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Fundamentals of Reservoir Properties

FUNDAMENTALS OF RESERVOIR
PROPERTIES

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Fundamentals of Reservoir Properties

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CONTENTS
INTRODUCTION
1

RESERVOIR / STATIC BEHAVIOUR


1.1 DESCRIPTION OF PETROPHYSICAL PROPERTIES

(PETROPHYSICAL CLASSIFICATION OF RESERVOIRS)

DETRITAL TERRIGENOUS
1.1.1 (Siliciclastic) RESERVOIRS
1.1.2 Sands or quartzose sandstone
1.1.3 Arkose
1.1.4 Graywackes
1.1.5 Conglomerates
1.1.6 Silts and Siltstones
1.1.7 Detrital Carbonates reservoirs (Bioclastics)
1.1.8 Detrital Volcanic reservoirs (Pyroclastics)
1.1.9 Westhered plutonic reservoirs (granite or basic wash)
1.1.10 Reservoirs of chemical or biochemical origine

1.2 RESERVOIR THICKNESS


1.3 POROSITY
2

RESERVOIR / DYNAMIC BEHAVIOUR


2.1 PERMEABILITY
2.1.1 Definition of absolute permeability
2.1.2 Relationship between permeability and porosity
2.1.3 Reservoir production capacity and permeability
2.1.4 Horizontal and vertical Porosity
2.1.5 Fissures, Fractures and rock matrix importance
2.1.6 Water - Rock Contact Phenomena Capillarity Phenomena
2.1.7 Interfacial Tensions
2.1.8 Effective and relative permeabilities
2.1.9 Relationship between permeability and network
2.1.10 Influence of clay content and distribution on the permeability of
a reservoir.

DRAINAGE AREA AND IN PLACE RESERVE ESTIMATE

RESERVOIR CONTENT OF FLUID AND GAS

RESERVOIR GEOMETRY

Fundamentals of Reservoir Properties

5.1 GENERALITIES
5.2 GEOMETRY OF OIL AND GAS TRAPS
5.2.1 Structural traps
5.2.2 Stratigraphic traps
5.2.3 Combination traps

1-3

Fundamentals of Reservoir Properties

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INTRODUCTION
Virtually all of the worlds petroleum is produced from sedimentary rocks. Locating the
reservoirs that contain petroleum requires an understanding of the nature of sediments. Mud
Logging and electric logging are important methods of acquiring such information.
Global tectonic activity has altered and continues to alter the earths crust. Tectonic activity is
the process that distills out the lighter, low melting point materials that accumulated on the
surface and form the continents today.
Sedimentary rocks evolved from the mechanical and chemical alteration caused by exposure
to the surface environment. Since the evolution of life forms, petroleum has been generated
in sedimentary environments. When organic remains escape oxidation by early burial or
depth of burial, and a sufficient concentration of organisms are subjected to moderate levels
of geothermal heat and overburden pressure, petroleum is believed to be formed.
When these fluids migrate from source rock to porous and permeable reservoir rocks, they
are eventually trapped and the hydrocarbon accumulates to form an oil or gas reservoir.
Mud logging by analyzing lithology (cuttings, core) or gas shows, monitoring and interpreting
drilling parameters.... provide the very first information related to a potential reservoir.
Consequently, the reliability and quality of Mud logging services is of outstanding importance.
Further, Electric Logs will produce complementary information and data. Well log data are
the result of measurements of the physical properties of rock matrix material and the fluids
occupying the pores. Otherwise, these data are accessible only by core analysis. Quite
naturally,

mud logging, master logs and charts, electric logs and core data are often

compared and used in conjunction to define reservoir properties.


When cores are not available, log data are often used as an extension from core analysis
and log comparisons on other wells. Electric log measurements can define or at least infer
petrophysical properties such as porosity, shale volume, lithology, and water, oil, or gas
saturation.
Estimates of permeability, predictions of water cut, detection of over pressured zones, and
calculations of residual oil can also be made. Log analysis is primarily used to describe
petrophysical properties in a single well. However, when a suite of logs is run in several wells
representative of a specific geographical area, it can be used as a geological tool to describe

Fundamentals of Reservoir Properties

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local structure, stratigraphy, facies relationships, environments of deposition, and reservoir


geometry.
Reliable economic evaluation of a reservoir requires reasonable knowledge of certain
fundamental reservoir properties. Although the rock recovered by coring methods is the
cornerstone of formation evaluation, wireline data are more universally available for
determining the fundamental reservoir properties.

RESERVOIR / STATIC BEHAVIOUR


1.1

DESCRIPTION OF PETROPHYSICAL PROPERTIES


Petrophysical Classification of reservoirs
Since the quantitative interpretation model and the type of program to be used
must adapt to the complexity of the problem to be solved, and depends on the
nature of the reservoir, it is important to establish from the start the category of
reservoir to which the zone in question belongs.
From a practical point of view reservoir rocks can be classified according to their
origin, which will in part determine the type of porosity (intergranular,
intercrystalline, vuggy, effective), the geometry of the pores and their distribution
together with the mineralogical complexity of the interpretation.

Detrital Terrigenous
1.1.1 (Siliciclastic) Reservoirs
Depending on grain size, these may include conglomerates, sands or
sanstones, silts or siltstones and the porosity is of an intergranular type,
usually primary.
The mineralogical composition of the reservoir depends essentially on first,
the chemical and textural maturity of the grains and the matrix of the
sediment, and second on the nature of the cement, if any ; which binds the
grains (Fig. 1).

Fundamentals of Reservoir Properties

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Fundamentals of Reservoir Properties

1-7

A chemically mature rock contains virtually nothing but quartz, the most
abundant stable mineral ; and possibly one or two other stable minerals,
either as secondary minerals or in the form of cement. These are known as
quartzitic sand or sandstone, and sometimes known as quartzite or
orthoquartzite ; the cement may be described as either calcareous, dolimitic
or saliferous.
As well as quartz, a chemically immature rock contains unstable minerals
(feldspars, micas, plagioclases) and fragments in variable proportions but
increasing in number according to its immaturity. These are referred to as
graywackes (cf. Pettijohn) and arkoses. Thus the chemical maturity of the
rock could be represented by the quartz-feldspar ratio and, as a first
approximation, by its potassium content and thus its natural radioactivity.
The textural maturity is determined by the percentage of matrix (in the
geological sense) and the degree of sorting. To a certain extent the
percentage of detrital clay is an indication of the rock textural mature
degree.
Chemical maturity and textural maturity do not necessarily appear
simultaneously ; thus a conglomerate may reveal a high textural maturity
(as is the case with numerous igneous rock pebbles). A very fine sand can
be chemically highly mature (quartz and kaolinite) and texturally immature
(poor sorting which generally decreases with grain size).
The evaluation of the two types of maturity is important from the geological
point of view as well as for production and interpretation. As for the latter
the complexity will clearly increase from quartzitic sandstones to arkoses.
In an orthoquartzite, a textural model designed to differentiate between
sands, silts, cement and possibly clays will undoubtedly be of greater use
than a mineralogical model aimed at the calculation of the percentage of
quartz, clay minerals, feldspars and micas, the last two being practically
absent or only present in insignificant amounts and then solely bound to
rock fragments which themselves are not numerous.

Fundamentals of Reservoir Properties

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1.1.2 Sands or quartzose sandstones


Sand is a loose detrital sediment whose grains are for the most part
between 1/16 mm and 2 mm in diameter. A sandstones is a sand
consolidated by the presence of a cement binding the grains together and
cementation is a post-depositional process where the cement fills the pore
space.
In detrital sequences one can usually assume that the percentage of
cement cannot exceed the porosity existing at the time when the process of
cementation began.

Fig. 2 Simplified Classification of noncalcareous sandstones

Fundamentals of Reservoir Properties

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Fig.3. Sorting of detrital terrigeneous rocks (after Petitjohn)


As shown in Fig. 2-3, quartzose sands correspond to sand containing less
than 25 % feldspars and less than 15 % matrix. They are subdivided into
protoquartzites and orthoquartzites, the latter being the purest (Table 1)

Fundamentals of Reservoir Properties

A
Quartz
Feldspar
Mica
Rock fragments
Clay or matrix
Silica cement
Calcite cement

50
3-5
40
10
-3

1-10

60
3
1
35
2
present

78
3
15
4
-

65.4

32.0
2.2
0.2
43.02
6.9
trace
13.0

71
8
tr
224
2
-

30.9
10.0
0.5
33.01
5.5
19.2

27
2
465
5
20

10.6
6.8
11.9
8.5

(1) Includes 15.0 percent chert : (2) Includes 28.0 percent chert : (3) 5-10 percent,
authors observation : (4) Includes 5.0 percent chert : (5) Includes 3.0 percent chert, 12.0
percent limestones, 27.0 percent dolomite.

A. Oswego Sandstone (Ordovician), Pennsylvania. U.S.A. (Krynine and Tuttle, 1941).


B. Bradford Sand (Devpnian). Pennsylvania. U.S.A. (Krynine, 1940, C-1, table 3).
C. Deese Formation (Pennsylvanian). Oklahoma, U.S.A. (Jacobsen, 1959. Table 4, Analysis
D-112).
D. Salt Wash Member of Morrison Formation (Jurassic), Colorado Plateau, U.S.A. Mean of
25 thin sections (Griffiths, 1956. P. 25).
E. Calcareous graywacke (Creataceous). Torok. Alaska. Average of 3 samples
(Krynine in Payne and others, 1952).
E. Calcareous graywacke (Creataceous). Torok. Alaska. Average of 3 samples (Krynine
in Payne and others, 1952).
F. Basal Caliborne Sand (Eocene), Texas U.S.A. (Todd and Folk, 1957).
G. Frio Sanstone (Oligocene). Seeligson field. Jim Wells and Kleberg Counties. Texas
U.S.A. Average of 22 samples (nanz. 1954. P. 112).
H. Molassesandstein (Tertiary), Germany (USM No. 186. Fchtbauer. 1964, p. 256).

Table 1 : Mineralogical composition of graywackes and proto-quartzite sands (from


Petitjohn, 1963 in Petitjohn et al., 1972)
By definition, quartzose sands and sandstones are thus both chemically
and texturally mature. They are of a light color : white, grey or pink.
Allochthonous detrital minerals, such as feldspars and micas, are rare to
very rare. Accessory heavy stable minerals, such as zircon, rutile,
tourmaline, apatite, and garnet are frequent.
Autochthonous detrital minerals, e.g. glauconite, phosphates, or shell
fragments are sometimes common. The size of grain varies but the sorting
is on the whole good. The grains are round.
These parameters mean that quartzose sands are very porous and
permeable. Cement is usually secondary silica or calcite, more rarely
dolomite, anhydrite, halite, pyrite, or haematite. One assumes, due to their
maturity, that they are the consequence of several cycles of sedimentation.

Fundamentals of Reservoir Properties

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Quartzose sands are frequently characteristic of either beds of winnowed


sand deposited on submarine rises, or of aeolian sands. However, they can
also be found in other environments.

1.1.3 Arkose
Arkoses are essentially rocks which have a certain textural maturity (less
than 15 % matrix) but are chemically immature (more than 25 % feldspars,
that is unstable minerals). Some arkoses can even contain up to 60 %
feldspars if the source rock is rich in feldspars and poor in quartz (Table 2).
Quartz
Microline
Plagioclase
Micas
Clay
Carbonate
Other

60
34
64

57

57
27
1
14

71
25

60
13

35
592

T
5
-8

2
45

37.7
0.7
45.4
4.2
12.0

57
24
6
3
9
p3
1

51
30
11
1
7
p3
-

53.1
18.5
0.4
6.9
17.0

352
p3
85

4.1

(1) Normative or calculated composition : (2) Modal feldspar, given by Mackie as 55 and
60. Respectively : (3) Present in amounts under 1 percent : (4) Chlorite : (5) Iron oxide
(hematite) and kaolin..

A. Sparagmite (Precambrian) Norway (Barth, 1938, p. 60).


B. Torridonian (Precambrian) Scotland (Mackie, 1905, p. 58).
C. Jotnian (Precambrian), Satakunta, Finland (Simonen and Kuovo, 1955, Table 2. No. 5).
D. Subarkose, Potsdam Sandstone (Cambrain), New York, U.S.A. (Wiesnet, 1961, p. 9). A
subarkose.
E. Subarkose, Lamotte Sandstone (Cambrain), Missouri, U.S.A. (Ojakangas, 1963. P. 863).
A subarkose.
F. Lower Old Red (Devonian) Scotland (Mackie, 1905, p. 58).
G. Arkose (Permian), Auvergne, France (Huckenholtz. 1963. p. 917).
H. Pale arkose (Triassic) Connecticut, U.S.A. (Krynine, 1950. p. 85).
I. Red arkoses (Triassic) Connecticut, U.S.A. (Krynine, 1950. p. 85).
J. Arkoses (Oligocene) Auvergne, France (Huckenholtz. 1963. p. 917).
Table 2 : Mineralogical composition of arkoses and subarkoses (from Petitjohn, 1963 in
Petitjohn et al., 1972)
Arkoses are the product of incomplete alteration of igneous or metamorphic
rocks of the granite type such as diorite and gneiss. The typical arkose is
pink or red in color more rarely grey. Pink denotes feldspars in the matrix.
While red denotes ferric oxide. Grain size is very variable and the sorting is
often poor. The grains themselves are angular to sub-spherical.

Fundamentals of Reservoir Properties

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Feldspars can be of different types but microcline and albite are the most
common. Alteration produces sericite, kaolinite, or montmorillonite. Micas
are also common along with heavy minerals while alteration of micas
produces illite, montmorillonite, or kaolinite depending on the degree of
alteration.
According to Selley the majority of arkoses are to be found in fluvial facies
(alluvial fans) and are characteristic of intracratonic basins delimited by
fault systems. However, they can also be found in other environments.

1.1.4 Graywackes
Graywackes are by definition texturally immature sands because they
contain more than 15 % matrix. According to their chemical maturity, they
are subdivided into lithic graywackes, if the proportion of feldspars is below
25 %, and into feldspathic graywackes if the feldspars make up more than
25 % of the elements present (Table 3).
Graywackes are generally hard rocks, of a dark grey-green color. They are
very poorly sorted, with grain size varying from very coarse to very fine
(clay by matrix). In shape, they are angular to subangular and of low
sphericity. The quartz grains are covered by other detrital minerals, while
minerals such as hornblende and pyroxenes are often mixed in with
feldspars.
The largest grains are usually plutonic, volcanic or metamorphic rock
fragments, according to the source rock. Micas (muscovite and biotite) are
plentiful, together with chlorite and sericite which are present as
microcrystals of diagenetic origin. Finally, unstable heavy minerals are also
frequent.
All these detrital grains are embedded in an abundant matrix made up of
clay minerals (chlorite and sericite), quartz, carbonates (often in the form of
siderite), pyrite and sometimes carbonaceous organic matter. This matrix is
both syndepositional and diagenetic by alteration of unstable detrital
material.

Fundamentals of Reservoir Properties

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Graywackes are generally characterised by rapid deposition in orogenic


belts associated with flysch facies. Because of their immaturity they usually
have poor reservoir characteristics, that is, average to low porosity, and low
to very low permeability.

1.1.5 Conglomerates
These are detrital sediments in which more than 25 % of the particles are
over 2 mm in diameter. Depending on the quantity of matrix the
conglomerates are classified as orthoconglomerates (grain supported) and
paraconglomerates (mud supported).
The orthoconglomerates of marine origin are without matrix at the time of
deposition, but can acquire a post-depositional matrix of fine material
carried by water flowing through the pore spaces of these permeable
formations which contain large spaces.
Fluvial orthoconglomerates, however, have a matrix deposited at the same
time as the pebbles, while paraconglomerates usually correspond to mudflows or to deposits of glacial origin.
Conglomerates are further subdivided according to their composition. Thus
there are monogenic conglomerates, made up of a single type of rock usually quartzitic sandstone - and polygenic conglomerates made up of
several types of rock.
The grain size of the conglomerates means that they are very porous and
permeable. But, because of this, fine material (matrix) can enter the pore
space and greatly reduce permeability.

1.1.6 Silts and silstones


Silt is a sediment whose grains, of detrital origin, have a diameter of
between 1/16 and 1/256 mm. A siltstone is a hardened silt. The
composition of silt may vary considerably, but the most common minerals
are quartz, mica, feldspars, and the heavy minerals, with a variable
percentage of clay minerals. Grains are angular to sub-rounded. Sorting is

Fundamentals of Reservoir Properties

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often average to poor, and porosity is sometimes high, but because of the
grain size, permeability is frequently poor.

1.1.7 Detrital Carbonate Reservoirs (Bioclastics)


Such reservoirs correspond to the accumulation of shell fragments or
carbonate rocks either with or without non-carbonate detrital grains
(lithoclasts), often made up of quartz. Depending on the quantity of quartz,
one finds sandy limestone, (or dolomites) or calcareous (or dolomitic)
sands.
Shell fragments may also contain detrital carbonate grains (intraclasts,
pellets, and oolites). the whole being bound by a matrix (micrite or clay) and
a cement (sparite). Depending on the relative proportion of grains to matrix.
Dunham (1962) has subdivided this type of rock into :
- mudstone, when grains make up less than 10 % of the total volume of the
rock ;
- wackestone, when the percentage of grains lies between 50 and 10 %
and the grains are thus supported by the matrix ;
- packstone, when the percentage of matrix is between 50 and 10 % and
as a result the grains are touching ;
- grainstone, when the percentage of matrix is less than 10 %.
Depending on grain size the last category can be subdivided into calcarenites for a given size of sand, and into calci-rudites for grain sizes above
2 mm (Grabau's classification).
Since carbonate grains are often formed on site or close by, carbonate
rocks are termed autochtonous. Furthermore, the origin of the matrix
means that they are frequently classified as rocks of chemical or
biochemical origin.
It is important to note also that these rocks are highly sensitive to
diagenetic effects which can at the same time alter their texture and even
their mineralogy (dolomitization). Vuggy secondary porosity, resulting from
dissolution is frequent (TABLES 3, 4, 5).

Fundamentals of Reservoir Properties


Aspect

Sandstone

1-15
Carbonate

Amount
of
primary porosity
in sediments

Commonly 25-40 %

Commonly 25-40 %

Amount
of
primary ultimate
porosity in rocks

Commonly half or more


of initial porosity : 15-30
% common

Commonly none or only small fraction


of initial porosity ; 5-15 % common in
reservoir facies

Types(s)
of
primary porosity

Almost
interparticle

Interparticle commonly predominates,


but intraparticle and other types are
important

Types(s)
of
ultimate porosity

Almost
exclusively
primary interparticle

Widely varied because


depositional madifications

Sizes of pores

Diameter and throat


sizes closely related to
sedimentary particle size
and sorting

Diameter and throat sizes commonly


show little relation to sedimentary
particle size or sorting

Sizes of pores

Strong dependence on
particle
shape-a
negative of particles

Greatly varied, ranges from strongly


dependent positive or negative
of particles to form completely
indpendant of shapes of depositional
or disgenetic components

Uniformity
of
size, shape, and
distribution

Commonly fairly uniform


within
homogeneous
body

Variable, ranging from fairly uniform to


extremely heterogeneous, even within
body made up of single rock type

Influence
diagenesis

of

Minor ; usually minor


reduction of primary
porosity by compaction
and cementation

Major ; can create, obliterate, or


completely
modify
porosity ;
cementation and solution important

Influence
fracturing

of

Generally not of major


importance in reservoir
properties

Of major importance in reservoir


properties if present

Visual evaluation
of porosity and
permeability

Semiquantitative visual
estimates
commonly
relatively easy

Variable ;
semiquantitative visual
estimates range from easy to virtually
impossible ; instrument measurements of porosity, permeability and
capillary pressure commonly needed

Adequacy
of
core analysis for
reservoir
evaluation

Core plugs of 1-in


diameter
commonly
adequate for matrix
porosity

Core plugs commonly inadequate ;


even whole cores ( 3-in, diameter)
may be inadequate for large pores

Permeabilityporosity
interrelations

Relatively
consistent ;
commonly dependent on
particle size and sorting

Greatly
varied ;
commonly
indpendant of particle size and
sorting

exclusively

of

post-

TABLE 4. - Comparison between porosity in sandstones and limestones (from


choquette & pray)

Fundamentals of Reservoir Properties

TABLE 5. Different types of porosity in carbonate rocks

1-16

Fundamentals of Reservoir Properties

1-17

1.1.8 Detrital volcanic reservoirs (pyroclastics)


Such reservoirs are essentially the product of volcanic rock fragments.
Depending on grain size, one can define them as :
- agglomerates, that is volcanic equivalents of conglomerates formed by
explosions and screes at the base of a volcano. Depending on the type of
volcanic origin they are made up of pebbles of lava, whose composition is
rhyolite, andesite, or basalt.
volcanic sands or tuffs or ashes, originating from volcanic explosions or an
erosion of the lava flows. They are composed of crystals, volcanic glass
and rock fragments, olivine and black mica in variable proportions
depending on the type of volcano from which they originate. They can be
deposited on the Earths surface or underwater.
Volcanic sands are often badly sorted due to the fact that any major
movement and winnowing would quickly remove the unstable minerals
which compose them. As a result their permeability is generally poor, and
minerals in the zeolite group are frequently present. They are the product of
deterioration of various components of the tuffs.

1.1.9 Westhered plutonic reservoirs (granite or basic wash)


Such reservoirs result from alteration of plutonic basement or intrusions.
The matrix porosity is poor (generally lower than 5 %). Fracturing is often
abundant, varying from small cracks to large open fractures. The
mineralogical composition is close to that of the parent rock (granite, diorite,
or gabbro), plus products of weathering (clay minerals, I.e. chlorite).

1.1.10 Reservoirs of chemical or biochemical origin


Such reservoirs are essentially represented by carbonates formed by
chemical deposit from a solution rich in CaCO3, by temperature variation,
by the biochemical action of algae, or by the activity of constructor
organisms. Dunham (1962) has given the name of boundstone to
carbonates resulting from this activity. They are also termed calcareous
reefs or simply reefs.

Fundamentals of Reservoir Properties

1-18

For this category of reservoir, porosity may be of different types :


intragranular, intergranular, but mainly skeletal, as shelters, casts, or even
intercrystalline (Table 3, 4 ,5). This category of reservoir is often linked with
formations resulting from an accumulation of calcareous shells (chalk,
nummulitic limestones, etc.). Such a reservoir should also include rocks
formed by accumulation of siliceous skeletons : radiolarites and diatomites.
Carbonates of chemical or biochemical origin can contain gypsum or
anhydrite. The chalk is often very porous though its permeability is poor so
that siliceous intrusions are frequently found, e.g. flint and chert.

1.2

RESERVOIR THICKNESS
The reservoir engineer requires an accurate measure of reservoir thickness,
generally, the current true vertical thickness of the reservoir rock in place.
Original orientation of reservoirs and the effects of subsequent folding, faulting,
uplifting, or downwarping also influence reservoir parameters.
The most basic information provided by wireline logging is measured well depth
and identifiable top and bottom depths of traversed geological formations. If the
borehole is nearly vertical and formations are relatively flat, the measured
thickness of different geological status is generally accurate.
However, when wells are deviated by more than about 5, it becomes necessary
to compare measured reservoir thickness to true vertical thickness utilizing
measurements of the borehole drift angle and directions (Fig. 7 A).

Fundamentals of Reservoir Properties

1-19

Fig. 7A. TVD priciple for a vertical well and horizontal bed
When the reservoir rock dips steeply as a result of folding or faulting, the
formation thickness must often be corrected to its true stratigraphic thickness,
and information pertaining to post-depositional structural dip is required (Fig. 7
B).

Fundamentals of Reservoir Properties

1-20

Fig. 7B. TVD principle for a vertical well and a dipping bed
When the well is deviated and formations dip steeply, additional data are required
to correct the log measurements to true vertical thickness (Fig. 7 C).

Fundamentals of Reservoir Properties

1-21

Fig. 7C. TVD principle for a deviated well and a dipping bed
1.3

POROSITY
The ratio of a volume of void spaces within a rock to the total bulk volume of that
rock is commonly expressed as a percentage : i.e., all the collective void space is
referred to as pore volume so that percent porosity () is calculated as
Pore volume
= -------------------- X 100
Total volume
In practice. several descriptions of porosity exist, but the two most common are
total porosity and effective porosity (Fig. 8).
hTotal porosity represents the ratio of total pore volume within a rock to the total
bulk volume including voids as given in the previous equation.
hEffective porosity represents the ratio of the interconnected pore space to the
total bulk volume.

Fundamentals of Reservoir Properties

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hOther terminology such as secondary porosity, water-filled porosity, vuggy


porosity, and fracture porosity are discussed later.
The amount of porosity is principally caused by the arrangement and shape of
the rock grains (Fig. 9), the mixing of grains of different sizes and shapes (Fig.
10), and the amount of cementing material present (Fig. 11).

Fig. 8. Graphic Depiction of Effective,


noneffective and total pororsity

Fig. 9. Porosity relation to arrangement and


shape of rock grains

Fig. 10. Variation size of spheres can affect


porosity type and volume

Fig. 11. Clay cement can affect porosity and


permeability

RESERVOIR / DYNAMIC BEHAVIOUR


2.1 PERMEABILITY
2.1.1 Definition of absolute permeability
The permeability of a medium is its capacity to permit the flow of a fluid
(gas, oil or water). If the fluid is homogeneous and has no major chemical
influence on the surrounding media, then the permeability is said to be

Fundamentals of Reservoir Properties

1-23

absolute. It is represented by the symbol k, and the unit of measurement is


the darcy.
Absolute permeability is derived from the equation governing the flow of a
fluid in a porous medium (Darcys law) :
1S
Q = k ----- (P1 - P2)
h
Already explained rock measurements of permeability are typically
expressed as millidarcies (md).

Fig. 12. Arrangement of sand grain and pore structure affect permeability

Fundamentals of Reservoir Properties

1-24

Fig. 13. Shape and size of grains affect permeability

The graphics (Fig. 12 and 13) demonstrate several variables that can affect
permeability horizontally and vertically.
Q

= flow per unit of time (cm/s)

= viscosity of flowing medium (cp / Pascal/s)

= cross section of rock is area in (cm2)

= the thickness of the material traversed by the fluid (cm)

P1 - P2 = pressure differential (drop)


k

= permeability (darcy)

2.1.2 Relationship between permeability and porosity

Fundamentals of Reservoir Properties

1-25

Potentially petroleum-bearing rocks exhibit a wide range of permeabilities


(Fig. 14). Often, permeability increases with porosity : however, rocks with
very low porosity have exhibited high permeability characteristics, and
some high porosity rocks have very low matrix permeability.

Fig. 14. Reservoir rocks demonstrate a wide range of permeability that may not follow porosity trends

Permeability values can be determined by serveral means ; e.g., well tests,


wireline formation tests, drill stem tests, transient well testing, or analysis of
different types of recovered core.
Core data are accepted as the most accurate method for determining
permeability (Fig. 15).

Fundamentals of Reservoir Properties

1-26

Fig. 15. Permeability determination from Core

Permeability is a fundamental parameter in reservoir engineering work.


For example, a reservoir rock 10 ft thick having 1 darcy of effective
permeability will permit about 15 barrels of oil per day (BOPD) to flow into a
wellbore if the internal well pressure is 10 psi less than the reservoir
pressure.
A formation 100 ft (30 m) thick that averages 2 md can be said to have 200
md-ft (60 md-m) permeability, whereas a formation 10 ft (3 m) thick that
averages 200 md can be said to have 2,000 md-ft (600 md-m) of
permeability.
The thin zone obviously has better qualities of deliverability than the thick
zone.
2.1.3 Reservoir production capacity and permeability
A reservoirs productive capacity is largely determined by its permeability. If
a 100 ft (30 m) thick reservoir is perforated with 4 shots per foot in 4.8-in.

Fundamentals of Reservoir Properties

1-27

(12.2-cm) ID casing, the wells productivity is restricted to the capacity of


the casing, tubing, and wellhead aparatus. If a 0.7-in. (1.75-cm) choke is
placed at the surface, the wells production capability is more severely
reduced.
Within the cased well itself, productivity is restricted to the size of tubular
goods, and wellhead restrictions diminish the producing capability of the
pipe string. Each individual perforation will only produce if the well has the
capacity to accept flow into it and the ability to produce the fluids or gas at
the surface.
In this set of circumstances, a large number of perforations would not
contribute any increase to the rate of production. The perforations in the
most permeable depth intervals would contribute the vast majority of fluids
or gas, and as permeability behind individual perforations diminishes, their
ability to contribute to flow would also diminish.

2.1.4 Horizontal and Vertical Porosity


Horizontal permeability is generally accepted as the rocks permeability in a
more-or-less horizontal direction, while vertical permeability is generally
accepted as the component perpendicular to horizontal permeability. A core
from a near-vertical borehole in steeply dipping beds may yield misleading
permeability estimates for vertical and horizontal orientation if the core
analyst is not aware of the circumstances.
Vertical permeability (kv) is usually somewhat less than horizontal
permeability because of the layering effect of sedimentation ; i.e., clay
laminae, platy minerals, etc. Horizontal permeability (kh), measured parallel
to bedding, is the major contributor of fluid flow into a typical wellbore. The
ratio of kh /kv generally ranges from 1.5 to 3.0 but might exceed 10.0 in
some reservoirs (Figs. 12 and 13).
High vertical permeability does occasionally occur, usually in clean, coarse,
unconsolidated sand or where vertical fractures, fissures, or joints are well
developed.

Fundamentals of Reservoir Properties

1-28

2.1.5 Fissures, fractures and rock matrix importance


Vertical joints and fissures often act as horizontal barriers if they are filled
with clay or other minerals. Bypassing and coning effects occur in such
reservoirs, and high vertical permeability can therefore be detrimental.
Fractures are nothing more than cracks or fissures that occur due to the
stresses and strains of rock or pore pressure realigning to stability. Most
fractures occur not as a large crack in the rock, but as several small
fissures. Orientation is usually normal, or parallel to the forces that caused
the fracture.
The type of rock matrix influences the preferred direction. Major
catastrophic events in geologic time (called revolutions, disturbances, etc.
depending on the extent) are one major cause of fracturing, while
redistributions of pore fluid or gas from an area of high pressure to an area
of low pressure are also attributed to fracturing.

2.1.6 Water-Rock Contact Phenomena - Capillary Phenomena


The pores of a rock are usually linked by fine channels of very small
diameter, and possibly by fissures and fractures. Because of their very
small bore (a few microns) the channels act as capillary tubes and the
fluids they contain are subjected to capillary forces.
Capillary pressure is a force per unit of surface expressed by the Laplace
equation :
2 T cos
PC = --------------r
where
PC is the capillary pressure in pascal ;
T is surface tension of the liquid (liquid-air separation surface) in dynes/cm
or in newtons/m in SI units ;
is angle of contact (in degrees) between the meniscus and the wall of the
capillary tube.

Fundamentals of Reservoir Properties

1-29

T = 73 dynes/cm at 20 C and = 0 if the liquid wets the solid perfectly ;


r is capillary radius in cm.
This shows that on contact with a solid surface, the liquids may be attracted
or repelled to a greater or lesser extent depending on whether or not they
wet the wall. We know that if we plunge a capillary tube into water, the
water will rise in the capillary as a result of the forces of surface tension
(Fig.16).

Fig. 16. Water rising in a table due to capillarity forces

The height, h, to which the water rises is given by Jurins law :


2 T cos
h = --------------rog
where h is height of the column of liquid in cm, o is the density of the fluid in
g/cm3 and g is the acceleration due to gravity.
The height is also linked to the capillary pressure, so that we have :
PC
h = --------------og

Fundamentals of Reservoir Properties

1-30

2.1.7 Interfacial Tensions


When two fluids are present, two new concepts are introduced. The first is
the concept of a wetting liquid, generally water which fills the angular parts
of the pores and covers the solid particles with a film.
The second is the concept of interfacial tension between two non-mixing
liquids (e.g. oil and water, the oil being almost never in contact with the
rock). This tension is more or less equal to the difference between the
surface tension of each liquid relative to air :
T1-2 T1 - T2
The difference in density also comes into play and we have
2 (T1 - T2)cos
h = ----------------------r (o1-o2)g
where o1 and o2 are the respective densities of the two fluids present.
From this equation we may deduce that water will rise in the oilimpregnated zone. All the more so when the difference in density between
the fluids is low and the radii of the capillaries are smaller, given that the
surface tension of the water is two or three times that of flowing oil.
This explains why the water-oil transition zones are longer than those of
water-gas or oil-gas which are usually very short. Similarly, poor sorting (of
the rock matrix) will result in a longer zone than would otherwise be the
case (Fig. 17).

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1-31

Fig. 17. (A) Effect of capillary tube radius on the height of the water column, and on the capillarity
pressure curves (from Arps, 1964). (B). Effect of sorting on the length of the transition zone, (a) with
capillaries of equal radius representing good sorting and (b) capillaries of different radii representing
poor sorting. (C)> Effect of different fluid densities, (a) the distribution of water and gas or oil in the
transition zone; (b) effect of density difference on the transition zone and the capillary pressure curves
(from Arps, 1964)

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1-32

Perrodon (1966) describes the influence of interfacial tensions in geology


and petroleum exploration as follows :
In migration phenomena, as in hydrocarbon exploration, the displacement
of hydrocarbons appears to depend on water-hydrocarbon contacts and
more especially, on the values of the interfacial tensions which separate the
two fluids.
The greater the interfacial tensions, the greater will be the difficulties of
moving phases which involve surface deformation and which are very
difficult.. .
Levorsen (1956) summarises the effects of some of the factors on the
interfacial tension between, the oil and water in reservoirs :
- increased temperature reduces interfacial tension ;
- increased pressure reduces interfacial tension ;
- the more dissolved gas there is in the oil or water above the bubble point,
the lower will be the interfacial tension. The less dissolved gas there is
below the bubble point the greater will be the interfacial tension ;
- a reduction in the difference in viscosity between the oil and the water
reduces interfacial tension ;
- the presence of dispersants in the water or oil will result in a reduction of
interfacial tensions.
For water-flooding to be effective, it is important that the water displaces
the oil. The liquid which wets the rock surface occupies the space next to
the rock in the pores and the fine interstices, while the non-wetting liquid
occupies the interior of the pores.

2.1.8 Effective and Relative Permeabilities


Quoting again from Perrodon (1966) : In most sediments which are
usually wet firstly by water, oil cannot enter the pores filled with water
unless it has a force greater than the capillary pressure of the water-oil
interface (Fig. 18).

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1-33

Fig. 18. Diagram strowing the progressive entry of oil in the pores of a sandstone under the
influence of increasing pressure P1<P2<P3 (from Hill at al.,)

In other words in the case of rocks showing high capillary forces, that is,
rocks with very fine channels, there will have to be a strong pressure on the
oil for it to displace the water.
Under normal circumstances these rocks will be impermeable to the oil.
Thus the concept of impermeability appears to be wholly relative, that is, an
equivalent rock which is permeable to water and impermeable to oil, is
impermeable to a given pressure but becomes permeable if one of the
fluids is subjected to a pressure greater than the capillary forces .
The Darcys law assumes that only fluid flows through the porous medium.
However, it often happens that a reservoir contains two or even three fluids
(water, oil, gas).We must then introduce the concepts of diphasic flow and
of relative permeability.
In fact, if the formation contains two or more fluids, their flows interfere and
when this occurs the effective permeability of each of the fluids (kg, ko, kw) is
less than the absolute permeability.
The effective permeability of a fluid is a measure of the ease with which this
fluid may pass through a reservoir in the presence of other fluids. Effective
permeabilities depend not only on the rock itself but also on the respective
percentages of the various fluids present in the pores.

Fundamentals of Reservoir Properties

1-34

The relative permeabilities (krg,

kro,

krw) express the ratio of the effective

permeabilities to the absolute permeability. These permeabilities vary


between 0 and 1. They are generally expressed as percentages (%), for
example :
ko
kro = ----k
The values of relative permeabilities vary with saturation.

The above figure shows the type of variation found in an oil-water system. It
shows that when the oil saturation increases, the relative permeability of
the oil increases while that of the water decreases.
This results in a strong inflow of oil and a weak inflow of water, which may
even cease when the minimum water saturation (Sw)min reached.
Conversely, when the water saturation increases, the relative permeability
of the oil decreases while that of the water increases and for a certain value
of this saturation there will only be an inflow of water.

Fundamentals of Reservoir Properties

1-35

2.1.9 Relationship Between Permeability and Saturation


Capillary forces result in the retention of bound water in the capillaries and
in the sharpest angles created by the piling up of grains. This interstitial
water is called irreducible water because it cannot be evacuated by the
forces acting upon the fluids which occupy the larger pores.
Thus hydrocarbon reservoirs show an irreducible water saturation (Sw)irr,
which is greater when the grain size is small and hence the permeability is
lower while the capillarity forces are stronges (Fig. 20).

Fig. 20. Relationship between water saturation, permeability and capillary forces (from Wright and
Woody

2.1.10 Influence of Clay Content and Distribution on the Permeability of a


Reservoir
Because the grain size of clay minerals is generally very small, the size of
the pores and of the channels linking them is also very small which results
in enormous capillary forces and very low permeabilities. Thus, any
presence of clay in a reservoir may have direct consequences on the

Fundamentals of Reservoir Properties

1-36

reservoirs permeability. However, the distribution mode of the clay in the


reservoir rock must also be taken into account.
If the clay is of the structural type it will have little bearing on permeability
as long as it remains below a reasonable percentage (25 to 30 %).
If the clay is in thin layers, it will have a very important effect on the vertical
permeability but very little effect on the horizontal permeability of the
reservoir beds however narrow they are.
If the clay is dispersed through the porous space, even a small percentage
can have profound consequences on the permeability making it fall very
quickly in quite a spectacular fashion. But here again we must take into
account the type of clay mineral and its distribution in the pore space.
Large kaolinite crystals grouped in books (Fig. 21 a) will have much
less effect than an equivalent volume of chlorite or montmorillonite coating
the quartz grains (Fig. 21 b), and even less than an equivalent volume of
illite with crystal filaments creating bridges between the grains (Fig. 21 c).
Hence the importance of the type of distribution and the nature of the clay
in reservoir evaluation.

Fundamentals of Reservoir Properties

1-37

Fig. 21. The three types of distribution of dispersed clay in the pores of a sandy reservoir (from
Neasham, 1977)
Note: this figure is intended to illustrate the influence of the type of authigenic clay and the way in
which it fills the pores on the permeability of a resevoir.

DRAINAGE AREA AND IN-PLACE RESERVE ESTIMATION


Data from a single well can be used to calculate reserves in place, but as previously
described, the reservoir engineer must have some idea of the area that a single well
could drain. A commonly used equation (API) for calculating barrels of oil in place is
BOIP = 7758 bbl/acre-ft x h (ft) x A (acres) x Sh
where
h

= reservoir thickness (ft)

= drainage area (acres),

Fundamentals of Reservoir Properties

= effective porosity (%),

Sh

= pore space portion filled with hydrocarbon (%)

1-38

Actual reservoir engineering work requires much more data. Permeability and reservoir
temperature and pressure are important considerations in determining productibility
behavior, accurate volumetrics, pressure maintenance procedures, etc.
The API gravity of crude oil, bubble point pressure, type of reservoir, etc. are all
important considerations. Some of this information is obtained with specialty log
measurements.

RESERVOIR CONTENT OF FLUIDS AND GAS


Fluid (or gas) saturation is defined as the volume of fluid (or gas) divided by the volume
of pores in which the fluid (or gas) resides. Therefore total saturation is always 100 %.
So + Sg + Sw = 100 %
where
So

= oil saturation (%)

Sg

= gas saturation (%)

Sw

= water saturation (%)

Depending on the existing conditions in any particular reservoir, the hydrocarbon


content may be in the form of oil, free gas, or both. (Air is also a gas). In reservoirs that
produce hydrocarbons, the water is generally a film coating on the rock surfaces within
pores, while the hydrocarbons occupy the center portions of the pore spaces.
A simplified sketch of the three phase in an oil and gas reservoir is illustrated in Fig. 22.

Fundamentals of Reservoir Properties

1-39

Fig. 22. Simplified sketch of three phases in a petroleum bearing reservoir

For example, if a rock with total bulk volume of 50 cm3 was found to contain 3 cm3 of
water, 5 cm3 of oil, and 2 cm3 of free gas, then
Pore Volume = 3 + 5 + 2 = 10 cm3
therefore,

Sg

= 10/50 = 20 %,

Sw

= 3/10 x 100 = 30 %,

So

= 5/10 x 100 = 50 %,

= 2/10 x 100 = 20 %,

RESERVOIR GEOMETRY
5.1 Generalities :
The reservoir engineer must know the reservoirs areal extent and shape in addition to
its thickness. Logs or core data from a single well cannot provide this information, but

Fundamentals of Reservoir Properties

1-40

the combined data from a number of wells allow inference of the outlying limits of the
reservoir.
Surface seismic data provide horizontal stratigraphic coverage, which is extremely
useful in determining the lateral reservoir extent and identifying lateral permeability
barriers.
Multi dimensional (2, 3 and 4 D) seismic information is even more valuable, but two or
more seismic lines in different directions can help in (2, 3 and 4 D) reservoir modelling.
When only well data are available to the engineer, the production geologist must
provide reasonably accurate cross sections, maps, and perhaps fence diagrams to
model the reservoir in 3 and 4 D (see Appendices). This requires data from a number
of wells that are not in a straight line and sufficient lateral coverage to estimate the
reservoir boundary limits and determine oil and gas traps structures.
The relationship between reservoir Geometry, sedimentology and tectonics, therefore,
is evident. This leads us to the concept of the oil and gas trap .
Oil and gas traps are classified following three main families :
- structural traps
- stratigraphic traps
- combination traps

OIL AND GAS TRAPS


Fig. 25. Legend and basic vocabulary

RESERVOIR ROCK
(Porous and permeable rock, usually sandstone, limestone,
dolomite or fracturated rock

CAP ROCK
(Impermeable rock, usually shale, salt or micrite limestone

SALT

BASEMENT
(Igneous or methamorphic rock)

OIL

GAS

UNCONFORMITY
FAULT

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1-42

5.2 Geometry of Oil and Gas Traps :


-

Description and Plates

5.2.1 Structural Traps

5.2.2 Stratigraphic Traps

5.2.3 Combination Traps

Fundamentals of Reservoir Properties

1-43

5.2.1 STRUCTURAL TRAPS


Formed by deformation of reservoir rock such as anticline or fault.
5.2.1.1

ANTICLINE

Anticlines are large, upward arches and were one of the first types of petroleum
traps recognized. Anticlines are formed in areas of compression, can have multiple
producing zones and can form giant fields.
5.2.1.2

NORMAL FAULT TRAP

Normal faults are caused by tensional forces. A trap is formed against the fault,
where the normal fault cuts dipping rocks. The fault must be curved (as illustrated) or
two faults must intersect to form sides to the trap.

Fundamentals of Reservoir Properties

5.2.1.3

1-44

BALDHEADED ANTICLINE

Baldheaded anticlines and structures produce from the flanks of the structure. The
top is barren. When the anticline was originally uplifted, the potential reservoir rocks
were eroded from the crest of the structure, leaving an unconformity.
5.2.1.4

RESERVE FAULT TRAP

Reserve faults are caused by compressional forces. The trap is formed by dipping
rocks against the fault. The fault must be curved or two faults must intersect (as
illustrated) to form sides to the trap.

Fundamentals of Reservoir Properties

5.2.1.5

1-45

FAULTED ANTICLINE

Faults, often caused by the original folding of the anticline, can sometimes form
impermeable barriers and divide the structure into separate pools. Shale smeared
along the fault plane can cause this.
5.2.1.6

TILTED FAULT BLOCKS

Tilted fault blocks are large blocks (often miles on a side) of sedimentary rocks that
were broken and tilted by normal faulting. They are formed in areas of rifting, are
now covered with sediments, and can form giant fields.

Fundamentals of Reservoir Properties

5.2.1.7

1-46

DOME

A dome is a circular or eliptical anticline. It is often formed by an underlying


instrusion such as igneous rock or rising sedimentary rock (diapir) such as salt or
shale.
5.2.1.8

DRAG FOLDS ON THRUST FAULT

Drag folds are formed by friction generated by movement along a fault. Thrust faults
are low angle reverse faults that often occur in overthrust or disturbed belts. Drag
folds form both above and below the thrust fault.

Fundamentals of Reservoir Properties

5.2.1.9

1-47

FRACTURED RESERVOIR

Fractures add porosity and greatly enhance reservoir rock permeability. Finegrained sedimentary rocks such as shales and chalks have porosity but lack
permeability, except where fractured. Fractures occur where the rock has been
folded or moved along a fault.
5.2.1.10

ROLLOVER ANTICLINE ON GROWTH FAULT

Growth (Down to the Basin) faults occur in thick, unconsolidated sediments (coastal
plains or deltas). Because the fault plane is curved, as the basin side of the fault
moves down, a broad (rollover) anticline is formed on the basin (ocean) side.

Fundamentals of Reservoir Properties

5.2.1.11

1-48

ANTITHETIC OR SYNTHETIC FAULTS ON ROLLOVER


ANTICLINE

Antithetic or synthetic faults are tensional faults that cut the rollover anticline as it
forms. These faults often divide the rollover anticline into numerous, separate pools.
5.2.2 STRATIGRAPHIC TRAPS
Formed by deposition of reservoir rock such as reef or river channels or
erosion of reservoir rock such as an angular unconformity

5.2.2.1

ANGULAR UNCONFORMITY

An angular unconformity is a buried erosional surface with dipping rock layers below it. The
reservoir rock is located below the unconformity and the cap rock on top of it. Angular
unconformity can form giant traps.

Fundamentals of Reservoir Properties

5.2.2.2

1-49

SHOESTRING SANDSTONE - CHANNEL

Shoestring sandstones are long, narrow sand bodies (channels or bars). Because they are
often encased in shale, they are often filled with oil, without an oil-water contact. Channels
form as abandoned river channels and distributary channels on constructive deltas.

5.2.2.3

BUTTRESS OR ONLAP SANDS

Buttress or onlap sands are beach sands that were deposited on an unconformity surface
as sea level rose. Numerous buttress sands can occur along a single unconformity and
each can form a pool.

Fundamentals of Reservoir Properties

5.2.2.4

1-50

SHOESTRING SANDSTONES - BAR

Bars forms as beaches, beaches on destructive deltas and offshore bars. They are usually
different from channels in cross section (channel - , bar - ), orientation (channel at right
angle, bar parallel to shoreline) and vertical sequence (channel - fining upward,
barcoarsening upward).

5.2.2.5

BARRIER REEF

Barrier reefs are large reefs separated from land by a lagoon. Reef limestones in their
original state of deposition good reservoir rock and lagoonal limestones are not. Porosity
reversal due to later recrystallization, solution and dolomitization can reverse this condition.
Barrier reefs can form giant fields.

Fundamentals of Reservoir Properties

5.2.2.6

1-51

UPDIP PINCH OUT OF SANDSTONE

An updid pinch or wedge out of a sandstone in shale forms a trap. These are common in
coastal plains where updip is landward. They tend to be small traps. If uplift caused dip, the
trap type is combination.

5.2.2.7

ATOLL

Atolls are large, circular or elliptical reefs with a central lagoon. In their original state
of deposition the circular reef limestones are potential reservoir rock and the
lagoonal micrite limestones are not. Porosity reversal can reverse this condition with
time. Atolls can form giant fields.

Fundamentals of Reservoir Properties

5.2.2.8

1-52

OOLITE SHOALS

Oolites are sand-sized spheres of CaCO3 that precipitated out of shallow, tropical
seas. Currents and waves wash the oolites into elongate mounds. An oolite shoal
forms a small field but many shoals are often found parallel to each other.
5.2.2.9

PINNACLE OR PATCH REEFS

Pinnacle or Patch (table) reefs are small circular reefs. Pinnacle reefs are located
on the basin side of a barrier reef and patch reefs in the lagoon. The reef forms a
small field, but there are usually numerous reefs (and pools) in the trand.

Fundamentals of Reservoir Properties

5.2.2.10

1-53

GRANITE WASH

Granite wash is a sandstone formed by weathered granite basement rock. Granite


is composed of coarse, sand-size crystals that weather to form a sandstone
covering the flanks of buried granite mountains and hills. Source rocks occur
deeper, along the flanks.
5.2.2.11

BIOHERM

Bioherms are mound or lens shaped deposits of biological limestone formed by


organisms that grew there. This includes reefs built by framework organisms such
as corals and also mounds built by nonframework organisms. They tend to form
small, isolated fields.

Fundamentals of Reservoir Properties

5.2.2.12

1-54

PRIMARY OR SEDIMENTARY DOLOMITE

Primary or sedimentary dolomite is formed by alteration of limestones in the


supratidal zone immediately after deposition and is often overlian by a salt layer.
Fluctuating water levels can deposit numerous traps of this type along the flanks of
the basin.
5.2.3 COMBINATION TRAPS
Formed by both structural and strategraphic element
5.2.3.1

SALT DOMES - OVERLYING DOMES AND FAULTS

A rising salt dome raises up the overlying sediments forming traps. As the uplifted
sediments are cut by normal faults, fault traps are formed. These faults can
separate the reservoir rocks into numerous pools.

Fundamentals of Reservoir Properties

5.2.3.2

1-55

SALT DOME - CAP ROCK

Salt is primarily halite that dissolves as the salt dome rises leaving insoluble
minerals (anhydrite, gypsum, limestone, dolomite and sulfur) to form cap rock
several hundred feet thick. Fractures and solution vugs make cap rock into reservoir
rock.
5.2.3.3

SALT DOME - FLANK TRAPS

Along the flanks of salt domes, traps are formed by reservoir rocks dragged upward
and pierced by the rising salt dome. Prolific traps are formed under salt overhangs.
These traps tend to have thick pay zones due to high dips on reservoir rocks.

Fundamentals of Reservoir Properties

5.2.3.4

1-56

UPDIP FACIES CHANGE

The reservoir rock was deposited with a facies change, porous and permeable in
one area and impermeable in another. Later uplift of the impermeable facies caused
a trap along the flank of the structure. If dip was deposited, then the trap is
stratagraphic.
5.2.3.5

COMPACTION ANTICLINE

Compaction anticlines form in sediments over buried hills and reefs. Sediments,
because of their porosity, compact more than basement hills and limestone reefs.
Sediments on the flanks of the buried structure are thicker and more compaction
occurs there.

Fundamentals of Reservoir Properties

5.2.3.6

1-57

SECONDARY OR TECTONIC DOLOMITE

Secondary or Tectonic Dolomite is controlled by fractures in limestones. Waters


percolating along the fractures turn the impermeable limestone into dolomite
adjacent to the fractures. The field follows the orientation of the fractures.