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EngineeringMaterials

g
g
MechanicalProperties

Modes of Loading
ModesofLoading

TTensile
il
St
Stress:
Th
The
stress
t
induced in a body , when
subjected to two equal and
opposite
pp
pulls.
p
Ratio of tensile stress to the
corresponding strain is young
modulus .
Shear Stress: The stress
induced in a body , when
subjected to two equal and
opposite forces which are
acting tangentially.
volumetric strain: The ratio of
change in volume to the
original volume is volumetric
strain.
Ration of direct stress to the
volumetric strain is bulk
modulus

StressStrain
Stress
StrainTest
Test
specimen

machine
hi

Tensile Test
TensileTest

Stress-Strain Diagram
ultimate
tensile
strength

UTS

necking

Strain
Hardening

yield
strength

Fracture
5

Elasticregion
slope=Youngs(elastic)modulus
yieldstrength
Plasticregion
ultimatetensilestrength
strainhardening
fracture

Plastic
l
Region

Elastic
Region

=E

E=

) (L/Lo)

Strain (

ElasticDeformation
1.Initial

2.Smallload

3.Unload

bonds
stretch
returnto
return
to
initial

Linear
elastic

Elasticmeansreversible!

PlasticDeformation(Metals)
1. Initial

2. Small load

3. Unload

bonds
stretch
& planes
shear

planes
l
still
sheared

elastic
l ti + plastic
l ti

plastic

F
Plastic means permanent.
permanent

linear
elastic

linear
elastic

plastic

MechanicalProperties
Strength: Abilityofmaterialtoresistwithoutrupture.
Rigidity/stiffness: Abilityofmaterialtoresistdeformationundertheactionofexternalload
Elasticity:Abilityofmaterialtoregainitsoriginalshape
y Itistheabilityofthematerialtoretainthedeformationproducedunderloadona
y
p
Plasticity:
permanentbasis.
Resilience:Itistheabilityofamaterialtostoreelasticenergy,whichisalsocalledmodulusof
resilience.
Toughness: Itistheabilityofamaterialtowithstandsuddenloadingortoabsorbenergy
untilitbreaksanditismeasuredintermsofmodulusoftoughness.
Ductility:Itistheabilityofamaterialtoundergolargeplasticdeformationwithoutcracking.
Ductility:
It is the ability of a material to undergo large plastic deformation without cracking.
Thisisthepropertythatallowsthematerialtobedrawnoutintoathinwire.
Malleability:Itistheabilityofamaterialtoundergolargeplasticdeformationwithout
crackingwhenitissubjectedtocompressiveforce.
g
j
p
Brittleness:Itistheabilityofthematerialtobreakbeforedeformation(eg.iron,glass).
Hardness:Itistheabilityofamaterialtoresistscratching,abrasionorindentation.

YieldPoint

Typical stress
stress-strain
strain behavior
for a metal showing elastic
and plastic deformations, the
proportional limit P and the
yield
strength
y,
as
determined using the 0.002
strain offset method (where
there is noticeable plastic
deformation). P is the gradual
elastic to plastic transition.

Ductility,%EL
Ductilityisameasureoftheplastic
deformationthathasbeensustainedat
fracture:

Engineering
tensile
stress,
Amaterialthat
A
material that
suffersvery
littleplastic
deformationis
brittle
brittle.

% EL =

l f lo
lo

x100

smaller %EL
(brittle if %EL<5%)
larger %EL
(ductile if
%EL>5%)

Lo

Ao

Engineering tensile strain,

Anotherductilitymeasure:
A th d tilit

% AR =

Af

Ao A f
Ao

Lf

x100

Ductilitymaybeexpressedaseitherpercentelongation(%plasticstrainatfracture)
or percent reduction in area
orpercentreductioninarea.
%AR>%ELispossibleifinternalvoidsforminneck.

Toughness
Lowertoughness:
ceramics
Toughness
is
the
ability to absorb energy
up to fracture (energy
per unit volume of
material).

Highertoughness:
Higher
toughness:
metals

Approximated by the
area under the stressstrain curve.

15

Toughness
g
Engineering
tensile
stress,
t

smaller toughness (ceramics)


larger toughness
( t l PMC
(metals,
PMCs))
smaller toughnessunreinforced
polymers

Engineering tensile strain,

Resilience,Ur
Abilityofamaterialtostoreenergy
Energystoredbestinelasticregion
Energy stored best in elastic region

Flexural Strength

(c)2003Brooks/Cole,adivisionofThomsonLearning,Inc.ThomsonLearning isatrademarkusedhereinunderlicense.

(a) The
e bend
be d test often
o te used for
o measuring
easu
g tthe
e st
strength
e gt
of brittle materials, and (b) the deflection obtained by
bending

Flexural Strength

Schematic for a 3point bending test.


Flexural strength
(modulus of rupture or
bend strength) is the
stress at fracture.

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