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# ECE 450 Fall 2005

FINAL EXAM
December 12, 2005
This is a closed book/notes exam.
You are allowed to use only:
a) Three sheets of notes (written on both sides);
b) Calculator.
c) The Smith Charts provided, in case you choose to use them as a
graphical aid for answering transmission line-related questions.
Perfect score is 350.
Show all your work for full credit.
Type and sign your name below and indicate the section you are in.
Also, type your name in the space indicated at the top of each page.
NAME: ____SOLUTIONS_________

SIGNATURE:_____________________

SECTION: ____________________
Problem
1

Problem
2

Problem
3

Problem
4

Problem
5

Problem
6

TOTAL

## PROBLEM 1 [50 points]

NAME_________________

## A time-harmonic, uniform electromagnetic plane wave is propagating in a non-magnetic

( = 0 ) medium (Medium 1). The electric field vector of the wave is given by
E( z , t ) = 10e z cos ( 2 107 t 3 z ) a x (V/m)

a) Calculate the attenuation constant, phase constant and wavelength in Medium 1. (15
points)
E( z , t ) = E0 exp ( z ) cos (t z ) a x
Attenuation constant: = (Nepers/m).
Phase constant: = 3 (m 1 ).
Wavelength: =

2
m.
3

b) Calculate the intrinsic impedance of the wave in Medium 1 and the time-average
power density. (15 points)

=
= + j =

j0
j (2 107 )(4 107 )

=
=

+ j
(1 + j 3)

j0 ( + j )

j0
+ j

## = 2.4 + j 0.8 = 7.94767 exp ( j18.435D ) ()

Time-average power density:
P( z ) = a z

1
1 | E( z ) |2
Re ( E H ) = a z
cos ( ) = a z 5.96831exp ( 2 z ) (W/m 2 )
2
2 | |

## c) Calculate the time-average power dissipated inside the volume in Medium 1

bounded by the planes x = 0, x = 1 m, y = 0, y = 1 m, z = 0, z = d p , where d p is the
penetration depth in the medium. (10 points)

## d) At z = (2 / ) m , the wave encounters a planar interface between Medium 1 and air.

Calculate the magnitude of the transmitted electric field in the air region. (10
points)
The incident electric field at z = 2 / (m) is (in phasor form)
2
2

## The transmission coeffficient at the planar interface is:

20
240
=
1.96;
+ 0 7.94767 exp ( j18.435D ) + 120

## PROBLEM 2 [75 points]

NAME_________________

a) The total, time-average power radiated in air by a Hertzian dipole driven by a current I A = 100D (A) is 50 W. The operating frequency is 100 MHz. Calculate the
physical length of the Hertzian dipole. (15 points).

c
= 3 (m)
f
2

2
2
1
1
A
Ptot = Rrad I A = 80 2 I A
2
2

1
A
=
A = 0.1067644 (m)
80

b) If instead of the Hertzian dipole, a half-wave dipole is used, what should be the current magnitude | I 0 | at the feed of the dipole so that the total, time-average radiated
power remains 50 W? (10 points).
Ptot =

1
Rrad | I 0 |2 | I 0 |= 1.17 (A)
2

c) You are asked to design an antenna system that radiates a circularly-polarized wave
along specific directions in the far-field region. The system will consist of two
Hertzian dipoles of the same length, both placed at the origin of the reference coordinate system, with the dipole in Part a) above oriented along the z axis. What
should be the current phasor, I B , of the second dipole and its orientation in order
for the system of the two dipoles to produce the circularly-polarized wave in the
far-field region in the direction = 45D , = 90D ? (25 points).

e j r

Dipole A: E A ( = 45 , = 90 ) = a j 0
I A A
4 r

## With dipole B oriented along the x axis, its far-field is given by

D

e j r
D

E B ( = 45 , = 90 ) = a j 0
I B A sin 45
4 r

## Hence, the total electric field is:

D

e j r
E( = 45D , = 90D ) = j A0
4 r

2
I B
a I A + a
2

## For the field to be circularly polarized, I B = j 2 I A .

d) Consider, next, a different antenna system, consisting once again of two Hertzian
dipoles of the same length, arranged in the array configuration depicted in the figure
j

## below. The operating frequency is 100 MHz, d = 0.75 m and I A = I B e 2 .

z
IB

Air
IA
y

d
x
Find the array factor for the array and sketch, i) the group pattern on the x-y plane,
and ii) the resultant pattern on the x-y plane. (25 points)

f
4
2

d cos +

= 2 cos cos + .
2
4

## Group Pattern: G ( ) = 2 cos cos +

4
4
On the xy plane the pattern looks as follows:

2
x
Since on the xy plane the z-directed Hertzian dipole has an isotropic radiation pattern, the
resultant pattern is the same with the group pattern depicted above.

## PROBLEM 3 [50 points]

NAME_________________

## A time-harmonic, uniform plane is incident obliquely onto an air-dielectric interface as

shown in the figure below. The electric field of the incident wave is perpendicularly polarized and its phasor form at the origin is E = a y 1.0 (V/m) . The operating frequency is
1011 Hz.
x
Air

i = 45o

Dielectric
( = 2.250, = 0)

a) Calculate the apparent phase constants and the apparent wavelengths of the incident wave along x and z. (10 points)
Since the incident wave is propagating in a denser medium,
we must check whether the angle of incidence is greater or equal
1
= 41.81D.
2.25
i > c ; hence, total internal reflection occurs.
to the critical angle. c = sin 1

## x = 0 2.25 0 sin 45D = 500 2 (m 1 ) x =

= 2 2 (mm)

x
2
= 2 2 (mm)
z = 0 2.25 0 cos 45D = 500 2 (m 1 ) z =
z

b) Calculate the components of the wave vector of the transmitted wave into the air
region. (10 points)
Since the apparent phase velocities of the incident and transmitted waves
along the interface are the same, we have tz = z =500 2 (m -1 ).
Also, it is, tx2 + tz2 = 02 tx = 02 tz2 = j

1000
(m 1 ).
3 2

c) Calculate the phasor form for the total electric field at the interface. (8 points)
E ( x = 0, z ) = Einc ( x = 0, z ) + Eref ( x = 0, z ) = (1 + ) Einc ( x = 0, z ) ;
alternatively, E ( x = 0, z ) = Etrans ( x = 0, z ) = Einc ( x = 0, z ) .
Since the angle of incidence is larger than the critical angle it is,

2 cos i
cos i j sin 2 i

1
2.25

= 1.8973666e j18.435

## Hence, E ( x = 0, z ) = a y 1.8973666e j18.435 exp ( j z z )

D

d) Calculate the maximum and minimum values of the magnitude of the total electric
field in the dielectric. Also, calculate the distance between a maximum and its adjacent minimum. (12 points)
The magnitude of the reflection coefficient is one. Hence, the maximum
and minimum values of the total electric field in the dielectric are, respectively,
2 (V/m) and 0.
The distance between a maximum and its adjacent minimum is one quarter of the
apparent wavelength along x; hence, it is

2
(mm).
2

e) A dielectric slab waveguide is formed by introducing a second, planar airdielectric interface at a distance d below the interface depicted in the figure for
this problem. Calculate d such that only the TE10 mode propagates at the operating frequency of 1011 Hz in the resulting slab waveguide. (10 points)
Since the cutoff frequency of the TE00 is 0, it is not possible to have a dielectric
slab waveguide in which only the TE10 mode propagates at a finite frequency.

## PROBLEM 4 [60 points]

NAME_________________

Z0 =

R + j L
G + jC

## which is in general a complex quantity. However, there is a special condition for

which a particular combination of non-zero R, G, L and C parameters gives the usual
Z0 =

L
= Real
C

a) Find the mathematical relationship between R, G, L and C necessary for this special condition to be fulfilled and derive the corresponding real part and imaginary
part of the propagation constant = + j . (Hint: this transmission line is called
distortionless because the results for and do not depend of frequency). (20
points)

Z0 =

R + j L
L
=
G + jC
C

RC = GL or

= + j =

R + j L L
=
G + jC C

RC + j LC = GL + j LC

R / L = G / C distortionless condition

( R + j L )( G + jC ) = ( GL / C + j L )( RC / L + jC )

( G / C + j )( R / L + j )
LC ( R / L + j ) = LC ( G / C + j )

= LC
=

= Re { } = R

C
R
=
L Z0

or

=G

since ( G / C + j ) = ( R / L + j )
L
= G Z0
C

= Im { } = j LC

10

11

B. Consider the solution for a single stub matching problem illustrated on the Smith chart
below. The transmission line is lossless with characteristic impedance Z0 = 100.
Make sure any work done on the chart is clearly indicated and report numerical answers and comments under each question on the next page.

(d)

(b) y(dstub)

(a) zR

(c)

(a) R

12

a) Determine the actual load impedance ZR and the load reflection coefficient R. (6
points)
z R = 2.5 from Smith chart

## ZR = 2.5 Z 0 = 250 actual load impedance

R = 0.43 from Smith chart

b) Determine the actual line admittance at the location of the stub, before the stub is
inserted. (6 points)
y (d STUB ) = 1.0 + j 0.95 from Smith chart
Y (d STUB ) = y (d STUB ) / Z 0 = 0.01 + j 0.0095 [S] actual admittance

c) Determine the length of a short circuited stub necessary to fulfill this impedance
matching design, using the Smith chart. (12 points)
y ( stub) = j 0.95
Lstub = 0.1295 from Smith chart
d) Determine the line location where the stub is inserted in terms of wavelength. (6
points)
d stub = 1.6
e) At which line locations could one insert a quarter wavelength transformer for an
alternative impedance matching design, instead of using a stub line? Determine the
characteristic impedance of the quarter wavelength transformer that could be inserted at the location closest to the load.(10 points)
A quarter wavelength transformer could be inserted at any location with real line
impedance, either at locations of maximum or minimum of the standing wave pattern.
Since ZR = 250 > Z0, there is a maximum of standing wave pattern at the load
location and a transformer can be inserted there, with characteristic impedance
Z / 4 = Z 0 Z R = 100 250 = 25000 = 158.114

13

## PROBLEM 5 [60 points]

NAME_________________

A technician is working inside a long service tunnel with rectangular cross-section of dimensions a = 2.5m and b = 1.2m. Because of the metallic armature embedded in the
walls, the tunnel behaves approximately like an ideal rectangular wave guide filled with
air. The technician carries a consumer radio that can receive the following frequency
bands

## 530 kHz 1.7 MHz

88.0 MHz 108.0 MHz
162.4 165.55 MHz

a) Determine the bandwith for monomode propagation inside the wave guide structure formed by the tunnel. (15 points)
Cutoff frequencies for propagation modes are obtained from
v p m 2 n 2
fc =
+
2 a b
f c (TE10 ) = 60.0MHz fundamental mode
f c (TE20 ) = 120.0MHz 2nd mode
f c (TE01 ) = 125.0MHz 3rd mode

monomode bandwidth
BW = 60 MHz
f
f c (TE10 )

f c (TE20 )

b) Discuss briefly the behavior of each frequency ranges listed above, inside the
wave guide structure formed by the tunnel. (20 points)
AM Band It is well below the cutoff frequency of the fundamental mode, TE10.
Therefore, it can only be present as evanescent wave with a very strong attenuation factor, and cannot propagate inside the wave guide.
FM band It falls within the range of the monomode bandwidth and can propagate as TE10 mode inside the wave guide.
NOAA band it is higher than the cutoff frequency of several modes, and can
propagate in multimode conditions inside the wave guide.

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c) How many modes can propagate in the wave guide structure at the maximum operation frequency of 165.55 MHz? (15 points)

In addition to TE10, TE20, and TE01, also the TE11 and TM11 modes, both with cutoff frequency of about 138.5 MHz, can propagate.
The next modes have cutoff frequencies higher than the operation frequency
specified and cannot propagate. For instance, TE21 and TM21 have cutoff frequency of about 173.0 MHz, and TE30 has cutoff frequency of about 179.9 MHz.

d) Determine the group velocity of the TE01 mode at the maximum operating frequency of 165.55 MHz. (10 points)
f c (TE01 )
125 106
8
1
= 1.966 108 m/s
= 3 10 1
6
f
165.55 10

vg (TE01 ) = v p

15

## PROBLEM 6 [55 points]

NAME_________________
a)

You need to realize a reactive impedance Z = j 50. All you have is a length
of transmission line terminated by a short circuit. What additional information do you need and how would you go about realizing the wanted impedance? (8 points)
One needs to know the characteristic impedance of the line as well as the
wavelength (or equivalently frequency and permittivity of the line insulator)
since the input impedance of the short circuited line is given by
2
Z = j Z 0 tan ( L ) = j Z 0 tan
L = j 50

From this relation one can obtain the length L of the line necessary to realize
the wanted reactive impedance.

b)

A lossless transmission line with characteristic impedance Z0 = 100 is terminated by a load impedance ZR = 300. What percentage of the incident
power is reflected by the load? (8 points)
Z Z 0 300 100
R = R
=
= 0.5
Z R Z 0 300 + 100
The reflected time-average power is proportional to |R|2 = 0.25, therefore,
25% of the time-average power is reflected by the load.

c)

## What is the polarization of an electromagnetic plane wave, characterized by

the electric field phasor E = 10 ay + j10 az? (8 points)
The polarization is circular, since the two components of the electric field
phasor have same magnitude and /2 phase difference, since j = exp(j/2).
The electric field is parallel to the {y,z} plane, therefore propagation is either
in the positive or negative xdirection. For positive x propagation, z - y = +
/2 and the polarization is left-handed, for negative x propagation it is righthanded.

d)

## A material medium has intrinsic impedance = 50 44.8. Classify the

material. (7 points)
Since = 44.8 45 the material is a good conductor.

16

## Consider a planar interface between two dielectric media, with permittivity 1

= 250 in medium 1 and 2 = 40 in medium 2. An electromagnetic plane
wave is incident obliquely from medium 1. Determine the Brewster angle for
total transmission and the critical angle for total reflection. (7 points)
Brewster angle

e)

Medium 1
= 25 0

tan -1

2
2
= sin 1
= 21.8
1
1 + 2

Critical angle
Medium 2
= 4 0

f)

sin -1

2
= 23.578
1

For the same system in e) above, consider the two possible cases for oblique
incidence, with a plane wave propagating either from medium 1 or from medium 2. For each case, indicate for which wave polarization one may have total transmission at the Brewster angle or total reflection at the critical angle. (7
points)

Case 1)

Case 2)

g)

Medium 1
1 = 25 0

Medium 2
2 = 4 0

## Case 1) The Brewster angle occurs only for

parallel polarization and the critical angle occurs for both perpendicular and parallel polarization, since 1>2.
Case 2) The Brewster angle occurs only for
parallel polarization, but since 1>2 there can
be no critical angle (total reflection) in this direction of propagation.

## Common features but also important differences characterize electromagnetic

plane waves and the far-field approximation of waves radiated by a dipole antenna. For each item in the list below, mark PW if the feature is specific for a
uniform plane wave, mark DW if the feature is specific for a far-field dipole
wave, or mark BOTH if it is a common feature. (10 points)
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

Electric field, magnetic field and propagation vector are perpendicular to each other
Surfaces of constant phase are spheres
Field intensities are uniform on surfaces of constant phase
Field intensities decrease as the inverse of the distance
The impedance of the medium is the proportionality constant between electric field and magnetic field

__ PW

__ DW

Both

__ PW
PW
__ PW

DW
__ DW
DW

__ Both
__ Both
__ Both

__ PW

__ DW

Both

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