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AMERICAN JOURNAL OF SCIENTIFIC AND INDUSTRIAL RESEARCH

2012, Science Hu, http://www.scihub.org/AJSIR


ISSN: 2153-649X, doi:10.5251/ajsir.2012.3.6.480.486

Effect of Sheet Thickness and Type of Alloys on the Springback


Phenomenon for Cylindrical Die
Prof. Dr. Hani Aziz Ameen
Dies and Tools Eng. Dept., Technical College- Baghdad
ABSTRACT
In this paper the effect of the springback on the bending operation of different materials are
studied. Dies were designed and constructed in cylindrical shape. Three types of alloys are used;
aluminum alloy 7020 T6, copper alloy and lead alloy. These alloys have different sheet thickness
(2 and 4) mm. Bending was done by using the press of 80 ton. The springback is calculated by
published equation. It can be concluded that, the Aluminum sheets (AA7020 T6) have the biggest
springback factor, the springback factor equal one in lead alloy of 2 mm thickness that indicated
there is no spring back in this sheet. Also concluded that the hardness of the sheet increased, the
springback back factor increased too. Also in the aluminum and copper sheets when the
thickness increased the spring back factor increased while in the lead alloy when the thickness
increased the springback factor decreased.
Keywords: Springback, forming process, aluminum alloy 7020, copper alloy, lead alloy, die
design, bending die.
INTRODUCTION
Accurate estimation of spring back in which
industries is important. Demands in bend angles can
be within a narrow range. Many studies proposed to
study spring back in bending. Johnson and Mellor
(1973), studied the springback calculated with
equation(1)

Where:
T = Thickness of the plate (mm)
E = Modulus of elasticity (N/mm)
Ri = Internal radius curvature (before spring back)
(mm)
Rf = Real internal radius curvature (after spring back)
(mm)
y = Yield stress(N/mm)
This equation is derived from bending a full plasticity
and flexibility beam, and by calculating the internal
stresses near the neutral axis and in order to know to
the modulus of elasticity and the yield stress a tensile
test of a standard sample of the metal must be done.
And the amount of the value Ri/Rf depends on the
mechanical properties of the metal which will vary
depending on the value of (yRi / ET) , if Ri/Rf=zero

so the metal is with full spring back but if Ri/Rf=1


there is no spring back in the metal.
The equation above was followed in many scientific
researches to calculate the amount of spring back.
Chan et al., (2006), studied of spring back in the Vbending metal forming process with one clamped
(edge bend) end and one free end. Spring back
occurs at the die-lip and V-region of the die model.
Different die punch parameters such as punch radius,
punch angle and die-lip radius are varied to study
their effect on spring back. Also, the effect of the
punch displacement on spring back is investigated.
The results are analyzed using Abaqus / CAE. The
analysis shows that spring back angle of the valley
region decreases with increment of punch radius and
punch angle. Thomas Schonbach (2008), presented
a new method to calculate and compensate spring
back in the early tool design phase. This method
enables to get parts inside the tolerances also for
these high strength and ultra-high strength steels. In
the first step the forming process itself is optimized
with the help of an accurate implicit solver, the spring
back after forming is calculated with the required
accuracy. Based on this simulation the robustness of
spring back is analyzed by variation in some input
parameters, e.g. material properties and lubrication. If
the spring back is not robust or it is scattering in a
wide range, the forming process must be made
robust first. This can be done by different problem
solving method, based on a robust spring back
behavior; the spring back will be compensated by an

Am. J. Sci. Ind. Res., 2012, 3(6): 480-486

integrated parametric software module. Aurelian


Albut (2008), presents the results obtained by
numerical simulation regarding spring back
phenomenon of a part manufactured from tailor
welded blanks. The final shape of the formed part is
seriously affected by spring back phenomenon. And
tries to prove the important role of the metal sheet
thickness in the spring back effect. The part has
different spring back values for each material from
the welded assembly structure. The influence of the
sheet thickness on the tailor welded stripes spring
back is examined by finite element method using
Abaqus Standard for forming process and Abaqus
Explicit for spring back of the obtained part. Hani Aziz
Ameen (2010), presented the novel derivation and
results of spring back of a sheet subjected to
combined biaxial moment and axial load. Spring back
is a common phenomenon in metal forming caused
by elastic redistribution of internal stresses during
unloading and it appears clearly in pure bending and
stretch bending of plates and sheets. Due to the
great importance of calculating accuracy, it is
necessary to assist the die designer in obtaining
spring back values easily. An exact analytical solution
for spring back due to bi-stretch bending of plate of
elastic work hardening material is presented (elasticlinear work hardening and elastic exponential work
hardening). Two cases are considered. The first is a
circular plate subjected to stretch bending and it was
found that the final curvature and the spring back
ratio (final curvature to elasto plastic curvature)
increases with increasing stretch bending. And the
second case is that of rectangular plate subjected to
stretch bending where the bending moment in the xdirection is kept constant. Jamal H. Mohammad
(2010), studied of the effect of backing pad in the Ubending process. Different backing pad values are
used to study their effect on distributions of stresses
and strains in work piece. Two examples were
analyzed one without backing pad and another with
backing pad to understand the effect of the backing
pad on the process. 3D model of U-bending was
used and analyzed by using ANSYS 11 FEM code.
DILIP KUMAR K. (2010), Described a finite element
for bending process of the Aluminum sheet metal

which allows for the prediction of the elastic spring


back. Material is considered as elasto-plastic after
yielding and plastic deformation is computed using
Newton Raphson method. The result obtained by
FEM is presented graphically. Experiments are
conducted for different thickness and clearance
between the die and punch and the results are
closely scrutinized with the results obtained by finite
element method.
In this paper the design and manufacturing of the
unconstrained cylindrical bending die is presented.
Also to investigate the value of spring back in
bending process, three materials alloys are used
(Aluminum, brass, and lead).
Experimental Work: The die and punches designed
and manufactured for Unconstrained cylindrical
bending die.
Specimens for spring back test: Estimating
springback value by performing a series of
experiments has been the basis of this study . in
order to perform the experiments work. The
specimens must fit the die and punch with a suitable
clearance. It should be :
1- lead sheet of 70 mm of width and 50 mm of length
and 2 mm thickness.
2- lead sheet of 70 mm of width and 50 mm of length
and 4 mm thickness.
3- aluminum sheet of 70 mm of width and 50 mm of
length and 2 mm thickness.
4- aluminum sheet of 70 mm of width and 50 mm of
length and 4 mm thickness.
5-copper sheet of 70 mm of width and 50 mm of
length and 2 mm thickness.
6- copper sheet of 70 mm of width and 50 mm of
length and 4 mm thickness.
Preparation of sheet metal: The sheets is
perpetrated by three stages , casting , rolling and
trimming as shown in Fig.(1).

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Am. J. Sci. Ind. Res., 2012, 3(6): 480-486

Fig.(1 ) a. Lead sheet b. Aluminum sheet c. Copper sheet

and the chemical composition of the die and its


punches are shown in Table (1).

Chemical composition of the die and punches:


The die and the to punches material is (T72301)
according to the ASTM standard A 686 92 R99
Table (1) chemical composition of the die and punches
C

Si

Mn

Ni

Cr

Cu

0.95 - 1.09

0.17 - 0.33

0.17 - 0.33

max
0.25

max
0.02

max 0.03

max 0.2

max 0.25

Chemical composition of the sheets alloy: The


chemical composition of the copper sheets alloy

shown in Table(2). And the chemical composition of


aluminum sheets shown in Table(3) while for lead
alloy shown in Table(4).

Table (2) chemical composition of copper alloy


Zn%
0.01
Ag%
0.005

Pb%
0.02
Co%
0.01

Sn%
0.01
Cu%
99. 5

P%
0.007

Mn%
0.002

Fe%
0.005

Ni%
0.02

Si%
0.006

Table (3) chemical composition of aluminum 7020 alloy


Elements %

Standard value

Measured value

Si

< = 0.35

0.121

Fe

< = 0.40

0.290

Cu

< = 0.20

0.200

Mn

0.05 - 0.5

0.0764

Mg

1 -1.5

1.25

Cr

0.10 0.35

0.228

Zn

45

4.56

Ti

0.08

0.0319

Al

BALANCE

BALANCE

482

Al%
0.014

S%
0.003

Am. J. Sci. Ind. Res., 2012, 3(6): 480-486

Table (4) chemical composition of lead alloy


Sb%

As%

Bi%

Cd%

Cu%

Fe%

Mn%

0.002

0.0005

0.005

0.0005

0.003

0.001

0.0005

Ni%

Se%

Ag%

Te%

Sn%

Zn%

0.001

0.0005

0.002

0.0005

0.001

0.002

Measuring the hardness of the sheets: The


hardness of the sheets is measured by Rockwell test
using steel ball of 1/16 inch diameter for aluminum
and copper , 1/8 inch for lead, At the beginning 10 kgf
applied on the surface of the sheet to remove the
Oxides of aluminum, lead, copper and impurities and
then 100 kgf applied for Aluminum, copper and 60kgf
for lead to measure the hardness. The result of the
test shown in table(5).
Thickness(mm)
2

71

Aluminum

68

Lead

36

34

Copper

56

Copper

51

The Die shape: In This work the unconstrained


cylindrical bending die and two punches is designed
and manufactured, this die designed under standard
specification, its consist of one part, normally punch
and die both are made from carbon tools steel ( A
686-92 R99) according to ASTM standard as shown
in Fig.(2).

Hardness
(HRB)

Aluminum

It can be indicated that the hardness according to the


table(5) would be ( 72 ,57 and 36) HRB for the
sheets of aluminum, copper and lead respectively .

Table (5) the hardness of the sheets


Material

Lead

Fig.(2) ) unconstrained cylindrical bending die

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Am. J. Sci. Ind. Res., 2012, 3(6): 480-486

Experimental bending device: A press of 80 Ton


are used as a experimental bending device to bend

the specimens as shown in Fig.(3). Fig.(4) illustrated


the bending process.

Fig.(3) Press device

Fig. (4) Experimental work of the die

Effective Parameter on spring back in this study:


The effective
parameter which affect on the
springback phenomenon is thickness of the sheet
and type of materials alloys.

Procedure of measure the springback factor:


1. Drawing the radius of the die (25mm) on the
paper and measure the angle of the radius
as shown in Fig.(6).
st
2. Drawing the radius of 1 specimen tangent to
the die radius as shown in Fig.(6)
3. Measuring the angle of the specimen and
calculate the springback factor according to
the equation

Thickness of sheets and the type of materials are the


most effective parameter that have a big effect on the
springback .
Spring back Testing Method and Procedure: The
steps illustrated the spring back testing are as follows
1- fixing the die and punch in the compression
device. The punch is moved down.

.. (2)

2- the punch is now in contact with the sheet and the


sheet is drawn through the opening in the die.

nd

4. Repeat the same steps on the 2 to the last


specimen.

3-the punch proceeds downwards, the outer radius of


the work piece is reduced.
4- After the load is released and the tools are
removed, different radius is measured between die
radius and sheet radius. This is the value of spring
back, as shown in Fig.(5).

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Am. J. Sci. Ind. Res., 2012, 3(6): 480-486

The die radius 25 mm

The sheet radius

Fig.(5) Different between die radius and sheet radius

Sheet radius

The die radius 25 mm

Fig.(6) the procedure of measure the springback factor


Table(6) springback factors

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

No.

The springback is measured experimentally, table(6)


illustrated the springback factors for the Aluminum,
copper and lead alloy with 2 and 4mm thickness .
Fig.(7) shows the value of springback with different
thickness and materials.

485

Aluminum
sheets
thickness

Copper
sheets
thickness

Lead
sheets
thickness

Springback
factor
Ks=

2 mm

1.1143

4 mm

1.0857

2 mm

1.0571

4 mm

1.0429

2 mm

4 mm

1.0143

Am. J. Sci. Ind. Res., 2012, 3(6): 480-486

Springbac
k factor (K)

Fig.(7) springback factor

REFERENCES
CONCLUSIONS

W. Johnson and Mellor ( 1973) Engineering Plasticity .

In the present work , it can be concluded the


following :

W.M.Chan, H.I.Chew, H.P.Lee, B.T.Cheok, "Finite element


analysis of Spring-back of V-bending sheet metal
forming processes", J. Mater. Process. Technol.
vol.172, pp 3541, 2006.

1. The Aluminum sheets (AA7020 T6) have the


biggest springback factor .
2. The springback factor equal one in lead alloy
of 2 mm thickness that indicate there is no
spring back in this sheet.
3. When the hardness of the sheet increase the
springback back factor (K) increase
4. In the aluminum and copper sheets when
the thickness increase the spring back factor
increase while in the lead alloy when the
thickness increase the springback factor
decrease.
5. Springback could be predicted effectively by
sheet thickness.
6. Springback can be minimized by reducing
the diameter of the die.

Thomas Schonbach, New method to calculate and


compensate spring back , Mashhad, Iran, 2008.

Aurelian Albut The sheet thickness effect on springback


phenomina , University of Galati Fascicle
Technologies in machine building , ISSN 1221-4566,
2008).
Hani Aziz Ameen effect of the combined biaxial moment
and axial load on the springback of a sheet, American
Journal of Scientific And Industrial Research, 2010.
Jamal H. Mohammad study the effect of the backing pad
on the U-bending process using FEM, 2010.
Dilip Kumar K. thinning and spring back of aluminum sheet
metal during L-bending operation. International
Journal of Engineering Science and Technology, Vol. 2
, No.10, P. 5120-5129, 2010.

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