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# CIVL 7/8117

## Plane Stress and Plane Strain Equations

In Chapters 2 through 5, we considered only line elements.
Line elements are connected only at common nodes, forming
framed or articulated structures such as trusses, frames, and
grids.
Line elements have geometric properties such as crosssectional area and moment of inertia associated with their
cross sections.

## Plane Stress and Plane Strain Equations

However, only one local coordinate along the length of the
element is required to describe a position along the element
(hence, they are called line elements).
Nodal compatibility is then enforced during the formulation of
the nodal equilibrium equations for a line element.
This chapter considers the two-dimensional finite element.

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## Plane Stress and Plane Strain Equations

Two-dimensional (planar) elements are thin-plate elements
such that two coordinates define a position on the element
surface.
The elements are connected at common nodes and/or along
common edges to form continuous structures.

## Plane Stress and Plane Strain Equations

Nodal compatibility is then enforced during the formulation of
the nodal equilibrium equations for two-dimensional
elements.
If proper displacement functions are chosen, compatibility
along common edges is also obtained.

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## Plane Stress and Plane Strain Equations

The two-dimensional element is extremely important for:
(1) Plane stress analysis, which includes problems such
as plates with holes, fillets, or other changes in
geometry that are loaded in their plane resulting in local
stress concentrations.

## Plane Stress and Plane Strain Equations

The two-dimensional element is extremely important for:
(1) Plane stress analysis, which includes problems such
as plates with holes, fillets, or other changes in
geometry that are loaded in their plane resulting in local
stress concentrations.

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## Plane Stress and Plane Strain Equations

The two-dimensional element is extremely important for:
(2) Plane strain analysis, which includes problems such
as a long underground box culvert subjected to a
uniform load acting constantly over its length or a long
cylindrical control rod subjected to a load that remains
constant over the rod length (or depth).

## Plane Stress and Plane Strain Equations

The two-dimensional element is extremely important for:
(2) Plane strain analysis, which includes problems such
as a long underground box culvert subjected to a
uniform load acting constantly over its length or a long
cylindrical control rod subjected to a load that remains
constant over the rod length (or depth).

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## Plane Stress and Plane Strain Equations

We begin this chapter with the development of the stiffness
matrix for a basic two-dimensional or plane finite element,
called the constant-strain triangular element.
The constant-strain triangle (CST) stiffness matrix derivation is
the simplest among the available two-dimensional elements.
We will derive the CST stiffness matrix by using the principle
of minimum potential energy because the energy formulation
is the most feasible for the development of the equations for
both two- and three-dimensional finite elements.

## Plane Stress and Plane Strain Equations

Formulation of the Plane Triangular Element Equations
We will now follow the steps described in Chapter 1 to formulate
the governing equations for a plane stress/plane strain
triangular element.
First, we will describe the concepts of plane stress and plane
strain.
Then we will provide a brief description of the steps and basic
equations pertaining to a plane triangular element.

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## Plane Stress and Plane Strain Equations

Formulation of the Plane Triangular Element Equations
Plane Stress
Plane stress is defined to be a state of stress in which the
normal stress and the shear stresses directed
perpendicular to the plane are assumed to be zero.
That is, the normal stress z and the shear stresses xz and yz
are assumed to be zero.
Generally, members that are thin (those with a small z
dimension compared to the in-plane x and y dimensions) and
whose loads act only in the x-y plane can be considered to be
under plane stress.

## Plane Stress and Plane Strain Equations

Formulation of the Plane Triangular Element Equations
Plane Strain
Plane strain is defined to be a state of strain in which the
strain normal to the x-y plane z and the shear strains xz
and yz are assumed to be zero.
The assumptions of plane strain are realistic for long bodies
(say, in the z direction) with constant cross-sectional area
subjected to loads that act only in the x and/or y directions and
do not vary in the z direction.

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## Plane Stress and Plane Strain Equations

Formulation of the Plane Triangular Element Equations
Two-Dimensional State of Stress and Strain
The concept of two-dimensional state of stress and strain and
the stress/strain relationships for plane stress and plane strain
are necessary to understand fully the development and
applicability of the stiffness matrix for the plane stress/plane
strain triangular element.

## Plane Stress and Plane Strain Equations

Formulation of the Plane Triangular Element Equations
Two-Dimensional State of Stress and Strain
A two-dimensional state of stress is shown in the figure below.

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## Plane Stress and Plane Strain Equations

Formulation of the Plane Triangular Element Equations
Two-Dimensional State of Stress and Strain
The infinitesimal element with sides dx and dy has normal
stresses x and y acting in the x and y directions (here on the
vertical and horizontal faces), respectively.

## Plane Stress and Plane Strain Equations

Formulation of the Plane Triangular Element Equations
Two-Dimensional State of Stress and Strain
The shear stress xy acts on the x edge (vertical face) in the y
direction. The shear stress yx acts on the y edge (horizontal
face) in the x direction.

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## Plane Stress and Plane Strain Equations

Formulation of the Plane Triangular Element Equations
Two-Dimensional State of Stress and Strain
Since xy equals yx, three independent stress exist:

y xy

2
x y
x y
2
1

xy max
2
2

x y
2

y
2
x
xy min
2
2

## Plane Stress and Plane Strain Equations

Formulation of the Plane Triangular Element Equations
Two-Dimensional State of Stress and Strain

## Also, p is the principal angle which defines the normal whose

direction is perpendicular to the plane on which the maximum
or minimum principle stress acts.

tan 2 p

2 xy

x y

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## Plane Stress and Plane Strain Equations

Formulation of the Plane Triangular Element Equations
Two-Dimensional State of Stress and Strain

below.

## Plane Stress and Plane Strain Equations

Formulation of the Plane Triangular Element Equations
Two-Dimensional State of Stress and Strain

u
x

v
x

xy

u v

y x

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## Plane Stress and Plane Strain Equations

Formulation of the Plane Triangular Element Equations
Two-Dimensional State of Stress and Strain

u
x

v
x

xy

u v

y x

xy

## Plane Stress and Plane Strain Equations

Formulation of the Plane Triangular Element Equations
Two-Dimensional State of Stress and Strain

## For plane stress, the stresses z, xz, and yz are assumed to

be zero. The stress-strain relationship is:
x
E

y
2
1
xy

1
x
0

0
1
y
0 0 0.5 1 xy

x
x

y D y

xy
xy

0
E

[D ]
1
0
2

1
0 0 0.5 1

## is called the stress-strain matrix (or the constitutive matrix),

E is the modulus of elasticity, and is Poissons ratio.

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## Plane Stress and Plane Strain Equations

Formulation of the Plane Triangular Element Equations
Two-Dimensional State of Stress and Strain

## For plane strain, the strains z, xz, and yz are assumed to be

zero. The stress-strain relationship is:
x
1
E

y

1 1 2 0

xy

x
x

y D y

xy
xy

1
0

0 x

0 y

0.5 xy

1
E

[D ]
1 1 2 0

1
0

0
0

0.5

## is called the stress-strain matrix (or the constitutive matrix),

E is the modulus of elasticity, and is Poissons ratio.

## Plane Stress and Plane Strain Equations

Formulation of the Plane Triangular Element Equations
Two-Dimensional State of Stress and Strain

2u 2u 1 2u 2v

2 y 2 xy
x 2 y 2
2v 2v 1 2v
2u

2 y 2 xy
x 2 y 2

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## Plane Stress and Plane Strain Equations

Formulation of the Plane Triangular Element Equations

## Consider the problem of a thin plate subjected to a tensile load

as shown in the figure below:

## Plane Stress and Plane Strain Equations

Formulation of the Plane Triangular Element Equations
Step 1 - Discretize and Select Element Types

## Discretize the thin plate into a set of triangular elements. Each

element is define by nodes i, j, and m.

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## Plane Stress and Plane Strain Equations

Formulation of the Plane Triangular Element Equations
Step 1 - Discretize and Select Element Types

## We use triangular elements because boundaries of irregularly

shaped bodies can be closely approximated, and because the
expressions related to the triangular element are
comparatively simple.

## Plane Stress and Plane Strain Equations

Formulation of the Plane Triangular Element Equations
Step 1 - Discretize and Select Element Types

## This discretization is called a coarse-mesh generation if few

large elements are used.
Each node has two degrees of freedom: displacements in the x
and y directions.

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## Plane Stress and Plane Strain Equations

Formulation of the Plane Triangular Element Equations
Step 1 - Discretize and Select Element Types

## We will let ui and vi represent the node i displacement

components in the x and y directions, respectively.

## Plane Stress and Plane Strain Equations

Formulation of the Plane Triangular Element Equations
Step 1 - Discretize and Select Element Types

are:
di
d d j
d
m

element, and
u
d i i
v i

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## Plane Stress and Plane Strain Equations

Formulation of the Plane Triangular Element Equations
Step 1 - Discretize and Select Element Types

are:
ui
v
i
u
d j
v j
um

v m

## Plane Stress and Plane Strain Equations

Formulation of the Plane Triangular Element Equations
Step 2 - Select Displacement Functions
u( x, y )
The general displacement function is: i

v ( x, y )

## The functions u(x, y) and v(x, y) must be compatible with the

element type.
Step 3 - Define the Strain-Displacement and
Stress-Strain Relationships
The general definitions of normal and shear strains are:

u
x

v
x

xy

u v

y x

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## Plane Stress and Plane Strain Equations

Formulation of the Plane Triangular Element Equations
Step 3 - Define the Strain-Displacement and
Stress-Strain Relationships

## For plane stress, the stresses z, xz, and yz are assumed to

be zero. The stress-strain relationship is:
x
E

y
2
1
xy

1
x
0

0
1
y
0 0 0.5 1 xy

## Plane Stress and Plane Strain Equations

Formulation of the Plane Triangular Element Equations
Step 3 - Define the Strain-Displacement and
Stress-Strain Relationships

## For plane strain, the strains z, xz, and yz are assumed to be

zero. The stress-strain relationship is:
x
1
E

1 1 2 0

xy

1
0

x

y
0.5 xy
0
0

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## Plane Stress and Plane Strain Equations

Formulation of the Plane Triangular Element Equations
Step 4 - Derive the Element Stiffness Matrix and Equations

## Using the principle of minimum potential energy, we can derive

the element stiffness matrix.

f [k ]d
This approach is better than the direct methods used for onedimensional elements.

## Plane Stress and Plane Strain Equations

Formulation of the Plane Triangular Element Equations
Step 5 - Assemble the Element Equations and
Introduce Boundary Conditions

## The final assembled or global equation written in matrix form is:

F [K ]d
where {F} is the equivalent global nodal loads obtained by
lumping distributed edge loads and element body forces at the
nodes and [K] is the global structure stiffness matrix.

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## Plane Stress and Plane Strain Equations

Formulation of the Plane Triangular Element Equations
Step 6 - Solve for the Nodal Displacements

## Once the element equations are assembled and modified to

account for the boundary conditions, a set of simultaneous
algebraic equations that can be written in expanded matrix
form as:
F [K ]d
Step 7 - Solve for the Element Forces (Stresses)

## For the structural stress-analysis problem, important secondary

quantities of strain and stress (or moment and shear force)
can be obtained in terms of the displacements determined in
Step 6.

## Plane Stress and Plane Strain Equations

Derivation of the Constant-Strain Triangular Element
Stiffness Matrix and Equations
Step 1 - Discretize and Select Element Types

## Consider the problem of a thin plate subjected to a tensile load

as shown in the figure below:
ui
v
i
u
d j
v j
um

v m

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## Plane Stress and Plane Strain Equations

Formulation of the Plane Triangular Element Equations
Step 2 - Select Displacement Functions

## We will select a linear displacement function for each triangular

element, defined as:
u
u( x, y )
Linear representation of u(x, y)
i

u
y
v ( x, y )
m

ui

uj

(xi, yi)

(xm, ym)
(xj, yj)

a a2 x a3 y
1

a4 a5 x a6 y

## A linear function ensures that the displacements along each

edge of the element and the nodes shared by adjacent
elements are equal.

## Plane Stress and Plane Strain Equations

Formulation of the Plane Triangular Element Equations
Step 2 - Select Displacement Functions

## We will select a linear displacement function for each triangular

element, defined as:
a1
a
2
a a x a3 y 1 x y 0 0 0 a3
i 1 2

a4 a5 x a6 y 0 0 0 1 x y a4
a5

a6

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## Plane Stress and Plane Strain Equations

Formulation of the Plane Triangular Element Equations
Step 2 - Select Displacement Functions

## To obtain the values for the as substitute the coordinated of the

nodal points into the above equations:
ui a1 a2 xi a3 y i

v i a4 a5 xi a6 y i

u j a1 a2 x j a3 y j

v j a4 a5 x j a6 y j

um a1 a2 xm a3 y m

v m a4 a5 xm a6 y m

## Plane Stress and Plane Strain Equations

Formulation of the Plane Triangular Element Equations
Step 2 - Select Displacement Functions

Solving for the as and writing the results in matrix forms gives:
ui 1 xi

u j 1 x j
u 1 x
m
m

y i a1

y j a2

y m a3

a x u
1

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## Plane Stress and Plane Strain Equations

Formulation of the Plane Triangular Element Equations
Step 2 - Select Displacement Functions

i
1
i
[x]
2A
i
1

j m

j m
j m

i x j y m y j xm

i y j y m

i xm x j

j xi y m y i xm

j ym yi

j xi xm

m xi y j y i x j

m y i y j

m x j xi

## Plane Stress and Plane Strain Equations

Formulation of the Plane Triangular Element Equations
Step 2 - Select Displacement Functions

## The inverse of the [x] matrix is:

i
1
i
[x]
2A
i
1

j m

j m
j m

1
2A 1

xi
xj

yi
yj

xm

ym

2 A xi y j y m x j y m y i xm y i y j

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## Plane Stress and Plane Strain Equations

Formulation of the Plane Triangular Element Equations
Step 2 - Select Displacement Functions

i
a1
1

a2
i
a 2 A
3
i

j m ui

j m u j
j m um

i
a4
1

a5
i
2
A
a
i
6

j m vi

j m v j
j m v m

## Plane Stress and Plane Strain Equations

Formulation of the Plane Triangular Element Equations
Step 2 - Select Displacement Functions

u 1

a1

y a2

a3

## Substituting the values for a into the above equation gives:

i j m ui
1
u 1 x y i j m u j
2A

i j m um

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## Plane Stress and Plane Strain Equations

Formulation of the Plane Triangular Element Equations
Step 2 - Select Displacement Functions

## We will now derive the u displacement function in terms of the

coordinates x and y.
i ui j u j mum

y i u i j u j m um
i ui j u j mum
Multiplying the matrices in the above equations gives:
1
u 1 x
2A

u ( x, y )

1
i i x i y u i j j x j y u j
2A

m m x m y um

## Plane Stress and Plane Strain Equations

Formulation of the Plane Triangular Element Equations
Step 2 - Select Displacement Functions

## We will now derive the v displacement function in terms of the

coordinates x and y.
i v i j v j mv m

y i v i j v j mv m
i v i j v j mv m
Multiplying the matrices in the above equations gives:
1
v 1 x
2A

v ( x, y )

1
i i x i y v i j j x j y v j
2A

m m x m y v m

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## Plane Stress and Plane Strain Equations

Formulation of the Plane Triangular Element Equations
Step 2 - Select Displacement Functions

## The displacements can be written in a more convenience form

as:
u ( x, y ) N i u i N j u j N m u m
v ( x, y ) N i v i N j v j N m v m

where:

1
i i x i y
2A
1
Nj
j j x j y
2A
1
Nm
m m x m y
2A
Ni

## Plane Stress and Plane Strain Equations

Formulation of the Plane Triangular Element Equations
Step 2 - Select Displacement Functions

## The elemental displacements can be summarized as:

u( x, y ) Ni ui N j u j Nmum

v ( x, y ) Ni v i N j v j Nmv m

N i
{ }
0

0
Ni

{ } [N ]{d }

Nj
0

0
Nj

Nm
0

ui
v
i
0 uj

Nm v j
um

v m

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## Plane Stress and Plane Strain Equations

Formulation of the Plane Triangular Element Equations
Step 2 - Select Displacement Functions

N

0
Ni

N 0i

Nj
0

0
Nj

Nm
0

0
Nm

Nj

Ni

Nm
1

1
x

## Plane Stress and Plane Strain Equations

Formulation of the Plane Triangular Element Equations
Step 2 - Select Displacement Functions

## So that u and v will yield a constant value for rigid-body

displacement, Ni + Nj + Nm = 1 for all x and y locations on the
element.

Nj

Ni

Nm
1

1
x

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## Plane Stress and Plane Strain Equations

Formulation of the Plane Triangular Element Equations
Step 2 - Select Displacement Functions

## So that u and v will yield a constant value for rigid-body

displacement, Ni + Nj + Nm = 1 for all x and y locations on the
element.
For example, assume all the triangle displaces as a rigid body in
the x direction: u = u0
u0
u0 u0 N i N j N m
0

Ni 0 N j 0 Nm 0 u0
Ni N j Nm 1
{ }

0 Ni 0 N j 0 Nm 0
u0

0

## Plane Stress and Plane Strain Equations

Formulation of the Plane Triangular Element Equations
Step 2 - Select Displacement Functions

## So that u and v will yield a constant value for rigid-body

displacement, Ni + Nj + Nm = 1 for all x and y locations on the
element.
For example, assume all the triangle displaces as a rigid body in
the y direction: v = v0
0
v 0 v 0 Ni N j Nm
v
0

N i 0 N j 0 N m 0 0
Ni N j Nm 1
{ }

0 Ni 0 N j 0 Nm v 0
0

v 0

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## Plane Stress and Plane Strain Equations

Formulation of the Plane Triangular Element Equations
Step 2 - Select Displacement Functions

## The requirement of completeness for the constant-strain triangle

element used in a two-dimensional plane stress element is
illustrated in figure below.
The element must be able to translate uniformly in either the x
or y direction in the plane and to rotate without straining as
shown

## Plane Stress and Plane Strain Equations

Formulation of the Plane Triangular Element Equations
Step 2 - Select Displacement Functions

## The reason that the element must be able to translate as a rigid

body and to rotate stress-free is illustrated in the example of a
cantilever beam modeled with plane stress elements.
By simple statics, the beam elements
Hence these elements must be free
to translate and rotate without
stretching or changing shape.

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## Plane Stress and Plane Strain Equations

Formulation of the Plane Triangular Element Equations
Step 3 - Define the Strain-Displacement and
Stress-Strain Relationships
Elemental Strains: The strains over a two-dimensional
element are:
u

x x
v
{ } y

y
xy u v

y x

## Plane Stress and Plane Strain Equations

Formulation of the Plane Triangular Element Equations
Step 3 - Define the Strain-Displacement and
Stress-Strain Relationships

## Substituting our approximation for the displacement gives:

u

u,x
Ni ui N j u j Nm um
x
x
u,x Ni ,x ui N j ,x u j Nm,x um

variable.

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## Plane Stress and Plane Strain Equations

Formulation of the Plane Triangular Element Equations
Step 3 - Define the Strain-Displacement and
Stress-Strain Relationships

Ni ,x
N j ,x

1
i i x i y i
2 A x
2A
j
2A

Nm, x

m
2A

Therefore:
u
1

i ui j u j m um
x 2 A

## Plane Stress and Plane Strain Equations

Formulation of the Plane Triangular Element Equations
Step 3 - Define the Strain-Displacement and
Stress-Strain Relationships

## In a similar manner, the remaining strain terms are

approximated as:
v
1

i v i j v j mv m
y 2 A
u v
1

i u i i v i j u j j v j m u m mv m
y x 2 A

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## Plane Stress and Plane Strain Equations

Formulation of the Plane Triangular Element Equations
Step 3 - Define the Strain-Displacement and
Stress-Strain Relationships

u

i 0 j 0
x x
1
v
{ } y

0 i 0 j
y 2 A
j
i
j
i
xy u v

y x
{ } [B ]{d }

{ } Bi

Bj

ui
v
m 0 i
u
0 m j
v
m m j
um

v m
di

Bm d j

d m

## Plane Stress and Plane Strain Equations

Formulation of the Plane Triangular Element Equations
Step 3 - Define the Strain-Displacement and
Stress-Strain Relationships
Stress-Strain Relationship: The in-plane stress-strain
relationship is:
x
x

{ } [D ][B ]{d }
y [D ] y

xy
xy

1

0
E

[D ]
1
0
2

1
0 0 0.5 1

[D ]

1
E

1 1 2 0

1
0

0.5
0

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## Plane Stress and Plane Strain Equations

Formulation of the Plane Triangular Element Equations
Step 4 - Derive the Element Stiffness Matrix and Equations

## The total potential energy is defined as the sum of the internal

strain energy U and the potential energy of the external forces
:
U
p

## Where the strain energy is: U

1
1
{ }T { }dV { }T [D]{ }dV

2V
2V

b { }T { X }dV
V

## where {} is the general displacement function and {X} is the

body weight per unit volume.

## Plane Stress and Plane Strain Equations

Formulation of the Plane Triangular Element Equations
Step 4 - Derive the Element Stiffness Matrix and Equations

## The total potential energy is defined as the sum of the internal

strain energy U and the potential energy of the external forces
:
U
p

## Where the strain energy is: U

1
1
{ }T { }dV { }T [D]{ }dV

2V
2V

## The potential energy of the concentrated forces is:

p {d }T {P }
where {P} are the concentrated forces and {d} are the nodal
displacements.

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## Plane Stress and Plane Strain Equations

Formulation of the Plane Triangular Element Equations
Step 4 - Derive the Element Stiffness Matrix and Equations

## The total potential energy is defined as the sum of the internal

strain energy U and the potential energy of the external forces
:
U
p

## Where the strain energy is: U

1
1
{ }T { }dV { }T [D]{ }dV

2V
2V

s { }T {T }dS
S

## where {} is the general displacement function and {T} are

the surface tractions.

## Plane Stress and Plane Strain Equations

Formulation of the Plane Triangular Element Equations
Step 4 - Derive the Element Stiffness Matrix and Equations

## Then the total potential energy expression becomes:

1
T
T
p d [B ]T [D][B ]d dV d [N ]T { X }dV
2V
V
d P d [N ]T {T }dS
T

The nodal displacements {d} are independent of the general xy coordinates, therefore
1
T
T
p d [B ]T [D][B ]dV d d [N ]T { X }dV
2
V
V
d P d
T

[N ]

{T }dS

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## Plane Stress and Plane Strain Equations

Formulation of the Plane Triangular Element Equations
Step 4 - Derive the Element Stiffness Matrix and Equations

## We can define the last three terms as:

f [N ]T { X }dV P [N ]T {T }dS
V

Therefore:
1
T
T
d [B]T [D][B]dV d d f
2
V

## Minimization of p with respect to each nodal displacement

requires that:
p

[B ]T [D][B ]dV d f 0
V

## Plane Stress and Plane Strain Equations

Formulation of the Plane Triangular Element Equations
Step 4 - Derive the Element Stiffness Matrix and Equations

[B ]

[D][B ]dV d f

## The stiffness matrix can be defined as:

[k ] [B ]T [D][B ]dV
V

## For an element of constant thickness, t, the above integral

becomes:
[k ] t [B ]T [D][B ] dx dy
A

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## Plane Stress and Plane Strain Equations

Formulation of the Plane Triangular Element Equations
Step 4 - Derive the Element Stiffness Matrix and Equations

## The integrand in the above equation is not a function of x or y

(global coordinates); therefore, the integration reduces to:
[k ] t [B ]T [D][B ] dx dy
A

[k ] tA [B ]T [D][B ]
where A is the area of the triangular element.

## Plane Stress and Plane Strain Equations

Formulation of the Plane Triangular Element Equations
Step 4 - Derive the Element Stiffness Matrix and Equations

## Expanding the stiffness relationship gives:

[k ii ] [k ij ] [kim ]

[k ] [k ji ] [k jj ] [k jm ]
[k mi ] [kmj ] [kmm ]
where each [kii] is a 2 x 2 matrix define as:
[kii ] [Bi ]T [D ][Bi ] tA
[kim ] [Bi ]T [D][Bm ] tA

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## Plane Stress and Plane Strain Equations

Formulation of the Plane Triangular Element Equations
Step 4 - Derive the Element Stiffness Matrix and Equations

Recall:
i
1
Bi 2A 0
i

0
i
i

m
1
Bm 2A 0
m

j
1
B j
0
2A
j

j
j

0
m
m

## Plane Stress and Plane Strain Equations

Formulation of the Plane Triangular Element Equations
Step 5 - Assemble the Element Equations to Obtain the
Global Equations and Introduce the Boundary
Conditions

method.
N
[K ] [ k ( e ) ]
e 1

## The global equivalent nodal load vector is obtained by lumping

body forces and distributed loads at the appropriate nodes as
well as including any concentrated loads.
N

{F } {f ( e ) }
e 1

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## Plane Stress and Plane Strain Equations

Formulation of the Plane Triangular Element Equations
Step 5 - Assemble the Element Equations to Obtain the
Global Equations and Introduce the Boundary
Conditions

## The resulting global equations are: F K d

where {d} is the total structural displacement vector.
In the above formulation of the element stiffness matrix, the
matrix has been derived for a general orientation in global
coordinates.
Therefore, no transformation form local to global coordinates is
necessary.

## Plane Stress and Plane Strain Equations

Formulation of the Plane Triangular Element Equations
Step 5 - Assemble the Element Equations to Obtain the
Global Equations and Introduce the Boundary
Conditions

## However, for completeness, we will now describe the method to

use if the local axes for the constant-strain triangular element
are not parallel to the global axes for the whole structure.

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## Plane Stress and Plane Strain Equations

Formulation of the Plane Triangular Element Equations
Step 5 - Assemble the Element Equations to Obtain the
Global Equations and Introduce the Boundary
Conditions

## To relate the local to global displacements, force, and stiffness

matrices we will use:
f Tf
d Td
k T T k T

## Plane Stress and Plane Strain Equations

Formulation of the Plane Triangular Element Equations
Step 5 - Assemble the Element Equations to Obtain the
Global Equations and Introduce the Boundary
Conditions

C S 0 0 0 0
S C 0 0 0 0

0 0 C S 0 0
T

0 0 S C 0 0
0 0 0 0 C S

0 0 0 0 S C

C cos
S sin

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## Plane Stress and Plane Strain Equations

Formulation of the Plane Triangular Element Equations
Step 6 - Solve for the Nodal Displacements
Step 7 - Solve for Element Forces and Stress

## Having solved for the nodal displacements, we can obtain

strains and stresses in x and y directions in the elements by
using:
{ } [B ]{d }
{ } [D ][B ]{d }

## Plane Stress and Plane Strain Equations

Plane Stress Example 1

## Let E = 30 x 106 psi, = 0.25, and t = 1 in.

Assume the element nodal displacements have been
determined to be u1 = 0.0, v1 = 0.0025 in, u2 = 0.0012 in,
v2 = 0.0, u3 = 0.0, and v3 = 0.0025 in.

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## Plane Stress and Plane Strain Equations

Plane Stress Example 1

## First, we calculate the element s and s as:

i y j y m 0 1 1

i xm x j 0 2 2

j y m y i 0 ( 1) 2

j xi xm 0 0 0

m y i y j 1 0 1

m x j xi 2 0 2

## Plane Stress and Plane Strain Equations

Plane Stress Example 1

## Therefore, the [B] matrix is:

i
1
B 2 A 0
i

i
i

j
j

1 0 2 0 1 0
0
1 0 2 0 0 0 2
m

2(2)
m
2 1 0 2 2 1

i y j y m 0 1 1

i xm x j 0 2 2

j y m y i 0 ( 1) 2

j xi xm 0 0 0

m y i y j 1 0 1

m x j xi 2 0 2

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## Plane Stress and Plane Strain Equations

Plane Stress Example 1

## For plane stress conditions, the [D] matrix is:

0.25
0
1
30 106
[D ]
0.25
1
0
2

1 (0.25)
0
0
0.375
Substitute the above expressions for [D] and [B] into the general
equations for the stiffness matrix:
[k ] tA [B ]T [D ][B ]

## Plane Stress and Plane Strain Equations

Plane Stress Example 1

[k ] tA [B ]T [D][B ]

1 0 2
0 2 1

1
0.25
0
1 0 2 0 1 0
1
(2)30 106 2 0
1 0 2 0 0 0 2
k
0.25
1
0

2(2)

4(0.9375) 2 0 2
0
2 1 0 2 2 1
0
0.375

1 0 2

0 2 1

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## Plane Stress and Plane Strain Equations

Plane Stress Example 1

## Performing the matrix triple product gives:

1.25
2 1.5
0.5
0.25
2.5
1.25 4.375 1 0.75 0.25 3.625

1
4
0

2
1
lb
k 4 106

1.5
1.5
0.75 in
1.5 0.75 0
0.5 0.25 2 1.5
2.5
1.25

## Plane Stress and Plane Strain Equations

Plane Stress Example 1
The in-plane stress can be related to displacements by:
{ } [D ][B ]{d }
0.0

0.0025 in

x
0.25
0
1
1 0 2 0 1 0
6
0.0012 in
1
30 10

0.25
1
0
0 2 0 0 0 2
y

2(2)
0.0
0.9375 0

0
0.375

2 1 0 2 2 1 0.0
xy

0.0025 in

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## Plane Stress and Plane Strain Equations

Plane Stress Example 1
The stresses are:

x 19,200 psi

y 4,800 psi
15,000 psi

xy

## Recall, the relationships for principal stresses and principal

angle in two-dimensions are:
1

x y
2

x y
2

y
2
x
xy max
2

2 xy
1
tan1

2
x y

y
2
x
xy min
2

## Plane Stress and Plane Strain Equations

Plane Stress Example 1
Therefore:
2

19,200 4,800
2
19,200 4,800

15,000 28,639 psi
2
2

19,200 4,800
2
19,200 4,800

15,000 4,639 psi
2
2

1
2( 15,000)
o
tan1
32.3
2
19,200
4,800

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## Plane Stress and Plane Strain Equations

Treatment of Body and Surface Forces
The general force vector is defined as:

f [N ]T { X }dV P [N ]T {T }dS
V

fb [N ]T { X }dV
V

Xb

Yb

## where Xb and Yb are the weight densities in the x and y

directions, respectively.
The force may reflect the effects of gravity, angular velocities, or
dynamic inertial forces.

## Plane Stress and Plane Strain Equations

Treatment of Body and Surface Forces
For a given thickness, t, the body force term becomes:

fb [N ]T { X }dV t [N ]T { X }dA
V

Ni
0

N
[N ]T j
0
Nm

0
Ni

Nj
0

Nm

Xb

Yb

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## Plane Stress and Plane Strain Equations

Treatment of Body and Surface Forces
The integration of the {fb} is simplified if the origin of the
coordinate system is chosen at the centroid of the element, as
shown in the figure below.

With the origin placed at the centroid, we can use the definition
of a centroid.

y dA 0
A

x dA 0
A

## Plane Stress and Plane Strain Equations

Treatment of Body and Surface Forces
Recall the interpolation functions for a plane stress/strain
triangle:
1
1
Nj
Ni
i i x i y
j j x j y
2A
2A
Nm

1
m m x m y
2A

With the origin placed at the centroid, we can use the definition
of a centroid.

y dA 0
A

x dA 0
A

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## Plane Stress and Plane Strain Equations

Treatment of Body and Surface Forces
A

## Therefore the terms in the integrand are:

bh
2

y dA 0

x dA 0

b 2h
h
bh
i x j y m y j xm 0
3
2 3 3
h
b 2h
bh
j xm y i y m xi 0
3 2 3 3

m xi y j y i x j
2 3 2 3 3
b

i j m

bh

1
1
tA
i dA t dA
3
2A
3
A
A

2A
3

## Plane Stress and Plane Strain Equations

Treatment of Body and Surface Forces
Therefore the terms in the integrand are:

fb [N ]T { X }dV t [N ]T { X }dA
V

## The body force at node i is given as:

fbi

tA X b

3 Yb

fbix
Xb
f
Y
biy

b
The general body force vector is:
fbjx tA X b
fb f Y
bjy 3 b
fbmx
Xb

Yb
fbmy

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## Plane Stress and Plane Strain Equations

Treatment of Body and Surface Forces
The third term in the general force vector is defined as:

fs [N ]T {T }dS
S

## Lets consider the example of a uniform stress p acting between

nodes 1 and 3 on the edge of element 1 as shown in figure
below.
p

T px

## Plane Stress and Plane Strain Equations

Treatment of Body and Surface Forces
The third term in the general force vector is defined as:

fs [N ]T {T }dS
S

N1
0

N
[N ]T 2
0
N3

0
N1

N2
0

N3

evaluated at x = a

T px

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## Plane Stress and Plane Strain Equations

Treatment of Body and Surface Forces
Therefore, the traction force vector is:

fs [N ]T {T }dS
S

N1
0

t L
N
fs 2
0
0 0
N3

0
N1p
0

N1

L
N2 p
0 p
dy
dy dz t
0
N2 0
0
N3 p
0

N3 x = a
0 x=a

## Plane Stress and Plane Strain Equations

Treatment of Body and Surface Forces
The interpolation function for i = 1 is:
Ni

1
i i x i y
2A

## For convenience, lets choose the coordinate system shown in

the figure below.
i x j y m y j xm
with i = 1, j = 2, and m = 3

1 x 2 y 3 y 2 x3
0 0 0 a 0

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## Plane Stress and Plane Strain Equations

Treatment of Body and Surface Forces

Ni

1
i i x i y
2A

## For convenience, lets choose the coordinate system shown in

the figure below.
Similarly, we can find:

1 0
N1

1 a

ay
2A

## Plane Stress and Plane Strain Equations

Treatment of Body and Surface Forces

N1

ay
2A

N2

L(a x )
2A

N3

Lx ay
2A

N1

ay
2A

N2 0
N3

a L y
2A

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## Plane Stress and Plane Strain Equations

Treatment of Body and Surface Forces

## Substituting the interpolation function in the traction force vector

expression gives:
y
N1p
0
0

L
L

0
atp

N
p
fs [N ]T {T }dS t 02 dy 2 A 0 dy
0
0
S

L y
N3 p

0
0

## Plane Stress and Plane Strain Equations

Treatment of Body and Surface Forces

## Therefore, the traction force vector is:

fs1x
L2
1
f

0
s1y
0

0
0
pLt
atp
fs [N ]T {T }dS fs 2 x

4 A 0
2 0
S
s2y
L2
fs 3 x
1

0
0
fs 3 y
A

aL
2

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## Plane Stress and Plane Strain Equations

Treatment of Body and Surface Forces

## The figure below shows the results of the surface load

equivalent nodal for both elements 1 and 2:
From Element 1

From Element 2

## Plane Stress and Plane Strain Equations

Treatment of Body and Surface Forces

## For the CS triangle, a distributed load on the element edge can

be treated as concentrated loads acting at the nodes
However, for higher-order elements, like the linear strain triangle
by using the principle of minimum potential energy.
For higher-order elements, load replacement by potential
energy is not equivalent to the apparent statically equivalent
one.

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## Plane Stress and Plane Strain Equations

Explicit Expression for the Constant-Strain Triangle
Stiffness Matrix

## Usually the stiffness matrix is computed internally by computer

programs, but since we are not computers, we need to
explicitly evaluate the stiffness matrix.
For a constant-strain triangular element, considering the plane
strain case, recall that: [k ] tA[B ]T [D ][B ]
where [D] for plane strain is:
1
E

[D ]
1 1 2 0

0.5
0

1
0

## Plane Stress and Plane Strain Equations

Explicit Expression for the Constant-Strain Triangle
Stiffness Matrix

## Substituting the appropriate definition into the above triple

product gives:
[k ] tA[B ]T [D ][B ]

i
0

j
tE
[k ]

4 A(1 )(1 2 ) 0

i
0

j
0

i
i

1
j

1
j
0
0
m

i
0

0.5 i

i
i

j
j

m
m

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## Plane Stress and Plane Strain Equations

Explicit Expression for the Constant-Strain Triangle
Stiffness Matrix

product gives:

## The stiffness matrix is a function of the global coordinates x and

y, the material properties, and the thickness and area of the
element.

## Plane Stress and Plane Strain Equations

Plane Stress Problem 2

## Consider the thin plate subjected to the surface traction shown

in the figure below.

## Assume plane stress conditions. Let E = 30 x 106 psi, = 0.30,

and t = 1 in.
Determine the nodal displacements and the element stresses.

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## Plane Stress and Plane Strain Equations

Plane Stress Problem 2
Discretization

20 in.

10 in.

## This level of discretization will probably not yield practical results

for displacement and stresses; however, it is useful example
for a longhand solution.

## Plane Stress and Plane Strain Equations

Plane Stress Problem 2
Discretization
For element 2, The tensile traction forces can be converted into
nodal forces as follows:

fs 2

fs 3 x
1 5,000 lb
1
f

0
0
0
s3y

fs1x pLt 0 1,000 psi (1 in )10 in 0
0

0
2 0
2
fs1y

0
fs 4 x
1 5,000 lb
1

0
0
fs 4 y

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## Plane Stress and Plane Strain Equations

Plane Stress Problem 2
Discretization
For element 2, The tensile traction forces can be converted into
nodal forces as follows:
20 in.

5 kips

10 in.

10,000 lb
5 kips

## Plane Stress and Plane Strain Equations

Plane Stress Problem 2

## The governing global matrix equations are: {F } [K ]{d }

Expanding the above matrices gives:
F1x R1x
0
d1x
F
0

d
1y R1y

1y
F2 x R2 x
0
d 2 x

F2 y R2 y
0
d 2 y

[ K ] [K ]
F3 x 5,000 lb
d 3 x
d 3 x
F3 y 0

d 3 y
d 3 y

F4 x 5,000 lb
d 4 x
d 4 x
F4 y 0

d 4 y
d 4 y

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## Plane Stress and Plane Strain Equations

Plane Stress Problem 2
Assemblage of the Stiffness Matrix

## The global stiffness matrix is assembled by superposition of the

individual element stiffness matrices.
The element stiffness matrix is: [k ] tA[B ]T [D ][B ]
i
1
B 2 A 0
i

i
i

j
j

1
E

[D ]
1 1 2 0

1
0

m
m

0.5
0

## Plane Stress and Plane Strain Equations

Plane Stress Problem 2

## For element 1: the coordinates are xi = 0, yi = 0, xj = 20, yj = 10,

xm = 0, and ym = 10. The area of the triangle is:
A

bh (20)(10)

100 in.2
2
2

i y j y m 10 10 0

i xm x j 0 20 20

j y m y1 10 0 10

j xi xm 0 0 0

m y i y j 0 10 10

m xi x j 20 0 20

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## Plane Stress and Plane Strain Equations

Plane Stress Problem 2

## Therefore, the [B] matrix is:

0
0
1
[B ]
0
20
200
20 0

10

10

10

20

0
20 1
in
10

i y j y m 10 10 0

i xm x j 0 20 20

j y m y1 10 0 10

j xi xm 0 0 0

m y i y j 0 10 10

m xi x j 20 0 20

## Plane Stress and Plane Strain Equations

Plane Stress Example 1

## For plane stress conditions, the [D] matrix is:

1

0
6
E
30 10

[D ]
1
0

0.91
1 2
0 0 0.5 1

0
1 0.3
0.3 1
0 psi

0
0 0.35

Substitute the above expressions for [D] and [B] into the general
equations for the stiffness matrix:
[k ] tA [B ]T [D ][B ]

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## Plane Stress and Plane Strain Equations

Plane Stress Example 1
0
20
0
Therefore:
0
20 0

1 0.3
0
0
0
30(106 ) 10
T
[B ] [D ]
0 lb 3

0.3 1
in
200(0.91) 0
0
10
0
0 0.35
10 0
20

20 10
0

0
6

6
10
30(10
)
[B ]T [D]

200(0.91) 0
10

0
20
3
0
3
20

7
0

0 lb
3

3.5 in
7

3.5

## Plane Stress and Plane Strain Equations

Plane Stress Example 1

[k ] tA [B ]T [D][B ]

0
6

(0.15)(106 ) 10
1(100)

0.91
0
10

0
20
3
0
3
20

7
0

0
0
0
1

0
20

3.5 200
20 0
7

3.5

10

10

0
0

0
10

0
20

0
20

10

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## Plane Stress and Plane Strain Equations

Plane Stress Example 1

u1

v1

u3

v3

u2

140

0
75,000
[k (1) ]

0.91 70
140

70

0
400
60
0
60
400

0
60
100
0
100

70
0
0
35
70
35

140
60
100
70
240
130

60

v2
70
400

60 lb
in
35
130

435

## Plane Stress and Plane Strain Equations

Plane Stress Example 1

u1

v1

u2

v2

140

75,000 140
[k (1) ]

0.91 70

70

0
400
60
400
60
0

140
60
240
130
100
70

70
400
130
435
60
35

u3
0
60
100
60
100
0

v3
70
0

70 lb
in
35
0

35

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## Plane Stress and Plane Strain Equations

Plane Stress Problem 2

## For element 2: the coordinates are xi = 0, yi = 0, xj = 20, yj = 0,

xm = 20, and ym = 10. The area of the triangle is:
A

bh (20)(10)

100 in.2
2
2

i y j y m 0 10 10

i xm x j 20 20 0

j y m y1 10 0 10

j xi xm 0 20 20

m y i y j 0 0 0

m xi x j 20 0 20

## Plane Stress and Plane Strain Equations

Plane Stress Problem 2

## Therefore, the [B] matrix is:

10
0
10 0
1
[B ]
0
0
0
20
200
0
10 20 10

0
0
20

0
20
0

1
in

i y j y m 0 10 10

i xm x j 20 20 0

j y m y1 10 0 10

j xi xm 0 20 20

m y i y j 0 0 0

m xi x j 20 0 20

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## Plane Stress and Plane Strain Equations

Plane Stress Example 1

## For plane stress conditions, the [D] matrix is:

1

0
6
E
30 10

[D ]
1
0

0.91
1 2
0 0 0.5 1

0
1 0.3
0.3 1
0 psi

0
0 0.35

Substitute the above expressions for [D] and [B] into the general
equations for the stiffness matrix:
[k ] tA [B ]T [D][B ]

## Plane Stress and Plane Strain Equations

Plane Stress Example 1

0
10 0
0
10
0

1 0.3
0
6
10
0
20

30(10
)
T
[B ] [D ]
0

0.3 1

20 10
200(0.91) 0
0
0 0.35

0
0
20

20
0
0

Therefore:

10
0

6
10
30(10
)
[B ]T [D]

200(0.91) 0
6

3
0
3
20
0
20

0
3.5

3.5
7

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## Plane Stress and Plane Strain Equations

Plane Stress Example 1

[k ] tA [B ]T [D][B ]

10
0

(0.15)(106 ) 10
1(100)

0.91
0
6

3
0
3
20
0
20

0
3.5

10
0
10 0
7
1

0
0
0
20

3.5 200
10 20 10
0
7

0
0
20

0
20

## Plane Stress and Plane Strain Equations

Plane Stress Example 1

u1
100
0

75,000 100
[k (2) ]

0.91 60
0

60

v1
0
35
70
35
70
0

u4

v4

u3

v3

100 60
60
0
35
70
70
0

130 435
400
70
140 70
140
0

400
60
0
400

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## Plane Stress and Plane Strain Equations

Plane Stress Example 1

u1
100
0

0
75,000
[k (2) ]

0.91 60
100

60

v1

u3

0
35
70
0
70
35

0
70
140
0
140
70

v3

u4

v4

60 100 60
35
0
70

140 70
0

400
400
60
60
240 130

## Plane Stress and Plane Strain Equations

Plane Stress Example 1

## In expanded form, element 1 is:

u1

v1

u2

v2

u3

v3

0
28 14
0
14
28
0
80
12 80 12
0

28 12 48 26 20 14

12
7
375,000 14 80 26 87
[k (1) ]
0.91 0
20
0
12 20 12

14
0
7
7
14 0
0
0
0
0
0
0

0
0
0
0
0
0

u4

v4

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## Plane Stress and Plane Strain Equations

Plane Stress Example 1

u1

v1

0
20
0
7

0
0
0
0
375,000
[k (2) ]
14
0.91 0

12 0
20 14

12 7

u2

v2

u3

v3

u4

v4

12

20

12

14

14

28 14
28
0

0
80
12 80
28 12
48 26

14 80 26 87

## Plane Stress and Plane Strain Equations

Plane Stress Example 1

## Using the superposition, the total global stiffness matrix is:

u1

v1

u2

v2

u3

v3

u4

v4

28 14
26 20 12
0
0
48
0
87
12 80 26
0
14
7

0
0
28 12 48 26 20 14

80 26 87
12
0
0
7
375,000 14

k
[ ]
0.91 0
48
0
26 20 12
28 14

14
0
87
12 80
7
26 0
20 14
0
0
48 26
28 12

0
0
14 80 26 87
12 7

64/69

CIVL 7/8117

## Plane Stress and Plane Strain Equations

Plane Stress Example 1

## Applying the boundary conditions: d1x d1y d 2 x d 2 y 0

0
28 14
0
26 20 12 d01x
R1x
48

R

0
87
12 80 26
0
14
7 d01y
1y

R2 x
0
0 d02 x
28 12 48 26 20 14

0
0 d02 y
R2 y 375,000 14 80 26 87 12 7

d 3 x
5,000
0.91
0

26

20
12
48
0

28
14
lb

14
7
0
87
12 80 d 3 y
26 0

20 14
0
0
28 12
48 26 d 4 xx
500 lb

0
0
14 80 26 87
12 7
d 4 yy

## Plane Stress and Plane Strain Equations

Plane Stress Example 1

## The governing equations are:

0
28 14 d3 x
5,000 lb
48

0

0
87 12 80 d 3 y

375,000

0.91 28 12
48 26 d 4 x
5,000 lb

14 80 26 87 d 4 y

d 3 x
d
3y
6
10
d
4
x

d 4 y

609.6

4.2

in
663.7
104.1

65/69

CIVL 7/8117

## Plane Stress and Plane Strain Equations

Plane Stress Example 1

The exact solution for the displacement at the free end of the
one-dimensional bar subjected to a tensile force is:

PL (10,000)20

670 10 6 in
AE 10(30 106 )

d 3 x
d
3y
6
10
d
4x
d 4 y

609.6

4.2

in
663.7

104.1

## Plane Stress and Plane Strain Equations

Plane Stress Example 1

{ } [D ][B ]{d }

1
i
0
E

{ }
1
0
0
2 A(1 2 )
0 0 0.5 1 i

i
i

j
j

d ix
d
iy
0
d

jx
m
d jy
m
d mx

d my

66/69

CIVL 7/8117

## Plane Stress and Plane Strain Equations

Plane Stress Example 1

x

y

xy

0.3

0.3

30(10 )(10 )
6

0.96(200)

0
0 0

20
0.35
0

10

10

20

10

20

0.0
0.0

0
609.6

20

4.2

10

0.0

0.0

x 1,005 psi

y 301 psi
2.4 psi

xy

## Plane Stress and Plane Strain Equations

Plane Stress Example 1

x

y

xy

0.3

0.3

30(10 )(10 )
6

0.96(200)

x 995 psi

y 1.2 psi
2.4 psi

xy

10
0 0

0
0.35
0

10

20

10

20

10

20

0.0
0.0

0
663.7

20
104.1

609.6

4.2

67/69

CIVL 7/8117

## Plane Stress and Plane Strain Equations

Plane Stress Example 1

2

1005 301
1005 301

(2.4)2 1005 psi
1

2
2

1005 301
1005 301
2

(2.4) 301 psi
2
2

2(2.4)

o
p tan 1
0
2
1005
301

## Plane Stress and Plane Strain Equations

Plane Stress Example 1

2

995 1.2
995 1.2
2

( 2.4) 995 psi
2
2

995 1.2
995 1.2
2

( 2.4) 1.1 psi
2
2

2( 2.4)

p tan 1
0o

2
995 1.2

68/69

CIVL 7/8117

Problems

## 13. Do problems 6.6a, 6.6c, 6.7, 6.9a-c, 6.11, and 6.13 on

pages 377 - 383 in your textbook A First Course in the
Finite Element Method by D. Logan.
14. Rework the plane stress problem given on page 356 in your
textbook A First Course in the Finite Element Method by
D. Logan using WinFElt to do analysis.