i
'I
lv o I tage
norma If'J*
P
ton iltions In  nreer
1. .
TL
ase Phase
ystem
Systems ProducedProduced
by
MEMBER AIEE
H. A. PETERSON
ASSOCIATE AIEE
P. H. LIGHT
ASSOCIATE AIEE
high voltages may occur with one and
two conductors open, with and without
faults, and suggests rules for the application of fuses and singlepole switches.
Interpreting this reference to singlepole
contacts.'5 Motorsonsuchcircuitsmay switches very broadly, one may include
reverse their direction of rotation. Field any type of switching device, such as
observations of the reversal of direction singlepole disconnecting switches, oil
of rotation of motors have been repro circuit reclosers, horn gap switches, oil
duced in the laboratory, and the results circuit breakers, etc. The interval of
reported.6 Failures of lightning arresters, time between the closing or opening of the
under conditions involving blowing of first and last phases may vary widely defuses or the opening of switches, appear to pending upon the type of switching device
have occurred because of high sustained and also upon the circuit being energized
fundamental  frequency overvoltages or deenergized. For example, in cases of
above the arrester ratings. Cases of the fuse operation, one phase or two phases
breakage of a line conductor with result may be open for a relatively long time.
ing abnormal voltages have been noted. On the other hand, in the case of an oil
Abnormal voltage conditions have been circuit breaker, the interval of time durobserved on potential transformers.7 The ing which one contact would be closed and
V.D.E. Standard,8 in effect since October two opened, for example, would be very
1, 1925, points out the danger of using short. The time required for the transifuses and singlepole disconnecting tion to the condition of sustained voltages
switches under certain conditions, and depends upon the circuit constants and
states that the breakage of a conductor, the characteristics of the interrupting
where the end on the system side falls to device. It may vary from a few cycles to
ground, may give sustained voltages to a relatively long period of several seconds.
ground on the portion of the conductor The phenomena to be discussed in this
severed from the main system as high as paper may be associated with any inter3V
\times normal linetoneutral voltage. rupting device which has characteristics
With the renewed interest in fuses at such that the interval of time between the
high voltages, and the possibility of using opening or closing of the first and last
singlepole switches, the problem of de phases is of sufficient length to permit the
termining the conditions under which ultimate steady state voltage conditions
these devices may be safely used in cir to be attained.
The phenomena encountered may be
cuits supplying ungrounded transformer
banks has attained new importance. This summarized as follows: When one conpaper gives the results of an investigation ductor of a threephase circuit supplying
to determine the conditions under which an ungrounded, unloaded transformer
bank is open, there is a path for currents
Paper 40105, recommended by the AIEE com from the closed conductors through the
mittee on power transmission and distribution, and
presented at the AIEE summer convention, exciting impedance of the bank and the
Swampscott, MWass., June 2428, 1940. Manu capacitance between conductors to the
script submitted October 24, 1939; made availat)letheas
open conductor, and thence to ground
for preprinting May 10, 1940.
and P. H. LIGHT through the capacitancetoground of the
EDITHs CLARKE, H. A. PETERSON,
are in the engineering division of the centralstation opnconductor.Teeiasmlrpth
iia ah
pn.Teei
department of the General Electric Company,
with two conductors open. When the
Schenectady, N. Y.
The authors wish to express their appreciation to threephase system is grounded, the path
F. A. Hamilton, Jr., MS. B. Crary, and C. Concordia throu
for their helpful suggestions and to 0. K. Carter iS completed thogh the system grounded
and MW. J. Kirby for their assistance in making the neutrals; if ungrounded, through the
tests.
~~~~~~~capacitancetoground on the system side
eeece,selstedo
of the opening. With the inductive reactT has been recognized for some time
that in threephase circuits, high voltges may cause damage to equipment
following the blowing of a fuse or the nonsimultaneous opening or closing of switch
1.aFor.alnmee
1941, VOL. 60
in series with line capacitance to ground,
~high voltage to ground at the transformer
Sing ePhase Switc ing
EDITH CLARKE
paralleled by capacitance between conductors
ance of the transformer bank
bank terminal or terminals of the open
phase or phases will result for certain
ratios of the transformer exciting react
ances to the line capacitive reactances.
The capacitances of the transformer bank,,
bushings, and bus structure, with no inter
vening length of line, may be sufficient to,
produce high voltages on small banks,
such as potential transformers. The magnitude of the overvoltage is a function of
the ratio of the line capacitive reactance
to the transformer magnetizing reactance;
or, approximately, the length of line left:
connected between the break and the.
transformer for a given transformer
kilovoltampere and circuit voltage..
The higher the voltage and the smaller
the transformer kilovoltamperes, the
more likely are high voltages to occur for
a given line length.
The solidly grounded and isolatedneutral systems were studied in detail.
Systems with neutrals grounded through
resistance or through reactance (includ.
ing the ground fault neutralizer) were not
included as part of this investigation.
Singlephase, and threephase shelltype.
and coretype transformers, with different:
primary and secondary connections, and
the effect of one and of two open conductors, with and without faults to
ground, are included in the study.
Basis of Study
Since the highest voltages are apt to,
occur with the unloaded or lightly loaded
transformer bank, the study was made,
with the bank unloaded. Voltage conditions were obtained with transformer
banks made up of three singlephase units
and with threephase transformers of both
the shelltype and coretype, the windings on the line side and also the secondaries being connected alternately in delta
and wye for each case.
Figure la gives a oneline diagram of
the system studied, which consists of a
threephase power source supplying a
transmission circuit and transformer bank
through fuses or singlepole switches. It
will be assumed that thetheas
system is large relative to the kilovolt.
ampere rating of the bank, and therefecnbeersnedyanquvet
fr a erpeetdb neuvln
generator with balanced linetoline volt.
ages and negligible positive and negative.
sequence impedances. If the system iS.
grounded, the equivalent generator will
balanced linetoground voltages
also
and its zerosequence impedance will be
havre
Clarke, Peterson, LightAbnormal Voltage Conditions
329
EQUIVALENT
PH ASE POWERTHREESOURCE
00
Figure 1 (left).
System studied
TRANSMISSION CIRCUIT
FUSES OR SINGLEPOLE SWITCHES
i,}tn
TRANSFORMER
BANK
ln
diagram>No.
2.0
 N
1L
No1
1.6
~~~~~(b) Miniature
(a)
system equivalent circuit
SINE WAVE GEN.
4 1.0
5N\N..tI njXTTTo TRASOMER
_jjC~C
_rC7~
BANoKr
0
negligible. Figure lb gives the miniature
10
12
14
16
18
20
22
24
26
TIMES NORMAL EXCITING CURRENT ( R.M.S. VALUES)
28
30
32
34
Figure 2. Transformer saturation curves used
(b). Wyeconnected on line side, deltaconnected
Cases Studied
Results
I. POWER SOURCE GROUNDEDLOAD
TRANSFORMERS UNGROUNDED
Curves showing the voltages to ground
of the open phase or phases as a function
of the system constants were obtained
from the miniature system by varying
the capacitances, Cl and C0, but keeping
their ratio constant. Data were obtained
for C = C0 and Cl=2C0 for the solidly
grounded system. Calculated curves
were obtained by the methods given in
the appendix.
In order to demonstrate the effect of
various factors in producing overvoltages
and phase reversal, case 1 will be dis
system9 equivalent circuit for figure la, in making calculations and in the miniature on load side.
with
which the
study was made.
The
system
Core type.
Sb thebsinewave
impedance
generator
is
.
2.1. Shell
type.
oftesnaegnrtri
1Miniature system singlephase transformers B w hssoeofut
very low relative tothe exciting reactance 135 rms volts normal1,185 ohms normal B
w hssoe
ofut
Of the unloaded transformer hank and the
mt
impeanc
line capacitive reactances used, so that
adgneilzing mpdneSame as for A.
balanced linetoline voltages are applied 2Assumed curve having more saturation than
to the circuit at a'b'c' under all conditions. curve 1. Used in making calculationls to de II. POWER SOURCE UNGROUNDED
LOAD TRANSFORMERS UNGROUNDED
The syste becomes groundedone withtermine the effect of this factor
balanced linetoground voltages when 3Miniature system threephase coretype A. One phase openno fault.
switch SN is closed. Resistance and transformer158 rms volts line to line normal
reactance are neglected in the transmis wye840 ohms per phase normal magnetizing 1. Singlephase load transformers.
sion circuit since they are insignificant
impedance
(a). Deltaconnected on line side, wye or deltarelative to the capacitive reactances fcr 4Miniature system threephase shelltype conteonlasi.
the lengths of line under discussion. Cl' transformer 144 rms volts line to line normal B. Oneconductor openfaulttoground
and C0' represent the positive and zero wye520 ohms per phase normal magnetizing
on system side of open conductor.
sequence capacitances, respectively, on
impedance
the system side of the fuses or singlepole 5Miniature system special transformers 110 l. Singlephase load tranlsformers.
switches; C1 and C0, the positive and zero rms volts normal 13,200 ohms normal mag (a). Deltaconnected on line side, wye or deltasequence capacitances of the circuit sup netizing impedance. Singlephase trans connected on load side.
plying the ungrounded, unloaded transformers
(b). Wyeconnected on line side, deltaconnected
former bank on the transformer side,onlasie
which in figurelbis
shown as wye con~~~~~~~(c). Wyeconnected on line side, wyeconnected on
whlch
lnfigurelb1S
shown
as wye conside.
~~~~~~~~~~~load
nected on the line side and delta con reproductions to scale of typical power
nected on the load side.
transformers. All saturation curves give C. One conductor openlinetoground
To obtain various degrees of saturation the ratio of the applied sinusoidal rms
fault on load side of open conductor.
for the miniature, system transformer voltage to the exciting rms current, with 1. Singlephase transformers.
abanks, it was only necessary to vary the voltage and current expressed in terms of
normal operating voltage level in the normal voltage and normal exciting cur (a).neltaonnectdsoiindid,weoedla
miniature system. In obtaining the re rent, respectively.
lsults herein summarized, the miniature
impedance~~~~~
system singlephase transformers were
operated at a normal voltage corresponding to the saturation curve shown by
curve 1 of figure 2. Curve 2 of figure 2
gives a transformer saturation curve with
a slightly higher degree of saturation than
1 of the miniature system. Curve 5, for
the specially built miniature system transformers, gives an intermediate value of
saturation and because of its higher impedance, made it possible to cover a
greater range of system constants. These
curves are thought to be fairly typical Of
power transformer saturation. The saturation curves of the threephase coretype
and shelltype transformers of the minia
ture system are given by curves 3 and 4,
respectively, of figure 2. These units are
3:)0
A. One phase open no fault.
l. Singlephase load transformers.
(a). Deltaconnected on line side, wye or delta(b.Wecnetdo iesd,dlacnetd
on load side.
(c). Wyeconnected on line side, wyeconnected on
load side.
2. Threephase load transformers,
(a). Deltaconnected on line side, wyeconnected
1. Core type.
2. Shell type.
~~~~~Clarke, Peterson, LightAbnormal
cussed first in detail.
Throughout the
following discussion, Xm is the magnetizing reactance of the transformer bank on
Voltage Conditions
AIEE TRANSACTIONS
>0
0
J
ci
3 4~
~
~
~ 4~
~ ~ ~ ~ lll
~~~~c
11 XIlllll1111111
^.bSF4
zU
H~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
Xc1/Xm
Xcl/Xm
Figure 3a. Steadystate maximum voltages on
open phase with one conductor open. No
fault on system. Power source solidly
grounded
Cl = Co. Transformers deltaconnected on line
side and delta or wyeconnected on load side
Curve 1Saturation curve 1,
Figure22
Ho
'
Cuve2atrtin ure2,Fiur
Curve 3No saturation
0Test pointsminiature system with saturation curve 1, figure 2
I. SOURCE GROUNDEDA. ONE PHASE
OPENNO FAULT
Figure 36. Steadystate maximum voltages on
open phase with one conductor open. No
fault on system. Power source solidly
grounded
C1 =2C0. Transformers deltaconnected on
line side and delta or wyeconnected on
load side
Cre1Strto uv ,Fgr
1. SiglePhase Transformers
(a). DeltaConnected onl Line Side,
Wye or DeltaConnected on Load Side.
The curves of figure 3a give the steady~~~~state maximum peak voltage of the open
conductor on the transformer side of the
opening in terms of normal linetoneutral ..
Curve 2Saturation curve 2, figure 2
peak voltage with the transformer bank ..
Curve 3No saturation
deltaconnected on the line side, and 0..OTest pointsminiature system with saturawye or deltaconnected on the load side,
.
.tion curve 1, figure 2
versus Xci/Xm for C0= C1. Curves 1, 2,
the load side of the open conductor at
normal voltage. In more general terms,
..
and 3 are calculated by methods given in
it is the equivalent magnetizing reactance Figure 3c (lower left). Steadystate ...
the
maximum .. r appendix. Curve 1 gives calculated
of the total transformer kilovoltamperes voltages on open phase with one conductor ..
voltages using saturation curve 1 Of
on 0~~~~~~~~~1
the load side of the fuse or singlepole open. No fault on system. Power source fi..
gure 2, which corresponds to the saturaswitch location. Thus, the singleload
solidly grounded
.
.
tion of the miniature transformers.
transformer of figure lb may be considered C1=C.Tasomrwyoecdonle
as te euivaentof everl salle trns side, wye and deltaconnected
on
load side ..
Figure 3d. Calculated steadystate maximum
3
l111J III1111111111111
L3
H 2`o
votgsnopnhsewhoecndtr
formers all on the load side of the open Cuv1auaincre1Fiue2 (a
conductor. Likewise, the positive and
opren Ndurton
fagure2()..vltae
uv on system.asPwihoersonurceo
zerosequence capacitive reactances, xcl
Wywe (b). woidygoudelt
sldygone
and XGO, respectively, should be inter Curve 2Saturation curve 2, figure 2. Wyepree in a moegnrl manrt owye
..
C1=2C0. TransFormers wyeconnected on line
respond to total positive and zerose Curve 3No saturation
..
side and deltaconnected on load side
quence capacitances C1 and CO on the Curve 4Neutral displacement saturation ..
Curve 1Saturation curve 1, Figure 2
load side of the open conductor. Thus
curve 1, figure 2. Connection wyewye ..
Curve 2Saturation curve 2, figure 2
the results assume much broader signifi Curve 5Neutral displacement no saturation ..
Curve 3No saturation
cance and are much more widely appli 0Test pointsminiature system with satura ..
Curve 4Neutral displacement saturation
cable.
tion curve 1, figure 2. Connection wyedelta
..curve ii figure 2
4OOJT .... / 3
0.1
1941, VOL. 60
0.5
1.0
2.0
5.0
Xcl/Xm
10.0
20.0
100
01
0.5
1.0
2.0
xcl/xm
Peterson, Lig;ht
Abnormal Voltage Conditions 3.
Clarke,
5.0
10.0
20.0
100
331
Points obtained by test on the miniature
system are indicated. The general shape
of calculated and test curves is the same,
although calculated voltages are higher
except for large ratios of xCi/Xm where
both calculated and test voltages are less
than normal.
The reference vector for calculated
voltages is the voltage of the open phase
on the system side of the opening, so that
with no capacitance in the circuit, or
x,,==o, the voltage on the transformer
side of the opening is 0.5 and the voltage
at the load is singlephase. As the ratio
xci/xm is decreased, the voltage of the
open phase increases in magnitude in the
negative direction and there is phase
reversal at the load. At xc,/x,n=2 for all
calculated curves and about 1.5 for the
test curve, the voltagetoground of the
open phase is 2 and the linetoline
voltages at the load are balanced normal
voltages of reverse phase rotation. (For
the calculated curves, Va= 2, Vb=  1/2
jv'3/2, V,=  '/2+j/3/2). As XcJ/Xm
is further decreased the voltagetoground of the open phase continues to in
(b). WyeConnected on Line Side,
DeltaConnected on Load Side, (c) WyeConnected on Load Side. Figure 3c for
C1 = C0 and figure 3d for C1 = 2Co, with
the transformers wyeconnected on the
line side and delta or wyeconnected on
the load side, are similar to figures 3a
and b. Test values from the miniature
system for C1=CO and a wyedelta connection do not differ materially from
those for the transformer deltaconnected
on the line side except that only two of the
stable voltage conditions indicated by
calculation for values of Xc,/xm in the
neighborhood of 1 and below, were obtained in test. Figure 5 shows oscillograms of the voltages for the two stable
conditions obtained at x,/xm = 0.15, with
C1=C0. Notestsweremadefor C1=2Co.
crease and remains negative on both calculated and test curves; but before xc,I/xm
= 1 is reached, two other steadystate
values of voltage are possible as indicated
by the calculated curve. Both are positive. Only one of these other indicated
values was obtained in test, the lower of
the two, until Xc,/Xm was decreased to
about 0.2 but for values of xc,/x,n=0.2
or lower, three different values were obtained by test. Figure 4 shows oscillograms of the voltages and currents for the
three possible stable conditions, any one
of which may occur, depending upon the
phases of the voltages at the instant the
switch is opened. With the switch
opened at random a number of times, the
high negative voltage or the low positive
occurred more often than the medium
positive voltage.
Curve 2 of figure 3a was calculated,
using transformer saturation curve 2 of
figure 2. Curve 3 is for no saturation.
Figure 3b is similar to figure 3a except
2. ThreePhase Transformers
(a). DeltaConnected on the Line Side,
WyeConnected on the Load Side. Figure
6a gives test values of the voltageto
thatC1=2Co. Thevoltagesabovenormal
ground of the open phase for both coretype and shelltype transformers, deltaconnected on the live side anid wvecon
of figure 3b are lower than those of figure
3a for the same values of xc1/xI'.
Figure 4 (left).
Delta connected
load transformer;
co = C, 1 35 volts
linetoline,lVxi
x= 0.212
Calibration: CurrentTimes normal crest transformer exciting
current. Volt
ageTimes
nor
mal linetoneutral crest voltage
Figure 5. Wyeconnected
load't=
transformer, C.
Cj, 120 volts
X.=0.1 5
C a I i b r a t i o n:
Times normal linetoneutral crest
voltage
332
Zi
Clarke, Peterson, LightAbnormal Voltage Conditions
iE
aw
AIEE TRANSACTIONS
.1MStAca4t Wffl :2.ith.ki64
0
z4
12;]
.5
.0
2O
i.C
(0
10
2t0
42
+z
.J~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~x2 o2
3
0.5
1.0
2.0
5.0
Xci/Xm
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~LU3
100
200
4.
100
0.5
LO0
2.0
/Xc/
5.0
20.0
10.0
Figure 6a. Steadystate voltages on open phase with one conductor Figure 6b. Steadystate voltages on open phase with one conductor
open; no fault on system; power source grounded; C1 = Co, three open; no fault on system; power source grounded; C1 = Co; threephase load transformer, connected line deltaload wye, ungrounded phase load transformer connected line wyeload delta, ungrounded
Normal lineline voltage=91 volts for coreNormal lineline voltage=79 volts for coretype, 72 volts for shelltype
type, 83 volts for shelltype
0OCoretype; middle leg opened
xShelltype; middle leg unopened
Figure 6c (below). Steadystate voltages on
rCoretype; end leg opened
open phase with one conductor open; no fault
+Shelltype; end leg unopened
middle leg opened
xShelltype;
on
power
source
grounded;
OCoretype; middle leg unopened
system;
C=2Co;
+Shelltype, end leg opened
threephase load transformer connected line
r1Coretype; end leg unopened
wyeload delta, ungrounded
nected on the load side, obtained from
the miniature system with saturation
curves 3 and 4, respectively, of figure 2
and with C1 =Co. Calculated values of
voltage for saturation curves 3 and 4 of
figure 2 are not given, but they would not
differ materially from those for saturation
curve 1 of figure 2, given by curve 1 of
figure 3a. In general, the curves of 6a
agree with those of 3a, except that the
medium voltage of the three calculated
voltage conditions indicated by calculations for values of x,, /Xm in the neighborhood of 1 and below, does not appear.
Instead, for x,1/x, lower than 0.7, higher
voltages than indicated by calculations
appear, giving three stable voltage condi.
tin.a hiving
hs
volestales htave poniounc.Thedsuharmonichvtan ther
thaepror
coulcednotubehpreictd"byd etor
oused Howbevprer, thedctheydvolages
but littlemethig
than thed.Howev
the calculated voltagesotof ce 1,gh
1,
lineline
Normal
voltage = 79 volts
for coretype
OCoretype; mid
dle leg opened
rnCoretpene
le pndw
end
J1
0
401
05
...
outlined in the summary of cases
studied, detailed results will not be
shown. Instead, a composite curve show
as
ing the range of values obtained for all
figure 3a.
of the conditions studied using singlephase transformers is shown in figure 7.
The narrow range of values obtained
formers are wyeconnected on the line
ie
the load side.
side and deltaconnected onntela
indicates that the transformer connection
and its construction (core, shell, or single
phase) have little effect on the overvoltages obtained. Figure 8 shows some
typical
oscillograms for one case with
singlephase transformers.
obtained for values of Xci/Xm in the vicinity of 1 and below. The voltages of
II. POWER SOURCE UNGROUNDED
LOAD TRANSFORMERS UNGROUNDED
curve
(b). Wye Connected on Line Side
DeltaConnected on the Load Side. Figures
ar
6cfrCforCadcfrC=2
6b for C,= CO and b
Cl=2Co are
similar to figure 6a except that the trans
side~
an.etonce
~~
~~~A
voltage condiltions were
Only
two ~
stable
L.
2.0
100
5.0
xcl/xm
100
200
side of the opening in per unit of normal
peak linetoneutral voltage, with XcI/Xm
as parameter, for
as abscissa and
Cl= CO, and the voltage of the open conductor on the system side as reference
vector. Test points from the miniature
system with saturation curve 1 of figure 2
x8'I/x,l
x,'I/x,l
are indicated.
for various values of
The voltages are independent of
B.
ONE CONDUCTOR
x,l'.
OPENFAULTTO
GROUND ON THE SYSTEM SIDE OF
THOPNC
DU
ORSGLAE
TRANSFORMERS
Figure 10 shows the range of voltages
A. ONE PHASE OPENNO FAULT
figure 6b are substantially the same as
those of figure 3c for the same
values of
.obtained for the vrarious transformer conthe transformer
Delta1. SinglePhase
Transformers(a)
Xc/xm C1/ m
except
little difference
on the
or nections.
connections Here
make again
Line Side, Wyefor very low ratios of Xci/Xm. The wyeB. TWO PHASES OPENNO FAULT
DeltaConnected on the Load Side
Figure 9 gives the calculated voltages delta connection tends to reduce the
While numerous factors were investigated in connection with this condition toground of the open phase on the load overvoltages somewhat in this region.
~~~~~~~~Connected
1941, VOL. 60
Clarke, Peterson, LightAbnormal Voltage Conditions
333
..1
I..
0I
an
4
Z
02
in
4t
0.1
0.2
OA
0.6 O's 1.0
XC1/Xm
7. Steadystate voltages on open
phase with two conductors open. No fault on
system. Power source solidly grounded
Curve 1Calculated using curve 1, Figure 2
for C1=Co and transformers deltaconnected
on line side and wyeconnected on load side
Curve 2Same but Ci=2Co
2.0 4.0
6.0
aL0
10
Figure
Test points as followsMiniature system using
saturation curve 1, figure 2. Singlephase
transformers
*Cs = Co, transformers delta line wye load
aC1 = 2C, transformers delta line wye load
xCl= Co, transformers wye line wye or
delta load
C,=2Co, trdnsformers wye line wye or
Figure 8 (right).
Wyeconnectedload
transformer; Co=
Cl, X.,/X. = 0.89.
Phases b and c open
Calibrations: CurrentTimes normal
crest transformer excurrent.
citing
VoltlgeTimes norcres vletagneuta
delta load
C.
ONF CONDUCTOR OPENLINETOGROUND FAULT ON THE LOAD SIDE OF
THE OPEN CONDUCTORSINGLEPHASE
TRANSFORMERS DELTACONNECTED ON
LINE SIDEWYE OR DELTACONNECTED ON LOAD SIDE
Figure 11 shows the voltages obtained
for this assumed condition. It should be
noted that the severity of this system
from the standpoint of overvoltages can
be defined for all practical purposes by
the ratio of total zerosequence capacitive
reactance to transformer magnetizing
reactance. The ratio of xe,,/x, has relatively little effect.
The basic circuit which produces the
high voltages shown for this condition
is somewhat more complicated than those
circuits investigated in the other cases.
The principal elements of the circuit are
a capacitance in series with a parallel circuit composed of another capacitance and
a saturable reactance. These three elements can be identified with the zerosequence capacitance on the system side
of the open conductor, a parallel combi
334
nation of system and loadside zerosecapacitances, and the magnetizing
reactance of the transformer respectively shown in figure lb.
If the total capacitive reactance of the
system (capacitance on both sides of the
opening) is large, no high voltages are
produced. As this reactance is decreased,
voltages are increased. Only one voltage
value is obtained until the ratio of total
zero sequence system capacitive reactance to magnetizing reactance,x('0+c')IIxm,
reaches a value of about 5.0. Below this
value, three stable voltage conditions
were obtained in some cases. As the
capacitive reactance was decreased, increasingly higher maximum voltages were
obtained. With a relatively lowloss
transformer (curve 1 of figure 2), the
highvoltage condition could be obtained
for values of X(co+c.,)/Xm down to 0.03,
although the lowvoltage condition occurred more often. In other words, the
higher the voltage, the less would be the
probability of reaching that voltage.
With the smaller transformers (curve 5
of figure 2) which had slightly higher
quence
the highvoltage condition did not
losses,
occur for values of
below
0.2,
x(,+C,')/x,x
approximately. This elimination refers
only to the steadystate condition, however. In many cases, long transient con
ditions were observed, which could be
quite hazardous to insulation or con
nected apparatus. It is important to bear
this in mind in conlection with the protective criterion offered in the latter part
of this paper.
Figure 11 indicates that phenomena
such as this can take place in a relatively
large percentage of ungrounded systems.
Perhaps the occurrence of faults followed
by the blowing of fuses may account for
much of the heretofore obscure transient
phenomena occurring in isolatedneutral
systems.
Discussion
The manner of connecting the windings
of an ungrounded transformer bank,
whether deltadelta, deltawye, wyewye,
or wyedelta, does not materially affect
the magnitudes of the voltagestoground
Clarke, Peterson, LightAbnormal Voltage Conditions
AIEE TRANSACTIONS
obtained on the open phases except in the
very high voltage region. The voltagestoground of the open phases obtained
with threephase transformers of both
coretype and shelltype are approximately the same as those obtained with
banks of. singlephase units, with the
same saturation curve, for corresponding
values of XcI/Xm.
The method of calculating sustained
voltagestoground when one or two conductors of the threephase circuit supplying an unloaded, ungrounded transformer
bank are open, gives values which approximately check tests made on the miniature
system. Except where the calculated
voltages are less than normal, the method
gives values, which, with a few exceptions
in the very high voltage region, are too
high. The method can therefore be considered to give conservative values.
While test points agree quite well with
calculated results, it may be well to point
out that for some of the conditions which
gave rise to very high voltages, it was
possible to obtain slight variations in the
wave shape depending upon the initiating
conditions. For instance, the high voltage might, for one opening of the switch,
be essentially of fundamental frequency.
For a second opening of the switch, it
might be essentially of the same magnitude, but contain definite subharmonics.10,"' Some of these subharmonics
observed were of very low frequency.
For the ground system or the isolated
system effectively grounded through its
capacitance to ground, a fault to ground
Figure 9. Steadystate maximum voltages on
open phase on load side with one conductor
open. No fault on system. Power source
on the open conductor, or conductors,
on the system side of the opening, or openings, does not affect the sustained voltages
at the transformer bank terminals. A
faulttoground on the transformer side
of the opening reduces the voltage there
to zero. The highest voltages are obtained when two conductors are open
and there is no fault. Such a condition
can exist when a linetoline fault is
cleared by the blowing of two fuses; and
also on a circuit controlled by singlepole
switches when one phase is closed before
the other two.
If the peak value of the sustained voltagetoground of the open conductor on
the load side of the opening in a solidly
grounded system with ungrounded transformer bank is to be kept below 1.73 times
normal linetoneutral peak voltage, the
approximate length of line, 1, between the
opening and the transformer bank should
not exceed a value which can be approximately determined from the normal voltage of the line and the rated kilovoltamperes and exciting current of the transformers.
The positivesequence capacity susceptance of overhead transmission circuits, 2rfC1, in micromhos per mile at 60
cycles varies from about 5 to 7, depending upon the diameter of the conductors
and the spacing between them. Since
these, in turn, depend upon voltage,
27rfC1 at a given voltage and frequency
can be estimated with fair accuracy. The
following values will be taken as typical
at 60 cycles:
KY
ungrounded
C1=C0. Transformers deltaconnected
.
, on, line
side and wyeconnectedl on load side
= + Test pointsMiniaxco Ixc= 0
= 0.1 =
turesystem with satu= 0.5 = oEl ration curve 1, figure
= 1 .0 = 0 2
= 10 = x J
positive, but usually greater than onehalf
the positive.
From figure 7 it is seen that calculated
voltages in the region of 1.73 times
normal linetoneutral voltage are greater
than test voltages. Allowing for this,
and with C> Co0> C1/2, voltages above
1.73 times normal will probably not occur
with transformers of the usual degree of
saturation if the ratio Xcl/Xm is 6 or
greater.
With a criterion of xci/Xm=6,
106
kva
=6
X
xlxm= ImXc = Im 2
kva
I=
=
where
27rfCl kv2103
10/6 (2fC )(
kv2
1= allowable length of line between
fuses or singlepole switches and load
kva =
transformer bank
rated kilovoltamperes
bank
transformer
27rfCi Micromhos
Per Mile
230115 .....
5.2
.s..s.
.......6934
6934.51.5 .........8.
siean1yecnece.o.oa.ie.45386
Below 13.8 .6.5
The zerosequence capacitance of overhead transmission circuits is less than the
Lii~~~~ttl,~
191
O.6
lre eesn LgtA norma
the
Figure 10. Maximum steadystate voltages to
ground with one conductor open. Lineground fault on source side of open conductors. System neutral isolated. Ci = Co.
These results are independent of Ci' and Co'.
No load on system
Singlephase transformers, deltaconnected on
line sidedelta or wye on load side:
Curve 1Calculated voltages based on saturation curve 1, figure 2
Curve 2Calculated voltages based on saturation curve 2 of figure 2
Curve 3Calculated voltages based on no
saturation
0 Test pointsMiniature system saturation
curve 1, figure 2
Singlephase transformers, wyeconnected on
line side:
Curve 4Calculated voltages based on saturation curve 1 of figure 2 with wyeconnected
side
odsd
load
Curve 5Same as 4 but deltaconnected load
side
(DTest pointsminiature systemsaturation
curve 1, figure 2deltaconnected load side
xSame but wyeconnected load side
No3
cc
of
I335
_S,ag Cnitin
kv = normal linetoline voltage of the
circuit in kilovolts
= average per unit rms exciting cur27rfCl= positivesequence capacitive susceptance of the circuit in micromhos per mile
The transformer exciting current 'm lies
between 1 per cent and 7 per cent, with
3.5 per cent not an unusual value. Figure
12, drawn with Im==3.5 per cent, gives
the approximate maximum allowable
length of line at various voltages supplying a transformer bank of given kilovoltampere rating and 3.5 per cent average
rms magnetizing current which can be
operated by fuses or singlepole switches
without the risk of voltagestoground
exceeding linetoline voltages when two
conductors are open. This allowable
length of line varies directly as the per
unit rms exciting current of the bank and
inversely as the ratio xeI/xm selected. For
an rms exciting current of 7 per cent, the
allowable lengths of line would be doubled;
for an exciting current of 1 per cent, they
would be only about onethird those of
figure 12.
Since for some cases, the maximum
allowable length of line is very short, it
may be necessary under such conditions
to take into account the internal capacitance of the transformer bank itself.
Generally this will not have to be done.
For cases requiring this refinement,
representative values of internal capaci
Figure 11. Isolatedneutralsystem steadystate voltages on open phase with one conductor open. Fault to ground on load side of
open conductor curves calculated using saturation curve I of figure 2
0)Test points for xo'I/x,o=0 and saturation
curve 1, Figure 2
xco'/xcou=
'
x
0
+ XCO,/XCO= 0o 1
Axc'/x,O= 1 0
xC0'/xC0=
10.0
tance of power transformers are given in
a convenient form by L. V. Bewley."2 In
figure 8 of his paper he gives the capacitance between windings in magnetomotive force per phase which may be considered as the capacitance to ground, as
the capacitance of the lowvoltage winding to ground is usually larger, while the
capacitance of the highvoltage winding
to ground is small. The largest values of
capacitance given are on the order of
0.01 microfarad which would be equivalent to one mile of line, or less under most
conditions. For the higher voltages, the
internal capacitance would be equivalent
to considerably less than a mile of overhead line. Bushing capacitance, being
very small relatively, can be neglected.
In case the transmission circuit contains some cable, its equivalent in terms
of miles of overhead line may be used.
For that purpose, figure 13 has been prepared which makes it possible to evaluate
this equivalent readily. This figure has
been reproduced from reference 13.
For the ungrounded system, it is important to note that the criterion for the
solidly grounded system is adequately
conservative for conditions not involving
faults. See figure 9. However, should a
permanent fault occur on the system side,
the criterion must be changed if voltages
are to be limited to maximum values of
3 times normal. Figure 10 shows that
a minimum ratio of XCl/Xm= 25.0 approximately is required. This criterion alone
is not sufficient, however. If a permanent fault on the load side is assumed,
then the total zero sequence capacitance
of the system must be very large or else
very small in order to prevent overvolt
25.0 approximately, depending upon the
In the light of our first
ratio
restriction on xcl/xm, this can be conservatively interpreted to impose the
restriction that xcox/Xm must be less than
0.04 or greater than 40.0 approximately
Figure 12 can be used to interpret the
first criterion in terms of total transformer
kilovoltamperes, system voltage, and
maximum allowable lengths of line on the
transformer side of the open conductor
location. This figure is based on a ratio
of xc/Xmx= 6.0 and since for the isolated
system this must be increased to approximately 25.0, it is necessary to divide the
miles of line shown by approximately 4.J
in order to conform to the required
criterion.
In figure 14 the second criterion, imposing the restrictions on the lengths of
line on the system side of the open conductor, is shown. This curve shows that
overvoltages may be expected as a result
of faults and subsequent fuse blowing for
wide ranges of system constants.
In applying these criteria, it should be
pointed out that these are approximate
values. In some cases it may be necessary
to make a more detailed calculation.
Exact line configuration, exact magnetizing reactance, and more detailed knowledge concerning the particular transformer saturation characteristics may be
necessary. However, the curves serve to
indicate in general the range of system
constants which can give rise to high
ages. See figure 11. Therefore, in addition to imposing the criterion of xc,Ixm_
25.0, restrictions must also be imposed on
the ratio of Xco'/Xm.
From figure 11, the ratio of X(co+co')/xm
should be less than approximately 0.04 or
greater than a value varying from 4.7 to
open phase to
xn,,,/x,.
Figure 12. Solidly grounded systemapproximate maximum allowable length of line
between fuses or singlepole switches and load
transformer to limit linetoground voltage on
Xci/xm
v'_ times normal, with two con
ductors open
= 6
= 3.5 per cent rms average
current
NOTE: Allowable length of line varies directly with rms average exciting current
4
NOT N INT11
0~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~.
>fl
>oHH tt tittSPyllll III I I I I 111111 z, ZLlt 11SS1114 L .3VI
0
4~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~i1.
1Co
90~ ~ ~ ~ 11 Nill + I I~~~~~~~~~~~~~x
V
BUT
exciting
II
III
1 i lI[
ININT TRNFRERBNRATIN
goo
U.
iii _JOfli
Ovrha
005
0.1
IneeuvnIae
FigtuImo
lineprml
.Overhead
t
7
12w
.00
0.5 1t0
20
10
ulipyby135201~
_ /
Z
XLA I11
11)
npstvTTLTASOMRKAO
LOAD
IVO
_*_
060
0,
OPNCNDCO
SIDEVO
Isoae
eta ytmapoi
pape insulated cableso assme dielectricag o queletliele
For~~~~~~~~~~~~~~rqie
varnished cambrictvediecio
lcaio
bu i ori lssthy irubberf us o insulationtc
so sse
TRIII
egtveuec
apacitace
oqe Iseqalt ta
eurd ominanroain ntepoi
FIgr14
at ageo0quvln ln entsonsse
seun equpdivalusentofcabeso .mco
For
overvoltages n solatedneutral systems.
Under lightly loaded conditions, it would
f
' t
h 1
ti 1 hi h
isolatedneutral systems are subject to
ovevolageasa rsul offus blwin or
singlepole switching under permanent
fault conditions.
Obviously, there are other combinations
of faults and open conductors possible in
isolated systems which might tend to shift
somehatthe ang of onsantscauing
high voltages. In distribution circuits
involving singlephase feeders, a single
voltages if the system constants are of
certain values. Generally such cases can
be
iterretd i ters o theehas
constants such that some one of the
i his aper
dd
1
i
can be used directly in determining the
tion, will depend upon the characteristics
of the motors, their loads and the voltages
at their terminals, the latter being influenced by the presence of the motors
and other loads on the transformers.
it s o 136KV,,
ol
I
I
o'lgroude sstm by goning=
thIeurl
slow down and stop. They will then re which may cause voltages greater than V/3
open
verse their direction of rotation if the
witrh one
negative sequence torque is great enough
I
to overcome the positive sequence torque Xco'/Xm must be greater than 40.0 or less than
arrZsters
tance the appllcalon of ll.h0ng
, . .
0 04
and provide the torque required to start
the motors from rest. With a motor run Im =3.5 per cent rms average exciting current
ning, the positive sequence torque is NOTE: Allowable length of line varies directly with rms average exciting current
greater than the negative for equal pOSlNOTE: This criterion alone is not sufficient
tie .n ngatv squec votge.A
stadstill these torques are equal for for elimination of overvoltages. The criterion
of figure 12 must be met also. Maximum perequal voltages.
The conditions under which loaded missible miles of line in figure 12 should be
timegsInornmal
colnducto landaid
blown fuse can sometimes cause over motorswillreversetheirdirection of rota divided by 4.0 for the isolatedneutral system
overvoltages possible.
The effect of load on the transformers is to
reduce the voltages on the open phases
obtained with the transformers unloaded,
With the transformers loaded and phase
vi open, Va, the voltage of the open phase
on the transformer side of the opening
referred to the voltage on the system
side, will have a quadrature component
in addition to the positive or negative
inphase component. If the inphase
component
negative and greater than
cmoetis
05, Va2 will be greater than Vai and
there will be phase reversal. Running
motors, however, will not slow down If
the difference between the positive and
1941, VOL. 60
Since reversal of the direction of rotation
threephase core or shelltype) make little
difference in the magnitudes of voltage or in
thentregrions in which hgh votge ars n
has occurred in practice following the
3 High overvoltages can be eliminated in
opening of a conductor, it iS reasonable
tassum that the higher the negative
voltage produced on the open phase with
the transformer unloaded, the more apt
is reversal of thle direction of rotation of
motors to occur.
Of the load transformers.
4. The regions within which abnormal voltages are obtained, are considerably extended
by the effects of transformer saturation.
5 The regions wherein voltages in solidly
grounded systems in excess of rated linetoof imporoccur, and therefore
line voltages
tac
in th 'plctono.
ihnngarses
are for the usual cases confined to ratios of
Xci/Xm less than three for one conductor
open, and less than six for two conductors
open.Toaodtepssblt of obann un6.
duly high atbnnormSasl voltages tin soglidly
ruddsses igepl wthso
fuses should not be used where the length of
line, or equivalent capacitance, between the
Conclusions
1. In athreephase power system, high susresult
in or
some
~~~from
openingmay
of one
twocases
conductors
tamnedthevoltages
which separates ungrounded transformers
from the rest of the system.
2. The transformer connections (wye or
delta) and construction (singlephase, or
Clarke, Peterson, LightAbnormal Voltage Conditions
337
break and ungrounded transformers supplying the load is greater than that given by
equation 1. Figure 12 can be used directly
when the rms exciting current is 3.5 per cent.
7. The highest voltages appear in an ungrounded system with the simultaneous
occurrence of an open conductor and linetoground fault, such as might correspond to
the breaking and falling to ground of a line
conductor.
8. From the standpoint of open conductors
without faults, the criterion given in conclusion 6 is always conservative for ungrounded systems. However, if the criteria
are to include the effects of permanent
faults, then it is necessary to impose two
approximate requirements, namely, xcl/Xm
must be greater than 25.0, and Xco/xm must
be either less than 0.04 or greater than 40.0.
Figures 12 and 14 can be used when the
rms exciting current is 3.5 per cent.
.
.
9. The voltages arising from open conductors can be calculated with reasonable
accuracy by consideration only of the fundamentalfrequency components of voltage
and current as outlined in the appendix.
Appendix
Analytic Determination of the Sustaned Voltage to Ground on Open
Conductors in a Circuit Supplying
an Unloaded Transformer Bank
Using figurcs lb, the following additional
assumptions will be made:
1. The sustailned voltages to be determined
are substantially sinusoidal voltages of
fudmna frqeny
fundamental frequency.
2. The effective exciting reactance of
transformer windings to be used in calculating fundamentalfrequency voltages can be
determined from the saturation curve of the
transformer, determined by applying sinusoidal voltages. The exciting reactance
varies with the magnitude of the impressed
voltage, but at any voltage, it is the ratio
of the rms voltage to the rms current.
3. Resistance in the transformers as well as
in the transmission circuit can be neglected.
I. POWER SOURCE SOLIDLY GROUNDED
APhase a Open, No Fault
'
Referring to figure lb, switches SN, Sb, SC
are closed and Sa and SL open. No voltage
iS applied to phase a of the threephase
vhr
ltpasecircuit supplying the transformer bank. The
voltages to ground, Vb and V&, applied to
phases b and c in per unit of normal linetoneutral voltage, with the applied voltage of
phase a as reference vector, are
Tr= C/j
V/2; VC=/2j V3/2 (2)
Let
Va=voltage to ground of phase a on transformer side of opening in per unit of normal linetoneutral voltage
V =voltage to ground of neutral of wyeconnected transformer bank in per ulnit
of normal linetoneutral voltage
Xm =per unit effective transformer exciting
reactance of any winding at normal voltage, either wye or deltaconnected
338
Xab, xac, xc = per unit effective transformer
exciting reactances of windings ab, ac, bc
of deltaconnected bank corresponding
to voltages across them
Xa, Xb, x, =per unit effective transformer
exciting reactances of windings a, b, c
of wyeconnected bank corresponding to
voltages across them
xcl, xco', xcl, xc0=per unit positive and zerosequence system and circuit line capacitive reactances, respectively, corresponding to C1', C0', Ci and C0 of figure lb
 tXC1
All reactances are in per unit on a common
kilovoltampere base. Effective reactances
of deltaconnected transformer windings,
as defined above, are expressed in per
unit on normal linetoline voltage. They
are to be multiplied by 3 to be expressed on
normal linetoneutral voltage.
Vb and V, can be resolved into two components of voltage in quadrature with each
~~~~other,  i/2and ja'3. The former sends
current to ground through phases b and c in
parallel in series with phase . The latter
produces equal and opposite currents in
phases b and c Since the circuit is symmetrical about phase a and resistance is
neglected, the voltages between neutral and
terminals b and c of a wyeconnected transformer bank will be equal in magnitude.
Therefore the impedances Xb and xc are
equal. In a deltaconnected bank, the
voltages between a and b and a and c will be
equal in magnitude, and therefore xab and
Xac are equal. The component  j\/3 will
produce no voltage at terminal a. With
resistance neglected, Va can be positive or
negative but will have no quadrature component. In a wyeconnected bank, the
neutral will likewise have no quadrature
component of voltage.
Le
Let
puincm
current flowing from phase a on
Ja= total
the transformer
side of the opening to
ground
It = current flowing from transformer bank
terminal a
xt = effective exciting reactance of the transformer bank to It
With deltaconnected primary windings
and secondary windings either wye or deltaconnected,
(3)
xt = 3xa0/2
The capacitive reactance of the threephase shunt, ClC0, which is in parallel
with xt is (3/2)x,0x,i/(x,0xc1).
The two
parallel paths are in series with the capacitance Co between phase a and ground. Ia is
independent of Cl' and Co'.
Ia
0.5/[ jxco+j3xxcjxco/0 3xclxco2xt(xco xc) l (6>
3xcoxc12x1 (xc0 Ci)
Va = XcoIa 2xt(x. +2xco) (
With saturation neglected, xt = 3xm/2 in
(3), (4), or (5) and (7) becomes
with Xco = Xci, Va= xcl/xm/(3  2xcl/Xm) (8)
with x,c = 2xcl, Va= (2xcl/xm 1)
(54Xc/Xm) (9)
V0, calculated from (8), is the ordinate of
curves 3 of figures 3a and 3c; calculated
from (9), the ordinate of curves 3 of figures
3b and 3d.
Effect of Transformer Saturation. (a).
Deltaconnected primary windings, delta or
wyeconnected secondary windings. Replacing xtin (7) by3Xdo/2, and dividing
both numerator and denominator by 3x0o Xco,
Va
(Xco/Xci) (XcolXci 1) I
[[(1[(xci/xab)
xclxcl) x)
+2xlo/x1) (2xl/xab) (Xco/xcl) ]

=_ 1 (11
V_ 1

j.
ab2 /
(10)
3p
2+ 0/4 per unit
normal linetoline voltage (11)
The following procedure can be used to
h
obanagahot0vessXiX,we
obtain a graph of Va versus X,,i/x., when the
ratio of x,o/x,l is known.
1. Calculate Va
xCl/xab from (10).
for an assumed ratio of
2. Calculate Vabl corresponding to Va
from (11).
3. From the given transformer saturation
curve, calculate xab/xm, the ratio of the reactance at voltage Vabl to the reactance at
normal voltage.
4. Xci/xrn corresponding to Va is the product of Xcl/xab and Xab/Xm.
With wyeconnected primary and secondIllustration: Let x,0=2x,0. Performing
ary windings,
the four steps of the procedure given above,
each by number:
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~indicating
(4)
e
number:
X= Xa+Xb/2
(1) Assuming XXb= 1.42, from (10),
With wyeconnected primary windings
.
V0r 2.7
and deltaconnected secondary windings,
the sum of the (2) From (11), Vab0 =
neglecting leakage reactance,
1
three voltages to neutral of the wye must be
zeITo
=V/(2.21)2+0.75 =1.37 per unit of nor
indiAting chlby
z/3
..
V0v = 2 (real part of VNb)
mal linetoline voltage
If IA is the circulating current in the
assumed opposite to It in phase a,
~~~~~~~~~delta,
X0(ItIA) =2X0(It/2+IA) and
.~.IA=It(xaXl/(Xa+2Xb)
The voltage drop through the bank, from b
to a is
j(It/2+IA)xbj(1t1A)xa = j10[(9/2)Xaxb .
.t.Xt= (9/2)XaXi/(Xa+2Xh)
(xa+2xb)]
(5)
(3) From saturation curve 2 of figure 2,
Xab/Xm =
rms voltage
1.37/8.0 =
(4) xci/xm"'1.42XO.172 =0.244
The point, V0 =2.71, Xci/Xm=0.244, is
plte incre2o iue3.Frn au
14.
raotedion, cub/rve=1 and
fiue3bX Frosthe
=
plTtedi
ptoint V0/x.1,
adXc /Xm = 1.42.i
pitV=27,XlX=14 spotdi
curve 3of figure 3b.
(b). Wyeconnected primary and secondary windings. The current, It, through
Clarke, Peterson, LightAbnormal Voltage Conditions
ATEE TRANSACTIONS
the wyeconnected bank produces voltage
drops between b and N, and N and a in the
ratio Xb/2 to xa. Replacing xt in (7) by
xa+xb/2 and dividing numerator and denominator by Xcl/xm,
from the transformer saturation curve. Va
is calculated from (15). With V7a determined, the corresponding value of xclXm can
be calculated from (7) if xt is replaced by its
value from (5).
Va
(3Xci/xm) (x,o/Xl1) + (2xa/xm+
BPhases b and c Open, No fault
*
Refernng to figure lb. switches SN and Sa
are closed and Sb, Sa, and SL open. Case B
differs from case A, in that the only voltage
applied to the circuit supplying the transformer bank is Va = 1; and 'a, the current
from phase a, flows to ground through Co of
phases b and c in parallel. Making these
/(1
\
'1
/ 8
XCO/cl)
Xb/ Xm)
(2Xa/Xm+Xb/ X,) (1 +2xco/xcl) 
6(Xci/xr)(x,,/Ix,)
(12)
The real part of
VN
IVIVNb 123/4
VaN/(xa/xm) =
(13)
______
A V 3/4
12
(14)
Va = Vb VNb VaN = 22VV real Va
VaN
real
VaN
(15)
A graph of Va versus Xcl/Xm for a given
ratio
of xc00 to
to xc1 can be obtained
by the
the
ratio of
x*procedure:
x_jcan_be obtained by
following
1. Assume VNbi, the magnitude of the
voltage between transformer terminal b and
neutral in per unit of normal. From the
not the case, the zerosequence capacitance
of the power source, CO', in figure lb must be
considered. Under the assumption of balanced linetoline voltages at a'b'c', the
positivesequence capacitance, Cl', has
no
effect upon the resulting voltages.
The procedure used in case II is analogous
to that given for case I. The voltage which
sends current to ground is 1.5 times normal
linetoneutral voltage applied in a loop circuit in which the ground can be considered a
snle
point.
g
P
References
changes, with Va as reference vector,
1. THEORY oF ABNORMAL LINETONEUTRAL
2Vb = VCeI(
=Ia( Vjxco
/2)
i
/)=TRANSFORMER VOLTAGES, C. W. LaPierre. AIEE
3x,lxo  2xt(x0cXC) (17) TRANSACTIONS, March 1931, page 328.
2. PHYSICAL NATURE OF NEUTRAL INSTABILITY,
2xt(2xc1+x,O) 3xC1xC0
A. Boyajian and 0. P. McCarty. AIEE TRANStwo
(a). DeltaConnected Primary Windsngs,
Delta or Wye Connected Secondary Windings. Relcnx1i(1)b3a/2
ReplacingSxTin (N7) by 3xab/2,
ins
Vt, VG
ACTIONS, March 1931, page 317.
OF SYSTEM
RESULTING FROM
A. Boyajian and W. J.
SWITCHINGeOPERATIONS,
General Electric Review, July 1931, page
Rudge.
3. INVERSION
436.
4. MAIHEMATICAI, ANALYSIS OF NONLINEAR CIRCUITSPART 1, A. Boyajian. General Electric Review, September 1931, page 531. Part II, General
Electric Rcview, December 1931, page 752.
5. ELEETRISCEE SCHALTVORGANGE (a book),
Vba = Va Vb   1 Vb times R. Riidenberg. Third edition.
6. Talk by F. A. Hamilton, Jr., at a meeting of the
gvntransformer saturation curve, obtain
AIEE Toronto Section reported in Electrical News
(9
givxn co pod
t
VNbl
'normal linetoline voltage ( a9)nad Engineering, November 1, 1937.
7. EXPERIENCES WITH
Y19)intea of(10 a
(1),
2. Calculate the real part of VNVb from (13).
UigUsig
(18)(8)nd (1)
(1)
(11), CONNECTBED POTENTIAL GROUNDEDNiEUTRAL,
TRANSFORMERS ON UNrespectively,
the procedure for determining GROUNDED SYSTEMS, C. T. Weller. AIEE TRANS3. Obtain the ratio VaN!(Xa/Xm) from a graph of Vb or V, versus xCl/xm for a given ACTIONS, March 1931, page 299.
given tratisformer
(14),
(14),and from the given
transformer satu ratio xC0/x,j is analogous to that for one 8. LEITSATZE FUR DEN SCHUTZ ELEKTRISCHER
ration curve find values of VaNl and (xa .
open conductor.
ANLAGEN GEGEN UBERSPANNUNGEN, VDE, 0145/
xm) which are in this ratio. The sign of VaN
WyeConnected Primary Windings. Sec 1933, page 242.
is the same as that of the real part of V_vbondary Windings (b) WyeConnected, (c) 9. AN ELECTRIC CIRCUIT TRANSIENT ANALYZER,
DeltaConnected. The procedure for obtain H. A. Peterson. General Electric Review, Septem4. Calculate Va from (15).
a graph of V0 or V, versus Xcil/Xm for a
5. Knowing Va, calculate xci/xm from the ing
known ratio, xco/x, is analogous
to that 10. SUBDARMONICS IN CIRCUITS CONTAINING
sdfroeoe
odutr xetteei
IRONCORED REACTORS, Irven Travis and C. N.
impici
eqatin (2),after replacing xco/xci
used
for
one
open conductor, except there (S Weygandt. AIEE TRANSACTIONS, 1938 (August
by its given value.
no quadrature component of voltage in
section).
(c). Wyeconnected primary and delta VNb, and equation (17) is used instead of 11. ANALYSIS OF SERIES CAPACITOR APPLiCATION
connected secondary windings. This case
(7).
PROBLEMS, J. W. Butler and C. Concordia. ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING (AIEE TRANSACTIONS), Audiffers from the preceding in that xt = (9/2) X
gust 1937.
II. POWER SOURCE UNGROUNDED
XaXb/(Xa+2Xb) and
12. EQUIVALENT CIRCUITS OF TRANSFORMERS AND
If the capacitance to ground of the power REACTORS TO SWITCHIsNG SURGES, L. V. Bewley.
VaN = 2 VNb real
(16)
AIEE TRANSACTIONS, volume 58, 1939, pages 797source with ungrounded neutral is large relaThe procedure to determine a graph of Va tive to that of the transmission circuit and 802.
versus xil/xm is similar to that of case (b) bank, the power source can be considered to 13. PROTECTOR TUBES FOR POWER SYSTEMS, H.
except that (16) is used to determine VaN,
have its neutral effectively grounded. R. LUdWig. AIEJE TRAgSACTIONS, volume 59, 1940
and xa/xm corresponding to VaeN is obtained Case II then becomes case I. When this is (May section).
(Xci/XaD) (xCO/xC1)  (xCO/xC1 1) (18)
(2+xco/xxl)  (Xco/xcl (Xci/Xab)
(X,i IXb) (X co IX ci)
(Xco IXe 1
1)
an
1941, VOL. (;0
Glarke, Peterson, LightAbnormal Voltage C'onditions
339