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Submitted to:
Mr. Imran Shaukat
Submitted by:
B.Sc. Agri. Engg.
Section C1


Unusual rapid increase or change in Earths average temperature called global warming over the past
century primarily released of greenhouse gases from people burn as fossil fuel. The global average
surface temperature rose 0.6 to 0.9 degree Celsius between 1906 and 2005 that rate of temperature
increases double from last 50years.
How does this global warming compare to previous changes in the Planet climate?
How can be certain that human-released greenhouse gases are causing global warming?
How much more will the Earth warm?
How will Earths respond replying these questions in perhaps the most significant scientific
Environmental challenge of our time?

Greenhouse gases trap the heat in the atmosphere entering or leaving envelop of the Earth. What so
ever its coming from sunlight in the form of UV, IR radiation or people are adding several types of gases
to the atmosphere and each gas effect the climate change or temperature increases.

Greenhouse effect is ability of these gases to trap energy in the atmosphere and capability to
stays/retain more heat energy on Earth.


Earths temperature begins with sunlight. About 30% of sunlight reflects back in the space by the
bright surface of Ice, Clouds etc. Rest of 70% remaining in the atmosphere and absorbed by the ocean.
That heat energy radiate the air, rocks and warm up seas, this energy travel into the atmosphere where
it as absorbed by water vapor and greenhouse gases like Carbon dioxide (CO2), Methane (CH4).
Microscopic water or greenhouse gases molecules turn into tiny heater when they absorb the
energy radiating from the Earths surface-like the bricks in the fire they radiate even after the fire goes
out and emitted radiation in all direction. That energy radiation back towards Earth heats both the lower

atmosphere and surface enhancing the heat. They are getting direct from sunlight and these radiations
cause the warming of atmosphere.
The natural greenhouse effect is beneficial for life on Earth due to the absorption of heat by the
atmosphere. If there were no greenhouse affects the Earths surface temperature would be a very chilly
instead of comfortable that is today.


Due to human activity the concentration of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere with increasing rate.
Mostly by burning of fossil fuel but also deforestation on the land due to Industrialization began in 1750.
CO2 have been increases 38% as 2009 and Methane level increases 148% in the atmosphere.

Due to more concentration of greenhouse gases molecule more IR energy radiation emitted by the
surface ends being absorb by the atmosphere. The extra energy from a warmer atmosphere radiates
back down to the surface. Earths surface temperature rises by increasing the concentration of
greenhouse gases we making Earths atmosphere a more efficient greenhouse.


The principal forcing greenhouse gases are:

1. Carbon dioxide (CO2)
2. Methane (CH4)
3. Nitrous oxide (N2O)
4. Fluorinated gases

The main feedback greenhouse gas is Water vapor.

Forcing greenhouse gases take many years to leave the atmosphere. CO2, CH4,
N2O and the fluorinated gases are all well-mixed gases in the atmosphere. They do
not react to changes in either temperature or air pressure and thus do not get
removed easily like water that condenses to become rain or snow. Their long
atmospheric lifetimes allow them to have a lasting effect on global warming and
climate change.
Water vapor on the other hand has a residence time of a few days. It is a
highly active component of the climate system that responds rapidly to changes in
conditions by either condensing into rain or snow, or evaporating to return to the
atmosphere. Thus the impact of the greenhouse effect is primarily circulated

through water vapor, and it acts as a fast feedback, accentuating the warming
provided by the forcing greenhouse gases.
CO2 and the other forcing greenhouse gases are the key gases within the Earth's
atmosphere that sustain the greenhouse effect and control its strength. In fact, the
greenhouse effect would collapse were it not for the presence of CO2 and the other
non-condensing greenhouse gases.
Greenhouse gases greatly affect the temperature of the Earth. Without them,
surface temperatures would be on average about 32.5C colder than the present
average of 14.4C (57.9F),making life on Earth as we know it not possible.
Greenhouse gases are not, inherently, a bad thing. But the growing concentration
of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere has been raising average temperatures
around the world.
CO2, CH4 and N2O are emitted to the atmosphere through natural processes as
well as human activities (use of fossil fuels, industrial production, etc). The
fluorinated gases on the other hand, are created and emitted almost exclusively
through human activities.
Since the Industrial Revolution, which began in the 18th century, human
activities have been a major source of all forcing greenhouse gases. Human
activities have led to a sharp and dangerous increase of these gases within the
Earth's atmosphere, so much so that the growth of all forcing greenhouse gas
concentrations is now directly controlled by humans.






We want to minimize or stop the emitions of greenhouse by adopting following recommendation:

Replacing one regular light bulb with a compact flourescent light buld will save 150
pounds of carbon dioxide a year.

We can save 2,400 pounds of carbon dioxide per year by recycling just half of your
household waste.

Keeping your tires inflated properly can improve your gas mileage by more than 3
percent. Every gallon of gasoline saved keeps 20 pounds of carbon dioxide out of the

It takes a lot of energy to heat water. Use less hot water by taking shorter and cooler
showers and washing your clothes in cold or warm instead of hot water (more than 500
pounds of CO2 saved per year).

You can save 1,200 pounds of carbon dioxide if you reduce your garbage by 10 percent.

Moving your thermostat down just 2 degrees in winter and up 2 degrees in summer
could save about 2,000 pounds of carbon dioxide a year.

A single tree will absorb one ton of carbon dioxide over its lifetime.

Simply turning off your television, DVD player, stereo and computer when you're not
using them will save you thousands of pounds of carbon dioxide a year.

My approach
Walk, bike, carpool or take mass transit more often. You'll save one pound of
carbon dioxide for every mile you don't drive.