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Dust extractions from industrial gases become a necessity for environmental

reasons. Most of the plants in India use coal as fuel for generating steam.
The exhaust gases contain large amount of smoke and dust, which are
being emitted into atmosphere. This poses a real threat to the mankind as
a dezarting health hazards. Hence it has become necessary to free the
exhaust gases from smoke and dust.

Need For Installation Of New Electrostatic Precipitator at

GNDTP Units: The electrostatic precipitators installed at GNDTP units are designed to give
an emission level of 789 mg/NM 3 for a coal having an ash content of not
more than 30%. However on actual testing it has been found that emission
level from ESPs was about 3.0 mg/M 3. The high level of emission is due to
the fact that coals burnt in the boiler have much higher ash content than what
boilers are designed for. The pollution control board of Punjab Govt. has
specified an emission level of 380 mg/M3 from chimney. In order to achieve
this new emission level additional ESPs have been installed at GNDTP

Working Principle: The Electrostatic precipitator utilizes electrostatic forces to separate the dust
particle form the gas to be cleaned. The gas is conducted to a chamber
containing Curtains of vertical steel plates. These curtains divide the
chamber into a number of parallel gas passages. The frames are linked to
each other to form a rigid framework.
The entire framework is held in place by four supports insulators,
which insulates it electrically from all parts, which are grounded.
A high voltage DC is applied between the framework and the ground
thereby creating a strong electrical field between the wires in the framework
and the steel curtains. The electrical field becomes strongest near the surface
of the wire, so strong that an electrical discharges. The Corona discharge
is developed along the wires. The gas is ionized in the corona discharge and
large quantities of positive and negative ions are formed. The positive wires
are immediately attracted towards the negative wires by strength of the field
induced. The negative ions however have to travel the entire space between
the electrodes to reach the positive curtains. On routes towards the steel
curtains the ions collide with each other and get charged and also this charge
is transferred to the particles in the gas. The particles thereby become
electrically charged and also begin to travel in the same direction as the ions
towards the steel curtains. The electrical force on each particle becomes
much greater than gravitational force. The speed of migration towards the
steel curtains is therefore much greater than the speed of sedimentation in
free fall.

General Description: There various parts of the precipitators are divided into two groups: a.

Mechanical system comprising of casing, hoppers, gas distribution

system, collecting and emitting systems, rapping mechanism, stairway
and galleries.

b. Electrical system comprising of transformer rectifier units with

Electronic Controller, Auxiliary Control Panels, Safety Interlocks and
Field Equipment Devices.
1) Precipitator Casing: The precipitator casing is an all welded pre-fabricated wall and roof
panels. The casing is provided with inspection doors for entry into the

chamber at each field. The doors are of heavy construction with

machined surface to ensure a gas tight seal.

The roof carries the precipitators internals, insulator housings,

transformers etc. The casing rests on roller supports which allows for
free thermal expansion of the casing during operating conditions.
Galleries and stairway are provided on the sides of the casing in easy
access to rapping motors, inspection doors, transformers etc.
walkways are provided inside EP between fields for inspection and
maintenance. The dust is collected in large quantities on the curtains,
the collected electrodes. Due to periodic rapping, the dust falls into
the hopper.

2) Hoppers: The hoppers are sized to hold the ash for 8 hrs. collection. Buffer plates
provided in each hopper to avoid gas leakage. Inspection door is provided
on the one side of hoper wall. Thermostatically controlled heating
elements are arranged at the bottom portion of the hopper to ensure free
flow of ash.

3) Gas Distribution System: -

The good performance of the precipitators depends on the event

distribution of gas over the entire cross-section of the field. As the gas
expands ten-fold while entering the precipitator, guide vanes, splitters
and screens are provided in the inlet funnel to distribute the flue gas
evenly over the entire cross section of the EP.
4) Collecting Electrode system: The collecting plates are made of 1.6 mm cold rolled mild steel plate and
shaped in piece by roll forming. The collecting plates and shaped in one
piece by roll forming. The collecting electrode has unique profile with a
special configuration on its longitudinal edges. This profile is designed to
give rigidity and to contain the dust in quiescent zone free from reentertainment; collecting plates are provided with hooks at their top edge
for suspension. The hooks engage in slot of the supporting angle. All the
collecting plates in arrow are held in position by a shock bar at the
bottom. The shock bars are spaced by guides.
5) Emitting Electrode system: The most essential part of precipitators is emitting electrode system. Four
insulators support this, the frames for holding the emitting electrodes are
located centrally between collecting electrodes curtains. The entire
discharge frames are welded to form a rigid box like structure. The
emitting electrodes are kept between the frames.

6) Rapping System: Rapping mechanism is provided for collecting and emitting electrodes.
Geared motors drive the rapping mechanism. The rapping system
employs tumbling hammers, which are mounted on a horizontal shaft. As
the shaft rotates slowly the hammers which are mounted on a horizontal
shaft. As the shaft rotates slowly the hammers tumble on the shock
bar/shock, which transmits blow to the electrodes. One complete
revolution of the rapping shaft will clean the entire field. The rapper
programmer decided the frequency of rapping. The tumbling hammers
disposition and the periodicity of the rapping are selected in such a way
that less than 2% of the collecting area is rapped et one time. This avoids
re-entertainment of dust and puffing at the stock outlet.

The rapping shaft of emitting electrodes system is electrical isolated

from the geared motor driven by a shaft insulator. The space around
the shaft insulator is continuously heated to avoid condensation.

7) Insulator Housing: The support insulator, supporting the emitting electrodes system is
housed in insulator housing. The HVDC connection is taken through
bushing insulator mounted on the housing wall.In order to avoid the
condensation on the support insulator each insulator is provided with one
electrical heating system elements of one pass are controlled by one

Following Are The Modules For The Outgoing Feeders: Hopper heater for each field
Support insulator heaters.
Shaft insulator heaters.
Collecting electrode-rapping motor for each field.
Emitting electrode rapping motor for each filed.

1. High Voltage Transformer Rectifier (HVR) with Electronic
Controlled (EC): The rectifier supplies the power for as particle charging and collection.
The basic function of the EC is to feed the precipitator with maximum
power input under constant current regulation should there be any flash
between collecting and emitting electrodes, the EC will sense the flash
and quickly react by bringing the input period voltage to zero and
blocking it for a specific period. After the ionized gases are cleaned and
the dielectric strength restored, the control will quickly bring back the
power to a present value and raise it to the original non-sparking level.
Thus the EC ensure the electrical disturbance within precipitator.
Regulated AC power from EC is fed to the primary of the transformer,
which is stepped up and rectified to give a full wave power output. The
transformer is mounted on roof of the precipitator while the EC is located
in an air conditional room.
2. Auxiliary Control Panel (ACP): The ACP houses the power and circuits required for energizing rapping
motor and heating elements of the precipitator. ACP controls each gas
path. The complete ACP is of modular type with individual module for
each feeder. Each module houses the power and control circuit with

meters. Push buttons, witches and indicating lamps are mounted on the
door of the compartments.
High Flue Gas Temperature: The retrofit EPs have designed for flue gas temperature of 145 0C at EPs
inlet. If the flue gas temperature is on the higher side the BLACK CARONA
will start reducing of ash. Due to BLACK CARONA the field voltage will
start reducing with the increase in the field current. To overcome BLACK
CARONA the operator should switch off the on/off controllers and select a
charge ratio where the field current is just below the spark level: Efforts should be made to reduce the flue gas temperature. It may be ensured
that the air pre-heater dampers and hot air re-circulation dampers are in
closed position.
Low Gas Temperature: Operation of the precipitator at gas temperature below the acid dew point
results in the following: 1. Failure of emitting electrodes due to stress cracking.
2. Corrosion of the internals.
3. Collection of wet dust on the electrodes leading to the formation of
Hard to rap layers and consequent reduction in the perform of EPs.
4. Difficulty in removal of wet dust from hoppers. The EP fields should
be switched off when the flue gas temperature at EP inlet is below

Flue Gas Velocity (Flow): If the flue gas velocity is more than desired, the treatment time in the fields
will reduce. It will cause poor performance of EPs. Percentage oxygen on
higher side is an indication of excess flow of the flue gases. Efforts should
be made to bring percentage oxygen near to 6% at boiler outlet. Proper flue
gas flow can be achieved by plugging air leakages into the boiler. The ducts
and the EPs and also by regulating primary air and secondary air required
for proper combustion in the furnace.
Maximizing The Performance OF ESP: The performance of the ESP is influenced by a number of factors many of
which may be controllable. It should be the aim of every operator to
maximize the performance by judiciously adjusting the controllable
Cleaning Of Electrodes: The performance of the ESP depends on the amount of electrical power
absorbed by the system. The highest collection efficiency is achieved when
maximum possible electric power for a given set of operating conditions is
utilized on the fields. Too thick a dust layer on the collecting plates will lead
to drop in the effective voltage, which consequently reduces the collection
efficiency. It also leads to unstable to unstable operating conditions.
Therefore the rapping system of collecting and emitting electrodes should be

kept in perfectly working condition. All the rapping motors have been
programmed to achieve the optimum efficiency.
Spark Rate: The operating voltage and current keep changing with operating conditions.
The secondary current of HVRs have been set just below the spark level, so
that only few sparks occur during an hour. Spark rate between 5 to 10 sparks
per minute is the most favorable limit, as per the practical experience. Too
high flash over will not only result in reduction in useful power and
interruption of precipitation process but will cause snapping of emitting
electrodes due to electrical erosion.
How To Control The Spark Rate: One number s-pot and one number t-pot have been provided on the front of
each electronic controller. The s-pot controls the drop rate of rise of field
current after the spark is over. The operator can control the rate of spark by
adjusting these two pots manually. Both the pots if turned anticlockwise will
cause increase in spark rate.
Ash Hopper Evacuation: Improper/incomplete hopper evacuation is a major cause for the precipitator
malfunction. If the hopper are not emptied regularly, the dust will build up to
the high tension emitting system causing shot circuiting. Also the dust can
push the internals up causing misalignment of the electrodes. Though the

hoppers have been designed for a storage capacity of 8 hours, under MCR
conditions, this provision should be used in case of emergency. Normally,
the hopper should not be regarded as storage as storage as storage space for
the collected ash.
Oil combustion: The combustion of oil used during start up or for stabilization of the flames
can have an important impact on precipitator operation. Un burnt oil, if
passed into ESP can deposit on the emitting and collecting electrodes and
deteriorates the electrical condition i.e. reduce the precipitators operating
voltage due to high electrical resistivity and consequently the ESPs
performance is affected adversely. The precipitator performance remains
poor until the oil vaporizes and the ash layer gets rapped off, which usually
takes along time.
Air Conditioning Of The ESPs Control Room: The ESPs control room houses sophisticated electronic controller. The
operation of these controllers directly reflects on precipitator performance.
In order to ensure that the controllers are in proper working conditions, it is
essential to maintain a dust free atmosphere with controlled ambient
conditions. Therefore, the air conditioners should be kept in proper working


The EC-HVR is the High voltage DC power supply equipment for the
electrostatic precipitator used for extracting fly ash from the exhaust gases.
The equipment is supplied in two parts: 1. The High Voltage Transformer Rectifier (HVR).
2. The Electronic Controller Cubicle (EC).
The transformer rectifier unit (HVR) consists of an oil immersed step up
transformer ac reactor, high voltage, high frequency choke, measuring and
protection components.
The electronic controller (EC) contains the anti parallel-connected thyristors
pair for controlling the input voltage to the transformer rectifier unit &
necessary control circuit.
The complete equipment is designed to provide a continuously adjustable dc
output voltage up to 70 KV peak across the precipitator electrode. The
controls are arranged i.e. the unit operate as constant current source
adjustable up to an average current of 800 mA max. Occurrence of spark at
the electrodes is sensed & made to block the output voltage for a specific
period & the voltage is built up again in a specified manner to provide
optimum operational efficiency of the precipitator.

Principle of Operation: Controlling the voltage on the primary of the transformer controls the
output voltage & current at high voltage DC terminals. The voltage control
is achieved by two thyristors connected in anti-parallel configuration. In
normal operation, the output of the thyristors is controlled by the gate pulse
circuit, which in turn gets its control signal from the current regular output.
The output of current regulator adjusts itself i.e. the actual current is
maintained equal to set reference value. In case of a spark detection unit
detects the same. The detection signal produces a blocking pulse for
specified period & the voltage builds up after the blocking period in figure: Wide ranges of adjustment are provided for selecting blocking period &
range of S & T control to make equipment suitable to different operating
conditions. Persistent low voltage at the primary of transformer or the
persistent excess current on primary side that may occur to short-circuiting
initiates tripping of equipment.