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Question 1

a) M2: two independent samples t-test (two independent groups


and the data follows the normal distribution)
SMOKER: OR (since study is retrospective and outcome is
binary)
b) M2: it can be said with 95% confidence that the
population/true mean difference between M2 of cases and
controls falls within 6.58 to 13.4.
SMOKER: we are 95% confident that the odds of smokers
having disease Y is 3.8 13.6 times higher than for nonsmokers.
c) The mean M2 for cases (92.93 +/- 9.86) is higher than controls
(82.94 +/- 12.2). This is significant because the p-value is less
than 0.05 (<0.001). The 95% confidence interval (6.58 13.4)
excludes the value of 0 suggesting that the mean difference is
significant this is consistent with the p-value.
The odds of having the disease Y among smokers is
significantly higher than for non-smokers.
OR = 7.2 (7.2 times higher for smokers than nonsmokers)
P-value = 0.002 (<0.05 therefore significant)
95% CI: 3.8 13.6 (excludes 1 - significant)
Smoking and M2 are both related to disease Y in the study
population.

Question 2
Since M1 does not follow the normal distribution and there are two
independent groups, we use the Mann-Whitney U test (Wilcoxon
rank sum test).
Objective
The objective is to evaluate whether the measurement M1 is related
to disease Y. We want to compare the significance of difference of
M1 between cases and controls.
Hypotheses
Null: the median M1 is the same for both cases and control in
the population.
Alternative: the median M1 is not the same for both cases and
control in the population.
Normality
The data for M1 is not normally distributed.
Assumptions
The cases and controls are independent
Patients within cases and controls are also independent
Calculations
Perform Mann-Whitney U test
Median and IQR for both cases and controls
P-value of difference M1 median for cases and controls
Decision
If p-values is less than 0.05 then reject the null hypothesis such that
the difference in median is significant otherwise accept the null the
difference in median is insignificant

Question 3
a) - M2 follows the normal distribution
- The relationship between M2 and the covariates is linear
- Variance is constant of outcome across different values of
each covariate
b) Age: if age increases by 1 year then M2 increases by 0.185
when case-control, gender and M1 stay the same.
Gender: beta coefficient = exposed (1) unexposed (0), in this
case 1 is female and 0 is male
So 2.625 = female male, which means that females have
2.625 higher M2 than males provided that case-control, age
and M1 stay the same.
c) Age: it can be said with 95% confidence that for every unit
increase in age (years), M2 changes between -0.036 and
0.407 units provided that all other variables stay constant.
Gender: it can be said with 95% confidence that females have
between
-0.706 and 5.955 units different M2 than males
provided that all other variables stay constant.
d) In this model..
Cases have higher M2 (B = 8.731) than controls and the pvalue is 0.000 (<0.05) and the 95% CI (4.228 13.233)
excludes the value of 0 and is hence significant.
M2 increases (B = 0.185) with every unit of age (years) but
the p-value is 0.100 (>0.05) and the 95% CI (-0.036 - 0.407)
includes the value of 0 and is hence insignificant.
Females have higher M2 (B = 2.625) than males but the pvalue is 0.122 (>0.05) and the 95% CI (-0.706 - 5.955)
includes the value of 0 and is hence insignificant.

M2 decreases (B = -0.007) with every unit of M1 but the pvalue is 0.293(>0.05) and the 95% CI (-0.019 0.006)
includes the value of 0 and is hence insignificant.
In this multiple linear regression model study results show that
age, gender and M2 is not related to M1 however cases have
significantly higher M2 values than controls.
e) M2 = constant 0.007 * M1 = 77.077 0.7 = 76.377
f) A normal probability plot tells use about the normality of the
outcome variable. The data follows the normal distribution if
the dots are clustered around a straight line passing through
the origin at the first quadrant.