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2/24/2015

Transmission Factors in Speech Telephony Lecture 5
Transmission Factors in Speech
Telephony
Lecture 5
  • Transmission Factors in Speech Telephony
    The purpose of a telephone connection is to provide a transmission path for speech between the talker’s mouth and the listener’s ear.

Transmission Factors in Speech Telephony FACTORS 1. LOUDNESS  hearing sufficiently well  The effectiveness of
Transmission Factors in Speech
Telephony
FACTORS
1. LOUDNESS
hearing sufficiently well
The effectiveness of speech
communication over telephone
connections and customer satisfaction
largely depend on the loudness loss of the
connection
  • as loudness loss is increased, the listening effort is increased, customer satisfaction decreases

1. LOUDNESS

***With these, transmission engineers used many methods to measure and express loudness loss

  • if too little loudness loss is provided, customer satisfaction decreases because the received speech is too loud.

1.A Loudness Rating  Predecessors 1.A.1 Reference Equivalent – The unit of measurement was decibel. The
1.A Loudness Rating
Predecessors
1.A.1 Reference Equivalent
The unit of measurement was decibel. The
lower the decibel, the louder the connection.
loudness is indicated by Overall Reference
EQUIVALENT.
Where:
ORE= TRE + RRE + intervening losses in a
connection
Recommended ORE was 33 dB(CCITT
Recommendation)
1.A Loudness Rating 1.A.1 Reference Equivalent Example: CCITT Rec. G.121 recommends that TRE should not exceed
1.A Loudness Rating
1.A.1 Reference Equivalent
Example:
CCITT Rec. G.121 recommends that TRE should not
exceed 20.8 dB and RRE should not exceed 12.2 dB

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1.A Loudness Rating 1.A.1 Reference Equivalent Example: CCITT Rec. G.121 recommends that TRE should not exceed
1.A Loudness Rating
1.A.1 Reference Equivalent
Example:
CCITT Rec. G.121 recommends that TRE should not
exceed 20.8 dB and RRE should not exceed 12.2 dB
1.A Loudness Rating 1.A.1 Reference Equivalent British Post Office Survey of Subscriber for % of Unsatisfactory
1.A Loudness Rating
1.A.1 Reference Equivalent
British Post Office Survey of Subscriber for % of Unsatisfactory
Calls
ORE (dB)
% of Unsatisfactory
Calls
40
33.6
36
18.9
32
9.7
28
4.2
24
1.7
20
0.67
16
0.228
ORE should lie in the range of 13 – 18
dB for international connections
If ORE drops to about 6 dB, the
subscriber will begin to complain
that the call is TOO LOUD!!
1.A Loudness Rating 1.A.2 Corrected Equivalent Rating – introduced because of some difficulties with using reference
1.A Loudness Rating
1.A.2 Corrected Equivalent Rating
introduced because of some difficulties with
using reference equivalent.
It has been found that if a connection was
made with a circuit loss of X and without
distortion, the RE of the system increase with
a smaller value than X
CRE=0.0089q 2 +1.148q-0.48
Where:
q=reference equivalent, dB
1.A Loudness Rating 1.A.2 Corrected Equivalent Rating Values of Y (CRE) as a function of q
1.A Loudness Rating
1.A.2 Corrected Equivalent Rating
Values of Y (CRE) as a function of q (RE)
Q (dB)
-10
-9
-8
-7
-6
-5
-4
Y (dB)
-10.18
-9.18
-8.18
-7.15
-6.11
-5.06
-3.98
Q (dB)
-3
-2
-1
0
1
2
3
4
Y (dB)
-2.89
-1.78
-0.66
0.48
1.64
2.81
4.00
5.2
Q (dB)
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
Y (dB)
6.43
7.66
8.92
10.19
11.48
12.78
14.10
15.44
Q (dB)
13
14
15
16
17
17.50
18
Y (dB)
16.79
18.16
19.55
20.95
22.37
23.08
23.80
1.A Loudness Rating Determination of Loudness Rating OLR=SLR +CLR+RLR
1.A Loudness Rating
Determination of Loudness Rating
OLR=SLR +CLR+RLR
  • The overall loudness rating (OLR) is defined as the loudness loss between the speaking subscriber’s mouth and the listening subscriber’s ear via a telephone connection.

1.A Loudness Rating

  • The SLR is defined as the loudness loss between the speaking subscriber’s mouth and an electrical interface in the network.

  • The RLR is the loudness loss between an electrical interface in the network and the listening subscriber’s ear.

  • The CLR is the loudness loss between two electrical interfaces in a connection or circuit.

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1.A Loudness Rating Representative Opinion Results for Overall Loudness Rating (OLR)
1.A Loudness Rating
Representative Opinion Results for Overall
Loudness Rating (OLR)

defined as the change in attenuation at any frequency with respect to that of a reference frequency

result of imperfect amplitude-frequency response

It can be avoided if all frequencies within the passband are subjected to the same loss (or gain).

THE THREE BASIC IMPAIRMENTS AND HOW THEY AFFECT THE END-USER

1. Amplitude Distortion (Attenuation Distortion)

2. Phase distortion(Envelope Delay Distortion) Preliminaries:  The velocity of propagation tends to increase toward band
2. Phase distortion(Envelope Delay Distortion)
Preliminaries:
The velocity of propagation tends to increase
toward band center and decrease toward band
edge(considering that a voice channel is a bandpass
filter)
The finite time it takes a signal to pass through the
total extension of the voice channel or through any
network is called delay.
  • A modulated signal will not be distorted on passing through the channel if the phase shift changes uniformly with frequency, whereas if the phase shift is nonlinear with respect to frequency, the output signal is distorted with respect to frequency.

  • EDD is the difference between the envelope delay at one frequency and that at another frequency of interest in a passband.

2. Phase distortion(Envelope Delay Distortion)

  • measured by a parameter called envelope dealy distortion(EDD)

3. Noise c. Impulse Noise a. Thermal Noise Impulse noise is noncontinuous, consisting of irregular pulses
3. Noise
c.
Impulse Noise
a.
Thermal Noise
Impulse noise is noncontinuous, consisting of irregular pulses or noise
spikes of short duration and of relatively high amplitude.
b.
Intermodulation noise
d.
Crosstalk
Causes:
Crosstalk is the unwanted coupling between signal paths.
Improper level setting. If the level of an input to a device is too high,
the device is driven into its nonlinear operating region (overdrive).
Causes:
Improper alignment causing a device to function nonlinearly.
Nonlinear envelope delay.
Electrical coupling between transmission media, such as between wire
pairs on a voice-frequency (VF) cable system and on digital (PCM)
cable systems.
Device malfunction.
Poor control of frequency response (i.e., defective filters or poor filter
design).
Nonlinear performance in analog (FDM) multiplex systems.
2/24/2015 1.A Loudness Rating Representative Opinion Results for Overall Loudness Rating (OLR) – defined as the

2/24/2015

There are two types of crosstalk: 1. Intelligible, where at least four words are intelligible to
There are two types of crosstalk:
1.
Intelligible, where at least four words are intelligible to
the listener from extraneous conversation(s) in a 7-second
period.
2.
Unintelligible, with crosstalk resulting from any other
form of disturbing effects of one channel on another.
Measurement of Crosstalk
1.
Far-end Crosstalk
Crosstalk is measured at the end far-end of the cable.
2.
Near-end Crosstalk
Crosstalk is measured near-end of the the disturbed pair
  • dBm

Preliminaries 1. Decibel (dB)

Noise Units

-used to measure the relationship between the loudness or volume of two sounds

-specifies the actual amount of power, using one milliwatt as the reference

-a useful unit for expressing the ratio between two signal powers

Noise Units Examples: 1. If the input signal of a device is 0.01 W and if
Noise Units
Examples:
1.
If the input signal of a device is 0.01 W and if
the output is 1 W, (a) what is the gain of the
device and (b) what is the gain in dB?
2.
If the input signal of the device
is 1 W and if
the output power is 0.01 W, (a) what is the
loss of the device and (b) what is the dB loss?
Noise Units 2. dBm or relative to 1 mW This unit is used to measure the
Noise Units
2. dBm or relative to 1 mW
This unit is used to measure the level of a
signal at any point in the network with
reference to 1mW and is defined as
= 10 log
1
Noise Units Example: What is the level of the signal at the output of an amplifier
Noise Units
Example:
What is the level of the signal at the output of an
amplifier if the signal value is 1mW and if the
gain of the amplifier is 3 dB?

Input: 1mW = 0 dBm Output = input + gain = 0 dBm + 3dB = 3 dBm

Example:

Noise Units

What is the level of the signal at the output of an amplifier if the signal value is 1mW and if the gain of the amplifier is 3 dB?

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Noise Units Important points: 1. dBm is the symbol ised to indicate the level of a
Noise Units
Important points:
1.
dBm is the symbol ised to indicate the level of
a signal in the system, relative to 1mW
2.
dB is the system used to indicate the gain or
loss in the system
3.
dB and dBm can be added and subtracted as
one unit from the other
± =
Noise Units 3. dBrn (dB above noise reference)  This unit is used to indicate the
Noise Units
3. dBrn (dB above noise reference)
This unit is used to indicate the
device and it is defined as
noise level of a
= 10
,
10 ,
dBrn= dB above noise reference level (10 -12 is a
chosen reference equivalent to -90 dBm)
-90 dBm = 0 dBrn
4. pWP(picowatts, psophometric)  a psophometric picowatt is a definite amount of noise power as measured
4.
pWP(picowatts, psophometric)
a psophometric picowatt is a definite amount of
noise power as measured with a psophometric
weighing network
reference is 1 picowatt, 800hz
5.
dBw
amount of power in dB, above or below
reference level of one watt
6.
dBk
represents the power level in dB above or below
the reference level of one kilowatt.
7.
dBv
reference to one volt