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  • 1. Process/instrument used in a glass industry Batching (Persiapan bahan baku): pada tahap ini dilakukan penggilingan, pengayakan bahan baku serta pengotor-pengotornya. Pencairan (melting/fushing): bahan baku yang sudah homogeny diayak dahulu sebelum dimasukan ke tungku (furnace) bersuhu 1500C sehingga campuran mencair Pembentukan (forming/shaping) Anneling: tahap ini berfungsi untuk mencegah timbulnya tegangan-tegangan antar molekulpada kaca yang tidak merata yang dapat menimbulkan kepecahan Finishing dan pengendalian kualitas

  • 2. The main raw materials for making glass silica (silica dioxide)

  • 3. Machine that have function to melt raw materials of glass furnace

  • 4. The processes in the purification of cane juice in a sugar industry

The clarification (or defecation) process is designed to remove both soluble and insoluble impurities (such as sand, soil, and ground rock) that have not been removed by preliminary screening. The process employs lime and heat as the clarifying agents. Milk of lime (about one pound per ton of cane) neutralizes the natural acidity of the juice, forming insoluble lime salts. The sugar beet solution, on the other hand, is purified by precipitating calcium carbonate, calcium sulfite, or both in it repeatedly. Impurities become entangled in the growing crystals of precipitate and are removed by continuous filtration. The non-sugar impurities are removed by continuous filtration. The final clarified juice contains about 85 percent water and has the same composition as the raw extracted juice except for the removed impurities. To concentrate this clarified juice, about two-thirds of the water is removed through vacuum evaporation. The vapor from the last cell goes to a condenser. The syrup leaves the last body continuously with about 65 percent solids and 35 percent water. The sugar beet sucrose solution, at this point, is also nearly colorless, and it likewise undergoes multiple- effect vacuum evaporation. The syrup is seeded, cooled, and put in a centrifuge machine. The finished beet crystals are washed with water and dried.

  • 5. Addition of SO 2 (defecation) in the process of refining sugar cane syrup is for Sugar clariffication, to remove the sugar cane from impurities due to the oxidation after an extraction of sugar cane | supaya gula jd putih dan bersih

  • 6. The function sentrifuge in the sugar industry The high-speed centrifugal action used to separate the massecuite into raw sugar crystals and molasses is done in revolving machines called centrifugals.

  • 7. The process of sanitary wares industrial The production of sanitary ware includes milling and slip preparation section, casting section, green ware section, glazing section, klin section and final inspection & packing section

  • 8. What is flocculation?

Process of contact and adhesion whereby dispersed molecules or particles are held together by weak physical interactions ultimately leading to phase separation by the formation of precipitates of larger than colloidal size. | pemisahan sedimen dari fluida pada suatu larutan/ koloid. Dapat terjadi secara alami ato buatan. Buatan dpt dilakukan dengan proses agitasi (pengadukan)

  • 9. The name of the place to burn the ceramics?

The process name: Firing | equipment: Furnace (tungku pembakaran/kiln) 10. In the glazing process, what is the substance that is used for the formation of the glass? The glaze itself consist of the following mineral: zircon, flespar, quartz, calcite, kaolin, zinc oxide. It is most important at this stage that all glaze is thoroughly tested by the labolatory to ensure it complies with the requaired spesification.

  • 11. In the process of making raw material for sanitary wares industry, equipment that has function to sort the raw material is Vibrating Screen

  • 12. The function of Hidrogenation Reactor on the margarine industry Reaktor hidrogenasi: terbuat dari stainless steel yang beroperasi pada suhu 250C; 10 atm. Nama prosesnya adalah hidrogenasi yang bertujuan untuk mereduksi ikatan rangkap menjadi ikatan tunggal. Dalam pembuatan margarin reactor ini mengubah asam lemat tidak jenuh menjadi asam lemak jenuh (adisi).

  • 13. The lowest kind of perfume is called ..... Colonge

  • 14. Fixative is a compund used to reduce the evaporation level of perfumes. Example of fixative is .... Galaxolite, propylene glycol, protoni pronix, mithero | Resins (benzoin, Labdanum, myrrh, olibanum, storax, tolubalsam), wood scents, amber bases

  • 15. Process of margarine making Treated with a caustic soda solution to remove unnecessary components known as free fatty acids. The oil is then washed by mixing it with hot water, separating it, and leaving it to dry under a vacuum. Next, the oil is sometimes bleached with a mixture of bleaching earth and charcoal in another vacuum chamber. The oil is then hydrogenated to ensure the correct consistency for margarine production (helping to increase temperature) In the initial step, the liquid, salt, and lecithin (emulsification agent) are mixed together into one tank The margarine mixture is sent to a device called a Votator, the margarine emulsion is cooled in what is referred

  • 16. Catalysts that we used in hydrogenation in margarine making are Nickel

  • 17. Soap process making KOH+H ! O ! Lye Solution Cooling ! Fats Heating (110-140 C) ! Mixing ! pH checking (±10) ! Add color and scents ! packaging

  • 18. Soap maker tool to split fatty acid and glycerine Splitter (vertical stainless steel column)

  • 19. Compound used as the emulsifier in soap industry is .... Trigliserida (minyak nabati dan lemak hewani) dengan alkali (NaOH/ KOH) menghasilkan sabun dan gliserin | Sulfaktan

  • 20. Perfume extraction process (leaching) the process of extracting minerals from a solid by dissolving them in a liquid, the liquid is essential oil

  • 21. The steps of dewatering process in coal industry using the method of Upgrading Brown Coal Slurry dewatering/preparation( Bagian dari UBC Process)

  • 27. The way to remove the water from coal is Selama tahap dewatering, setelah bubuk batubara peringkat rendah dicampur dengan minyak (biasanya minyak bumi ringan), dan kemudian dicampur dengan minyak berat (seperti aspal), dan dipanaskan dalam evaporator, air akan terevaporasi dan ditampung di tempat yang sudah disediakan.

  • 28. The products of Fischer Tropsch process a collection of chemical reactions that converts a mixture of carbon monoxide and hydrogen into liquid hydrocarbons. The process, a key component of gas to liquids technology, produces a synthetic lubrication oil and synthetic fuel

  • 29. The name of the equipment to remove sulfur in CTL (coal to liquid) process The coal tar and oil are then further processed by hydrotreating to remove sulfur and nitrogenspecies The equipment is stripper | hydrotreator ( nama proses : hydrotreating)

  • 30. The raw materials to produce cheese Milk

  • 31. The objective of standardization in the process of making cheese Mengatur kada protein, lemak pada keju (dapat mengacu pada standar composision yang dikeluarkan badan pemerintah) sehingga mendapat komposisi yang sesuai dengan low price

  • 32. Nutrition for bacteria when it’s in the Fermentor Phase is……. Table 1. Major elements, their sources and functions in bacterial cells.

Element

% of dry weight

Source

Function

Carbon

 
  • 50 organic compounds or CO 2

Main constituent of cellular material

   

H 2 O, organic

 

Oxygen

  • 20 compounds, CO 2 , and O 2

Constituent of cell material and cell water; O 2 is electron acceptor in aerobic respiration

Nitrogen

 
  • 14 NH 3 , NO 3 , organic compounds, N 2

Constituent of amino acids, nucleic acids nucleotides, and coenzymes

Hydrogen

 
  • 8 H 2 O, organic compounds, H 2

Main constituent of organic compounds and cell water

Phosphorus

 
  • 3 inorganic phosphates (PO 4 )

Constituent of nucleic acids, nucleotides, phospholipids, LPS, teichoic acids

   

SO 4 , H 2 S, S o ,

 

Sulfur

  • 1 organic sulfur compounds

Constituent of cysteine, methionine, glutathione, several coenzymes

Potassium

 
  • 1 Potassium salts

Main cellular inorganic cation and cofactor for certain enzymes

Magnesium

 
  • 0.5 Magnesium salts

Inorganic cellular cation, cofactor for certain enzymatic reactions

Calcium

 
  • 0.5 Calcium salts

Inorganic cellular cation, cofactor for certain enzymes and a component of endospores

     

Component of cytochromes and certain nonheme

Iron

  • 0.2 Iron salts

iron-proteins and a cofactor for some enzymatic reactions

  • 33. What is the function of Argon (Ar) gas in Ladle Refining Stand and Furnace process? Ensure homogenity

  • 34. What is the effect of Carbon (C) addition in steel? Bertambahnya kandungan carbon dalam steel maka steel akan semakin kuat (harder and stronger) namun dapat mengurangi elastisitasnya (less ductile)

35. Why annealing process makes the steel stronger and flexible? Because anneling is reducing atmosphere to prevent any oxidation of the steel surface

  • 36. Why the shape of furnace roof is round?

  • 37. Why the reduction process is important in steel processing? To remove impurities (such sulfur and inclusions)

  • 38. Mixing has to be done two times in tire industry in order to… To obtain a homogeneous mixture

  • 39. What is the main composition of molecule in

40.

What is furnace?

crude oil based on the weight ?

Device used for heating

32. Nutrition for bacteria when it’s in the Fermentor Phase is……. Table 1. Major elements, their