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Several researchers worldwide have investigated the behaviour of

reinforced cement concrete columns and beam-column joints of moment
resisting building under earthquake loading. A detailed review of literature
has been carried out to understand the influence of non-conventional detailing
of reinforcement on the behaviour of structural elements. Among these the
most significant literature are briefly summarised in this chapter. The past
efforts and recent contributions in finite element modelling of concrete
structural elements and material modelling related to this thesis work are also




Studies on Performance of Columns Under Seismic Loading

Wight and Sozen (1975) tested twelve concrete column specimens

under a series of load reversals and observed the benefit of the axial load
which delayed the decay in strength and stiffness of columns under cyclic
loading. They found that enough transverse reinforcement is needed for
confining the core and hence to reduce the strength and stiffness loss.

Abrams (1987a) studied the effect of axial load on the reversed

lateral cyclic loading of columns and found that the additional axial load


increased the stiffness, flexural strength and shear capacity. The author found
that the shape of the hysteretic loop was influenced by the range of axial force
variation and the rate of change of axial force with lateral deflection.

Saatcioglu and Ozcebe (1989) tested full-scale columns under

slowly applied lateral load reversals. Test parameters were axial load,
confinement reinforcement and deformation path. They reported increased
stiffness degradation and early strength degradation with addition of axial
loads. The authors concluded that selection of a proper confinement
configuration is a more feasible approach than the reduction in hoop spacing
alone to achieve the same level of ductility.

Sakai and Sheik (1989) presented a state-of-the-art report on

concrete confinement defining the status of the problem and future direction
of work. Topics discussed include properties of confined concrete, behaviour
of confined sections and columns including plastic hinge regions, and a
critical evaluation of the design code provisions.

Azizinamini et al (1992) conducted full scale testing of columns

with different transverse reinforcement details and found that the flexural
capacity of columns increased with axial load but ductility reduced
substantially. They found that six bar diameter extension of hook is sufficient
to produce adequate displacement ductility. Test results indicate that increase
in the amount of transverse reinforcement improves the ductility.

Aycardi et al (1994) tested gravity load designed column specimens

under simulated seismic loading, with low and high level axial forces and
with and without lap splices, representing interior and exterior columns at
floor slab and beam soffit levels. The failure of the columns were flexurally
dominated resulting in buckling of column reinforcement in the case of high


axial loads and low cycle fatigue of the longitudinal bars in the case of low
axial loads. The maximum strength was observed when interstorey drift was
between 2% and 3% and subsequently, strength decreased with additional drifts.

Mo and Wang (2000) conducted experiments on RC columns with

various tie configurations by reversed cyclic loading. They proposed
transverse reinforcement configuration with alternate ties to improve the
seismic performance.

Elwood and Moehle (2003) observed that the lateral displacement

or drift of a reinforced concrete column at axial failure was dependent upon
and directly proportional to the spacing of transverse reinforcement and the
axial stress developed within the column. Further, it was noted that the lateral
drift experienced by the columns at axial failure was dependent upon and
inversely proportional to the amount of axial load exerted on the columns.
The performance of columns under seismic loading is also influenced by the
secondary moment due to drift.

Turer and Akyuz (2003) made a case study and suggested that the
diagonal tension crack at the upper end of the column is due to a combination
of inferior material quality, inadequate transverse reinforcement, and
insufficient column confinement. Insufficient structural resistance combined
with the poor construction quality and detailing causes catastrophic failure of
the structures.

Flores (2004) studied experimentally the behaviour of columns

under seismic loading to understand the progression of damage and
mechanisms causing collapse in shear-critical reinforced concrete columns.
Based on the test results, the authors developed analytical models to predict
the drift capacity of columns.


Montes et al (2004) studied the impact of optimal longitudinal

reinforcement on the curvature ductility capacity of column sections. An
approach for determining an acceptable reinforcement by means of
reinforcement sizing diagram has been described. The authors concluded that
the curvature ductility capacity enhanced for the case of optimal longitudinal
reinforcement relative to the values computed for conventionally reinforced

Mark et al (2008) developed a nonlinear conjugate gradient search

method for finding the optimal reinforcement of a rectangular reinforced
concrete cross section. The authors suggested the use of the model for
sections subjected to uniaxial or biaxial bending.

As per the literature reviewed on behaviour of columns under

cyclic shear loading, it was concluded that adequate transverse reinforcement
and appropriate longitudinal reinforcement will provide better ductility,
stiffness and strength to the column elements of the buildings. The research
by Montes et al (2004) indicated that the use of optimal reinforcement
improves the curvature ductility of columns than that of higher percentage of
reinforcement. Hence the effects of percentage of longitudinal reinforcement
and orientation of ties on the behaviour of columns under cyclic shear loading
are experimentally studied as a preliminary part in this project work.


Studies on Performance of Beam-Column Joints and NonConventionally Detailed Structural Elements Under Seismic

Paulay and Binney (1974) conducted experimental studies on the

short reinforced concrete coupling beams by providing the principal
reinforcement diagonally instead of in the conventional form. The authors


designed the diagonal reinforcement based on the assumption that the shear
force resolves itself into diagonal tension and compression. Initially, the
diagonal compression is transmitted by concrete and the compression
reinforcement makes no significant contribution. When diagonal tension bars
are loaded to yield range, wide cracks are formed and these cracks remain
open even after the removal of loading. When the reversed load is applied as
during an earthquake, these bars are subjected to large compressive force and
may yield even before the cracks formed previously are closed. As equal
amount of steel was provided in both the diagonal band, the loss of
contribution of concrete will not affect the strength of the beam. Thus the use
of inclined reinforcement prevents brittle failure in short coupling beams.

Uzumeri (1977) tested exterior beam-column sub assemblages

under high constant axial compressive forces and concluded that the large
axial compressive force applied to the concrete struts was detrimental to the

Paulay et al (1978) studied the behaviour of interior joints from the

experimental data base. They concluded that total shear force at the joint
should be carried by the diagonal strut and truss mechanism. The major
contribution is from strut mechanism, which is to be diminished after the
plastic hinge formation at beam near joint interface. The stirrup and
intermediate column bars can provide the strut mechanism. The diameter of
the column bars should not be excessive to avoid bond failure.

Meinheit and Jirsa (1981) carried out experimental investigations to

evaluate the factors influencing the shear capacity of the beam-column joints.
The parameters considered were (i) size and spacing of transverse
reinforcement in the joints, (ii) percentage of column longitudinal
reinforcement, (iii) axial load on columns, (iv) effect of transverse beams and


(v) aspect ratio of joints. Their conclusions were (1) transverse reinforcement
in the connection improved the shear capacity, (2) unloaded transverse beams
improved the shear capacity, (3) column axial load had no influence on
ultimate shear capacity of joints, (4) connection geometry had no influence on
shear strength of joints, as far as shear area of the connection remained

Minami and Wakabayashi (1984) provided diagonal reinforcement

in short columns which were failing in shear and found better performance
than with conventional reinforcement. The authors found that shear resistance
of columns was improved by developing additional truss mechanism from the
diagonal reinforcement. The shear strength of columns increased with
increase in the yield tensile force of diagonal reinforcement. For the
diagonally reinforced columns, the failure mode changed from shear to
flexural failure and hysteresis curves changed to spindle shape having high
energy dissipation capacity.

Durrani and Wight (1985) carried out experiments on interior

beam-column joints subjected to reversed cyclic loading. The objective of the
studies were to evaluate the effect of the amount of joint hoop reinforcement
and joint shear stress on strength degradation, loss of stiffness, energy
dissipation, shear deformation of joints, and the slippage of beam and column
bars through the joint. The authors found that a combination of lower joint
shear stress and a moderate amount of joint reinforcement was more effective
than a combination of a higher shear stress level and a heavily reinforced joint
for higher energy dissipation. A minimum column to beam flexural strength
ratio of 1.5 was recommended for design. The slippage of beam bars was
observed to be dependent on the joint shear stress level and confinement of
joint core, and hence member end rotation due to slippage was recommended
to be included in the nonlinear dynamic analysis.


Ehsani and Wight (1985) tested six exterior beam-column

subassemblies with and without transverse beams and slab and compared their
behaviour. The parameters investigated included the flexural strength ratio
(ratio of flexural capacities of the columns to that of the beams), the
percentage of transverse reinforcement used within the joints and the shear
stress in the joints. In the case of specimens where the flexural strength ratio
is one or less, hinges are formed in the columns. The flexural strength ratio is
reduced significantly due to contribution of the slab longitudinal
reinforcement. It was found that the transverse beams are subjected to a
combination of bending and torsion loading. The confinement of a joint in the
specimen with transverse beam and slab improved significantly over a similar
specimen without transverse beam or slab.

Durrani and Zerbe (1987) tested six exterior beam-column

subassemblies. Out of these specimens one was without transverse beams, one
was with transverse beams and the other four were with transverse beams and
slab. As the columns were designed to be stronger than the beams, the
flexural hinges formed in the beams in all the specimens. It was found that the
specimens with slab showed higher flexural strength than the specimen
without slab. The stiffness of the specimens with slab is 60 % to 70 % higher
than that of the specimens without slab. It was also shown that the loss of
stiffness in specimens with slab is gradual and is not affected significantly by
the different slab widths. Also the specimens with slab dissipated
approximately 40 % more energy than the specimens without slab.

Zerbe and Durrani (1989) studied the behaviour of beam-column

connections under earthquake type loading by testing indeterminate frame sub
assemblies. The specimens used for testing were plain two-bay substitute
frame with beam and column alone. Any restriction to the elongation of the


main beams and the accompanying axial compression were observed to affect
the response of the connections. It was reported that the joint shear in both
interior and exterior connections increased while the column to beam flexural
strength ratio reduced. The lateral resistance was reported to have increased
significantly. A procedure to account for the presence of axial compression in
the main beams in the design of beam-column connections was presented
based on the observed mechanism of lateral load resistance and the observed
behaviour of the connections.

Paulay (1989) used the laws of statics to demonstrate the

disposition of internal forces in beam-column joints. It was shown that due to
joint shear forces, which result in extensive diagonal cracking of the core
concrete, significant orthogonal tensile forces are generated. Also, as in the
case of linear elements, joint shear reinforcement is necessary to sustain a
diagonal compression field rather than to provide confinement to compressed
concrete in a joint core. The author concluded that (1) After diagonal
cracking; diagonal compression forces transmitted by concrete alone are
unconditional prerequisites of statically admissible shear transfer within a
joint. The purpose of joint shear reinforcement is to sustain such mechanisms.
(2) To restrict excessive joint dilation, which may significantly increase
storey drift, orthogonal tensile forces within a joint core must be resisted
primarily by reinforcement additional to beam and column bars that pass
through the joints. (3) Under typical earthquake actions, beams dilate rather
than confine joint cores unless it runs in transverse direction. Therefore,
provided that the flexural reinforcement in a beam passes through or is
anchored within the column, the width of a beam relative to the width of a
column is an irrelevant quantity in terms of joint performance.

Leon (1990) investigated the performance of interior joints with

respect to joint shear stress and beam anchorage lengths. Different levels of


joint shear stress and anchorage length were arrived by changing the column
depth. The author stated that, when the anchorage lengths are large, even the
minimum shear reinforcement required for column confinement was adequate
to give good cyclic behaviour. Also it was proved that the assumption of rigid
joints in moment resisting frame is valid only if the anchorage lengths are
equal or exceed 28 bar diameters.

Alameddine and Ehsani (1991) conducted reversed cyclic loading

test on high strength concrete corner beam-column subassemblies. The test
result shows that lower shear stress with adequate joint confinement were
necessary to ensure good performance of joints and to move the hinging zone
away from joints. It was also shown that properly designed high-strength
reinforced concrete connections exhibit ductile hysteretic response. The
minimum flexural strength ratio of column to beam, 1.4 was also applicable to
high strength joint to ensure the formation of plastic hinges in the beam rather
than in columns.

Pantazopoulou and Bonacci (1992) studied the mechanics of beam column joints in laterally loaded structures and lead to formulation based on
compatibility of strain and stress equilibrium within the core. They developed
algebraic expressions relating the average joint shear stress and the associated
joint shear distortion. The model made by them showed that shear strength of
a joint depends on usable compressive strength of concrete as well as the
presence of shear hoops.

Tsonos et al (1992) conducted tests on external beam - column

connections using inclined reinforcing bars under seismic conditions.
Specimens with conventional reinforcement (type s) and specimens with
crossed inclined bars and hoop reinforcement (type x) provided in joint region
were evaluated. In type x specimens, four numbers of intermediate vertical


joint shear reinforcement were replaced by four cross-inclined bars bend

diagonally across the joint core. The development length for both types of
bars was equal. The variables were the amount of inclined bars, the ratio of
the column-to-beam flexural capacity and the joint shear stress. The authors
found that the exterior joints with inclined bars had high shear resistance and
least deterioration than specimens designed as per code recommendations.
They concluded that the inclined bars introduce an additional new mechanism
of shear transfer and diagonal cleavage fracture was avoided for those

Agbabian et al (1993) studied the effect of axial column load on the

shear capacity of beam-to-column connections. They observed that the axial
column load has a marked effect on the shear deformation capacity, yield
point, cracking pattern, ultimate capacity and ductility of the panel zone. They
tested three interior beam column sub assemblages with ten per cent, five per
cent and zero per cent axial load capacity. Test results indicated that the
overall displacement response of the sub assemblages decreased by 22 per cent for
a decrease in the axial load from ten to five per cent of the squash load.

Bonacci and Pantazopoulou (1993) studied the influence of key

variables such as axial load, concrete strength, presence of transverse beams
and bond demand on the behaviour of joints using results of a database study
compiled from published literature. The study consisted of a detailed
description of the parametric dependence of joint behaviour using mechanical
model developed by the authors. A design guideline was proposed to
proportion the column size such that the intensity of bond demand inside the
joint, (bond index) is kept low.

Veerendra Kumar and Mohammed Shamim (1999) carried out

experiments on beam column joints subjected to axial compression and


uniaxial bending. The effects of column axial load, shear and tension
reinforcement in the beam on the performance of joints were studied. It was
found that the efficiency of joints increases with the increase in axial load on
column and with the increase in tensile and shear reinforcement in the beam.
The authors found that increase in shear reinforcement decreases ultimate
deflection of beam column joints and this reduction was significant in higher
percentage of tensile reinforcement in beams. They reported that increase in
shear reinforcement in beam increases the ultimate strength of joints at higher
axial load levels.

Tsonos (2000) investigated the improvement of earthquake

resistance of exterior reinforced concrete beam column connection with
vertical hoops in the joint region and compared with the response of similar
specimens constructed with the vertical joint shear reinforcement required by
Eurocode 8 and NZS 3101:82. The author concluded that vertical joint hoop
reinforcement gives more effective reinforcing pattern for sustaining the
vertical joint shear force than the intermediate column bars. He also
concluded that sub assemblages with vertical hoops in the joint region have
increased strength, stiffness and energy dissipation.

Murty et al (2001) tested the exterior beam column joints subjected

to static cyclic loading. They conducted experiments by changing the
anchorage detailing of beam reinforcement and shear reinforcement detailing.
The experiment revealed that anchoring the beam bars in to the column is
essential in developing a good hysteretic response in the frame. They
governed the sequence in which member capacities will be attained, nature of
the failure mode, and the overall energy dissipation potential of the system.
They stated that diagonal compression strut will carry shear force in the joint
core, only when the horizontal shear stress is limited to a value less than the
compressive strength of the concrete core when it is extensively cracked


under load reversals. Their work emphasizes the need for larger joint sizes
and extra shear reinforcement in the joint. They reported that the practical
joint detailing using hairpin-type reinforcement is a competitive alternative to
providing closed ties in the joint region.

Bakir and Boduroglu (2002) developed a methodology for

predicting the failure modes of monotonically loaded reinforced concrete
beam-column joints. The authors concluded that the design charts gave
accurate predictions of failure modes.

Sathish Kumar et al (2002) studied the hysteretic behaviour of

lightly reinforced concrete exterior T shaped beam to column joint sub
assemblages detailed as per IS 13920:1993 and providing additionally two
pairs of cross reinforcement on joints having development length to beam
from joint face on one end. The parameters studied were effect of joint
rotation, column axial load, cross reinforcement in the joint and the
percentage of longitudinal reinforcement in the beam. They concluded that (1)
allowing free joint rotation is beneficial and leads to an increase in the
ductility and energy dissipation capacity of RC Frames. (2) the use of cross
reinforcement in the joints reduces the damage in the joint region but stiffness
of the joints leading to crack formation at the beam to column joint line
thereby reducing the ductility and energy dissipation capacity of the frame.
(3) The presence of axial load in the columns not only increases the strength
and ductility but also reduces the damage in the joint region.

Bakir (2003) conducted a parametric study of shear resisting

mechanism of exterior joints from experimental database. After doing a
multiple linear regression analysis a design equation for joint shear force was
developed considering the effect of inclined bars. The author concluded that
this equation was an improvement on existing code recommendations.


Murty et al (2003) experimentally studied the beam column joints

in frames common in pre seismic code / gravity-designed reinforced concrete
(RC) frames buildings by changing the anchorage detailing pattern of beam
reinforcement and providing hairclip-type bends as confining reinforcement.
Exterior RC joint sub assemblages were studied with four details of
longitudinal beam bar anchorage and three details of transverse joint
reinforcement. All the specimens showed low ductility and poor energy
dissipation with excessive shear cracking of the joint core. They explained the
importance of carefully designed beam column joints for the satisfactory
performance during strong seismic shaking of RC frame buildings. The
authors found that beam reinforcement with American Concrete Institute
(ACI) Standard hook along with hairclip-type bend stirrup at joint region was
the preferred combination.

Subramanian and Rao (2003) studied the behaviour and design of

two, three and four member beam column joints and explained the past
experimental investigations in the detailing of the joints. The authors also
explained some of the incorrect design and construction practices of beam
column joints. They reported that the efficiency of joint detail improved (1)
when inclined bars are added to take up the tensile forces at the inner corners,
(2) when thickness of the adjoining members are different and (3) when the
length ratio of the two legs is changed from 1 to 2.

Uma and Meher Prasad (2003) presented a new analytical model

for beam column joints to represent the shear behaviour within the joint panel
zone by establishing shear stress - shear deformation history envelope with
salient response points, which forms the backbone for the primary curve of
the strength - deformation model for joints in non-linear dynamic analysis
computational tool. The authors also discussed the procedure to accommodate


the effect of bond-slip of the longitudinal bars passing through the joints in
predicting the beam column joint behaviour under reversed cyclic loading
reflecting the seismic conditions.
Tsonos (2004) conducted an experimental study to find the
improvement of the earthquake resistance of RC beam-column joints with
inclined bars under the influence of P- effect. An analytical model was
developed for predicting ultimate shear strength of joints subjected to
earthquake-type loading, variable axial load and P- effect. The axial load
change and P- effect causes significant deterioration of joint element. The
author concluded that inclined bars in the joint region were effective for
reducing the unfavorable impact of P-effect and axial load change.
Jing et al (2004) conducted experiments on interior joints by
changing the beam reinforcement-detailing pattern at the joint core. Diagonal
steel bars in the form of obtuse Z were installed in two opposite direction of
the joint. The authors found that the non-conventional pattern provided was
suitable for joints in regions of low to moderate seismicity.

et al (2005) carried out experiments on full scale

exterior beam column joints and assessed the seismic capacity of the existing
joints in the nuclear power plant structures which were detailed as per IS:
13920:1993. Test results revealed that there is a significant contribution due
to shear deformation on the total deformation suffered by the joint.

Hwang et al (2005) investigated the effect of joint hoops on the

shear strength of exterior beam-column joints. They found that major function
of the joint hoop is to carry shear as tension tie and to constrain the width of
tension crack. They suggested that lesser amount of joint hoops with wider


spacing could be used without significantly affecting the performance of

Karayannis et al (2005) investigated the behaviour of exterior beam
column joints with continuous rectangular spiral reinforcement as shear
reinforcement in the joint region. The authors concluded that the usage of the
rectangular spiral reinforcement significantly improves the seismic capacity
of external beam-column connections.

Asha and Sundararajan (2006) experimentally investigated the

behaviour of exterior beam column joints with detailing as per IS 13920: 1993
under seismic conditions. They evaluated the specimens with reinforcement
provided in joint region namely, square hoop (SH), square spiral (SS), circular
hoop (CH), circular spiral (CS) and substandard detail (SD, i.e., without any
hoop) in terms of load - displacement relation, ductility, stiffness, load ratio
and cracking pattern. They finally concluded that the specimen with SS
confinement in joint region showed high strength, spindle shaped hysteretic
loop with large energy dissipation capacity, higher stiffness and highest
cumulative energy dissipation.

Alva et al (2007) tested four exterior beam - column joints under

reversed cyclic loading. The variables are the joint transverse reinforcement
and concrete compressive strength. The authors concluded that concrete
compressive strength is the major factor that governs the joint shear capacity.
They also found that increasing the number of stirrups increases the joint
shear capacity.

Sarkar et al (2007) reviewed the design procedures for the RC beam

column joints under seismic loading with a special emphasis on three
international codes of practice viz. ACI 318M-02, NZS 3101: 1995 and prEN
1998-1: 2003. It was pointed out that there is an urgent need to revise IS


13920 suitably, in terms of (i) Minimum column width, (ii) Column/beam

flexural strength ratio, (iii) Estimation of shear demand, (iv) Assessment of
shear strength, design and detailing of shear reinforcement. It was found that
the New Zealand code gives the most conservative recommendation, followed
by Euro code. Although the ACI code, relatively less conservative, gives
many recommendations that are practical. It was strongly recommended that,
at the very least, the provisions given in ACI 318M-02, may be adopted in
IS 13920.

Tsonos (2007) studied experimentally the performance of beamcolumn sub assemblages of modern structures. The test results indicate that
current design procedures could sometimes lead to excessive damage of the
joint regions.

Chalioris et al (2008) investigated the effectiveness of cross

inclined bars (X bars) as joint shear reinforcement in exterior reinforced
beam-column connections under cyclic deformations. The arrangement of
cross inclined bars consisted of the cross inclined bars alone and in
combination with common stirrups or vertical bars. The authors found
enhanced cyclic performance and improved damage mode with flexural
hinges at beam-joint interface.

Karayannis and Sirkelis (2008) investigated the behaviour of

exterior beam-column joints repaired or/ and strengthened with a combination
of epoxy resin injections and carbon-fibre-reinforced plastics. The authors
concluded that the technique of epoxy resin injections is appropriate for the
total rehabilitation of the joints seismic capacity, since no damage have been
observed at the joint area of the specimens after the repair.


The anchorage length requirements for beam and column bars, the
provision of transverse / confining reinforcement, the role of stirrups in shear
transfer at the joint, the design and detailing of the joints are the main issues
found. From the literature reviewed it seems that the major role of ties is to
resist the shear force in the joint core. The study of using additional cross
inclined bars at the joint core shows that the inclined bars introduce an
additional new mechanism of shear transfer and diagonal cleavage fracture at
joints was avoided. In spite of the wide accumulation of test data the influence
of cross inclined bars on shear strength of joints has not been mentioned in
major international codes.

Hence in the present work the confining

reinforcement are arranged in non-conventional ways by providing diagonal

bars on two faces of joints and their performance are compared with
transverse reinforcement detailing as per the current code of practices viz., IS
456 and IS 13920 incorporating the proposed revisions(Jain and Murty
2005(a) and (b)).


Studies on Finite Element Modelling of Concrete Structural


An extensive description of previous studies on the application of

the finite element method to the analysis of reinforced concrete structures and
the underlying theory and the application of the finite element method to the
analysis of linear and nonlinear reinforced concrete structures is presented in
excellent state-of-the art reports by the American Society of Civil Engineers
in 1982 (ASCE 1982).

Barbosa and Ribeiro (1998) investigated the possibilities of

performing nonlinear finite element analysis of reinforced concrete structures
using ANSYS concrete model. In this study, nonlinear stress-strain relations
for concrete in compression were made to reach the ultimate load and


determine the entire load-deflection diagram. The good results attained

suggest that, in spite of the relative simplicity of the analyzed structure and of
the employed models, satisfactory prediction of the response of reinforced
concrete structures may be obtained.

Fanning (2001) constructed the finite element models of 3.0 m

ordinarily reinforced concrete beams and 9.0 m post-tensioned concrete
beams, using the Solid65 element in ANSYS. The internal reinforcement
were modelled using three dimensional spar elements with plasticity, Link8,
embedded within the solid mesh. According to the author, the models
accurately captured the nonlinear flexural response of these systems up to
failure. It was found that the optimum modelling strategy, in terms of
controlling mesh density and accurately locating the internal reinforcement
was to model the primary reinforcing in a discrete manner. The author
concluded that the dedicated smeared crack model is an appropriate numerical
model for capturing the flexural modes of failure of reinforced concrete

Damian et al (2001) studied finite element modelling of reinforced

concrete structures strengthened with Fibre Reinforce Plastic (FRP)
laminates. A three-dimensional finite element model of the bridge was
developed to examine the structural behavior before and after applying FRP
laminates. Nonlinear finite element analysis was performed using the ANSYS
program. SOLID65, LINK8, and SOLID46 elements represented concrete,
discrete reinforcing steel bars, and FRP laminates, respectively. The
comparisons between ANSYS predictions and field data were made in terms
of concrete strains. The Finite Element (FE) bridge model very well predicts
the trends in the strains versus the various truckload locations.


Maeck and De Roeck (2002) developed a finite element model to









Reinforcement and concrete were explicitly modelled as well as the interface

layer, where the force transfer between both materials is established. They
reported that discrete approach stands closer to physical reality than the
smeared crack approach, as it reflects the localised character of cracking.

Lowes and Altoontash (2003) developed a model to represent the

response of reinforced-concrete beam-column joints under reversed-cyclic
loading. The model was implemented as a four-node 12 degree-of-freedom
element that is appropriate for use with typical hysteretic beam-column line
elements in two-dimensional nonlinear analysis of reinforced concrete






mechanisms that determine the inelastic beam-column joint behaviour

through the combined action of one-dimensional shear-panel, bar-slip, and
interface-shear components. Constitutive relationships were developed to
define the load-deformation response of the joint model on the basis of
material, geometric and design parameters. Comparison of simulated and
observed response for a series of joint subassemblies with different design
details indicates that the model proposed by the authors is appropriate for
simulating response under earthquake loading.

Santhakumar et al (2004) simulated the behaviour of retrofitted

reinforced concrete (RC) shear beams. The study was carried out on the
unretrofitted RC beam designated as control beam and RC beams retrofitted
using carbon fibre reinforced plastic (CFRP) composites. The effects of
retrofitting on uncracked and precracked beams were also studied. The finite
elements adopted by ANSYS were used in this study. The authors reported
that the load deflection plots obtained from numerical study show good
agreement with the experimental plots.


Qi Zhang (2004) presented the application of the finite element

method for the numerical modelling of punching shear failure mode using
ANSYS. The author investigated the behaviour of slab-column connections
reinforced with Glass Fibre Reinforced Polymers (GFRPs). SOLID65 and
LINK8 elements represented concrete and reinforcing steel bars respectively.
A spring element, Link10, along the edge, was included in this study to reflect
the actual setup of slab-column connection. A quarter of the full-size slabcolumn connections, with proper boundary conditions, were used in ANSYS
for modelling. Concrete constitutive relationship included the elastic-perfectly
plastic model, crack condition and crush limit. GFRP reinforcement was
defined linear elastic. Spring supports were the compression only elements.
The author reported that general behaviour of the finite element models
represented by the load-deflection plots at centre show good agreement with
the test data. However, the finite element models showed slightly more
stiffness than the test data in both the linear and nonlinear ranges.

Qi Zhang and Hussein (2004) constructed the finite element model

for GFRP-reinforced concrete slabs under static loading, short duration
impact loading including blast waves (soft impact) and falling rocky block
(hard impact). A full-size slab-column connection model, with proper
boundary conditions, was constructed using ANSYS. A static analysis was
conducted first to verify the accuracy of the model. The concrete constitutive
model included the elastic-perfectly plastic model, crack condition and crush
limit. GFRP reinforcement was defined as a linear elastic material. Good
agreement with the test data was obtained. Under blast wave impact, the
maximum amplitude of displacement and reaction force was proportional to
the overpressure. The periods of oscillated displacement were similar to the
period of the first mode in the modal analysis; however, the displacement due
to high overpressure exhibits much more disorderly than those with low


overpressure, and the reaction force with high pressure decays much slower
than the others.

Hegger et al (2004) used a nonlinear finite element analysis

program ATENA to investigate the behaviour of exterior and interior beamcolumn joints. The model was calibrated using the test results. The concrete
was modelled with nine-node isoparametric shell elements, while discrete
bars were used to model the reinforcement. Only half of the system was
modelled through the thickness such that the symmetry conditions were used.
The program ATENA assumes full bond between the reinforcement and
concrete. Thus, the actual bond behaviour was represented by the
deformations of the elements surrounding the reinforcing bars and a finer
mesh was used within the joint. Because of the expected stress concentrations,
the intersections of the beam and column compression zones were also
modelled using a finer mesh. An idealised elastic, fully plastic stress-strain
curve was used for material modelling of reinforcing bar. The authors
concluded that the most important factors affecting the shear capacity of
exterior beam-column connections are the concrete compressive strength, the
joint slenderness of the connection, the beam reinforcement (ratio, detailing
and anchorage) and the amount of stirrups inside the joint.

Wolanski (2004) investigated the use of the finite element method

for the analysis of reinforced and pre-stressed concrete beams. A mild steel
reinforced concrete beam with flexural and shear reinforcement was analysed
to failure and compared to experimental results to calibrate the parameters in
ANSYS. The deflections and stresses at the centerline along with initial and
progressive cracking of the finite element model were comparable with
experimental data obtained from a reinforced concrete beam. The failure
mechanism of a reinforced concrete beam was modelled quite well and the
failure load predicted was very close to the failure load measured during


experimental testing. Deflections and stresses at the zero deflection point are
modelled well using a finite element package. The load applied to cause
initial cracking of the prestressed concrete beam compares well with hand
calculations. Flexural failure of the prestressed concrete beam was modelled
well using the finite element package, and the load applied at failure was very
close to hand calculated results.
Bakir and Boduroglu (2005) applied nonlinear softened truss model
for membrane elements on beam-column joints incorporating the effect of
bond slip. The authors suggested that the revised model gives very accurate
predictions of shear strength of joints.

In this section, the finite element modelling of reinforced concrete

elements using different packages, and their comparison with experimental
investigations are also reviewed. Considering the capabilities of the finite
element software package ANSYS, the same was adopted for the present
work. The finite element analysis includes modelling of the column with
different percentage of longitudinal reinforcement and exterior joints of
reinforced concrete with conventional and non-conventional reinforcement



A brief review of literature has been presented under three divisions

as, performance of columns under seismic loading, behaviour of beam column joints and non-conventionally detailed structural elements under
seismic loading and finite element modelling of concrete structural elements.
From the literature reviewed, it is observed that optimum percentage of
longitudinal reinforcement in columns, and usage of a better non-conventional
detailing pattern for exterior joints are to be investigated to get earthquake
resistant framed structures.