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Chapter 14: Power, Influence,

Leadership is the ability to influence
employees to voluntarily pursue organizational
Managers and leaders: Not always the same

Managers do planning, organizing, directing, and


Leaders inspire, encourage, and rally others to achieve great

Managers implement a companys vision and strategic plan
Leaders create and articulate that vision and plan

Managerial leadership: Can you be BOTH a

manager and a leader?

Individuals are able to exhibit a broad array of contrasting
behaviors (behavioral complexity)
In the workplace, people are capable of exhibiting managerial
leadership, defined as the process of influencing others to
understand and agree about what needs to be done and the
process of facilitating individual and collective efforts to
accomplish shared objectives
Influencing leadership
Facilitating- management

Being a manager means

Planning, organizing, leading,
Executing plans and delivering
goods and services
Managing resources
Being conscientious
Acting responsibly

Being a leader means

Being visionary
Being inspiring, setting the tone,
and articulating the vision
Managing people
Being inspirational (charismatic)
Acting decisively

Putting customers firstresponding to and acting for

Mistakes can happen when
managers dont appreciate people
are the key resource.

Putting people first- responding to

and acting for followers
Mistakes can happen when
leaders choose the wrong goal, or
inspiration, overlead, or fail to
implement the vision

Coping with complexity versus

coping with change: the
thoughts of John Kotter

John Kotter: suggests that one is not better than the other, that
in fact, they are complementary systems of action

Management is about coping with complexity

Leadership is about coping with change

Being a manager: Coping with complexity


Management is necessary because complex organisations,

especially the large ones that so much dominate the economic
landscape, tend to be chaotic, unless there is good management
Companies manage complexity in 3 ways:

1) Determining what needs to be

done- planning and budgeting

Set targets or goals for the

future, establish steps for
achieving them, allocate
resources to accomplish

2) Creating arrangements of
people to accomplish an agendaorganizing and staffing

Management achieves its

plan by organizing and
Creating the organizational
structure and hiring
qualified individuals to fill
the necessary jobs, then
devising systems of
Management ensures the

3) Ensuring people do their jobs-

controlling and problem solving


plan is accomplished by
controlling and problem
Managers monitor results
versus the plan in some
detail (reports, meetings

Being a leader- coping with change

Leadership copes with change in 3
1) Determining what needs
to be done-setting a
2) Creating arrangements
of people to accomplish an
agenda- aligning people
3) Ensuring people do their
jobs-motivating and

Develop a vision for the future, along
with strategies for realizing the
Communicate the new direction to
people in the company who can
understand the vision and build
coalitions that will realize it
Leaders try to achieve their vision by
motivating and inspiring

5 sources of power
Authority: the right to perform or command, it comes with the job
Power is the extent to which a person is able to influence others so
they respond to orders
Personalised power- power directed at helping oneself
Socialised power- power directed at helping others
Within an organization, there are 5 sources of leaders may draw on:


Influencing behavior because of ones formal position

Power that results from managers formal positions within
the organization
Influencing behavior by promising or giving rewards
Power that results from managers authority to reward
their subordinates
Rewards range from praise to pay raises, from recognition
to promotions


Influencing behavior by threatening or giving punishment

Results from managers authority to punish their
Punishments range from verbal or written reprimands to
demotions to terminations
Fines and suspensions may also be used


Influencing behavior because of ones expertise

Power resulting from ones specialized information or


Influencing behavior because of ones personal attraction

Strong, visionary leaders who are able to persuade their
followers by dint of their personality, attitudes or
May be associated with managers, but more likely to be
characteristic of leaders

Leadership and influence: using

persuasion to get your way at
9 tactics for influencing others:
Rational persuasion
Inspirational appeals
Ingratiating tactics

Personal appeals
Exchange tactics
Coalition tactics

-Convince someone using reason,

logic or facts
- Trying to build enthusiasm or
confidence by appealing to others
emotions, ideals, or values
- Getting others to participate in a
decision or change
- Acting humble or friendly or
making someone feel good or feel
important before making a
- Referring to friendship and
loyalty when making a request
- Reminding someone of past
favours or offering to trade
- Getting others to support your

Pressure tactics
Legitimating tactics

effort to persuade someone

-Using demands, threats or
intimidation to gain compliance
-Basing a request on ones
authority or right, organizational
rules or policies, or express or
implied support from superiors

These influence tactics are considered generic because they are

applied in all directions- up, down, sideways, within the organization
First 5 tactics: Soft tactics
Last 4 tactics: Hard or pressure tactics
Research shows that of the 3 possible responses to an influence tacticenthusiastic commitment, grudging compliance and outright
resistance- commit is most apt to result when the tactics used are
consultation, strong rational persuasion, and inspirational appeals

5 approaches to leadership

Trait approaches: do leaders

have distinctive personality
Ralph Stogdill: Concluded that dominance, intelligence, self-confidence,
high energy and task-relevant knowledge were typical of successful
Stogdill was one of the many contributors to trait approaches to
leadership, which attempt to identify distinctive characteristics that
account for the effectiveness of leaders

Is trait theory useful?

2 ways in which organisations apply trait

1) Use personality and trait assessments: May incorporate
personality and trait assessments into their selection and
promotional processes
2) Use management development programs: To enhance employee
leadership traits, organisations send targeted employees to

management development programs (management classes,

coaching sessions, trait assessments etc)

Kouzes and Posners research:

is honesty the top leadership


James Kouzes and Barry Posner surveyed more than 20,000

people around the world as to what personal traits they looked
for, and admired in their superiors
Respondents suggested that a credible leader should have 4
Forward looking

These 4 traits constitute a leaders credibility- people want leaders to

have a sense of direction, and be credible

Gender studies: do women have

traits that make them better

66% of 18 to 34 year old women say being successful in a high

paying career is one of the most important things or very
important in their lives
Todays generation of females are more highly skilled and
educated, so they can compete in a different way
55% of women and 57% of men aspire to be CEO
It is possible that women may have traits that make them better
managers/ leaders than men

The evidence on women executives

Women executives, when rated by their peers, underlings, and

bosses, scored higher than their male counterparts on a wide
variety of measures- from producing high quality work to goal
setting to mentoring employees
Desirable traits in which women excel:
- More collaborative
- Produce more quality
k and
- Seek less personal
- Recognising trends
- Being motivated less
- Generating new ideas,
by self-interest than in
and acting on them
what they can do for
- Display more social
the company
leadership. While men
- More stable
display more task
- Less turf conscious

The lack of women at the top

1) Unwillingness to compete or sacrifice: Many women simply arent
willing to compete as hard as most men are or are not willing to
make the required personal sacrifices
2) Modesty: Overly modest, give credit to others rather than taking
it for themselves undermine opportunities for promotions and
3) Lack of a mentor: Less likely than their male counterparts to
have access to a supportive mentor
4) Starting out lower, and more likely to quit: eg, getting an MBA

Leadership lessons from the

GLOBE project
Project GLOBE: (global leadership and organizational behavior
effectiveness): Massive and ongoing attempt to develop an empirically
based theory to describe, understand, and predict the impact of
specific cultural variables on leadership and organizational processes
and the effectiveness of these processes

Certain attributes of leadership were universally liked or disliked

Visionary and inspirational charismatic leaders who are good
team builders generally do the best
Self-centred leaders seen as loners or face savers generally
receive a poor reception worldwide

Universally positive leader attributes

Plans ahead
Motive arouser
Confidence builder

Effective bargainer
Win-win problem
Admin skilled
Team builder
Excellence oriented

negative leader
Non explicit

Do effective leaders behave in

similar ways?
Whats important to know about leaders: NOT their personality traits,
but rather, their patterns of behavior or leadership styles
-Behavioral leadership approaches, which attempt to determine the
distinctive styles used by effective leaders

- Leadership styles: the combination of traits, skills and behaviors that

leaders use when interacting with others
Consider: Task orientation vs people orientation

University of Michigan leadership model

- By Rensis Likert
- 2 types: 1) Job centered and 2) employee centered
Job Centered
- Im concerned more with the needs of the job
- Managers pay more attention to the job and work
- Concerned with production efficiency, keeping costs
down, and meeting schedules
- Im concerned more with the needs of employees
- Managers paid more attention to employee
satisfaction and making work groups cohesive
- Hope to build effective work groups with high
performance goals

Ohio state leadership model

- Developed at Ohio State University
- By Ralph Stogdill
- 2 major dimensions of leader behavior:
What do I do to get the job done?
-Leadership behavior that organizes
-Defines what group members should be doing
-Efforts the leader makes to get things organized
and get the job done
Much like Job centred behavior
- What do I do to show consideration for my
- Consideration is leadership behavior that
expresses concern for employees
- Establishes a warm, friendly, supportive
- Sensitive to subordinates ideas and
feelings and establishes mutual trust

What is more important, leadership traits or behavior?


Leadership behavior

Contingency approaches: does leadership vary

with the situation?

Contingency approach to leadership: Effective leadership

behavior depends on the situation at hand
2 contingency approaches:
1. Contingency leadership model by Fiedler
2. Path goal leadership model by House

1.Contingency leadership model: Fiedlers

Determines if a leaders style is 1) Task oriented or 2) relationship
oriented and if that style is effective for the situation at hand

2 leadership orientations: task versus relationships

You and your employees should fill out a questionnaire in which

you think of the coworker you least enjoyed working with and
rate him or her according to an 8 point scale of 16 pairs of
opposite characeristics
The higher the score, the more relationship oriented the person
The lower the score, the more task oriented

3 dimensions of situational control

Situational control: How much control and influence a leader has in the
immediate work environment



Do my subordinates accept me as a leader?

Most important component of situational control
Reflects the extent to which a leader has or
doesnt have the support, loyalty and trust of
the group
Do my subordinates perform unambiguous,
easily understood tasks?
Shows the extent to which tasks are routine,
unambiguous and easily understood
The more structured the jobs, the more
influence a leader has
Do I have the power to reward and punish?
Refers to how much power a leader has to make
work assignments and reward and punish
more power = more control and influence

Which style is more effective?


Neither leadership style is effective all the time

Although each is right in certain situations

When task
style is best

Works best in either high control or low control


High control situations ( leader decisions produce

predictable results because he or she can influence work
- Supervising traffic police
1) High leader-member relations (subordinates
supportive of you)
2) High task structure ( subordinates jobs are clearly
3) High position control ( complete authority to
evaluate their performance, dole out rewards and
Low control situations
- Leaders decisions cannot produce predictable
results because he or she cant really influence
- Eg, principle trying to clean up graffiti on walls
1) Low leader-member relations: many people might

style is best

not see a need for the goal

2) The task structure: low, people might see different
ways to achieve the goal
3) Position power: low, committee is voluntary,
people are free to leave
- In situations of moderate control
- Eg: working in a government job, supervising a
group of firefighters fighting wildfires
1. Low leader-member relations (if you were
promoted over others in the group) but
2. High task structure (job fairly well defined)
3. Low position power (rigidity of civil service job
prohibits you from rewarding or punishing)

2.Path-goal leadership model: Houses


Developed by Robert House

Holds that the effective leader makes available to followers
desirable rewards in the workplace and increases their
motivation by clarifying the paths, or behavior, that will help
them achieve those goals and providing them with support
A successful leader helps followers by tying meaningful rewards
to goal accomplishment, reducing barriers, providing support, so
as to increase the number and kinds of personal pay offs to
subordinates for work-goal attainment
Graphical model proposed :

What determines leadership effectiveness:

employee characteristics and environmental
factors affect leader behavior

2 contingency factors: Employee characteristics and

environmental factors,
Cause some leadership behavior to be more effective than others


tal factors

5 employee characteristics:
1) locus of control
2) task ability
3) need for achievement
4) experience
5) and need for path-goal clarity
2 environmental factors:
1) task structure (independent vs interdependent
2) Work group dynamics
4 leader behaviors:
1) Directive
2) Supportive
3) Participative
4) Achievement-oriented

Employees with an internal locus of control are more likely to

prefer achievement-oriented leadership or group oriented
decision making
Because they believe they have control over the work
Employees with an external locus of control: view the
environment as uncontrollable
Prefer the structure provided by supportive or path-goal
clarifying leadership
House expands the styles of leader behavior from 4 to 8
Also puts more emphasis on the need for leaders to foster
intrinsic motivation through empowerment
Revised theory stresses shared leadership (employees do not
have to be supervisors or managers to engage in leader

Does the revised path-goal theory work?


Not enough research

3 important implications:

Use more than 1

leadership style
Help employees
achieve their
Modify leadership
style to fit
employee and

To be an effective leader

Guide and coach employees

A small set of employee characteristics

(ability, experience, and need for
independence), and environmental factors
( task characteristics of autonomy, variety,
and significance) are relevant contingency

Applying situational theories: 5

1) Identify important

2) Identify relevant employee

leadership behaviors

3) Identify situational

4) Match leadership to the

conditions at hand

What goals am I trying to

- Manager must determine
the goals he or she is trying
to achieve for a specific
point in time
What management
characteristics are best?
- Managers need to identify
which specific behaviors
may be appropriate for the
What particular events are
altering the situation?
- Fiedler and House both
identify potential
contingency factors to be
considered, but there may
also be other practical
How should I manage when there
are multiple conditions?

5) Determine how to make the


If there are too many

possible situational
conditions, the research
may not be able to provide
- Managers will need to rely
on their knowledge of
organizational behavior to
determine which leadership
behavior is best
Change the manager or change
the managers behavior?
- Implementing the decisions
reached in step 4, a
manager can take either a
contingency theory
approach or a House pathgoal theory approach
- The person in the leadership
role can be changed, or the
manager can change his or
her behavior

The full range model: uses of

transactional and
transformational leadership

Approach by Bernard Bass and Bruce Avolio

Full range leadership
Suggests that leadership behavior varies along a full range of
leadership styles
From take-no-responsibility (laissez-faire) leadership at one
extreme, through transactional leadership, to transformational
leadership at the other extreme
Transactional and transformational leadership behaviors are both
positive aspects of being a good leader

Transactional vs transformational leaders


Power stems from the ability to provide


rewards and threaten reprimands

- In exchange for your subordinates
doing the work
- Focusing on clarifying employees roles
and task requirements and providing
rewards and punishements contingent
on performance
- Also encompasses the fundamental
managerial activities of setting goals
and monitoring progress towards their
- Best in stable situations
- Encourage employees to do ordinary
- most needed in rapidly changing
- Transforms employees to pursue
organizational goals over self-interests
- Engender trust, seek to develop
leadership in others, exhibit selfsacrifice, and serve as moral agents
- Encourage employees to do
exceptional things
- Higher levels of intrinsic motivation,
trust, commitment, and loyalty
- Influenced by 2 factors:
1) Individual characteristics
- Leaders are more extroverted, agreeable,
proactive, open to change
2) Organisational culture
- Adaptive, flexible
- more likely than rigid, bureaucratic
cultures to foster transformational

The best leaders: BOTH

transactional and

Transactional leadership: an essential PREREQUISITE to effective


Transformatinal leadership leads to superior performance when it

augments or adds to transactional leadership

4 key behaviors of
transformational leaders
1) Inspirational motivation

Let me share a vision that transcends us

- Have charisma: a form of
interpersonal attraction that inspires
acceptance and support
- Charismatic leadership: Assumed to
be an individual inspirational and
motivational characteristic of
particular leaders
- A transformational leader inspires
motivation by offering a vision
- The right vision unleashes human
- Serves as a beacon of hope and
common purpose

2) Idealised influence

We are here to do the right thing

- Express their integrity by being
consistent, single-minded, and
persistent in their pursuit of their goal
- - Display high ethical standards, acts
as models of desirable values, make
sacrifices for the good of the group
You have the opportunity here to grow and
- Express concern for subordinates
- - Also actively encourage them to
grow and to excel b giving them
challenging work, more responsibility,
empowerment, and one on one
Let me describe the great challenges we
can conquer together
- Communicates the organisations
strengths, weaknesses, opportunities
and threats so that subordinates

3) Individualised

4) Intellectual stimulation

develop a new sense of purpose

Employees become less apt to view
problems as insurmountable or thats
not my department
- Learn to view them as personal
challenges that they are responsible
for overcoming, to question the status
quo, and to seek creative solutions

Implications of transformational
leadership for managers
- Positively associated with:
1) Measures of organizational effectiveness
2) Measures of leadership effectiveness and employee job
3) More employee identification with their leaders and their
immediate work groups
4) Commitment to organizational change
5) Higher levels of intrinsic motivation, group cohesion, work
engagement, setting of goals consistent with those of the leader,
and proactive behavior
3 important implications of transformational leadership for managers:
1) Can
results for
and groups
2) Can be
used to
at any level
3) It

Can use the 4 types of transformational behavior just

described to improve results for individuals job
satisfaction, organizational commitment, and

TO become more transactional and transformational

With high profile scandals on unethical behavior among

leaders, the need for ethical leadership becomes more
Without honesty and trust, transformational leaders lose
credibility not only with employees, but also with
investors, customers and the public
To ensure positive results from transformational
leadership, top managers should follow the following:

4 additional perspectives

leader-member exchange (LMX) model of leadership

servant leadership
the role of followers

: having
ps with

Proposed by George Graen and Fred Dansereau,

the leader-member exchange model of leadership
emphasizes that leaders have different sorts of
relationships with different subordinates
Looks at quality of relationships between
managers and subordinates
Unlike other models which presuppose stable
relationship between leaders and followers, the
LMX model assumes each manager-subordinate
relationship is unique

In-group exchange vs out-group exchange


Ingroup exchange: Trust and respect: the

relationship between leader and follower becomes
a partnership characterized by mutual trust,
respect and liking, and a sense of common fates
Subordinates may receive special assignments and
may also receive special privileges
Outgroup exchange: Lack of trust and respect:
Leaders are characterized as overseers who fail to
create a sense of mutual trust, respect, or

common fate.
Subordinates receive less of managers time and

Is LMX model useful?


: meeting
the goals
and the
on, not of

Not clear why a leader selects particular

subordinates to be part of the in-group
But presumably the choice is made for reasons of
compatibility and competence
A positive leader-member exchange is positively
associated with goal commitment, trust between
managers and employees, work climate,
satisfaction with leadership and job performance
and satisfaction
A moderately strong positive relationship between
LMX and organizational citizenship behaviors
Developed by Robert Greenleaf
Focuses on providing increased service to othersmeeting the goals of both followers and the
organization- rather than to oneself
Not a quick fix approach to leadership, but rather,
it is a long term, transformational approach to life
and work

10 characteristics of the servant leader:

for global

what do
they want,
how can
they help?


Can involve one-to-one, one-to-many, withingroup, between-group, and collective einteractions via information technology
Having to deal with quite a number of
Developing business opportunities through
cooperative leaderships
Restructuring a company into global networks
Decentralising the companys organization
Energising the staff
E-leaders have a global mindset, recognize the
internet is opening new markets and recharging
existing ones
Dont bother fighting competitors, too bus creating
businesses that will surround and destroy them
Individual companies will be replaced by much
broader global networks, a single CEO cannot
20th century management emphasized
competition, future organisations will run on
knowledge sharing and open exchange
Followers want leaders who: create feelings of:

What do leaders want in their followers? :

- Sometimes, independents
- Productive, reliable, honest, cooperative,
proactive, and flexible
- Do not want followers who are reluctant to take
the lead on projects, fail to generate ideas,
unwilling to collaborate, withhold information,
provide inaccurate feedback, or hide the truth
3 types of people:
1) Helpers (most compliant)
2) Independents (less compliant)
3) Rebels (least compliant)