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P re

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Ank nted
it A by:nur
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Artificial intelligence :
The theory and development of computer systems able to perform
tasks normally requiring human intelligence, such as visual
perception, speech recognition, decision-making, and translation
between languages.
Computer science
Linguistics

Biology
Artificial intelligence

Engineering

Psychology

Mathematics

The Turing test (1950)

Differentiating machines and humans

Problems to tackle

Turing MadeEasy
A....Natural Language processing

B....Knowledge Representation

C....Automata Theory

Autonomous agents are perceived as intelligent.

D....Machine Learning

Learning is associated with intelligence.

General Model

General Model

1832--Analytical Engine
The Analytical Engine incorporated an
arithmetic logic unit, control flow in the form of
conditional branching and loops, and
integrated memory, making it the first design
for a general-purpose computer

1936--Turing machine proposed Computer model

1912--Automatic Chess player... first computer


game

John Mccarthy :-Father of Artificial


intelligence

He wrote
computer
programs to
play chess in
1966.

He coined the term Artificial Intelligence in 1956.

1957 The General Problem Solver (GPS) demonstrated by Newell, Shaw & Simon

1952-62

Arthur Samuel (IBM) wrote checkers playing program


He did seminal research in machine learning in 1949..

1958

John McCarthy (MIT) invented the Lisp language.

Lisp is like C or C++ in AI all power full and


flexible.

1961 James Slagle SAINT Symbolic Automatic Integrator

It was capable of solving all the freshman calculus (integration).


1962 Unimation was the first industrial Robot in General Motors

1963 Thomous Evans ANALOGY program

1964: IBM's "Shoebox" for speech recognition

1965: Lotfi Zadeh's Fuzzy Logic ( practical way of thinking)

1966: Ross Quillian's semantic networks

Semantic
Networks

1966: Joe Weizenbaum's Eliza


John Maccarthy wrote computer programs to play chess in 1966

1969: Marvin Minsky & Samuel Papert's "Perceptrons" kill neural networks

perceptron
1969: Stanford Research Institute's Shakey the Robot

Neuron

1971: Richard Fikes' and Nils Nilsson's STRIPS

SHAKEY was integrated with this new AI STRIPS

1974-1997

1975 1975: John Holland's genetic algorithms


1979: Cordell Green's system for automatic programming
1979: David Marr's theory of vision
1980: Intellicorp, the first major start-up for Artificial Intelligence
1982: Judea Pearl's "Bayesian networks"
1983: John Laird and Paul Rosenbloom's SOAR
1974 .Backpropagation algorithm for neural networks
1987: Rodney Brooks' robots

1988: Philip Agre builds the first "Heideggerian AI", Pengi, a system that
plays the arcade videogame Pengo

1997: DeepBlue(IBM) defeated


Gary Kasparov

1998 Google was born. Larry Page and Sergi Brin cofounded it.

2003: Hiroshi Ishiguro's Actroid, a robot that looks like a young woman

2004: Mark Tilden's biomorphic robot Robosapien


2005: Honda's humanoid robot "Asimo"
2005: Andrew Ng at Stanford launches the STAIR project
(Stanford Artificial Intelligence Robot)
2005: Boston Dynamics' quadruped robot "BigDog"

2005 Asimo BigDog Andrew Ng's STAIR and SOINN ( IN PIC left to right)
2011: Osamu Hasegawa's SOINN-based robot that learns functions
it was not programmed to do

Present

Computer Vision
Describing images

Natural Language Processing

Watson answering a quiz.

Microsoft wins applause for tone-preserving translation


In this demonstration the
speakers voice was
being recognised and
converted to english first.
Then it was converted
into Chinese.
After that it was changed
into 'Personalised Voice'
in
Chinese with all tones
and
Modulations.

Autonomous Vehicles: The DARPA Grand Challenge

Copying the Brain


In 2012 at Google he built a
computerized brain that worked as a
cat detector. It used a roughly 1-billionconnection network trained on 1,000
computers to teach itself how to spot
cat videos on YouTube. The system
cost roughly $1 million.
Andrew Ng

Copying the Brain


In 2012 at Google he built a
computerized brain that worked as a
cat detector. It used a roughly 1-billionconnection network trained on 1,000
computers to teach itself how to spot
cat videos on YouTube. The system
cost roughly $1 million.
Andrew Ng

Super-intelligence
Artificial
superintelligence (ASI):
Oxford philosopher and
leading AI thinker Nick
Bostrom defines
"superintelligence" as "an
intellect that is much
smarter than the best
human brains in
practically every field,
including scientific
creativity, general
wisdom and social
skills.
Brain ~~ of order 6
calcs/ second
How Long untill computers Have the same Power as the human Brain
Computing power doubles every 18 months.