fence.

14.3.

MV and LV Earthing and Distribution Networks

The proposed system design is to provide separate earth electrodes for the MV and LV earths.
These electrodes are to be interconnected at two points. As described above the electrodes shall
be formed by interconnecting a series of foundation piles using buried copper conductor. There will
then be two distribution systems around the Load Centre site (one for MV and one for LV earth)
which will allow each facility to be connected to the earth electrode as required.

Atkins Tracker Number: ATK005-422-C100-FD-X-RPT-00001

71

100% Design Report Load Centres A, B, C and AC

Separate MV and LV equipment earth bars will be installed in all equipment and plant rooms to
which all equipment earths, equipment metal work and all other extraneous and exposed
metalwork will be connected. These connections will be at sufficient intervals to ensure adequate
equipotential bonding of all exposed metalwork is achieved. This will be facilitated by the
installation of earthing distribution networks formed of bare copper strip affixed to walls at a
suitable levels and locations that will afford connections to be made from the various items of
equipment and plant and extraneous metalwork. These networks will be arranged such that the
equipment connections, etc to the earthing distribution system do not form obstructions, trip
hazards or any other impediment to the movement of people and equipment.

14.4.

Bonding of Reinforcement

The majority of the Load Centre buildings and facilities will be constructed using reinforced
concrete containing a significant amount of re-inforcement steel. Whilst it is accepted that the vast
majority of the steel is covered in concrete and will not generally be accessible to personnel due to
the fact that some of the foundation system will form part of the earth electrode there is every
possibility that under system fault conditions the re-inforcement could experience a rise in
potential.
It is therefore proposed that connections shall be made to the re-inforcement steel at a number of
locations throughout all the various process plant buildings and facilities. It is proposed these
connections will be made at column positions and will use proprietary system that is exothermically
welded to the re-inforcement steel and is brought out to the face of the concrete as shown in the
detail below:

Atkins Tracker Number: ATK005-422-C100-FD-X-RPT-00001

72

100% Design Report Load Centres A, B, C and AC

Figure 3 - Re-inforcement steel earthing connection

Connections will then be made from these re-inforcement connection points to the earthing system
distribution network.

14.5.

Tunnel Earthing

Where tunnels exit from the Load Centres to other facilities such as the Passenger Terminal
Building, SEC supply substations etc. the earthing distribution network within the Load Centres will
be extended out to the tunnel interface point and will be connected to the earthing distribution
system within the tunnel. This will be done in this manner to ensure that all systems such as cable
tray work, supporting steel structures, tunnel re-inforcement steel are all connected to a common
earthing system and operating at the same earth potential.

Atkins Tracker Number: ATK005-422-C100-FD-X-RPT-00001

73

100% Design Report Load Centres A, B, C and AC

Appendix G. Earthing Calculations

Atkins Tracker Number: ATK005-422-C100-FD-X-RPT-00001

88

Calculation Sheet
Calculation of Earth Electrode Resistance
Horizontal Electrode
in accordance with BS 7430 : 1998
Relevant extracts from BS 7430:1998

Input Data
General
Soil resistivity
Concrete resistivity

200 ohm metres


30 ohm metres
Electrode Arrangement

Coefficient
P

Horizontal Electrode
Length of conductor
Depth of earth electrode
Width/diameter of earthing conductor
Electrode Arrangement
Electrode Type
Coefficient P
Coefficient Q
No. of lengths in parallel
Spacing between electrodes
Factor F
Output Data
Resistance of one electrode
Resistance of multiple electrodes

250
2
0.0175
Single
Round
2
1.3
2
80
0.611

metres
metres
metres

Q
Strip

Round
-1.3

Single

-1.0

Two lengths @ 90

0.5

0.9

Three lengths @ 120

1.8

2.2

Four lengths @ 90

3.6

4.1

Factor F
No. of lengths

metres

0.611

0.443

0.362

Notes
1.76 ohms
1.07 ohms

NB; Foundations need to be spaced at least two times the depth of the electrode to
ensure the effectiveness of each electrode is not diminished by interaction between
adjacent electrodes
Date
15/11/2012

Prepared by
Job No.
Project Title
Project Ref

C Prentice
5101762
KAIA
C100/

Calculation Sheet
Calculation of Earth Electrode Resistance
Reinforced Concrete Foundations
in accordance with BS 7430 : 1998
Relevant extracts from BS 7430:1998

Input Data
General
Soil resistivity
Concrete resistivity

10
30

Structural Steelwork
Diameter of reinforcing rod
Effective length of reinforcing rod
Thickness of concrete between rods
Distance between rods
GMD of rod cluster
Number of rods
Number of foundations

ohm metres
ohm metres

GMD Look Up

0.012
6.5
0.15
0.2
0.2306
8 round
16

metres
metres
metres
metres
metres

Output

GMD

0.0346

0.0621

0.1079

0.1687

8 round

0.2306

8 square

0.2082

Notes

Structural Steelwork
Resistance of one foundation
Resistance of multiple foundations

No. of Rods

1.23 ohms
0.08 ohms

NB; Foundations need to be spaced at least two times the depth of the electrode to
ensure the effectiveness of each electrode is not diminished by interaction between
adjacent electrodes

Date
Prepared by
Job No.
Project Title
Project Ref

15/11/2012
C Prentice
5101762
KAIA
C100/

Calculation Sheet
Calculation of Touch and Step Potentials
in accordance with BS 7354 : 1990

W/out crushed rock - BS7354:1990 Figure 3


Clearance
t secs

Allowable Touch Potential (V)


100m

500m

1000m

Allowable Step Potential (V)


100m

500m

1000m

0.1

2,400

2,900

3,400

7,300

9,200

0.2

1,700

2,100

2,400

5,100

6,500

11,000
8,100

0.3

1,250

1,500

1,800

3,800

4,700

6,000

0.4

880

1,050

1,250

2,700

3,300

4,200

0.5

600

700

810

1,800

2,250

2,900

0.6

410

500

590

1,250

1,600

2,000

0.7

330

390

470

1,000

1,300

1,600

0.8

280

340

410

870

1,100

1,400

0.9
1

260
240

315
300

380
340

790
750

1,000
950

1,250
1,200

Input Data
General
Soil resistivity
Concrete resistivity
Earth fault current
Resistance of grid to earth
Grid potential rise
Total length of buried conductor
Diameter of buried conductor
Depth of burial of grid
Spacing between parallel conductors

Fault Clearance Time (s)

I
R
V
L
d
h
D

200
30
3000
0.07
215.6
1500
0.0175
2
150

ohm metres
ohm metres
amps
ohms
volts
metres
metres
metres
metres

Allowable touch and Step


Touch Voltage
Vt
240 volts
Step Voltage
Vs
750 volts

Notes
Allowable touch/step voltages for soil resistivity of 100m has been conservatively used.

Output
Touch Voltage
Step Voltage

Vt
Vs

N/A
32.7

volts
volts
Date
Prepared by
Job No.
Project Title
Project Ref

15/11/2012
C Prentice
5101762
KAIA
C100/

Contact name:
Address:
Email:
Telephone:

Phillip Norman
P O Box 5668, Manama, Kingdom of Bahrain
phillip.norman@atkinsglobal.com
+973 1751 0400 / +973 3996 1420

Atkins Ltd except where stated otherwise.


The Atkins logo, Carbon Critical Design and the strap line
Plan Design Enable are trademarks of Atkins Ltd.

Saudi Binladin Group


Final Design Report
MV Electrical
Earthing General Requirements
SBG/DAH Report No

ATK002-422-C240-FD-E-RPT-00010

MV ELECTRICAL EARTHING GENERAL REQUIREMENTS

Notice
This document and its contents have been prepared and are intended solely for Saudi Binladin Groups
information and use in relation to King Abdulaziz International Airport.
[CONSULTANT] assumes no responsibility to any other party in respect of or arising out of or in connection
with this document and/or its contents.

Document History

JOB NUMBER:
Package 422
Revision

Status

TRACKER NUMBER:
ATK002-422-C240-FD-E-RPT-00010
Originated

Checked

Reviewed

Authorised

Date

100% submission for


DAH review

Mike Hales

Ingar Loftus

Mike Hales

10-05-12

100% submission for


DAH review

Mike Hales

Ingar Loftus

Mike Hales

10-10-12

ATK002-422-C240-FD-E-RPT-00010

MV ELECTRICAL EARTHING GENERAL REQUIREMENTS

Table of Contents
Chapter

pages

1.
1.1.
1.2.
1.3.
1.4.

Abbreviations and References


Abbreviations
References
Client References
Atkins References

5
5
5
5
6

2.

Introduction

3.
3.1.

Scope of Work
Deliverables

7
7

4.
4.1.
4.2.
4.3.
4.4.
4.5.
4.6.

Design Input Information


SEC 110/13.8kV Substations
Load Centres
MV / LV Transformers
MV/MV Transformers
LV Network
Ground Conditions

8
8
8
8
8
9
9

5.
5.1.
5.2.
5.3.
5.4.
5.5.
5.6.
5.7.

Earthing Design
Earth Connections from SEC Substations to Load Centres
Facilities with 13.8kV Connections
13.8kV Cable Connections
Standards
Lightning Protection
Equipotential Bonding
Surge Arrestors

10
10
10
11
12
12
12
12

6.
6.1.
6.2.
6.3.
6.4.
6.5.
6.6.
6.7.
6.8.
6.9.
6.10.
6.11.

Earth Grid Designs


Earth Resistivity Model
MV Earth Current
Load Centre Earth Grid Requirements
Facility Earth Grid Requirements
Current density at the surface of an earth electrode
Single Earth Rod Resistances
Multiple Earth Rod Resistances
Concrete Encased Earth Electrodes
Conductor Size
Touch and Step Potentials
Concrete Rebar Earth Connection

13
13
13
14
14
15
16
16
16
17
17
17

7.

Summary

19

ATK002-422-C240-FD-E-RPT-00010

MV ELECTRICAL EARTHING GENERAL REQUIREMENTS

Tables
Table 1 - Soil Resistivity Model ....................................................................................................................... 13
Table 2 - Earth rod resistances as a function of depth .................................................................................... 16
Table 3 - Earth Electrode Allowable Current Density ...................................................................................... 22
Table 4 - Minimum electrode length ................................................................................................................ 23
Table 5 - Detailed earth rod resistances as a function of depth ...................................................................... 24
Table 6 - Resistive values of 12m earth rods in group arrangements ............................................................. 25
Table 7 - Resistive values of 20m earth rods in group arrangements ............................................................. 26
Table 8 - Concrete Encased Earth Electrodes ................................................................................................ 28
Table 9 - Conductor Size Calculations ............................................................................................................ 29
Table 10 - Allowable Touch and Step Voltages .............................................................................................. 31
Table 11 - Site Resistivity Measurements ....................................................................................................... 36
Table 12 - Summarised Resistivity Measurements ......................................................................................... 37

Figures
Figure 1 - Simplified Block Diagram for facility earth potential rise ................................................................. 15
Figure 2 - Earth connections to rebar in concrete ........................................................................................... 18
Figure 3 - Electrical Network Diagram for Facility Earth Model ....................................................................... 20

Appendix
A.
A.1.
A.2.
A.3.
A.4.
A.5.
A.6.
A.7.
A.8.
A.9.
A.10.

Proposed Earth Electrode Designs


Earth Potential Rise at Facility Substations
Current Density at Surface of Earth Electrode
Single Earth Rod Resistances
Resistance of Groups of Earth Rods
Resistance of Concrete Encased Earth Electrodes
Conductor Sizing
Calculation of Touch and Step Potentials
Allowable touch and step potentials
Concrete Rebar Connections
Hot Zone

20
20
22
24
25
27
29
30
31
32
33

B.

Site Measurements of Electrical Resistivity

34

C.

Generic Earthing Schematic

38

D.

CRS Responses

39

ATK002-422-C240-FD-E-RPT-00010

MV ELECTRICAL EARTHING GENERAL REQUIREMENTS

1.

Abbreviations and References

The following abbreviations and references are used throughout this document.

1.1.

1.2.

Abbreviations
[1]
[2]
[3]
[4]
[5]
[6]
[7]
[8]

HV
KAIA
LV
MV
NEC
NER
RFI
SEC

High Voltage, above 13.8kV;


King Abdulaziz International Airport;
Low Voltage, 0.4kV and below;
Medium Voltage, between 0.4kV and 13.8kV;
National Electrical Code;
Neutral Earthing Resistor;
Request for Information;
Saudi Electricity Company;

[9]
[10]
[11]

Zsc

Short circuit impedance;

TT

Earth is independent of earth from power source

TNS

Earth and Neutral conductors are separate from power source

References

All system design, installation and commissioning works must comply with the manufacturers
requirements, the requirements of authorities having jurisdiction and in accordance with the following
reference standards and relevant publications from the following internationally recognised organisations:
[1]
[2]
[3]
[4]
[5]
[6]
[7]
[8]
[9]
[10]
[11]
[12]
[13]
[14]

1.3.

NFPA: National Fire Protection Association.


ANSI: American National Standards Institute.
IEEE: Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers.
BS7430 - Code of practice for Earthing
BS7354 - Design of High Voltage Substations, Section 7
PD 6519-1:1988 - Guide to Effects of Current on Human Beings and Livestock Part 1:
General Aspects
IEEE80 - Guide for Safety in AC Substation Grounding
ASTM: American Society for Testing and Materials.
ISO: Standard by the International Standard Organization.
ICAA: International Civil Airports Association
IBC 2006 - International Building Code 2006; Standards relating to Electrical Installations
and Equipment as issued by the IBC 2006
The local power authority regulations (for the MV cable connections to SEC substations).
The Saudi Arabian Distribution Code Issue 01 Revision 00 dated November 2008
Saudi Building Code Electrical Requirements SBC 401

Client References
[1] SECTION 260526 - GROUNDING AND BONDING FOR ELECTRICAL SYSTEMS
[2] SECTION 264113 - LIGHTNING PROTECTION FOR STRUCTURES

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1.4.

Atkins References
[1] MV Cable Report reference ATK002-422-C240-FD-E-RPT-00008-A

2.

Introduction

The King Abdulaziz International Airport (KAIA) is expanding its runway and passenger capability. To
facilitate this expansion, a new Air Traffic Control tower, a new Passenger Terminal, Transport Facilities
and supporting buildings and shall be constructed. The new airport shall initially support up to 30 million
passengers per year, growing to 45 million in the first few years to an eventual capacity of 80 million
passengers per year.
This document describes the Generic Earthing for the General MV and LV Systems to be installed in the
King Abdulaziz International Airport to support the distribution of Electrical Power and provide a safe
environment for operators, passengers and equipment. The specific Earthing design will be completed by
the appropriate sections, this document providing an overall co-ordinated design basis. The Generic
Earthing for the General MV and LV System comprises earth busbars, earth rods, cable and terminations
to connect all metallic components of the System to an appropriate earth.
This document does not cover the requirements for earthing of telecommunication systems nor systems
requiring special earthing requirements. This design will be coordinated with the designs for the earthing
requirements for the telecommunications systems to ensure compatibility.

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3.

Scope of Work

The scope of work shall include, but not be limited to:


1) Provision of all generic earthing design necessary for the General MV and LV Systems. All
necessary components shall meet the requirements of 2008 NFPA-70 Article 250;
2) All design services, drawing and specifications, equipment, materials, labour and services, not
specifically mentioned or shown, which may be necessary to complete the generic design and
installation of the Earthing for General MV and LV Systems;
3) Comply with the Contract Exhibits D1 and D2 revised in August 2011;
4) Generally comply with Exhibit D Section 260526 - Earthing and Bonding for Electrical Systems

3.1.

Deliverables

The following are the deliverables for this package:

3.1.1.

70% Submission

1) Draft Design Report - Ref: ATK002-422-C240-DF-E-0004


2) Draft generic earthing requirements for buildings.

3.1.2.

100% Submission

1) Final Design Report


2) Final generic earthing requirements for buildings.
3) Earthing calculations.

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4.

Design Input Information

4.1.

SEC 110/13.8kV Substations

The SEC transformers are proposed as:

Primary voltage: 110kV

Secondary voltage: 13.8kV

Transformer capacity: 67MVA

Earthing on HV side: Solidly earthed

Earthing on MV side: via an NER (Neutral Earthing Resistor) of 5.3 Ohms limiting phase
earth fault current to 1500A

Switchboard short circuit rating: 40kA for 3 sec on the 13.8kV supply

Star / Delta / Star

60Hz

SEC will not permit their earth to be connected to the KAIA earth system.

4.2.

Load Centres

The Load Centres distribute the power from the SEC substations and have no direct affect on the
earthing arrangement except for the generator connections. The generators are connected to the 13.8kV
network via 1:1 isolating transformers. When the generators are operating, the SEC network is
disconnected as is the SEC earthing arrangement. To ensure the network remains earthed the generator
busbars have a switchable earthing arrangement to mimic the SEC earthing and this is achieved by a
NER of 5.3 Ohms limiting phase earth fault current to 1500A.

4.3.

MV / LV Transformers

The MV / LV transformers are proposed as: -

4.4.

Primary Voltage: 13.8kV

Secondary Voltage: 400V

Transformer capacity: Various standard sizes up to 2000kVA

Earthing on MV side: Not applicable

Earthing on LV side: Direct earth connection

Delta / Star

MV/MV Transformers

The MV / MV transformers are proposed as:

Primary Voltage: 13.8kV

Secondary Voltage: 4.16kV

Transformer capacity: Various sizes

Earthing on MV side: Not applicable

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Earthing on LV side: via an NER (Neutral Earthing Resistor) limiting the short circuit current
to 100A

Delta / Star

The value of the NER can be calculated by considering the phase to neutral voltage, the required earth
current and then applying Ohms Law. This gives:
V = I.R
R = 4160 / ( 100 . 3 ) = 24

4.5.

LV Network

The LV network is specified as 400/230V, 60Hz, 3 phase, 4 wire, solidly earthed.

4.6.

Ground Conditions
The KAIA is situated 20 km north of the Jeddah City centre, between the ring road and the Madinah
road. The KAIA measures around 105 square kilometres. The western boundary of the site is around
4 km from the Red Sea whereas the eastern boundary touches the mountainous region of the
Arabian Shield. The surface soil at the site comprises silty / clayey / gravely sand and sandy silt.
Some loose sandy conditions were observed along the southern periphery of the Airport fence.
The water table across the site varies between 24 metres below sea level at some locations and only
3 metres at others, therefore the calculated homogonous resistivity level across the site would vary
depending on the height of the water table.

4.6.1.

Site Subsurface Conditions


The sub-soil conditions at the site area have been formed in the recent and very recent geological
past without any noteworthy geological digenesis surcharge or other densification or solidification
effects. According to the investigations for the proposed site, extremely variable coral and alluvial
deposits can prevail in such cases, with abraded or completely decomposed coralline detritus
materials with medium dense to very dense sandy/silty to clayey marine soils of medium to good
bearing capacity. The coralline soil layers were encountered at shallow depths.
The coral soils are overlain by recent deposits. These top soils are partly sandy, though in most
cases silty. The soil underlying coral is alluvium comprising Wadi deposits i.e., clayey, silty sand with
gravel.

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5.

Earthing Design

The Earthing Design shall be compliant with BS7430 - Code of practice for Earthing. The design shall ensure
the safe operation of the electrical network during normal and abnormal conditions and protection personnel
and equipment. The safe operation is demonstrated by calculations.

5.1.

Earth Connections from SEC Substations to Load Centres


st

SEC have confirmed verbally, at meeting on 21 June, they will not permit their earth within the
110/13.8kV substations to be connected to the earth within the KAIA installation. Thus the earth
connection between these points is considered to be TT.

5.2.

Facilities with 13.8kV Connections


All facilities with 13.8kV connections are to have a similar arrangement, which is a 13.8kV supply
and dual 13.8/0.4kV transformers providing LV supplies. Hence these are considered to be common
designs. This will apply to Load Centres, Passenger Terminal Building, Mosque and many other
locations.
The primary requirement is to establish a MV earth and a LV earth. These are to be installed as
electrically separate. To comply with the requirements of BS7430 and to enable the MV and LV
earths to be interconnected, the maximum combined earth resistance allowed is 1, therefore t he
target value of the earthing will be:

MV Earth

< 1

LV Earth

< 1

However, the maximum allowable earth value for both is 5; this value is only to be used where
achieving the target value is considered to be impractical and additional calculations would be
required to ensure the system is safe.
See also Section 6.4, where the value of the earth resistance is calculated to maintain the ground
potential rise to below 430V. This section takes precedence over the target values.
For any earthing arrangement for the distribution network, it is important to consider that this should
not clash with any additional earthing requirements for telecommunications and lightning protection.

5.2.1.

MV Earth
The MV earth will be achieved by a group of earth rods installed external to the building, the number
of rods depending on the ground conditions but not less than 2. These rods will be interconnected. A
minimum of 4m separation will be maintained between this rod group and any LV earthing.
At any location where the MV earth does not maintain the 4m separation from the LV earth, the MV
earth will be insulated to maintain the electrical isolation between the two systems.
The MV Main Earth Bar will be connected to MV Main Earth Bars in adjacent substations.

5.2.2.

LV Earth
The LV earth will be achieved by a buried copper conductor surrounding the building to achieve a LV
Earth Loop. Duplicate stranded copper conductor cables will connect the LV Earth Loop back to the
LV Main Earth Bar. The LV Earth Loop will be supplemented with earth rods to achieve the required
LV Earth Resistance. The number of earth rods will be dependent on the ground conditions but the
minimum will be two earth rods.
Where practical, the LV Main Earth Bar will be connected to LV Main Earth Bars in adjacent
substations.

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5.2.3.

Clean Earth
The clean earth will be established via a separate group of earth rods located a minimum of 1800mm
from all other earth rod groups. The clean earth shall not be connected to any other earth system.
The minimum value of the earth rod group shall be 1.
Clean earths shall typically be provided for data systems, telephony, other communication systems
and UPS.

5.2.4.

Interconnection of MV and LV Earths


Within the substation, the MV Main Earth Bar and LV Main Earth Bar shall be electrically
independent. The MV and LV earth electrodes shall be interconnected within the ground via a
disconnectable test link.
Interconnection of MV and LV earths is discussed in Section 19.2 of BS7430. To permit the
interconnection of the MV and LV earth, the standard requires the combined resistance of the earth
electrode to be less than 1 and the rise of earth potential not to exceed 430V.
To ensure this arrangement is safe, the ground potential rise will be calculated as per Section 16 of
BS7430 and confirmed as lower than the acceptable touch and step voltages within the same
standard.

5.2.5.

13.8/0.4kV Transformer LV Star Point Earthing


The 13.8/0.4kV Transformer LV star point will be directly connected to the LV Main Earth Bar to
provide a TNS earthing solution for the 400V network.

5.2.6.

13.8/0.4kV Transformer Foundations


The 13.8/0.4kV transformer foundations shall include a perimeter earthing conductor loop, earth rods
as required, and shall be connected to the MV earth. Where transformers are mounted internal to
buildings, this will be achieved by suitable connections to the reinforcement bars within the concrete,
see Section 6.11.

5.2.7.

MV/LV Substations
The equipment within the MV/LV substations is to be supplied as an integrated solution,
incorporating MV switchgear, MV/LV transformer, LV switchgear and busduct providing a single
metallic connection in terms of earthing.
The MV switchgear, MV/LV transformer and by implication the LV enclosure require connecting to
the MV Earth.
It has been agreed via an RFI that the MV and LV earth systems can be connected. For this to be
completed whilst maintaining system of the personnel and equipment, the specific requirements
within BS7430 must be met. These are discussed in Section 5.2.4.
The outgoing LV circuits require connecting to the LV Earth mat.
To ensure safety, all exposed metal within the MV/LV substations shall be connected to the MV Main
Earth Bar. This will include but not be limited to: ventilation ductwork, pipe work and structural steel.
To provide an equipotential zone within the substation the concrete reinforcement bars within the
substation shall also be connected to the MV Main Earth Bar.

5.3.

13.8kV Cable Connections


The 13.8kV cables include a non-magnetic bare copper drain wire screen. The revised specifications
2
2
changed the screen on the MV cables to 47mm per conductor that is equivalent to 141mm per
three phase trefoil group. The MV Cable Design considers the requirements for the earthing of the
MV cable screen.
The MV Cable Design concludes this screen is adequate to control the sheath voltage and therefore
separate earth conductors are not required for control of the screen voltage.

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However, as per Section 2.6.3.2 of Specification Aprons, Taxiways, Roads, Tunnels, Bridges, Load
Centres and Infrastructure, Transportation Centre and Supporting Facilities Exhibit D Part D1
requires a separate earth conductor installed in a separate duct: Medium Voltage: 13.8 kV and 4.16 kV, 60 Hz 3 phases, 3 wires, and ground (Ground
conductor is to be installed in a separate duct).
2

Therefore for each 13.8kV cable connection a separate 120mm bare stranded copper conductor will
be installed. Where the cables are ducted, this conductor will be installed in a separate duct. The
function of this conductor is to duplicate the interconnection provided by the MV cable screens and
provide an interconnected MV earth network.
2

The MV Cable screens to the earth bar within the MV switchboards. The 120mm earth conductors
associated with the MV Cables will be connected to the MV Main Earth Bar.
As per Section 5.1, there is no earth connection between the SEC substations and the Load Centres.
Therefore a separate earth conductors shall be installed and the screens of the MV cables earthed
at the SEC substations via this separate conductor. A carefully coordinated design will be required to
ensure the MV cable screens are earthed without interconnection the KAIA and SEC earth systems.
Similarly, the MV cable support structures will require careful design to ensure they do not provide
an earth path between the KAIA and SEC substations.

5.4.

Standards
When calculating the earth electrode resistance BS7430 considers the earth rods. It does not
consider the contribution from the buried electrode connecting the earth rods. Also, BS7430 does not
provide a means of calculating the touch and step potentials.
Given the length of conductor required for the load centre BS7430 would under-estimate the overall
electrode resistance.
Section 7 of BS7354 Design of high-voltage open-terminal stations provides the equations
necessary to address these aspects. Therefore Section 7 of BS7354 will be used in the following
calculations.
Informative note: BS EN 50522 Earthing of power installations exceeding 1kV AC is due for release
soon and will combine the earthing requirements from BS7430 and BS7354 into one document.

5.5.

Lightning Protection
The lightning protection scheme shall comply with Specification 264113 and IEC/BS EN 62305. This
shall be achieved by locating earth pits to minimise the length of lightning conductors. The lightning
earth pits shall have a maximum resistance of 10 and shall be interconnected to other earth
systems.

5.6.

Equipotential Bonding
Equipotential bonding shall be installed in compliance with BS7671. The protective conductor cross2
sectional area shall not be less than 4mm .

5.7.

Surge Arrestors
Surge Arrestors shall be connected the to earth grid using the minimum standard conductor size to
provide a power frequency earth path.
Supplementary earthing shall be used between the surge arrestor and the earth grid to provide high
frequency earthing. This shall utilise stranded conductors with no sharp changes of direction
connected via as shorter path as practical to the earth grid. Where possible these high frequency
earth connections will be made to dedicated earth rods.

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6.

Earth Grid Designs

6.1.

Earth Resistivity Model


Earth resistivity measurements have been taken on site at Load Centre A, Load Centre B and Load
Centre C. The measurements taken are detailed in Table 11 - Site Resistivity Measurements within
Appendix B.
The measurements were taken using the Wenner Array measurement system. This 4 probe
measurement technique allows the electrical resistivity at increasing soil depth to be investigated by
increasing the spacing of the test probes. The probe spacing effectively gives the depth at which the
measurement is being taken. Therefore a resistivity model against soil depth can be built up by
increasing the probe spacing. Table 12 - Summarised Resistivity Measurements shows the
measurements summarised against soil depth.
Using Table 12 the following soil model against varying earth electrode depth can be determined:
Soil
Resistivity
Model

Soil Depth / Probe


Spacing

Maximum
Resistivity

(m)

(.m)

0.75

870

290

1.1

560

240

1.6

420

220

2.4

245

210

3.6

140

120

5.4

85

34

8.1

25

22

12

20

(.m)

Table 1 - Soil Resistivity Model


The above table has been determined by considering the maximum measured values and the
second maximum measured value. The second maximum measured value is used for the soil
resistivity model for soil depths between 0.75 and 8.1m as the maximum value is a single value
which is unrepresentative of the bulk of measurements taken. We consider this to be a worst case
model and would expect the actual reading achieved on site to be no worse than the details
identified.
As per Specification 260526 clause 2.2 we seek the Engineers agreement to the soil model shown
in Table 1.

6.2.

MV Earth Current
The MV earth fault current with two SEC transformers in parallel is 3000A. Specification 260526
clause 2.4 (C) 3 states a diversity of 0.8 is to be used in mesh systems. The interconnection
between the load centres and the facilities does provide a degree of mesh design, however it is not
considered this meets the requirements of the clause and therefore a diversity of 1.0 is used.

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6.3.

Load Centre Earth Grid Requirements


The design of the earth grid is to comply with the requirements of BS7430. Further there is a
requirement for the MV and LV earths to be interconnected. Section 19.2 of BS 7430 requires the
ground potential rise to be less than 430V and the combined earth resistance to be 1 or less for
interconnection of the MV and LV earths.
The maximum earth current is when two SEC transformers are connected in parallel. As per Section
4.1 each transformer will contribute 1500A giving a maximum earth current of 3000A. Thus to ensure
the ground potential rise meets the requirement the resistance of the earth at the load centre must
be:

430

0.143
3000

The Load Centre earth grid will achieve this value without considering the contribution from the
outgoing circuits and their associated earthing.
Also, in order to meet the requirements of Specification 260526 clause 2.4 (D) 6, the above rating
shall be achieved with the rod group with the lowest calculated resistance disconnected.
Both of the above points will mean the Load Centre earth resistance will, under normal conditions,
be less than 0.143 as required by BS7430 and therefore the MV and LV earths can be
interconnected.

6.4.

Facility Earth Grid Requirements


The maximum earth fault at each facility is as per Section 6.2 that is 3000A. This fault current will
flow into the local earth electrodes and back to the Load Centre via the earth conductors installed
with the MV cables and the screens of the MV cables.
As per the Load Centre design, the design of the facility earth grid is to comply with the requirements
of BS7430 and there is the requirement for the MV and LV earths to be interconnected. Section 19.2
of BS 7430 requires the ground potential rise to be less than 430V and the combined earth
resistance to be 1 or less for interconnection of the MV and LV earths.
The facility has its own earth grid providing a local earth resistance. It is also connected to the Load
Centre by a minimum of 2 MV cables each having associated screens and earth conductors. These
2
act in series with the earth grid resistance at the Load Centre. The MV cable screens are 47mm per
2
2
single phase core and therefore 141mm per trefoil group. The earth conductors are 120mm .
Thus a model is required to determine the relative flow of earth current under fault conditions. The
model used is:

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3000A

Simplified Block Diagram

IF
IR
Load Centre
RR

Facility
RL

VL

IL

Key
120mm2 Cu Earth Conductor
47mm2 x 3 Cu MV Cable Screen
IF - Earth fault current
IR - Proportion of IF flowing to remote earth network
IL - Proportion of IF flowing to local earth network
VL - Voltage rise at local earth network
RL - Resistance of local earth network
RR - Resistance of remote earth network
RC - Resistance of earth conductors
RS - Resistance of MV cable screen

Figure 1 - Simplified Block Diagram for facility earth potential rise

The voltage rise at the facility substation is calculated in Appendix A.1. This shows the maximum
acceptable total earth resistance at the facility substation is 0.28.
Referring to Section 5.2 the target resistance for MV and LV earths is 1. These target for MV and
LV earths must be reduced to 0.56, the combination in parallel achieving the required earth
impedance.
The simplified block diagram in Figure 1 only considers 2 MV sets of MV cable screens and 2
associated earth conductors. In most installations the minimum will be 4 of each. Also, the simplified
block diagram does not consider additional substations along the feeder providing additional earthing.
These considerations indicate that the earth resistance stated is conservative.

6.5.

Current density at the surface of an earth electrode


In general, soils have a negative temperature coefficient of resistance so that sustained current
loading results in an initial decrease in electrode resistance and a consequent rise in the earth fault
current for a given applied voltage. However, as soil moisture is driven away from the soil-electrode
interface, the resistance increases and will ultimately become infinite if the temperature rise is
sufficient. For short-duration loading this occurs in the region of 100 C and results in complete
failure of the electrode.
Section 15 of BS7430 gives the relevant equation to confirm the suitable sizing of the earth electrode.
Calculations are completed in Appendix A.2 for a 16mm diameter earth rod and at the various

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resistivity values shown in Table 1, showing the minimum summated earth rod length required for
the various resistivities under fault conditions.

6.6.

Single Earth Rod Resistances


Using the resistivity values in Table 1 the resistance of different depth earth rods can be calculated.
Given the layered resistivity model as per Table 1, each earth rod is calculated as a series of smaller
earth rods all connected in parallel. This takes advantage of the majority of the earth rod length.
Earth rod resistances are calculated in Appendix A.3 and summarised: Rod Length
(m)

Rod
Resistance
()

3.6

150.3

5.4

61.6

8.1

10.4

12

3.759

20

0.707

25

0.390

Table 2 - Earth rod resistances as a function of depth


Earth rods 9m in length or less are considered shallow and driven. Earth rods greater than 9m in
length are considered deep.
To achieve the resistances required in Sections 6.3 and 6.4 and the surface current densities given
in Section 6.5 and Appendix A.2, it is clear that the lower resistivities provided by longer / deeper
earth rods will be required. As a practical observation, it is recommended that the minimum earth rod
length considered is in excess of 12m.
The earth rod resistances calculated above should be achieved across the whole KAIA site due to
the resistivity data used. The design could be optimised by taking electrical resistivity measurements
at individual facilities. In the majority of locations this will provide lower resistivity values and will
allow the design to be optimised.

6.7.

Multiple Earth Rod Resistances


Using the single earth rod resistances in Section 6.6, the values of groups of earth rods can be
calculated. Combinations of earth rods are considered in Appendix A.4. The lengths of earth rods
selected are aligned to earth rod lengths in Table 2 and considered for 12m and 20m lengths.
Results are provided in Table 6 and Table 7 of Appendix A.4.

6.8.

Concrete Encased Earth Electrodes


Alternative designs to the earth rod can be considered. One such alternative design is to consider
concrete encased earth electrodes. The resistance of such arrangements is very much dependent of
the design. Some typical calculations are provided in Appendix A.9. The results shown in Table 8
that concrete encased earth electrode can provide significant contribution to the earth grid.

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6.9.

Conductor Size
The earth conductor size is checked in Appendix A.6. To comply with the requirements of 260526
2
the MV earth conductor is selected to have a minimum cross section of 120mm .
2

The temperature rise for a 120mm conductor under MV fault current is also calculated in Appendix
A.6 and is shown to be small such that it is practical for the earth conductor to be installed adjacent
to the MV cables without the need for additional precautions.

6.10.

Touch and Step Potentials


Formulae to calculate the touch and step potentials are included in Appendix A.7. These must be
used once the earth grid design for the facility has been finalised.
The effect of a voltage applied to the body varies significantly from person to person. On a balance
of probabilities, the time dependent body current used to establish the tolerable voltage is the curve
c2 of Figure 5 of PD 6519-1:1988. Body resistance also varies but most standards use a value of
1,000. The contact resistance at the surface of the ground also adds resistance which limits the
body current and a value of 3 times the ground resistivity per foot is taken. There is growing
international acceptance that footwear resistance should be taken into account and this now is UK
practice. Footwear resistance is taken as 4,000 per foot.
The allowable Touch and Step potentials are calculated in Appendix A.8 using the above information.
The calculated values of touch and step potential must be less than the allowable touch and step
potentials as indicated in Table 10 of Appendix A.8.

6.10.1.

Hot Zone
The ground potential rise is limited by design to be less than 430V. Therefore the hot zone as
designed in BS7354 is within the earth electrode. Therefore calculations as per Appendix A.10 are
not necessary.

6.10.2.

High Resistivity Surface Layer


The use of high resistivity surface layer can be useful for reducing the touch and step potentials. The
KAIA includes significant quantities of MV equipment installed indoors on concrete floors. These
areas could not implement high resistivity surface layers.

6.11.

Concrete Rebar Earth Connection


Specification 260526 states the following requirements within Section 2.7 (D): When the reinforcing in concrete is used as a part of the earthing system the fittings used to
provide a connection point at the surface of the concrete shall be exothermically welded to a
reinforcing bar. This fitting shall be provided with a bolted connection for an earthing
conductor. The main bars in the reinforcing shall be welded together at intervals to ensure
electrical continuity throughout the reinforcing.
Summarising the requirement gives:

Connection shall be exothermically welded to the rebar.

The fitting shall provide a bolted connection for an earth conductor.

The main bars in the reinforcement shall be welded together at intervals to ensure electrical
continuity.

The effects of fault current flowing in the rebar must not be detrimental to the rebar and / or the
concrete and therefore the temperature rise during fault conditions must be limited. Appendix A.9
o
calculates the minimum cross sectional area required to limit the temperature rise to 55 C as
2
2
174mm ; as 16mm diameter rebar has an approximate cross sectional area of 200mm this is
considered safe. The design further reduces the effect of heating on the rebar by requiring the main
rebar either side of the connection to be welded together, thus distributing any fault current. This is
shown diagrammatically as: -

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Figure 2 - Earth connections to rebar in concrete


Note: Whilst the calculations in Appendix A.9 consider the MV fault current, the connection to the
rebar is not intended to form part of the earth fault current path. This connection is intended to
ensure equipotential voltages during fault conditions to protect personnel and equipment.

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7.

Summary
This report shows how the requirements for the earthing as part of the KAIA installation can be met.
The report and calculations are based on the British Standard BS7430 as required by the revision to
Contract Exhibits D1 and D2. British Standard BS7354 has been used for equations to calculate the
touch and step potentials, as these calculations are not included within BS7430.

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A.

Proposed Earth Electrode Designs

A.1.

Earth Potential Rise at Facility Substations

The Simplified Block Diagram showing in Figure 1 can be represented as an electrical network diagram as
below:

Electrical Network Diagram


RC

3000A

IF

IR

RS
RF

RC

VL

RS

RR

IR

RL

IL

Key
120mm2 Cu Earth Conductor
47mm2 x 3 Cu MV Cable Screen
IF - Earth fault current
IR - Proportion of IF flowing to remote earth network
IL - Proportion of IF flowing to local earth network
VL - Voltage rise at local earth network
RL - Resistance of local earth network
RR - Resistance of remote earth network
RC - Resistance of earth conductors
RS - Resistance of MV cable screen
RF - Total feeder resistance

Figure 3 - Electrical Network Diagram for Facility Earth Model


Solving this network:
The resistance of the earth conductors and MV cable screens can be calculated by the following equation: -

Where:
R - [] Total resistance
- [m] Resistivity of material

l - [m] Length of conductor

A - [m2] Cross sectional area of conductor


For copper, = 1.68 x 10-8 at 20oC

With the maximum feeder length taken to be 5km long and the MV screens 141 (74 x 3)mm cross
sectional area, their resistance can be calculated to be 0.596. Using the same feeder, the earth
conductor resistance can be calculated to be 0.7.

ATK002-422-C240-FD-E-RPT-00010

20

MV ELECTRICAL EARTHING GENERAL REQUIREMENTS

The combined resistance of the MV cable screens and the associated earth conductors can be
calculated as:
0.596 0.7
.
2
2 = 0.16
=
0.596 0.7
+
2
2

Using the model in Figure 3, the following equations can be determined using Ohms Law: = .

= ( ) ( + )
Solving gives:
=
=

( + )
+ +

. ( + )
+ +

Where:

IF - Earth fault current


IR - Proportion of IF flowing to remote earth network
IL - Proportion of IF flowing to local earth network
VL - Voltage rise at local earth network
RL - Resistance of local earth network
RR - Resistance of remote earth network
RF - Total feeder resistance
Rearranging:
=

( + )
( ( + ) )

VL must be less than 430V to satisfy BS7430, IF is 3000A, RF is 0.16 and RR is 0.143 as per Section 6.3.
Solving the equation shows RL is required to be less than 0.28 to maintain the VL below the 430V limit.

ATK002-422-C240-FD-E-RPT-00010

21

MV ELECTRICAL EARTHING GENERAL REQUIREMENTS

A.2.

Current Density at Surface of Earth Electrode


Section 15 of BS7430 gives the following equation for the allowable current density at the surface of
an electrode:
J = 103

57.7

Where:
2

J - [A/m ] The maximum current density of the earth electrode


- [m] The ground resistivity

t - [sec] the duration of the fault


Tabulating the above equation against the soil resistivity data from 3.6 to 12m within Table 1 gives
the following:
Allowable
Current Density

Soil Resistivity

Time

(.m)

(sec)

120

693

34

1303

22

1619

3101

3798

(A/m2)

Table 3 - Earth Electrode Allowable Current Density


Considering a 16mm diameter earth electrode, its surface area is given by:
= .

Where:
SA - [m2] The surface area
l - [m] The electrode length

d - [m] The electrode diameter


and the earth fault current is 3000A, the minimum electrode length can be calculated using the
following formula:

3000
.

Where:
2

J - [A/m ] The maximum current density of the earth electrode

ATK002-422-C240-FD-E-RPT-00010

22

MV ELECTRICAL EARTHING GENERAL REQUIREMENTS

d - [m] The electrode diameter


3000 [A] - Earth fault current

Soil Resistivity
(.m)

Allowable
Current Density
2
(A/m )

Minimum
Electrode
Length
(m)

120

693

86

34

1303

46

22

1619

37

3101

19

3798

16

Table 4 - Minimum electrode length

ATK002-422-C240-FD-E-RPT-00010

23

MV ELECTRICAL EARTHING GENERAL REQUIREMENTS

A.3.

Single Earth Rod Resistances

Based on the resistivity values in Table 1 the resistance of earth rods of various depths can be calculated
using Section 10.2 of BS7430: -

R=

2L

8L

ln d 1

Section 10.2

Where:
- [m] Ground resistivity
L - [m] Length of rod
d - [m] Diameter of rod = 16mm

Given the resistivity model is layered, each section of earth rod is calculated and then the total rod resistance
is calculated by considering the sections in parallel (sections of earth rod with resistance greater than 100
are not included in the total rod resistance):
Rod Length
(m)

Section
Length
(m)

Section
Resistance
()

Rod
Resistance
()

1.6

0.5

345.4

Not Calculated

2.4

0.8

218.5

Not Calculated

3.6

1.2

150.3

Not Calculated

5.4

1.8

61.6

61.6

8.1

2.7

12.4

10.4

12

3.9

5.904

3.759

20

0.871

0.707

25

0.869

0.390

Table 5 - Detailed earth rod resistances as a function of depth


Earth rods 9m in length or less are considered shallow and driven. Earth rods greater than 9m in length are
considered deep.

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24

MV ELECTRICAL EARTHING GENERAL REQUIREMENTS

A.4.

Resistance of Groups of Earth Rods

Section 10.2 of BS7430 allows the resistance of a group of earth rods connected in a straight line to be
calculated using the equations: -

1+

Where:

- Section 10.2

R - [] Resistance of single rod, as Appendix A.3

2Rs

s - [m] Distance between rods


- Is stated in BS7430 in Tables 2 and 3 for the various configurations

n - number of earth rods


Giving: -

12m Rods
Item

Equilateral
Triangle

3.8

3.8

3.8

3.8

3.8

24

24

24

24

24

22

22

22

22

22

0.038

0.038

0.038

0.038

0.038

1.66

2.71

4.51

2.15

2.54

Number of
Electrodes

Total Length of
Electrode*

11.7

15.6

31.2

15.6

19.5

Rn

1.35

1.05

0.56

1.03

0.83

Hollow square

Straight Line

Table 6 - Resistive values of 12m earth rods in group arrangements


* - adjusted based on resistivity and maximum current density

ATK002-422-C240-FD-E-RPT-00010

25

Units

MV ELECTRICAL EARTHING GENERAL REQUIREMENTS

20m Electrodes
Item

Equilateral
Triangle

3.8

3.8

3.8

3.8

3.8

40

40

40

40

40

0.006

0.006

0.006

0.006

0.006

1.66

2.71

4.51

2.15

2.54

Number of
Electrodes

Total Length of
Electrode*

24

32

64

24

32

Rn

1.28

0.97

0.49

1.28

0.97

Hollow square

Straight Line

Table 7 - Resistive values of 20m earth rods in group arrangements


* - adjusted based on resistivity and maximum current density

ATK002-422-C240-FD-E-RPT-00010

26

Units

MV ELECTRICAL EARTHING GENERAL REQUIREMENTS

A.5.

Resistance of Concrete Encased Earth Electrodes

Section 12.2 of BS7430 considers using structural steelwork encased in concrete. The resistance of a single
arrangement is given by: =

2
( ) 1 + +
2

Where:

- [m] Soil resistivity

c - [m] Concrete resistivity


L - [m] Length below ground

- [m] Thickness of concrete between rods and soil

z - [m] Value from Table 9 of BS7430


Considering the following arrangement:

Gives:

Where:

= 52 . . 7

a - [m] Radius of reinforcement bar

s - [m] Distance between adjacent rods


Using the following values:
c = 30m
= 0.15m

a = 0.006m
s = 0.2m
and the values of resistivity given in Table 1, allows the following values to be calculated:

ATK002-422-C240-FD-E-RPT-00010

27

MV ELECTRICAL EARTHING GENERAL REQUIREMENTS

Item

Case 1

Case 2

Case 3

Units

22

12

1.44

0.77

0.93

Table 8 - Concrete Encased Earth Electrodes

ATK002-422-C240-FD-E-RPT-00010

28

MV ELECTRICAL EARTHING GENERAL REQUIREMENTS

A.6.

Conductor Sizing

The required conductor size can be calculated using Section 14 of BS7430: -

Section 14

Where:
2
S - [mm ] Conductor cross sectional area
I - [A] Fault current
t - [sec] Fault current duration
k - Constant from Table 10 of BS7430

The fault current is rated at earth fault current for the MV installation and LV installation. The fault duration is
o
as per 260526 Section 2.5 (G), which also specifies the maximum final temperature of 160 C enabling k to
be looked up in Table 10 of BS7430. These give: -

Item

MV

LV

Units / Comments

3,000

40,000

1.0

0.4

Seconds

138

138

Limit final temperature to 160 C

22

183

mm

Table 9 - Conductor Size Calculations


2

Specification 260526 Section 2.5 (G) states the minimum earth conductor to be 120mm and hence this size
is selected for the MV network.
Using further equations in Section 14 of BS7430: 2 +

1 +

= log

Where:
k - [A/mm2] Current density
o
1 - [ C] Initial temperature
o
2 - [ C] Final temperature
K and are material specific constants (for copper 226 and 254 respectively)
2

Using the above equations it is possible to calculated the final temperature of a 120mm conductor with a
o
o
3000A fault for 1 second and an initial temperature of 40 C. This gives a final temperature of 43.6 C .

ATK002-422-C240-FD-E-RPT-00010

29

MV ELECTRICAL EARTHING GENERAL REQUIREMENTS

A.7.

Calculation of Touch and Step Potentials

BS7354 defines the following equations to calculate the touch and step potentials: -

=
=

ln + 2 +
1

Where:

1 0.52

1 0.52

- Equation [17]
- Equation [20]

VT - [V] Touch Voltage

Vs - [V] Step Voltage

- [m] Ground resistivity

V - [V] Ground potential rise


R - [] Earth electrode resistance
L - [m] Earth electrode length
h - [m] Depth of earth conductor
d - [m] Diameter of buried conductor
D - [m] spacing between parallel conductors
n - Number of parallel conductors / cables / lines
k i = (0.15n + 0.7)

ATK002-422-C240-FD-E-RPT-00010

30

MV ELECTRICAL EARTHING GENERAL REQUIREMENTS

A.8.

Allowable touch and step potentials

BS7354 defines the following equations for calculating the allowable touch and step potentials: -

= +

( + )

2
= { + 2( + ) }
Where:

Body resistance = 1,000


Footwear resistance = 4,000
Contact resistance = 3
It is taken from curve c2, Figure 5 of PD 6519-1:1988. At 1 second this can be taken as
50mA.
Allowable
Touch
Voltage

Allowable
Step
Voltage

(V)

(V)

500

188

600

200

165

510

100

158

480

50

154

465

Resistivity
(m)

Table 10 - Allowable Touch and Step Voltages


Alternatively, Figure 3(a) in BS7354 graphs allowable touch and step potentials as a function of the duration
of the fault. Taking the maximum time of 1 second and the minimum resistivity value gives VT < 240V and VS
< 720V.

ATK002-422-C240-FD-E-RPT-00010

31

MV ELECTRICAL EARTHING GENERAL REQUIREMENTS

A.9.

Concrete Rebar Connections


o

BS7430 includes data and calculations to consider temperature rises commencing at 150 C. The likely effect
of this temperature on rebar within concrete is considered to be detrimental to the concrete. Therefore
IEEE80 Equation 10-13 is considered to be more appropriate as it allows lower temperatures to be
considered: -

Amm =

If

TCAP x 104

tc .r .r

Where:

If = 3 kA

Tm = 55 C

[Equ 10-13]

K +T
.ln o m
K o + Ta

This is the MV earth fault level


All other values from Table 10-1 of IEEE80

Ta = 40 C

r = 0.0016

r = 15.9 .cm
t c = 1 sec.

TCAP = 3.28

K o = 605

Amm = 174 mm
o

This calculation shows that to limit the temperature rise of the rebar to 55 C will require a cross sectional
area of 174mm or greater. 16mm diameter rebar has a cross sectional area of approximately 200mm and
therefore will meet this requirement.

ATK002-422-C240-FD-E-RPT-00010

32

MV ELECTRICAL EARTHING GENERAL REQUIREMENTS

A.10.

Hot Zone

The hot zone can be calculated using equation 23 in BS7354. This enables the extent of voltage contours
outside of the earth grid to be determined. The equation is given by: -

sin

Where

x - [m] is the distance from the edge of the grid to the extent of the hot zone
r - [m] is the equivalent circular plate radius
Vx - [V] is the hot zone voltage
V - [V] is the ground potential rise
Within the UK the value of Vx it usually taken as either 430V or 690V. As both the load centres and the
package substations are designed to maintain the ground potential rise below 430V the hot zone is
maintained within the earth electrode and the calculation of the zone is unnecessary.

ATK002-422-C240-FD-E-RPT-00010

33

MV ELECTRICAL EARTHING GENERAL REQUIREMENTS

B.

Site Measurements of Electrical Resistivity

The following tabulates the electrical resistivity measurements taken on site:


Load
Centre

Test No

A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A

1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1A
1A
1A
1A
1A
1A
1A
1A
1A
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2A
2A
2A
2A
2A
2A
2A
2A
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3

Anode
Depth
(cm)
15
15
15
15
15
15
15
15
15
15
15
15
15
15
15
15
15
15
15
15
15
15
15
15
15
15
15
15
15
15
15
15
15
15
15
15
15
15
15
15
15
15
15
15

ATK002-422-C240-FD-E-RPT-00010

Probe
Spacing
(m)
0.3
0.5
0.75
1.1
1.6
2.4
3.6
5.4
8.1
12
0.3
0.5
0.75
1.1
1.6
2.4
3.6
5.4
8.1
0.3
0.5
0.75
1.1
1.6
2.4
3.6
5.4
8.1
0.3
0.5
0.75
1.1
1.6
2.4
3.6
5.4
0.3
0.5
0.75
1.1
1.6
2.4
3.6
5.4

Resistance
Reading
()
2.960
0.440
0.420
0.400
0.380
0.370
0.240
0.190
0.080
0.010
4.880
4.570
0.180
0.290
0.280
0.250
0.160
0.080
0.010
0.560
0.510
0.370
0.270
0.400
0.070
0.050
0.020
0.000
0.540
0.390
0.270
0.200
0.130
0.070
0.040
0.010
4.670
3.180
3.030
1.670
0.640
0.090
0.050
0.010

Constant
K"
(2..a)
1.885
3.142
4.712
6.912
10.05
15.08
22.62
33.93
50.89
75.40
1.885
3.142
4.712
6.912
10.05
15.08
22.62
33.93
50.89
1.885
3.142
4.712
6.912
10.05
15.08
22.62
33.93
50.89
1.885
3.142
4.712
6.912
10.05
15.08
22.62
33.93
1.885
3.142
4.712
6.912
10.053
15.080
22.619
33.929

34

Apparent
Resistivity
(.m)
5.579
1.382
1.979
2.765
3.820
5.579
5.429
6.447
4.072
0.754
9.199
14.36
0.848
2.004
2.815
3.770
3.619
2.714
0.509
1.056
1.602
1.744
1.866
4.021
1.056
1.131
0.679
1.018
1.225
1.272
1.382
1.307
1.056
0.905
0.339
8.803
9.990
14.279
11.542
6.434
1.357
1.131
0.339

MV ELECTRICAL EARTHING GENERAL REQUIREMENTS

Load
Centre

Test No

A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
B
B
B
B
B
B
B
B
B
B
B
B
B
B
B
B
B
B
B
B
B
B
B
B
B
B
B
B
B
B
B
B
B
B
B
B
B
B

3
3
3A
3A
3A
3A
3A
3A
3A
3A
3A
3A
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1A
1A
1A
1A
1A
1A
1A
1A
1A
1B
1B
1B
1B
1B
1B
1B
1B
1B
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2

Anode
Depth
(cm)
15
15
15
15
15
15
15
15
15
15
15
15
15
15
15
15
15
15
15
15
15
15
15
15
15
15
15
15
15
15
15
15
15
15
15
15
15
15
15
15
15
15
15
15
15
15
15
15
15
15

ATK002-422-C240-FD-E-RPT-00010

Probe
Spacing
(m)
8.1
12
0.3
0.5
0.75
1.1
1.6
2.4
3.6
5.4
8.1
12
0.3
0.5
0.75
1.1
1.6
2.4
3.6
5.4
8.1
12
0.3
0.5
0.75
1.1
1.6
2.4
3.6
5.4
8.1
0.3
0.5
0.75
1.1
1.6
2.4
3.6
5.4
8.1
0.3
0.5
0.75
1.1
1.6
2.4
3.6
5.4
8.1
12

Resistance
Reading
()
0.000
0.000
5.260
3.250
3.180
2.150
1.050
0.620
0.190
0.080
0.010
0.000
2.930
1.740
0.950
0.400
0.250
0.110
0.050
0.040
0.030
0.000
3.790
1.760
0.850
0.540
0.260
0.160
0.090
0.020
0.010
2.730
1.400
0.750
0.470
0.290
0.130
0.080
0.080
0.000
16.980
8.770
1.680
0.510
0.350
0.210
0.200
0.140
0.010
0.000

Constant
K"
(2..a)
50.894
75.398
1.885
3.142
4.712
6.912
10.053
15.080
22.619
33.929
50.894
75.398
1.885
3.142
4.712
6.912
10.053
15.080
22.619
33.929
50.894
75.398
1.885
3.142
4.712
6.912
10.053
15.080
22.619
33.929
50.894
1.885
3.142
4.712
6.912
10.053
15.080
22.619
33.929
50.894
1.885
3.142
4.712
6.912
10.053
15.080
22.619
33.929
50.894
75.398

35

Apparent
Resistivity
(.m)

9.915
10.210
14.985
14.860
10.556
9.349
4.298
2.714
0.509
5.523
5.466
4.477
2.765
2.513
1.659
1.131
1.357
1.527
7.144
5.529
4.006
3.732
2.614
2.413
2.036
0.679
0.509
5.146
4.398
3.534
3.248
2.915
1.960
1.810
2.714
32.007
27.552
7.917
3.525
3.519
3.167
4.524
4.750
0.509

MV ELECTRICAL EARTHING GENERAL REQUIREMENTS

Load
Centre

Test No

B
B
B
B
B
B
B
B
B
B
B
B
C
C
C
C
C
C
C
C
C
C
C
C
C
C
C
C
C
C
C
C
C
C
C
C
C
C
C
C
C
C
C
C
C
C

2
2
2B
2B
2B
2B
2B
2B
2B
2B
2B
2B
1A
1A
1A
1A
1A
1A
1A
1A
1A
1A
1A
1A
1A
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2

Anode
Depth
(cm)
15
15
15
15
15
15
15
15
15
15
15
15
15
15
15
15
15
15
15
15
15
300
300
300
300
15
15
15
15
15
15
15
15
15
300
300
15
15
15
15
15
15
15
15
300
300

Probe
Spacing
(m)
20
30
0.3
0.5
0.75
1.1
1.6
2.4
3.6
5.4
8.1
12
0.3
0.5
0.75
1.1
1.6
2.4
3.6
5.4
8.1
12
20
30
50
0.3
0.5
0.75
1.1
1.6
2.4
3.6
5.4
8.1
12
20
0.3
0.5
0.75
1.1
1.6
3.6
5.4
8.1
12
20

Resistance
Reading
()
0.000
0.000
2.510
1.220
1.200
0.610
0.500
0.460
0.130
0.120
0.010
0.000
347.000
265.000
184.100
80.100
41.000
16.000
5.280
1.000
0.480
0.050
0.030
0.020
0.010
270.000
116.000
60.100
33.600
21.300
13.790
6.000
2.450
0.420
0.080
0.010
5.170
4.070
4.640
3.550
2.200
2.120
0.760
0.080
0.010
0.010

Constant
K"
(2..a)
125.664
188.496
1.885
3.142
4.712
6.912
10.053
15.080
22.619
33.929
50.894
75.398
1.885
3.142
4.712
6.912
10.053
15.080
22.619
33.929
50.894
75.398
125.664
188.496
314.159
1.885
3.142
4.712
6.912
10.053
15.080
22.619
33.929
50.894
75.398
125.664
1.885
3.142
4.712
6.912
10.053
22.619
33.929
50.894
75.398
125.664

Table 11 - Site Resistivity Measurements


The apparent resistivity column is left blank where the resistance reading is 0.

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Apparent
Resistivity
(.m)

4.731
3.833
5.655
4.216
5.027
6.937
2.941
4.072
0.509
654.080
832.522
867.551
553.611
412.177
241.274
119.431
33.929
24.429
3.770
3.770
3.770
3.142
508.938
364.425
283.215
232.227
214.131
207.948
135.717
83.127
21.375
6.032
1.257
9.745
12.786
21.865
24.536
22.117
47.953
25.786
4.072
0.754
1.257

MV ELECTRICAL EARTHING GENERAL REQUIREMENTS

The basic measurements taken on site can be summarised as below:


Probe
Spacing
(m)
0.3
0.5
0.75
1.1
1.6
2.4
3.6
5.4
8.1
12
20
30
50

Maximum
Resistivity
(.m)
654.1
832.5
867.6
553.6
412.2
241.3
135.7
83.13
24.43
6.032
3.770
3.770
3.142

Minimum
Resistivity
(.m)
1.018
1.225
0.848
1.382
1.307
1.056
0.905
0.339
0.509
0.754
1.257
3.770
3.142

Average
Resistivity
(.m)
90.21
92.52
88.09
61.59
49.57
37.50
23.72
12.12
5.802
2.827
2.094
3.770
3.142

Count
14
14
14
14
14
13
14
14
10
4
3
1
1

Table 12 - Summarised Resistivity Measurements

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MV ELECTRICAL EARTHING GENERAL REQUIREMENTS

C.

Generic Earthing Schematic

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MV ELECTRICAL EARTHING GENERAL REQUIREMENTS

D.

CRS Responses

Electrical comments on report ref. no. 422-C240-DF-E-RPT-00004-A Action code 3


1. General: the following shall be indicated:
a. The overall grounding system network scheme.
b. ICT network scheme.
c. Grounding system for lightning protection system network scheme.
d. Measure the specific earth resistance of the soil for related areas / load centers.
Contractors Response: A schematic diagram will be added to the report to provide an
indication of the overall earthing network.
Philosophy and basic proposals for ICT earthing will be included.
Lightning protection is outside of the scope of this report.
The measurements of electrical resistivity are being taken on site for the load centres.
This information will be used to update the report.
2. Clause 4.4: Indicate the rating of NGR to limit the S.C current to 100A and indicate the
calculation note validating the 100A S.C current.
Contractors Response: The earthing report is not intended to design and / or size
neutral earthing resistors. This information will not be included within the report.
3. Clauses 6.1 & 7: The exact ground resistivity must be measured; considering 3 values
is not acceptable.
Contractors Response: As above, the measurements of electrical resistivity are being
taken on site for the load centres. This information will be used to update the report.
4. Clause 6.6.3: Provide reference for the calculation note where the overall earth
electrode resistance is 0.12 ohm and ground potential rise of 360V were calculated.
Contractors Response: The calculations are provided in Appendix A.5 as indicated in
the first paragraph. The wording will be amended to clarify and Appendix A.5 updated
to clarify the 360V calculation.
5. Clause 5.2.1: It is indicated that MV earth will be insulated to maintain the electrical
isolation between the MV & LV system while in figure 4 both system are interconnected,
Contractor is to justify.
Contractors Response: The specification requires the ability to test earth electrodes.
To facilitate this insulation is maintained between the MV and LV earths. Please provide
an instruction if the testing is no longer a requirement.
6. Clause A1: Clarify how average ground resistivity is calculated for each earth rod.
Contractors Response: The average resistivity is calculated using a weighted average
which considers depth and soil resistivity at the depth. This model is very conservative.
Resistivity measurements on site will supersede this model.
7. Clause A2: This item is to calculate the surface current density not to determine the
minimum length of earth rod. Also, the actual current density shall be calculated as well
by dividing the fault current by the grid surface area.
Contractors Response: Agreed. The equation calculates the maximum current density
given a specific electrical resistivity. This result is shown is table 4.
Table 4 then calculates the minimum earth rod length to dissipate the fault current. An
additional equation will be included to shown this calculation.
8. Clause A5: Justify calculating earth electrode resistance using BS7354 while the
resistance of earth electrode and resistance of groups of electrodes were calculated in
accordance to BS7430 in item A3 and A9 respectively.
Contractors Response: BS7430 provides equations to calculate the resistance of
individual earth rod arrangements. It does not provide equations to calculate the
effective resistance of an earth network comprising earth rods and conductors in an
interconnected network. BS7354 provides the equations necessary to calculate the
effective resistance of an earth network.
This is recognised by the standards organisation who are working on BS EN 50522
which will be a harmonised earthing standard incorporating BS7430 and section 7 of
BS7354.

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MV ELECTRICAL EARTHING GENERAL REQUIREMENTS

9. Clause A8:
a. Provide the criteria on which the MV screen C.S.A is considered to be 285 mm2.
b. Indicate the reference standard where the ground potential rise formula is derived.
Contractors Response:
a. The screen of the MV cable has been changed based on a previous DAH comment.
The screen size is 47mm2 per core or 141mm2 per trefoil. The report will be
updated.
b. The ground potential rise is calculated by applying Ohm's Law to Figure 3.
10. Clause A10: Soil resistivity is 140
-m while it has never been measured nor in
accordance with the values used throughout the report, Contractor is to clarify.
Contractors Response: The resistivity will be updated based on the response to item
6 inspect of this report.
Also the calculations will be expanded to include alternative values of z (this defines the
quantity and arrangement of rebars within the concrete) which will align with the
structural design for the piles which will be installed on site.
11. Indicate the ratings / sizes or dimensions of the equipotential copper busbars within MV
and LV rooms as per the related short circuit calculations.
Contractors Response: This will be included in the updated report.
12. Indicate the surge arrestors earthing.
Contractors Response: This will be included in the updated report.
13. Using 21 meter deep driven earth electrodes for load center peripheral earthing system
needs to be revisited considering the existing soil conditions.
Contractors Response: Noted. The load centre earthing design will change based on
the measured earth resistivity and the availability of earth connections to the piles for
the visual screening.
14. 45kA ground-fault level shown on page 28 must be substantiated by explicit calculation.
Contractors Response: The LV fault level will be changed to 40kA to align with the
maximum switchgear ratings. Calculations are provided in Report ref. no. 422-C240-DFE-RPT-00001 demonstrating the fault level to be lower than 40kA.

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MV ELECTRICAL EARTHING GENERAL REQUIREMENTS

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Atkins Ltd except where stated otherwise.


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