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MySQL with Windows Server 2008 R2

Failover Clustering
Delivering High Availability with MySQL on Windows

A MySQL White Paper


September 2011

Copyright 2011, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.

Table of Contents
Summary .........................................................................................................3
Value of MySQL on Windows .......................................................................3
Approaches to High Availability with MySQL .............................................4
MySQL Replication ....................................................................................6
MySQL Cluster ..........................................................................................7
Introduction to Windows Server 2008 R2 Failover Clustering ..................7
Setting up MySQL with Windows Server 2008 R2 Failover Clustering ....8
Target Configuration ..................................................................................8
Pre-Requisites ...........................................................................................9
Steps to Configure MySQL for Windows Failover Clustering .................10
Step 1. Configure iSCSI in software (optional) .....................................10
Step 2. Ensure Windows Failover Clustering is enabled .....................12
Step 3. Install MySQL as a service on both servers ............................13
Step 4. Migrate MySQL binaries & data to shared storage ..................13
Step 5. Create Windows Failover Cluster ............................................15
Step 6. Create Cluster of MySQL Servers within Windows Cluster .....17
Step 7. (Optional) Add asynchronous replication to an external slave 19
Step 8. Test the cluster .........................................................................19
Step 9. MySQL Upgrades.....................................................................22
Conclusion....................................................................................................23
Additional Resources ..................................................................................23

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Summary
Microsoft Windows is consistently ranked as the top development platform for MySQL, and outranks any
individual Linux distribution as the leading platform for MySQL deployments, according to surveys of the
MySQL user community.
For Windows customers, the advantages of using MySQL are clear: low Total Cost of Ownership (TCO);
broad platform support and ease-of-use.
With the release of MySQL 5.5, Oracle demonstrated the benefits of focused development activity for the
Windows platform with significant enhancements in performance and scalability. MySQL delivered over 5x
higher throughput than previous MySQL releases on Windows. 1
Following the certification and support of MySQL with Windows Server Failover Clustering (WSFC),
organizations can now safely deploy business-critical applications demanding high levels of availability,
powered by the MySQL database.
This whitepaper discusses how Windows Server Failover Clustering with MySQL provides a solution to
reduce downtime and guard against data loss, and then steps a user through the processes necessary to
configure, provision and run MySQL on a Windows Server 2008 R2 cluster.
By the end of this paper, developers and administrators will be able to deploy business critical applications
with MySQL on Windows Server, with the added reassurance of knowing that the solution has been certified
and is fully supported.

Value of MySQL on Windows


The popularity of MySQL on Microsoft Windows can be attributed to the following factors:
Lower Total Cost of Ownership
Up to 90% savings over Microsoft SQL Server (see the TCO chart below).
Broad platform support
No lock-in to a single platform. MySQL runs on all leading operating system and hardware combinations
including Windows, Linux, MacOS and Solaris.
Ease of use and administration
Using the Windows Installer, MySQL can be up and running on a Windows server in less than five
minutes. MySQL offers a range of self-management capabilities and graphical tools for development,
administration and management of MySQL-based environments.
Reliability
Proven in some of the largest and most demanding web properties, enterprises and ISVs/OEMs whose
businesses depend entirely on their applications and sites being up and available 24 X 7.
Performance and scalability
Windows-specific enhancements released as part of MySQL 5.5 have proven to deliver over 500% higher
performance than previous releases of MySQL on Windows.

http://mysql.com/why-mysql/windows/

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Integration into the Windows environment


A comprehensive range of drivers for Windows environments including ADO.NET and ODBC drivers,
along with integration to the Microsoft Access database and now, Windows Server Failover Clustering for
business critical workloads demanding high availability.
Read this whitepaper for more detail on each of these advantages: http://mysql.com/whymysql/white-papers/mysql_on_windows_wwh.php

Figure 1 MySQL Delivers 90% Lower TCO than Microsoft SQL Server

Costs were calculated using the following parameters:


-

Term: 3 Years
Users: Unlimited (web)
Servers: 4
CPUs/Server: 4
Hardware: Intel x86
MySQL: MySQL Enterprise Edition
Microsoft: SQL Server Enterprise Edition

Individual component pricing is available from this whitepaper: http://mysql.com/why-mysql/whitepapers/mysql_on_windows_wwh.php


You can model your own savings from the TCO Calculator: http://mysql.com/tcosavings/

Approaches to High Availability with MySQL


Databases are the center of modern enterprise applications, storing and protecting an organizations most

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valuable assets and running business-critical applications. Just minutes of downtime can often result in
significant amounts of lost revenue and unsatisfied customers. Making database applications highly available
is therefore a top priority for all organizations.
MySQL provides a number of options to make a database infrastructure highly available. Selecting the high
availability solution that is right for you is largely dependent on how many nines of availability you require
and the type of application you are deploying. The solutions for MySQL high availability on the Windows
platform covers a broad spectrum of service level requirements, as illustrated in Figure 2.

Figure 2 Mapping High Availability Architectures to Systems Downtime

By understanding the availability requirements for each application it is possible to map the database to the
appropriate high availability architecture.
Figure 3 attempts to map common application types to high availability architectures, based on best practices
observed from the MySQL user base. Of course, each organization is unique, and so while the mapping
below may not be appropriate to every use-case, it does serve as a reference point to begin investigating
those HA architectures which can potentially best serve your requirements.

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Figure 3 Mapping Application Types to High Availability Architectures


MySQL with Windows Server Failover Clustering maps to the Clustered Systems category in Figure 3, and
is the focus of this whitepaper. MySQL Replication and MySQL Cluster cover either end of the high
availability spectrum. All are fully supported by Oracle when deployed with Microsoft Windows Server
2008R2. 2

MySQL Replication
Using MySQL Replication, organizations can cost-effectively deliver a high availability solution. Master/Slave
replication enables operations to quickly fail-over to another server in the event of a hardware or software
problem. In addition, with MySQL replication, organizations can incrementally scale out their infrastructure to
accommodate exponentially growing capacity demands.
MySQL Replication ships out of the box and is used extensively by some of the worlds most highly trafficked
Web sites including Facebook, YouTube, Google, Yahoo!, flickr and Wikipedia. In MySQL 5.5, new semisynchronous replication and replication Heart Beat improve the reliability of data replication and the speed of
failover for application availability.
You can learn more about MySQL Replication in the whitepaper posted as follows:
http://www.mysql.com/why-mysql/white-papers/mysql-wp-replication.php
MySQL replication can be used in combination with Windows Server Failover Clustering to provide an
integrated solution for both high availability and scalability. The MySQL master server can be deployed in a
redundant Active / Passive pair, with replication slaves attached to the master. In the event of failure of the
master, the MySQL service is automatically restarted on the Passive server, and the replication slaves
failover with the service, without operator intervention. In the event that there is a failure in the Windows
2

Users must escalate issues related to Windows Server and its associated clustering mechanisms directly to Microsoft.

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Server Failover Cluster that cannot be automatically recovered (for example a corruption of the shared file
system), one of the slaves can be promoted to be the new master.

MySQL Cluster
MySQL Cluster is a write-scalable, shared-nothing, real-time transactional database, combining 99.999%
availability with the low TCO of open source. With a distributed, multi-master architecture and no single point
of failure, MySQL Cluster is able to scale horizontally on commodity hardware to serve read and write
intensive workloads, accessed via SQL and NoSQL interfaces.
MySQL Cluster's real-time design delivers predictable, millisecond response times with the ability to service
millions of operations per second. Support for in-memory and disk-based data, automatic data partitioning
(sharding) with load balancing and the ability to add nodes to a running cluster with zero downtime allows
linear database scalability to handle the most unpredictable web, telecoms and enterprise workloads.
You can learn more about the architecture and capabilities of MySQL Cluster from the whitepaper posted at:
http://www.mysql.com/why-mysql/white-papers/mysql_wp_cluster7_architecture.php

Introduction to Windows Server 2008 R2 Failover Clustering


Windows Server Failover Clustering (WSFC) is a feature of the Enterprise and Datacenter editions of
Windows Server 2008 R2 that can help ensure that an organizations critical applications and services are
available whenever they are needed. Clustering can help build redundancy into an infrastructure and reduce
the number of single points of failure. This, in turn, helps reduce downtime, protects against data loss, and
increases the return on investment.
A failover cluster is a group of independent computers, or nodes, that are physically connected by a localarea network and programmatically connected by cluster software. The group of nodes is managed as a
single system and shares a common namespace. The group usually includes multiple network connections
and data storage connected to the nodes via storage area networks (SANs). The failover cluster operates by
moving resources between nodes to provide service if system components fail.
Normally, if a server that is running a particular application crashes, the application will be unavailable until
the server is fixed. Failover clustering addresses this situation by detecting hardware or software faults and
immediately restarting the application 3 on another node without requiring administrative intervention - a
process known as failover. Users can continue to access the service and may be completely unaware that it
is now being provided from a different server.
Figure 4 illustrates the integration of MySQL with Windows Server Failover Clustering to provide a highly
available service to connected applications. In this architecture, MySQL is deployed in an Active / Passive
configuration. Failures of either MySQL or the underlying server are automatically detected and the MySQL
instance is restarted on the Passive node. Applications accessing the database, as well as any MySQL
replication slaves, can automatically reconnect to the new MySQL process using the same Virtual IP
address once MySQL recovery has completed and it starts accepting connections.
The following sections of the whitepaper will illustrate how to create, configure and test MySQL with Windows
Server Failover Clustering.

While the application is restarted immediately, there may be a delay until service is restored for example
the InnoDB recovery time for InnoDB.

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Setting up MySQL with Windows Server 2008 R2 Failover


Clustering
Target Configuration
MySQL with Windows Failover Clustering requires at least 2
servers within the cluster together with some shared storage
(for example FCAL SAN or iSCSI disks).
For redundancy, 2 LANs should be used for the cluster to
avoid a single point of failure and typically one would be
reserved for the heartbeats between the cluster nodes.
The MySQL binaries and data files are stored in the shared
storage and Windows Failover Clustering ensures that at most
one of the cluster nodes will access those files at any point in
time.
Clients connect to the MySQL service through a Virtual IP
Address (VIP) and so in the event of failover they experience a
brief loss of connection but otherwise do not need to be aware
that the failover has happened other than to handle the failure
of any in-flight transactions.
This typical configuration is illustrated in Figure 4.

Figure 4 Typical configuration

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This white paper will step through


how to set up and use a cluster such
as that shown in Figure 4 and for
easy reference, Figure 5 shows how
this is mapped onto physical
hardware and network addresses for
the lab used later in this paper. In
this case, iSCSI is used for the
shared storage. Note that ideally
there would be an extra subnet for
the heartbeat connection between
ws1 and ws3.

Figure 5 Physical cluster used in this paper

Pre-Requisites

MySQL 5.5 & InnoDB must be used for the database (note that MyISAM is not crash-safe and so
failover may result in a corrupt database)
Windows Server 2008 R2
Redundant network connections between nodes and storage
WSFC cluster validation must pass
iSCSI or FCAL SAN should be used for the shared storage

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Steps to Configure MySQL for Windows Failover Clustering


Step 1. Configure iSCSI in software (optional)
This paper does not attempt to describe how to
configure a highly available, secure and
performant SAN but in order to implement the
subsequent steps a SAN is required and so in
this step we look at one way of using software to
provide iSCSI targets without any iSCSI/SAN
hardware (just using the servers internal disk).
This is a reasonable option to experiment but
probably not what youd want to deploy with for
a HA application. If you already have shared
storage set up then you can skip this step and
use that instead.
Before setting up the iSCSI target you need to
retrieve the iSCSI Qualified Name of the hosts
(referred to as iSCSI initiators) that will be Figure 6 Fetch the IQN for both Cluster nodes
connecting to this storage in this case ws1
and ws3. On each of those 2 hosts from the start menu run Administrative Tools -> iSCSI Initiator. Click on
the Configuration tab and take a note of the Initiator Name as shown in Figure 6.
The iSCSI target will be configured on ws2 using Microsoft iSCSI
Software Target v3.3 which is free to use on Windows Server 2008
R2
and
can
be
downloaded
from
http://www.microsoft.com/downloads/en/details.aspx?FamilyID=45
105d7f-8c6c-4666-a305-c8189062a0d0.
When installing this software, a web page will be opened simply
click the link to install as shown in Figure 7.
Once installed, start up the application and select iSCSI Targets
and then Action -> Create iSCSI Target. For this paper, the name
SAN is given as the iSCSI target name. When asked for the IQN
Identifier the value retrieved from ws1 is used.
Once youve completed the steps in the wizard, you still need to
Figure 7 Install iSCSI target software
allow access from ws3 and so select iSCSI Targets again and
then right-click on SAN and choose Properties and then the
iSCSI Initiators tab and click on Add. You will then be prompted to enter the IQN retrieved from ws3 as
shown in Figure 8.

Figure 8 Add ws3 to allowed initiators


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The next step is to create at least two


virtual disks within the iSCSI target; one for
the quorum file and one for the MySQL
binaries and data files. The quorum file is
used by Windows Failover Clustering to
avoid split-brain behaviour. This can
happen when the 2 clustered hosts lose
contact with each other. To create the disk
for the quorum file, right-click on SAN and
select Create Virtual Disk for iSCSI
Figure 9 Two virtual iSCSI disks
Target. Step through the wizard until
requested for a file location provide the
path to a file-name ending in .vhd if the file doesnt exist then it will be created. For this example,
C:\Users\Administrator\My Documents\quorum.vhd is used for the quorum disk. The quorum disk doesnt
need to be large 1 Gbyte should be ample. Repeat for the MySQL disk and you should now see both virtual
disks as shown in Figure 9.
ws1 can now be connected to these disks by
running the iSCSI Initiator tool again from that
host.
Select the Discovery tag and then Discover
Portal and provide the name ws2 (the host
for our iSCSI virtual disks) as show in Figure 10.
Before clicking on OK select the Advanced
button in order to select which of the IP
addresses on ws1 should be used for the iSCSI
connection (should be different to the one used
for Cluster heartbeat & other IP traffic). As shown
in Figure 11 select Microsoft iSCSI Initiator as
the Local Adapter and then 192.168.5.3 as the
Initiator IP.
Return to the Targets tab and the iSCSI target
on ws2 is now visible select it and then click Figure 10 Look for iSCSI disks on ws2
the Connect button and then Advanced to
again select 192.168.5.3 as the local iSCSI IP
Address (and 192.168.5.1 / 3260 as the Target
portal IP. The target should now show as
connected.
This process is repeated on ws3, again using
192.168.5.1 as the IP address for ws2 but with
192.168.5.2 as the iSCSI IP address for ws3.

Figure 11 Select the local network adapter to use for iSCSI

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From just ws1, the disks must now be


activated and formatted. Navigates the
Server Manager tool to Storage ->
Disk Management and right-click on
Uknown and select Online as shown
in Figure 12. Then right-click and select
Initialize Disk. Finally format the disk
by right-clicking on the Unallocated
disk area and select New Simple
Volume and then accept the defaults
and label the volume as Quorum. This
is repeated for the second disk but the
volume label is MySQL.

Figure 12 Bring shared storage on-line

Step 2. Ensure Windows Failover Clustering is enabled

To confirm that Windows Failover Clustering is


installed on ws1 and ws3, open the Features
branch in the Server Manager tool and check if
Failover Cluster Manager is present (Figure
13).
If Failover Clustering is not installed then it is
very simple to add it. Select Features within
the Service Manager and then click on Add
Features and then select Failover Clustering
and then Next.

Figure 13 Check for clustering

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Step 3. Install MySQL as a service on both servers


If MySQL is already installed as a service on both ws1 and ws3 then this step can be skipped.
This section provides a brief overview of setting up MySQL as a Windows service. If you need more details
then consult A Visual Guide to Installing MySQL on Windows (http://www.mysql.com/why-mysql/whitepapers/visual_guide_to_installing_mysql_windows.php)
or
the
Installation
and
Upgrading
MySQL
chapter
of
the
MySQL
manual
(http://dev.mysql.com/doc/refman/5.5/en/installing.html).
The GPL Windows installer for MySQL can be downloaded from http://dev.mysql.com/downloads/mysql/ or
MySQL Enterprise Edition can be found at http://edelivery.oracle.com/
The installation is very straightforward and selecting the default
options is fine. At the end of the
installation, ensure that the Launch
the MySQL Configuration Wizard is
selected before pressing Finish.
Within the MySQL installation
wizard, the sticking with the defaults
is fine for this exercise. When you
reach the configuration step, check
Create Windows Service (Figure
14).
The installation and configuration
must be performed on both ws1 and Figure 14 Configure MySQL as a Windows Service
ws2, if necessary.

Step 4. Migrate MySQL binaries & data to shared storage


If the MySQL Service is running on either ws1
or ws3 then stop it - open the Task Manager
using ctrl-shift-escape, select the Services
tab and then right-click on the MySQL service
and choose Stop Service as shown in
Figure 15.
As the iSCSI disks were enabled on ws1 you
can safely access them in order to copy
across the MySQL binaries and data files.
With the equipment used for this white paper,
Table 1 shows the original and new locations
for each of these. Note that if C:\ProgramData
is not visible then unhide them from an
Explorer window use alt to expose the
Tools menu and from in there select Folder Figure 15 Stop MySQL service
Options and then select the View tab and
click the radio button for Show hidden files, folders and drives.

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Copy From
C:\Program Files\MySQL\MySQL Server 5.5
C:\ProgramData\MySQL\MySQL
Server
5.5\data

Copy To
F:\MySQL Server 5.5
F:\MySQL Data

Table 1 Migrate MySQL Files


Note that the drive letters may be different in your configuration. Also note that these folders should not
scanned by any virus software, index utilities or automated backup processes and that they should not be
shared with any network users.
In order for MySQL Service to start using these locations, the MySQL config file must be updated by default
this will be in C:\Program Files\MySQL\MySQL Server 5.5\my.ini within that file change the following
parameters:
basedir=F:/MySQL Server 5.5
datadir=F:/MySQL Data
Note that if you specified an explicit folder for the InnoDB data files during the MySQL installation and
configuration then those should be migrated over too.
At the same time, in order to be able to add asynchronous MySQL replication in Step 7, the following
parameters are also added to the [mysqld] section within my.ini:
log-bin=clusterdb-bin.log
server-id=1
4
The same my.ini is used for both ws1 and ws3 including the same server-id .

This assumes that the same drive letters are used on the 2 servers if this is not possible then the drive
letter will be different in the 2 configuration files

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Step 5. Create Windows Failover Cluster


From the Server Manager on either ws1 or ws3 navigate to Features -> Failover Cluster Manager and then
select Validate a Configuration. When prompted enter ws1 as one name and then ws3 as the other (Figure
16).
In the Testing Options select Run all tests and continue. If the tests report any errors then these should be
fixed before continuing. For the configuration used in this paper (Figure 5) a warning is given that the different
network connections are on the same subnet and so are likely to be using the same network infrastructure
and so this is likely to represent a single point of failure and so not deliver a Highly Available system in a
production system this should be avoided.
Now that the system has been
verified,
select
Create
a
Cluster and provide the same
server names as used in the
validation step. In this example,
MySQL is provided as the
Cluster Name and then the
wizard goes on to create the
cluster.
During creation of the cluster,
the wizard will have attempted to
include all available network
connections but any network
being used for iSCSI should
really be excluded. Navigate to
Networks within the new
cluster and then right-click on
each of the networks and select
properties. If the network is one
that you want to use for the
cluster (in this example the
192.168.2.X subnet) then ensure Figure 16 Select hosts for the cluster
that Allow cluster network
communication on this network is selected. Conversely, for any network being used for iSCSI (in this case
subnet 192.68.5.X) ensure that Do not allow cluster network connection on this network is set (Figure 17).
Additionally if there are multiple networks to be used for the clustering then one can be nominated for just the
internal heart-beating by unchecking the Allow clients to connect through this network box.

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Figure 17 Remove any iSCSI networks from cluster


At this stage, the cluster has been created and consists of 2 servers and 2 shared disks (one to act as the
Quorum and one for applications to use) but there are no applications/services within the cluster. Navigate to
the storage branch to confirm that the disks are there and that the smaller one has been selected as the
quorum (Figure 18).

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Figure 18 Confirm correct disks added to cluster

Step 6. Create Cluster of MySQL Servers within Windows Cluster


Adding the MySQL service to the new
Cluster is very straight-forward. Rightclick on Services and applications in
the Server Manager tree (Figure 19)
and select Configure a Service or
Application. When requested by the
subsequent wizard, select Generic
Service from the list and then MySQL
from the offered list of services. Our
example name was ClusteredMySQL.
Please choose an appropriate name for
your cluster. The wizard will then offer
the shared disk that has not already
been established as the quorum disk for
use with the Clustered service make
sure that it is selected. There is no
registry data that needs to be replicated
for MySQL and so skip over that step.

Figure 19 Configure service within the cluster

Once the wizard finishes, it starts up the


MySQL Service. Click on the ClusteredMySQL service branch (Figure 20) to observe that the service is up
and running. You should also make a note of the Virtual IP (VIP) assigned, in this case 192.168.2.18. By
default this is created using DHCP but it can be overridden right-click it and select Properties to change
the value.

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Figure 20 Confirm clustered MySQL running and find virtual IP address


Test your connection to the MySQL service using the VIP of the cluster:
C:\ mysql u root h 192.168.2.18 P3306 pbob
The password (bob) was created as Step 3.
By default Window Failover Clustering limits
failovers to one event for every six hours.As
we will be testing multiple failovers this limit
should be raised. Right-click Clustered
MySQL in the Server Manager tree and
select Preferences and then the Failover
tab and increase the Maximum failures limit
as shown in Figure 21.

Figure 21 Allow more frequent failovers

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Step 7. (Optional) Add asynchronous replication to an external slave


The cluster that has been set up is running within a single data center. It is possible to use Windows Failover
Clustering to span data centers but that is beyond the scope of this white paper instead this section
describes how to set up MySQL asynchronous replication to an external database. There are a number of
reasons why this might be desirable including adding geographic redundancy, recovering from local
database corruptions or producing a near-real time copy of the data for complex analytics.
The other reason for setting up asynchronous replication is to use the slave as an example client and
observe how it behaves during cluster failover.
Setting up replication from clustered MySQL is identical to the non-clustered case with the exception that
when issuing the CHANGE MASTER TO command on the slave, the Virtual IP of the cluster is used rather
than the IP address of either of the servers (in this example, 192.168.2.18). The steps involved to set up
MySQL replication are described in http://www.clusterdb.com/mysql-cluster/get-mysql-replication-up-andrunning-in-5-minutes/ (but note that the master has already been configured and started as part of the
cluster).

Step 8. Test the cluster


As described in Step 6, the VIP should be used to connect to the clustered MySQL service:
C:\ mysql u root h 192.168.2.18 P3306 pbob
From there create a database and populate some data.
mysql>
mysql>
mysql>
mysql>
mysql>
+----+
| id |
+----+
| 1 |
+----+

CREATE DATABASE clusterdb;


USE clusterdb;
CREATE TABLE simples (id int not null primary key);
INSERT INTO simples VALUES (1);
SELECT * FROM simples;

To check that the MySQL replication is working, the table can be checked on the slave:
192.168.2.1 slave> USE clusterdb;
192.168.2.1 slave> SELECT * FROM simples;
+----+
| id |
+----+
| 1 |
+----+
The MySQL service was initially created on ws1 but it can be forced to migrate to ws3 by right-clicking on the
service and selecting Move this service or application to another node as shown in Figure 22.

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Figure 22 Manually migrate MySQL service


Once the migration has completed, the service will be show as running on ws3 (Figure 23).

Figure 23 MySQL service has migrated


As the MySQL data is held in the shared storage (which has also been migrated to ws3), it is still available
and can still be accessed through the existing mysql client which is connected to the VIP:
mysql> select * from simples;
ERROR 2006 (HY000): MySQL server has gone away
No connection. Trying to reconnect...
Connection id:
1
Current database: clusterdb
+----+
| id |
+----+
| 1 |
+----+
Note the error shown above the mysql client loses the connection to the MySQL service as part of the
migration and so it automatically reconnects and complete the query. Any application using MySQL with
Windows Failover Cluster should also expect to have to cope with these glitches in the connection.

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To see how the MySQL slave copes insert a new row into the clustered MySQL then check the slave.
Failover again to ws1, and add another row. As you can see, the slave will automatically reconnect to the
clustered MySQL and resume replication right where it left off.:
mysql> INSERT INTO SIMPLES VALUES (2);
No connection. Trying to reconnect...
Connection id:
1
Current database: clusterdb
Query OK, 1 row affected (0.13 sec)
192.168.2.1 slave> SELECT * FROM simples;
+----+
| id |
+----+
| 1 |
+----+
192.168.2.1 slave> SHOW SLAVE STATUS\G
*************************** 1. row ***************************
Slave_IO_State: Reconnecting after a failed master event read
Master_Host: 192.168.2.18
Master_User: repl_user
Master_Port: 3306
Connect_Retry: 60
Master_Log_File: clusterdv-bin.000007
Read_Master_Log_Pos: 107
Relay_Log_File: clusterdb-slave-relay-bin.000011
Relay_Log_Pos: 257
Relay_Master_Log_File: clusterdv-bin.000007
Slave_IO_Running: Connecting
Slave_SQL_Running: Yes
192.168.2.1 slave> SHOW SLAVE STATUS\G
*************************** 1.
Slave_IO_State:
Master_Host:
Master_User:
Master_Port:
Connect_Retry:

row ***************************
Waiting for master to send event
192.168.2.18
repl_user
3306
60

192.168.2.1 slave> SELECT * FROM simples;


+----+
| id |
+----+
| 1 |
| 2 |
+----+
Clearly, not all migrations are planned and the cluster fails over a service when there are hardware or
software failures. For example, if you kill the mysqld.exe process on the active host then the local MySQL
service will recreate it but if you kill it a second time then the cluster will automatically migrate the service to
the alternate host.
The effects of hardware failures can be a little more complex to anticipate as the clustering software needs to
guard against network partitioning which would be a situation where the 2 halves of the cluster become
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isolated. This is known as the split-brain problem. The default rule is that if 2 out of 3 of the 2 hosts and 1
quorum disk can access each other then theyre allowed to continue and provide the service otherwise the
service is halted. As an example, if the service, as well as the quorum and MySQL disks are owned by ws1
and ws1 loses both of its network connections (one to the iSCSI storage and one to the cluster) then the
service and the MySQL disk are automatically failed over to ws3 the service is allowed to continue as both
ws3 and the failed-over quorum disk are still available (2 votes out of 3 is a majority). Note that when the
network connections are restored, ws1
automatically rejoins the Cluster as the
new passive node.
The high availability of a sharedeverything cluster is highly dependent
on the level of availability of the shared
storage. If for example, the Microsoft
iSCSI Software Target tool is used to
disable the MySQL Disk (Figure 24)
then the MySQL service is lost until the
shared disk is enabled again. If higher
levels of availability are required than
provided by Windows clustering then
MySQL Cluster is an alternative to
consider.

Figure 24 Simulate shared storage failure

Step 9. MySQL Upgrades


Describing how to perform MySQL upgrades is outside of the scope of this white paper except to point out
the interactions it has with Windows Failover Clustering. More general information on MySQL upgrades can
be found at http://dev.mysql.com/doc/refman/5.5/en/upgrading-downgrading.html.
Each host has its own MySQL configuration file (my.ini) that is stored locally. Each of these my.ini files
indicates the path to the MySQL binaries to be used for the local MySQL service (basedir) when it is
running and the data files (datadir). In normal operation the two my.ini files should be kept identical
(assuming the drive letters match).
The MySQL binaries and data are held in the shared storage.
When upgrading MySQL, the following steps can be used if the new release doesnt require the tables and/or
indexes to be rebuilt refer to http://dev.mysql.com/doc/refman/5.5/en/checking-table-incompatibilities.html
to check if this applies to the planned upgrade path:
1. Install the new version of MySQL on host X (on the local storage) where host X is the node in the
cluster that currently has access to the MySQL disk
2. Copy the newly installed MySQL directory to a new location on the shared MySQL disk
3. Edit the my.ini file on both hosts to set basedir to the new (shared) location for the new MySQL
binaries. Leave datadir unchanged.
4. Using the Failover Cluster Manager move the MySQL service to the host Y, when the MySQL service
is started there it will be using the new binaries.
If it is necessary to rebuild the tables/indexes then the procedure described in
http://dev.mysql.com/doc/refman/5.5/en/rebuilding-tables.html should be interleaved with steps 3 & 4 in order
to minimize loss of service.

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Conclusion
More users develop and deploy and MySQL on Windows than any other single platform. Enhancements in
MySQL 5.5 increased performance by over 5x compared to previous MySQL releases. With certification for
Windows Server Failover Clustering, MySQL can now be deployed to support business critical workloads
demanding high availability, enabling organizations to better meet demanding service levels while also
reducing TCO and eliminating single vendor lock-in.

Additional Resources

MySQL on Windows: http://www.mysql.com/why-mysql/windows/


MySQL High Availability: http://www.mysql.com/products/enterprise/high_availability.html
Windows Server 2008 R2 Failover Clustering:
http://www.microsoft.com/windowsserver2008/en/us/failover-clustering-main.aspx

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