Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 58

Topic

Role of media in civil revolution.

Statement of the problem


Civil revolution in a country is an anger of common man towards a democratic
government. First time we have seen how civil society has emerged as a whistl;e
blower and watchdog of the democratic government.But this wouldnt have been
possible without the help of mass media (tv, newspaper, magazine, internet and
social media) which gave spark to civil revolution.
How mass or common people perceive different media and influence by media in
context of role of media in Anna Hazares Movement for India Against
Corruption

Objectives

How civil revolution eemrged.

Journey of civil revolution in context of Anna Hazares movement .

Role of civil society in shaping the country and uniting the society

Role of all media ( tv, newspaper, magazine,internet and social


media) in giving spark to civil revolution.

Role of media in mobilizing civil revolution

How media has helped Indian Youth in expressing itself politically

How media has brought the middle class drawing room discussions
onto the streets protesting against corruption and malpractices and
fighting for justice.

Research Methodology
Qualitative methodoly:
I will do contextual analysis of all media.
Secondary Research:
Books, Websites, Portals, Magazines.

A Project Report on
Role of media in civil revolution(in context of Anna Hazare Movement
India Against Corruption)
Submitted in partial fulfillment for award of
M.B.A GLOBAL (Media and Entertainment)
To
ANNAMALAI UNIVERSITY
[DIRECTORATE OF DISTANCE EDUCATION]

2011-2013

Submitted by:
Vicky Kumar Munda
Roll No: 6551100154

To,
The Director
DDE- Annamalai University

Sub: Certificate of originality from the project guide

I Mrs. Tejaswini Paranjape , faculty of Mba in Whistling Woods International


certified that this project report on Role of Media in civil revolution is the
bonafide work of Mr. Vicky Kumar Munda ,Mba Global ,Enrollment No
6551100154 who carried out the project work under my supervision.

Signature of Supervisor
Student

Supervisor Name: D Wood


Sheetal. Jain

Signature of

Student Name:

Date: 15th April 2013

Place: Mumbai
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
I am thankful to the faculty of Whistling Woods International, School Of Communication for giving me an
opportunity to carry forward this project work. I would like to thank Mrs. Tejaswini Paranjape,faculty of Mba,
Whistling Woods International, for consistent guidance for my project.
References of books, online library, journals and industry reports helped a lot for the project, without the
reference of which I would not have got better insights. Suitable reference over the Internet, people from the
management who gave me time to discuss with them about the project as well as my library department, I thank
them sincerely for the time and information shared.

Abstract
Civil Revolution refers to the concept which is supported by a large segment of population especially one which
doesnt involve much of the elite section. In India itself, we have witnessed many movements beginning from
the struggle for independence to the current Anna Hazares Anti Corruption Movement.
Medias inevitable role in success of a campaign is well established and plays a vital role to make any campaign
a success. The definition of media in todays world has changed and it has turned into an integrated platform
that deals with different modes of communication to make it more effective.
In context of Hazares campaign; Television, Newspaper, Magazine, Internet & Social Media sites have been
abuzz with articles/messages showing support for Anna Hazares fight against corruption and his plea to pass
Jan Lokpal Bill. For exampleFacebook now has over 100 pages dedicated to Anna Hazare and his campaign.
New media being a most popular media among the youth is giving new dimensions.
Mass media is a broad term in media studies and newspaper being most credible in mindset of Indian people it
strengthen the movement and mobilise common man in fighting for corruption.
Same as, Television news set the propaganda for Anna Hazares movement and
Especially, new media holds out a possibility of on-demand access to content anytime, anywhere, on any digital
device, as well as interactive user feedback, creative participation and community formation around the media
content. Another important promise of new media is the democratization of the creation, publishing,
distribution and consumption of media content. Facebook is an example on the social media model, in which
most users are also participants.
Present paper is an attempt to demystify the role of media (mass media) as a tool to increase reach of mass
movements.
For the purpose of study data was collected from various news websites, articles,books,pages of social
networking sites and analyzed on the basis of set parameters.
A textual analysis is done in order to come out with the exact and in depth role of media in civil revolution.
Result of the study has interesting story about the media as well as mass movement and both are
complementing each other.

1.Introduction

1.1 What is civil revolution:Civil revolution in a country is an anger of common man towards a government. Civil society emerge as a
whistle blower and watchdog of the democratic government.
Civil revolution in India brought the middle class drawing room discussions onto the streets protesting against
corruption and malpractices and fighting for justice.
1.2 Evolution of civil revolution ( in context of Anna Hazare Movement India Against Corruption)
Anna Hazare
Kisan Baburao Hazare (born 15 June 1937), popularly known as Anna Hazare is an Indian social activist who
led movements to promote rural development, increase government transparency, and investigate and punish
official corruption. In addition to organizing and encouraging grassroots movements, Hazare frequently
conducted hunger strikes to further his causesa tactic reminiscent, to many, of the work of Mohandas K.
Gandhi. Hazare also contributed to the development and structuring of Ralegan Siddhi, a village in Parner taluka
of Ahmednagar district, Maharashtra, India. He was awarded the Padma Bhushanthe third-highest civilian
awardby the Government of India in 1992 for his efforts in establishing this village as a model for others.
(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Anna_Hazare)
1.2.1 Anna Hazare's Movement Against Corruption
Anna Hazare has emerged as this Government's nemesis. The mild-mannered Gandhian has captured the
imagination of an entire nation with his crusade against corruption. As an Indian Army jawan, he dodged a
bullet during the 1965 war with Pakistan. The 74-year-old is in the midst of a battle once again.
Hazare first launched his campaign against corruption in 1991. His organisation, Bhrashtachar Virodhi Jan
Andolan, exposed a scam where 42 forest officers had duped the Maharashtra government of crores of rupees.
Hazare submitted evidence to the state Congress government in 1991. When the government did not take action
against the accused since a minister was also involved, he returned his Padma Shri and went on indefinite fast at
Alandi in Pune district. Finally, the state government suspended the accused officials and six Maharashtra
Cabinet ministers were forced to resign the same year.
Hazare belongs to Ralegan Siddhi village, in Ahmednagar district of Maharashtra. Inspired by the Indo-China
war of 1962, he joined the Indian Army in 1963. The violence frustrated him and he even thought of ending his
life. But a book by Swami Vivekananda changed his outlook. "I realised that striving for the betterment of
common people is equivalent to offering a prayer to God," he says. He took voluntary retirement from the Army
in 1977 and returned to his drought-prone village. At that time almost 80 per cent of Ralegan Siddhi depended
on other villages for food and water. Inspired by the water management model of social worker Vilasrao
Salunkhe, Hazare implemented it in his village. This increased the ground-water level. He built schools, hostels,
grain banks, a dairy, and formed a cooperative society and self-help groups. Today, Ralegan Siddhi has become
a tourist spot.
In 1997, Hazare launched a movement for the implementation of RTI and went on a fast-unto-death at Azad
Maidan in Mumbai in July 2003. After 12 days, the president signed the draft of the RTI Act and the state
implemented it with effect from 2002. The same draft served as the base for national RTI Act in 2005.
Hazare gathered many supporters in his campaign but most of his earlier supporters have left him. Former
bureaucrat Avinash Dharmadhikari and social activist Baba Adhav parted ways saying Hazare does not stick to
his stand for long. Hazare's association with the rss, which supports the Jan Lokpal Bill, is not new. He had
strong backing from the organisation before the bjp-Shiv Sena came to power in Maharashtra in 1995. However,

10

after Hazare targeted two ministers-BJP's Mahadev Shivankar and Shiv Sena's Shashikant Sutar- for corruption,
his association with the rss came to an end.
Hazare's agitation for the Jan Lokpal Bill started in November 2009 at a public meeting at Parel in Mumbai. He
announced he would launch a campaign for the bill and go on an indefinite fast if his demand was not met.
Declaring December 9 as anti-corruption day, he started gathering support from other organisations. The
agitation gained momentum on January 30 this year when a rally against corruption was held in 60 cities. At a
rally in New Delhi's Ramlila Maidan on February 27, Hazare announced another fast from April 5. He gave a
memorandum to President Pratibha Patil demanding a draft on Jan Lokpal Bill. Manmohan Singh invited
Hazare for talks with the Government on May 7. But after a series of meetings, the talks broke down. The
current crisis is a direct result (http://indiatoday.intoday.in/story/anna-hazare-fast-against-corruption-began-in1991/1/148573.html)
1.2.2 2011 Indian anti-corruption movement.
The 2011 Indian anti-corruption movement were a series of demonstrations and protests across India intended to
establish strong legislation and enforcement against endemic political corruption before the 2012 Indian anticorruption movement was started. The Indian anti-corruption movement has been named among the "Top
10 News Stories of 2011" by Time magazine.
The movement has gained momentum since 5 April 2011, when anti-corruption activist Anna Hazare began his
now-famous hunger strike at the Jantar Mantar in New Delhi. The chief legislative aim of the movement is to
alleviate corruption in the Indian government through the Jan Lokpal Bill. Another important aim, led by
protests under Swami Ramdev, is the repatriation of black money from Swiss and other foreign banks.
Grievances of mass protesters focus on legal and political issues including political corruption, kleptocracy, and
other forms of corruption. The movement is primarily one of non-violent civil resistance, featuring
demonstrations, marches, acts of civil disobedience, hunger strikes, marches and rallies, as well as the use of
social media to organise, communicate, and raise awareness. The protests are unusual as they have no political
affiliation; most protesters have been hostile to attempts by political parties to use them to strengthen their own
personal political agendas.
1.2.3 Pre-launch of the movement:
Although Anna Hazare and Swami Ramdev now stand in the public limelight, the movement was pre-launched
by several anti-corruption campaigns occurring from late October 2010 through late March 2011. The following
table summarises the first Indian anti-corruption campaigns that built the foundation under the global
movement:

Date

Anti-corruption Campaign

29 October, An anti-corruption press conference organised by NGO India Against Corruption was held at the Press Club of India to highlight the fact that
2010
the government-appointed Shunglu Committee had inadequate powers to investigate the Commonwealth Games scam[15]

1
November,
2010

By order of Defence Minister of India A.K. Antony, the Indian Army establishes a court of inquiry into the Adarsh Housing Society Scam[16]

14
November,
2010

After India Against Corruption registers a complaint regarding corruption in the Commonwealth Games scam, nearly 10,000 people
assembled at the Parliament Street Police Station[15]

11

24
November,
2010

The Central Bureau of Investigation's arrests of several senior bankers under allegations of receiving bribes to issue corporate loans in
the 2010 housing loan scam[17]

10
December,
2010

The Central Government of India and the Directorate General of Income Tax (Investigation) file a delayed joint affidavit to the Supreme Court
of India declaring the November 2007 wiretapping of corporate lobbyist Nira Radia in the Radia tapes controversy[18]

22
December,
2010

A 20,000-person anti-corruption protest in response to the 2G spectrum scam held at New Delhi's Ramlila ground[19]

17 January, The Supreme Court of India criticises the administration for not publicly disclosing Indian nationals named on Rudolf Elmer's "black money"
2011
list disclosed by Julian Assange'sWikileaks.The Income Tax Department issues summons and arrest notices to many tax evaders.[20][21]

18 January, The public release of an anti-corruption open letter from Azim Premji, Keshub Mahindra, and other leading Indian industrialists demanding
2011
reform of "the widespread governance deficit in almost every sphere of national activity, covering government, business and institutions" [22]

29 January, Former Chief Minister Chandra Babu Naidu announces launch of his "war on corruption" through his NTR Memorial Trust and Jana
2011
Chaitanya Vedika[23]

Thousands of people marched against corruption in more than 52 cities in India and abroad. Copies of the CVC Act, the CBI Act,I-T Act, and
30 January,
the Governments Lokpal Bill were torn up by the thousands, sending a strong message that the people lack faith in the ineffective anti2011
corruption measures[15]

FebMar,
2011

The Central Bureau of Investigation's and Income Tax Department's arrests of co-conspirators implicated in the 2G spectrum scam[24][25][26]

8 February,
2011

Indian-born American executive Anjan Dutta-Gupta charged for bribing United States Navy officials in seeking software contracts worth
approximately $10M[27]

10
February,
2011

The Supreme Court of India orders all trial courts in the country to expedite handling of corruption cases; also, all High Courts of
India ordered to seek quarterly reports from lower trial courts on the progress of corruption cases [28]

21
February,
2011

In a public address to the Parliament of India, the President of India Pratibha Patil stated that measures to ratify the United Nations
Convention Against Corruption and other legislative and administrative measures necessary to improve transparency will be taken[29]

1 March,
2011

The United States Securities and Exchange Commission action against Indian School of Business Chairman Rajat Gupta in the Galleon
insider trading scandal; Gupta had also violated McKinsey & Co.'s firm policy by corruptly backdealing through his own consulting firm,
MindSpirit LLC[30][31][32]

12

3 March,
2011

The forced resignation of Chief Vigilance Commissioner P.J. Thomas on charges of corruption by the Supreme Court of India[33]

12 March,
2011

The worldwide 50-city Dandi March II organised by People for Lok Satta and India Against Corruption[34]

13 March,
2011

The "Drive around Delhi" protest organised by India Against Corruption[35]

17 March,
2011

The Wikileaks' Cash-for-votes scandal involving the delayed leak of a diplomatic cable describing an Indian legislative aide showing a US
embassy official "chests of cash" used to bribe Indian lawmakers over a vote on an Indo-U.S. nuclear deal back in July 2008[36]

30 March,
2011

Famous cricketer Kapil Dev's letter to Prime Minister Manmohan Singh, complaining of the inadequacy of Commonwealth Games corruption
investigations and petitioning for the Jan Lokpal Bill

1.2.4 Hazare's hunger strike at Jantar Mantar


Hazare began his Indefinite Fast on 5 April 2011 at Jantar Mantar in Delhi to press for the demand to form a
joint committee of the representatives of the Government and the civil society to draft a stronger anti-corruption
bill with stronger penal actions and more independence to the Lokpal and Lokayuktas (Ombudsmen in the
states), after his demand was rejected by the Prime Minister of India Manmohan Singh.He stated, "I will fast
until Jan Lokpal Bill is passed".
The movement attracted attention in the media, and thousands of supporters. Almost 150 people reportedly
joined Hazare in his fast.Social activists, including Medha Patkar, Arvind Kejriwal, former Indian Police Service
officer Kiran Bedi, Noted Hindi Poet Kumar Vishwas and Jayaprakash Narayan lent their support to Hazare's
hunger strike and anti-corruption campaign. People have shown support in internet social media such as Twitter
and Facebook. In addition to spiritual leaders Sri Sri Ravi Shankar, Swami Ramdev, Swami Agnivesh and
former Indian cricketer Kapil Dev, many celebrities showed their public support through Twitter.Hazare decided
that he would not allow any politician to sit with him in this movement. Politicians like Uma Bharti and Om
Prakash Chautala were shooed away by the protesters when they came to visit the site where the protest was
taking place.
On 6 April 2011 Sharad Pawar resigned from the group of ministers formed for reviewing the draft Lokpal bill
2010.
Protests spread to Bangalore, Mumbai, Chennai, Ahmedabad, Guwahati, Shillong, Aizawl and a number of other
cities in India.
1.2.5 Government response to Hazare
On 7 April, Hazare's strike led to the resignation of Agriculture Minister Sharad Pawar from the Group of
Ministers on corruption.[48] On 8 April, the government started seriously considering the demands of the
protesters. The government stated that it would table the bill in Parliament in the upcoming Monsoon session.
[49] On 9 April, the government finally agreed to have a 50:50 distribution of the Government appointed
officials and the members of the civil society.
On 13 May, PM Manmohan Singh stated that the Indian government had completed the ratification of the UN
Convention against Corruption.

13

1.2.6 Political party response to Hazare


Bhartiya Janata Party
The Bhartiya Janata Party supported Hazare, with prominent member Arun Jaitley urging the government to
take Hazare's fast seriously.[52]
Another prominent BJP figure, L.K. Advani, suggested that a meeting of political parties should be convened to
discuss the issue "particularly in the context of black money and curbing money-power in elections".
BJP leader Narendra Modi posted on his Facebook account that he was praying for Hazare's health. He also
published an open letter to Hazare thanking him for the latter's support for the development work in Gujarat.
Modi also warned Hazare of possible vilification by a certain 'powerful-group' that wishes to defame Modi and
Gujarat. He reiterated his support for the Jan Lokpal Bill.
Communist Party of India (Marxist)
The Communist Party of India (Marxist) came out in support of Anna Hazare. Prakash Karat pledged support to
Hazare over the Jan Lokpal Bill.
1.2.7 Global response to Hazare Fast
India community people of Indian origin and Students came out in support of Anna's Indian Anti-Corruption
Movement across the globe. Protest showing solitary with the movement were held in various countries' cities
including Washington DC, London, Glasgow, Los Angeles, Artesia, New Jersey, Stolberg, Paris, Houston.
1.2.8 August protests
1.2.8.1Background
On 18 July 2011, Hazare declared that he had written a letter to the Prime Minister about his decision to go on
an indefinite fast from 16 August at Jantar Mantar. Hazare said that it was the right of Indian citizens to protest
and the government could not crush their movement, unlike the Ramlila ground protests. Hazare declared that
he was ready to get arrested and beaten up and informed the Delhi Police about his protest.
Hazare's crusade for a strong Lokpal Bill found support in Mumbai as the Mumbai Taximen's Union, comprising
over 30,000 taxis, agreed to extend their support to Hazare's cause on 16 August. The union's decision came
after a meeting with Hazare's team in Mumbai. The union's proposal was to keep all taxis off the roads or ply
less taxis on 16 August. The Mumbai chapter of India Against Corruption claimed that till 26 July, nearly 44,000
people had shown interest in joining the protest from 16 August.
In Allahabad, the legal community expressed their support of Hazare's campaign against corruption. Lawyers of
Allahabad High Court held protests in support of Anna Hazare at Allahabad by burning copies of the Lokpal
Bill, blocking roads and shouting slogans against the callousness of the government. They also pledged to go on
a hunger strike at Allahabad from 16 August in support of Anna Hazare.
The Vishwa Hindu Parishad also came out in support of Hazare's movement, saying that for a strong Lokpal
Bill, people from across the country should support his campaign.
In a poll conducted by India Against Corruption in Karnataka, about 94.3% of Chikkaballapur constituency and
79.7% of Bangalore South wanted to bring the prime minister under the ambit of the Jan Lokpal Bill. The results
showed that a majority of the population wanted the Jan Lokpal Bill to be passed by the Parliament and not the
"watered down, toothless" bill drafted by the government. The 6,000 participants at the referendum also said
that being representatives of the people, members of parliament should vote for the Lokpal, not as directed by
their parties, but as by the voice of the majority in his/her constituency. The participants also voted to bring
judges under the Lokpal, give adequate powers to the Lokpal to dismiss officers guilty of corruption, monitor

14

corruption at the central as well as state level through Lokayuktas, and to bring all levels of officers under the
bill. The questionnaire had a set of eight questions that brought out crucial differences between the Jan Lokpal
Bill and the Lokpal Bill put forth by the government, and asked for the people's vote on the same. Around ten
parliamentary constituencies across the nation conducted a similar exercise and the results from the nation-wide
campaign will be consolidated and presented to the members of Parliament in time for the monsoon session.
1.2.8.2 Hazare's arrest
On the morning of 16 August 2011, Hazare, along with close associates, was remanded to judicial custody for
seven days. Hazare was picked up by police at about 7.30 am from a residence in east Delhi for "intending to
defy prohibitory orders". Late afternoon, he was produced before a special executive magistrate. After he
refused to sign a personal bond to be allowed to get out on bail he was remanded in judicial custody for seven
days. Within hours of his detention, a spokesperson for Team Anna said that he had begun his hunger protest
while in police custody and that he was not accepting even water to drink. The arrest of Hazare and some of his
close associates, set off a groundswell of protests across the country and this appeared to be spreading quickly.
The arrest was condemned by political parties, the chief ministers of some non-Congress ruled states, nongovernment organisations and even parliament did not transact any business after an uproar on the issue forced
an adjournment for the day.[116]

As protests built up in several cities and towns over the arrest, Prashant Bhushan, one of Hazare's key
associates, announced a march from India Gate to Parliament House on Wednesday to protest against the police
action, which he said was taken at the behest of some cabinet ministers. Delhi police commissioner BK Gupta
said that the police were not keen for Hazare be sent to judicial custody. He said police were prepared to release
him on a personal bond if he would have given an undertaking that he would not defy Section 144 of the
Criminal Procedure Code which prohibits the gathering of five or more people and ask his supporters not to do
so also. Hazare was taken to the Tihar jail where he will spend the time in judicial custody. Kiran Bedi, Arvind
Kejriwal, Kumar Vishwas and Manish Sisodia, three other leading activists of Team Anna, have also been sent
to judicial custody on similar grounds. In a message released after his detention, Hazare said this was the
beginning of the "second freedom struggle" and he called on people to participate in a "jail bharo" agitation.
[117]
Opposition parties, peeved over the attitude of the Congress in parliament, said they would meet later today to
decide on the course of action.[when?] Communist Party of India leader Gurudas Dasgupta said he had
proposed a boycott of parliament for three days. Communist Party of India (Marxist) leader Brinda Karat
described the arrest as "a strong attack on democratic rights". Hours after arrest of Hazare, Leader of Opposition
in Lok Sabha and BJP leader Sushma Swaraj strongly condemned the action and demanded and explanation
from Prime Minister, Manmohan Singh saying that the government is hell-bent on crushing the civil rights of
the citizens.[118][119] Senior Bhartiya Janata Party leader L K Advani said he was not surprised at the detention
of Mr Hazare and he charged the government with looking for scapegoats and stopping peaceful protests instead
of fighting corruption. Arun Jaitley, leader of the opposition in the Rajya Sabha, said, that it was a very sad day
for Indian democracy, where the ruling government took away the right to protest and the right to dissent.[120]
In Patna, Bihar chief minister Nitish Kumar described the detention of Hazare and his associates as a "rehearsal
of emergency" which people will never tolerate, and "a murder of democracy." Punjab chief minister Prakash
Singh Badal also condemned the arrests saying that the Congress has panicked over the movement of Anna
Hazare and accused Congress leaders of stashing money abroad. In Chandigarh and Ludhiana, people from all
walks of life took to the streets despite inclement weather to join the protest for a strong Lokpal. Among
them were activists of the NGOs 'India Against Corruption' and 'Awaaz' who launched a relay hunger strike.
Traffic was also blocked at several intersections. Slamming the Centre for detaining Anna Hazare and his aides,
Bihar Deputy Chief Minister SK Modi today called upon the people to come to the streets to hold demonstration
in support of Hazare's movement against corruption "peacefully and democratically."[121]

15

In Hyderabad, Telugu Desam Party president N. Chandrababu Naidu asked the Prime minister Manmohan Singh
to apologise to the nation for having sent Hazare and other social activists, who are fighting against corruption,
to Tihar jail. In Maharashtra, crowds gathered in many cities and towns in response to Mr Hazare's call to court
arrest. Thousands poured into south Mumbai's Azad Maidan since early in the morning, in preparation for the
'Jail Bharo' programme. A large number of people courted arrest in support of the demand for an effective
Lokpal. Many people wearing 'Gandhi' caps with slogans 'I am Anna' gathered at the Reserve Bank of India
Square, on the busy Nagpur-Jabalpur national highway that runs through the Civil Lines area.
In a broad day light murder at Bhopal, capital of Madhya Pradesh, an RTI activist and a strong supporter of
Anna Hazare's anti-corruption movement, Shehla Masood was shot dead around 11.30 am on 16 August. An
unidentified assailant shot her dead from point blank range while she was leaving in her car to attend a
demonstration in support of Anna Hazare.
In Delhi, in protest against the arrest of Anna Hazare and his close aides by the Delhi Police, the members of All
India Students Association showed black flags and shouted anti-government slogan against Kapil Sibal, who
was to address a seminar at Malvankar Hall in city.
Hazare on 16 August asked government employees across the country to go on mass leave to show solidarity
with the movement. Union Home minister P. Chidambaram hoped they would not respond, describing the call as
"completely wrong." Hazare's close associate and lawyer Prashant Bhushan urged government servants to join
their cause and take a mass leave for a day and join the protests in their city.[126]
Hazare's release
After protests all over India, the Delhi Police decided to release Hazare after he had been sent to Tihar Jail for
seven days. Hazare had even refused food and water intake in Tihar jail, indicating he would carry on his fast in
jail. Hazare and his aides, including Kiran Bedi and Arvind Kejriwal, were first taken to the Delhi Police
Officer's Mess in North Delhi and were shifted to another after Hazare's supporters gathered in large numbers at
Civil Lines. The Delhi Police sent a warrant to the Tihar Jail for the release of Hazare and his supporters
withdrawing bail bond conditions, which Hazare had earlier refused to sign. Over 1,500 people who have been
detained for taking part in protests demanding Hazare's release were released. Congress sources said that the
Government decided to release Hazare and his supporters after coming to the conclusion that keeping him in jail
would disrupt law and order unnecessarily. The decision to release Hazare was made after Prime Minister
Manmohan Singh met party General Secretary Rahul Gandhi, who disapproved of the arrest, on the evening of
16 August. Hazare supporters Kiran Bedi and Shanti Bhushan were released by the Delhi Police early on 16
August.[127][128] However, on release, Anna Hazare refused to leave Tihar jail until the government agreed to
give unconditional permission to hold protests at JP Park.[129]
Anna Hazare agreed to leave jail after Delhi Police granted him permission to fast for 15 days against corruption
at Ramlila Maidan, a larger venue than JP Park. However, he had to spend another night in jail as the venue was
not ready.[130] On 19 August, at around 12noon IST, Anna left Tihar jail after 3 days. Supporters welcomed him
with spontaneous roar as he headed towards Delhi's Ramlila Maidan to launch his hunger protest.[131]
1.2.8.3 Parliamentary debate
Main article: 2011 parliamentary debate on anti-corruption legislation
A debate on the Jan Lokpal bill was held in Parliament on 27 August 2011. With Hazare demanding three
principles, (i) citizen charter, (ii) lower bureaucracy to be under Lokpal through an appropriate mechanism and
(iii) establishment of Lok Ayuktas in the states, both houses of Parliament agreed to the principles.[132] It was
then that Hazare agreed to break his fast after 12 days starting from 16 August 2011. However, Anna finally
decided to break his fast on 28 August instead as he did not wish to break his fast after sunset.[133] At the time
of breaking his fast, he said he was suspending his fast for the time being and will end it only after the strong
Lokpal bill is passed by the Indian Parliament.

16

December protests

Anna Hazare on 27 December 2011, again began his fast demanding a stronger version of the ombudsman
Lokpal bill at MMRDA ground, Bandra Kurla Complex, Mumbai. The basement of the protest was shifted from
Delhi to Mumbai owing to the cold climate in the former city.[134] The members of India Against Corruption,
including Arvind Kejriwal and Kiran Bedi insisted Hazare to end his fast taking into consideration his ill health,
however the later remained adamant on continuing his protest. Hazare was suffering from cold and mild fever
for few days before the fast.[135]
The participation of people is very low in comparison to August Movement. IAC expected 50,000 people where
as only 4,0005,000 people participated.
Parliament debate
27 December 2011 also saw Lok Sabha debating on Lokpal Bill in the parliament. The debate saw Bhartiya
Janata Party leader Sushma Swaraj punching holes in the government's Lokpal bill. She added that the
government has been compelled to introduce the bill that envisages the setting up of an effective anti-graft
ombudsman.[136] The debate resulted in Lokpal Bill being passed to Rajya Sabha, however was not given
constitutional status as expected. The bill that would have granted the Lokpal constitutional status failed as the
government did not manage the two-thirds majority[137] of MPs present and voting on two of the three clauses
of the Constitutional Amendment Bill. Its numbers did not cross 273 which is just past the half-way mark of the
total number of seats in the Lok Sabha. Both conditions need to be satisfied to amend the Constitution.[138]
The Lokpal Bill was sent for review to Indian President Pratibha Patil the next morning, on 28 December 2011.
This is standard operating procedure for any legislation that will have financial implications. She later gave her
assent for the Bill to be tabled in the Rajya Sabha, which is scheduled for discussion tomorrow.[139]
1.2.8.4 International response
United States Senator from Arizona and Republican presidential nominee in the 2008 United States election,
John McCain described Indian democracy as the "strong and successful", brushed off the allegation by Congress
spokesperson Rashid Alvi, McCain said "The US does not involve itself in what is happening in the world's
largest democracy, nor does it intend to do so."
Spokesperson for the United States Department of State, Victoria Nuland blamed 'some extremely inaccurate
reporting out of India' for Indians taking umbrage over the US stand on Hazare's protest and said it supported
the right of non-violent protest universally. She said "With regard to the case (Hazare), however, you know
where we are. We support freedom of expression and assembly, and we encourage all countries and all parties to
do the same. All democratic governments have a responsibility to allow peaceful protest and freedom of dissent,
even as they work to maintain public safety (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/2011_Indian_anticorruption_movement)
1.3 2012 Indian anti-corruption movement.
The 2012 Indian anti-corruption movement is a series of demonstrations and protests across India intended to
establish strong legislation and enforcement against endemic political corruption.[7] 2012 Indian anti-corruption
movement is the successor of 2011 Indian anti-corruption movement which ended on the last day of Winter
session of Rajya Sabha. The Movement is to be started again with the first mass gathering at Jantar Mantar, New
Delhi on 25-March-2012 and Anna Hazare to fast. This fast will witness the starting of 2012 Indian anticorruption movement. Team Anna and Public of India is again ready to protest against corruption. In this regards
thousands of volunteers are working in grassroot. Everybody attached with this movement is expecting the
Indian Government to take some strong actions on corruption. The motto of this mass movement is only to

17

create a big pressure among Government to take some strong decision related to demolishing corruption in
India.
1.3.1 Re-launch of the movement
The movement was relaunched by Anna Hazare and as mark of protest he sat on a token
fast for one day at Jantar Mantar, Delhi. The following table summarizes the second
Indian anti-corruption campaign
Detail

Date

Anti-corruption Campaign

Feb 25,
Kiran Bedi in Amritsar alleged that the Congress party had cheated them by introducing a fractured bill in Parliament for curbing corruption.
2012

Anna Hazare described his three week health regime that he underwent at a retreat in a naturopathy resort in Bangalore that helped him
overcome his ailments. Hazare was unwell since December and the fasting had obviously taken its toll. He was suffering from high blood
pressure, osteoporosis, arthritis and general swelling of the body. During this course, he stopped all medications he was taking for his various
Feb 28, conditions. Not only is septuagenarian hale and hearty but he lost almost 5 kg as well. He was discharged 10 days ago but has stuck his to all2012
fruits regime since he left the resort. However, he will go back to solid food after a while. Anna followed a very strict regime whereby he only ate
fruits like apple, muskmelon, watermelon, date and papaya and drank coconut water, soy milk and fruit juice. Furthermore, to maintain his sugar
level, he ate after every three hours. In the morning, he took a 4-km walk, combined with yoga. He also underwent deep tissue massages,
acupuncture and Hydrotherapy.[11]

March
25,
2012

Anna Hazare sat on a one day token fast. Justice Santosh Hegde also joined the movement. Focus for the day was whistleblowers like Narendra
Kumar and Satyendra Dubey who lost their lives in fight against corruption.[12] People in India's major cities showed there support to this
movement on March 25, 2012.

May 1,
2012

Anna Hazare will start an agitation from Durg in Chhattisgarh from May 1, 2012.[13] He will visit 35 villages in Maharashtra to awaken people
against corruption

June 3,
Anna Hazare was a one day fast along with Yoga guru Ramdev at Jantar Mantar.[14] There was a huge mass gathering in Jantar Mantar
2012

July
25,
2012

Team Anna members are on indefinite fast at Jantar Mantar.[15] Anna Hazare has joined this fast from 29 July 2012. Activists are protesting
against the government's refusal an inquiry against the Prime Minister and 14 cabinet ministers, they have accused of corruption and Team Anna
wants to action in this issue. Indians are closely associated with this movement.

August Anna Hazare and Team Anna broke their fast by drinking juice offered by ex-Army chief, General VK Singh. [16] Team Anna's members Arvind
3,
Kejriwal and Prashant Bhushan announced that they are forming a political party which will contest the elections while Anna Hazare himself
2012
remained out of it.

Anna stated as the Government is not ready to enact Jan Lokpal Bill we have decided not to hold any more talks with it. The people have asked
August
us to leave fast and give an alternative. We are now stopping the activities of Team Anna and from today, there will be no Team Anna or Team
6,
Anna Core Committee, he added. Later, at the end of the year, Anna Hazare along with Kiran Bedi started to form a new core committee for
2012
Janlokpal called as the phase 2 of their movement[17]

(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/2012_Indian_anti-corruption_movement)
18

These two civil revolution ,Anna Hazare India Against Corruption and Baba Ramdev against Black Money were
covered by media in intense and propagate the mass movement and influence the country and citizens of India
blooming the air of patriotism in India.

19

1.4 Mass media ( Tv, Print, Magazine and Social Media) impact in giving spark to Civil Revolution:1.4.1Definition of Media :Noun:1 (the media) [treated as singular or plural] the main means of mass communication (television, radio, and
newspapers]regarded collectively: their demands were publicized by the media.
(http://oxforddictionaries.com/definition/english/media)
1.4.2 Print media :Noun 1. print media - a medium that disseminates printed matter
medium - a means or instrumentality for storing or communicating information
public press, press - the print media responsible for gathering and publishing news in the form of
newspapers or magazines
journalism, news media - newspapers and magazines collectively
samizdat, underground press - a system of clandestine printing and distribution of dissident or banned
literature (http://www.thefreedictionary.com/print+media)
1.4.3 Television media:Noun 1. television news - a television broadcast of news
news program, news show, news - a program devoted to current events, often using interviews
and commentary; "we watch the 7 o'clock news every night"
(http://www.thefreedictionary.com/television+news)
1.4.4 New media ( social media):New media may be defined as latest tool of communication which has all the aspects of decoding message
effectively through integrated platforms. The rise of new media has increased communication between people
all over the world and the Internet. It has allowed people to express themselves through blogs, websites,
pictures, and other user-generated media. (Donk, 2004)
1.5 Role of media in Anti - corruption movement:Anna Hazare at CNN IBN Indian of the year award said, It is media which is responsible for making me a
national icon.
India is passing through a transitional phase, old values are crumbling; new values are formed, what was earlier
considered blasphemous are now being considered sacred at least by educated class. This period is very
uncomfortable and excruciating so here comes into play the crucial role of media as media deals with ideas
besides media forms an integral part of the lives of all of us. So, by its very nature, media can play extremely
crucial role in this transitional phase by shaping opinion of the hoi polloi (the masses). Almost every democratic
country, be it USA or UK, was at some point of time severely plagued by graft. The media there played
extremely crucial role in spreading rational idea to emerge from such difficult phase. It now Indias turn where
every form of media be it Social mediathe newest entrant in media section, Print MediaWith maximum
reach to the hinterland, Electronic Mediawhich has greatest impact on rising middle class, has to display
exceedingly significant role in creating awareness about the current anti-corruption movement.
Characteristics of the movement:
Movement comprised of people who generally dont participate in politics

20

People participating in the movement had little knowledge of political parlance


The crowd at the demonstration was mostly middle class who was disheartened with the rampant corruption
prevalent ubiquitously in the society
Lokpal has been a perennially deferred promise of the successive governments, for the last 44 years
The movement has been led by a leader named Anna Hazare, who is down to earth, simple living and simple
conversing social worker
A prominent member of the Anna team has wide experience in civil service area, non-governmental
organization and active in the struggle for strengthening democracy .
The movement was termed as Peoples Movement for anti corruption
This movement was featured as one of the top 10 stories in the Time Magazine for the year 2011
The movement gathered support not only in India but also in foreign
Media, today, plays extremely vital role in people life. Media is like a mirror to the society which reflects each
and everything about the society to people, thus shapes peoples perception. The media has enormous power to
affect their opinion. The media affect our perception in three ways- Social, Economic and Political. In the
current anti corruption movement, the assessment presented by the media has greatly helped in gaining critical
perspective on the anti-corruption movement like the finer point of the law, including legal and constitutional
issues and flawed notions such as the supremacy of the Parliament.
Media greatly helped in making the movement a grand success. It greatly helped in raising the awareness about
the movement.
Social Media also played extremely crucial role in spreading awareness about anti corruption movement. In the
contemporary world, more and more people are on social networking sites. Social networking sites play a vital
role in shaping the opinions and spreading awareness about various contemporary issues. In the current situation
its often reiterated that Team Anna used this tool quite well to garner the support of netizens in turn making the
movement a success.
On the other side, media also tried to kill the movement by targeting team Anna. A counterfeit CD featuring
prominent member of team Anna, Prashannt Bhushan, was circulated without proper verification. Even Arvind
Kejrival and Kiran Bedi were targeted.
Thus, media has played a pivotal role in current anti-corruption or rather I should say certain media has played
the role of an activist. It was proclaimed that Anna is a media creation only. But there is more to it. To see the
anti-corruption movement only as media creation is gross misjudgement/misreading of the mood of the nation
as people got attracted to it because people saw this movement as antithesis to what happens in our society viz.
corruption. Media contribution to current anti-corruption movement is obvious as there is no gainsay to the fact
that 24*7 media coverage has helped the campaign to reach out to the masses remarkably.
Media should capture the mass movement against graft but should not take sides as it will adversely affect the
neutrality of the media. Media should portray the real image of what is happening, not the fake image which
arises due to stray incidents of paid news. (http://theviewspaper.net/role-of-media-in-anti-corruption-movement2/)

TOPIC: ROLE OF MEDIA IN CIVIL REVOLUTION


Chapter 2

21

2. Literature Review:-

This chapter offers a literature review and aims to contextualize (content analysis) the role of
various media in civil revolution (in context of Anna Hazare India Against Corruption )
2.1 What is civil revolution:Civil revolution in a country is an anger of common man towards a government. Civil society emerge as a
whistle blower and watchdog of the democratic government.
Civil revolution in India brought the middle class drawing room discussions onto the streets protesting against
corruption and malpractices and fighting for justice.
2.2 Anti- Corruption Movement by Anna Hazare:Corruption is a major problem that contemporary India is facing. It has affected almost all sections of Indian
society; defence, medical, housing, telecom, postal, agriculture and sports. High profile politicians, bureaucrats,
police officers and other high-ranking officials are involved in it. It is killing the country slowly and steadily. In
the middle of such widespread corruption, it is very heartening to find Anna Hazare fighting against it.
Jan Lokpal Bill if implemented will give teeth to fight corruption effectively. It will acts as an effective deterrent
against corruption. Investigation of any corruption case will be initiated and completed within one year and
those guilty will be punished within two years. Lokpal will even have the power to persecute corrupt politicians.
There will be no interference from politicians and bureaucrats as it will be an independent body like Supreme
Court and Election Commission. Therefore, the bill if enacted will act as the most potent weapon in the war
against corruption. However, the Lokpal Bill proposed by the government in 2010 insulates the politicians from
any kind of action against it.
In the light of such development, Anna demands the institution of a committee that includes fifty percent
officials and the remaining citizens and intellectuals to draft the bill. He begins his fasting that compels the
government to form a joint committee to draft the bill. However, this is not the first case of his anti-corruption
campaign. In 1994, he campaigned against corruption in the forest department in Maharashtra; and again in the
late 1990s two BJP ministers had to resign from the Shiv-Sena following his campaign. In all his campaign, he
adopts fasting unto death as a means to pursue his demand. The question that arises is whether it is
constitutional to force the government to enact a law by threat of death.
The Indian constitution mandates that state should protect the life of every citizen (article 21) and in this case
that of Anna Hazare, who blackmail the government to fulfil his demand. Satyagraha, civil disobedience, noncooperation and fast unto death are unconstitutional because they are not included in any part of Indian
constitution as a means to address our grievances. Let us recall the last speech of Dr. B.R. Ambedkar in the
Constituent Assembly on November 25, 1949, which stated that unconstitutional methods like Satyagraha must
be abandoned when constitutional methods are available.

However, if we claim that the means adopted by Anna is legitimate, and then another set of question arises Can
any group of people thinking that a bill should be pass go on the threat of collective suicide if the action is not
carried out? If the answer is, yes, then it would deprive the population from free and fair debate about the law
and it will nullify the utility of the Parliament. This led us to another question, Can India protest against unjust
laws? Yes, every Indian can protest unjust laws. They are provided with freedom of speech and expression
(article 19). Besides, they can approach the judiciary to address their grievances. Those are the constitutional
forms available to lodge our protest. Thus, the method adopted by Anna Hazare is unconstitutional at least from
the point of Indian Constitution.

22

The main theme of the movement i.e. anti-corruption is welcomed by everyone because corruption is slowly
sucking the blood of this country. It is also constitutional, as the Parliament has passed the Prevention of
Corruption Act, 1988. Nevertheless, the method adopted by Anna Hazare may be effective, but it is not
constitutional. To protest is an integral part of democracy and is one thing, while blackmailing the government
and forcing it to act according to ones wish is another thing.
(http://www.civilserviceindia.com/subject/Essay/anna-hazare-against-corruption.html)
The 2011 Indian anti-corruption movement were a series of demonstrations and protests across India intended to
establish strong legislation and enforcement against endemic political corruption before the 2012 Indian anticorruption movement was started. The Indian anti-corruption movement has been named among the "Top
10 News Stories of 2011" by Time magazine.
The movement has gained momentum since 5 April 2011, when anti-corruption activist Anna Hazare began his
now-famous hunger strike at the Jantar Mantar in New Delhi. The chief legislative aim of the movement is to
alleviate corruption in the Indian government through the Jan Lokpal Bill. Another important aim, led by
protests under Swami Ramdev, is the repatriation of black money from Swiss and other foreign banks.
Grievances of mass protesters focus on legal and political issues including political corruption, kleptocracy, and
other forms of corruption. The movement is primarily one of non-violent civil resistance, featuring
demonstrations, marches, acts of civil disobedience, hunger strikes, marches and rallies, as well as the use of
social media to organise, communicate, and raise awareness. The protests are unusual as they have no political
affiliation; most protesters have been hostile to attempts by political parties to use them to strengthen their own
personal political agendas. (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/2011_Indian_anti-corruption_movement)

2.3 Role of media in Anti - corruption movement:Anna Hazare's movement seems to have struck a chord with the urban Indian middle-class though there is
support form rural areas also.
Definitely there is anger among citizens. The Congress-led UPA is now shaky as it hasn't encountered such a
popular surge of people's movement.

But it is also true that the news media, particularly, the TV channels have played a key role in keeping up the
tempo. By ensuring round the clock coverage and maintaining the pitch, they have ensured that the protests
occur across the country and there is a mass frenzy.
Even though the channels haven't stated much about merits and demerits of the proposed institution of Lokpal or
educated citizens about the implications of the ombudsman, TV and newspapers are visibly the driving force
behind the anti-corruption movement.
It is rare to see issues taken up with such seriousness. Even the India-England cricket series was ignored. The
frenzy has been such that TRPs are also rising. Either it is kid getting named Anna by his parents or an elderly
walking barefoot to express support for Hazare, everything is being telecast enthusiastically.
The movement has also shown how media can effectively be used. Though the propriety regarding active
participation of news media in a movement is debatable, it is true to an extent that Indian media has voluntarily
become a party, a sort of participant, in this drive for Jan Lokpal Bill.
There are charges that elitist media groups that are mostly anti-reservation and want to establish hegemony over
institutions, are behind this movement. No wonder that the ruling party feels that this monster (mass movement)
is a media creation.

23

There is also a fear from sections of Dalits, OBCs and tribal intellectuals, that the Anna Team is more upper
caste dominated and has no member from the under privileged sections including SCs/ STs and other religious
minorities.
Anna Hazare's movement may not have grabbed as much attention if the TV channels had ignored it after a day
or two. It may not wipe out corruption. It may be urban-centric. It may not be something like a Tahrir Square
revolution.
But it has propelled Anna Hazare to the centre stage of Indian politics. Arvind Kejriwal, Kiran Bedi and others
are also in the focus. Perhaps such a movement may not have succeeded in an era when we had just a single
channel--Doordarshan (DD), which today shies from reporting happenings at Ramlila Ground.
It is true that channels have given excessive coverage to Anna Hazare. But that's what happens in case of all
major movements. It has given Anna Team a bargaining power, it has brought people on the streets and it has
forced government to become flexible and agree to talks. (http://editindia.blogspot.in/2011/08/anna-hazare-tvchannels-media-driving.html)
2.4 Various or Genre of media impact on civil revolution(in context of Anna Hazare India Against
Corruption)
2.4.1 Print media :- Role of Print Media in civil revolution (in context of Anna Hazare India Against
Corruption

Noun 1. print media - a medium that disseminates printed matter


medium - a means or instrumentality for storing or communicating information
public press, press - the print media responsible for gathering and publishing news in the form of
newspapers or magazines
journalism, news media - newspapers and magazines collectively
samizdat, underground press - a system of clandestine printing and distribution of dissident or banned
literature (http://www.thefreedictionary.com/print+media)

2.4.1.1The Hindu and Times of India


The Hindu coverage
People back at Jantar Mantar, it's war on corruption

24

Supporters of Anna Hazare took out a march here on Sunday extending their support to civil society members of
the Lokpal Bill drafting committee.

Armed with banners, placards, posters and flags, the supporters, after assembling at Jantar Mantar, started their
march towards India Gate where a programme of songs and street play was held to pledge their support to the
anti-corruption movement being spearheaded by Mr. Hazare. Supporters lit candles at India Gate to express
solidarity with the cause.

Volunteer-cum-co-coordinator of the march Ashim said: We want to tell these leaders civil society members
on the committee that we are with you and wholeheartedly support you and we will not let the movement die
or allow it to be relegated to the back burner.

Though Mr. Hazare, committee member Arvind Kejriwal and the former IPS officer, Kabir Bedi, were
conspicuous by their absence, it was the supporters, volunteers and common people who held the show together
through their enthusiastic participation, unmindful of the summer heat.

Several volunteer registration desks set up by the supporters were an instant hit with people turning up in hordes
to fill up forms and contribute their bit to the movement.

Fifty-two-year-old Narender Rawat said: These forms would help make the movement stronger and also give
the organisers an idea of the number of people who have pledged their support to the cause of anti-corruption. It
would definitely boost their morale and take the movement forward. I had come to support Annaji when he was
fasting at Jantar Mantar last month and now I have come again this time. I shall keep coming until the Lokpal
Bill is passed and there is an end to corruption in our country.

According to Indu Verma, a housewife, who came along with her husband from Gurgaon to participate in the
march, her support to Anna Hazare would continue, the unnecessary mudslinging campaign notwithstanding.

I feel strongly about the cause behind the movement. I don't think it is fair to simply sit in our drawing rooms
and show support, which is why I am here. Though I am satisfied with the setting up of the Lokpal Bill drafting

25

committee, I want this movement to gather such momentum that shakes the very core of the corrupt polity
which is at the heart of this issue, she added.
Youth express solidarity
PTI reports from Mumbai:
On the eve of the second meeting of the Joint Drafting Committee of the Lokpal Bill in New Delhi, thousands of
Mumbaikars gathered at the Gateway of India to express their solidarity with social activist Anna Hazare's fight
against corruption.
The rally Youth Against Corruption' led by the former IPS officer and prominent anti-corruption activist Kiran
Bedi shouted slogans demanding implementation of the anti-corruption bill at the earliest.
Youth should lead the nation now. We are all behind Anna Hazare...It's time we unite against corruption, Ms.
Bedi told reporters.
Protesters also included over 140 pilots of Air India.
We all are here in our individual capacity to support Hazare against corruption, captain Ritesh Mathankar
said.
Ms. Bedi as part of the protest put a garland of slippers on a symbolic effigy of corruption.
The joint drafting committee met in the national capital on April 16 for the first time, amid a controversy over a
CD allegedly involving lawyer and panel co-chairman Shanti Bhushan.
(http://www.thehindu.com/news/national/people-back-at-jantar-mantar-its-war-oncorruption/article1983604.ece)
2.4.1.2 The Role of The Times of India in propping up Anna Hazares movement of August 2011:How The Times of India pumped up Team Anna

PRITAM SENGUPTA writes from New Delhi: Six minutes and 20 seconds into his vote of thanks at the
culmination of Anna Hazares fast-unto-death last Sunday, the RTI activist Arvind Kejriwal heaped plaudits on
the media for the support it had lent to the Jan Lok Pal bill agitation by articulating the outrage of the nation.

26

Pointing at the jungle of anchors, reporters, cameramen and crane operators in the media pen in front of the
stage at the Ramlila maidan, Kejriwal said the media werent just doing their job they are now part of the
movement.
Verbatim quote:
Hum in saari media ke shukr guzaar hain. Yeh aap dekhiye, abhi bhi camera lekar, tadapti dhoop mein khade
hain, yeh log. Yeh zaroori nahin, kewal inki naukri nahin thi. Yeh log ab andolan ka hissa hain. Raat-raat bhar,
chaubis-chaubis ghante, bina soye in logon ne hamari andolan mein hissa liya, hum mediake saathiyon ko
naman karte hain.
Kejriwals general gratitude was for television whose frenetic and fawning coverage instantly took the message
to parts of the country print wouldnt dream of reaching in the next half a century. (A TV critic wrote last week
that a survey of TV coverage of Hazares Jantar Mantar fast in April found 5592 pro-Anna segments versus just
62 that were anti-Anna.)
But if Kejriwal had to choose one English language publication in particular for rounding up Middle India in
round two of the fight for a strong anti-corruption ombudsman, the honour should surely go to The Times of
India.
From the day after Anna Hazare was prematurely arrested on August 16 to August 29, the day he ended his fast,
the New Delhi edition of The Times of India took ownership of the story and played a stellar role in mobilising
public opinion and exerting pressure on the political class.
# Over 13 days, the main section of the Delhi edition of The Times of India, covered the Anna Hazare saga over
123 broadsheet pages branded August Kranti (August Revolution), with 401 news stories, 34 opinion pieces,
556 photographs, and 29 cartoons and strips.
# On seven of the 13 days of the fast, the front page of Delhi ToI had eight-column banner headlines. The
coverage, which included vox-pops and special pages, even spilled over to the business and sports pages, with
the Bofors scam-accused industrialist S.P. Hinduja offering his wisdom.
# In launching a toll-free number for readers to give a missed call if they wanted a strong Lokpal bill, ToIwas
almost indistinguishable from the India Against Corruption movement behind Hazare. ToI claims that over 46
lakh people have registered their vote.
In short, backed by an online campaign titled ACTAgainst Corruption Together plus the Arnab Goswami
show on Times Now, the Times group provided substantial multi-media heft to the Jan Lok Pal campaign.
In its almost completely uncritical coverage of Round II, The Times of India provided a sharp contrast to the
almost completely cynical coverage of Round I by The Indian Express four months ago, the former batting out
of his crease for for the wider constituency of the reader, consumer, voter and citizen.
Remarkably, also, for a publication of its size and girth, ToI took an unhesitatingly anti-establishment stand in its
headlines and choice of stories, showing where it stood on corruptionan issue agitating readers in its core
demographicin a manner in which most large newspapers are loathe to do.
There were only token negative pieces like the Shahi Imam of Delhis Jama Masjid calling the protest antiIslam; Dalits wanting a Bahujan Lokpal bill; or Arundhati Roy calling Hazares stand undemocratic. On the
whole, though, ToI coverage was gung-ho as gung-ho goes, especially judging from some of the mythological,
militaristic headlines.
Just what was behind the ToIs proactive stand still remains to be deciphered.

27

Was it merely reflecting the angst and anger of its middle-class readership? Was it taking the scams, many of
which it broke and which brought the Lok Pal issue to the head, to its logical conclusion? Or, does the
involvement of its in-house godman in the proceedings, Sri Sri Ravi Shankar of the Art of Living, lend a clue?
Was it willy-nilly taking part in the dark rumours of regime-change swirling around Delhi? Or, was it just
doing what a good newspaper is supposed to do: taking a stand, making sense of an increasingly complicated
world to a time and attention strapped reader, and speaking truth to power?
Whatever be the truth, the fact that Times of India took such a popular-with-readers, unpopular-withgovernment stand when it is involved in a no-holds-barred campaign to stall the implementation of the Majithia
wage board recommendations for newspaper employees, speaks volumes of its conviction on the Lok Pal issue.
(http://www.whatislokpal.in/the-role-of-the-times-of-india-in-propping-up-anna-hazares-movement-of-august2011/)

2.4.2 Television media :- Role of TV news channel in civil revolution (in context of Anna Hazare India
Against Corruption)

Noun 1. television news - a television broadcast of news


news program, news show, news - a program devoted to current events, often using interviews
and commentary; "we watch the 7 o'clock news every night"
(http://www.thefreedictionary.com/television+news)
2.4.2.1 News channels' prime time coverage of Anna Hazare's fast: study report
Reproduced below is a report from CMS Media Lab on how much prime time selected English and Hindi news
channels devoted to coverage of Anna Hazares Fast and how much rime was devoted to commercials:
Anna Hazares movement against corruption received blanket coverage on the prime time of television news
channels, according to a study of CMS Media Lab.
To understand the coverage of Annas movement on television news channels, CMS Media Lab tracked and
analyzed the prime time content (7PM to 11PM) of leading two Hindi (Star News & Aaj Tak) and two English
(NDTV24x7 & CNN IBN) news channels from 16th to 28th August 2011.
News channels had a combined coverage of 8047 minutes (91.1%) of prime time news coverage on Anna
Hazares movement. Hindi news channels devoted 10% more news time to Annas movement compared to
English news channels. Hindi news channels devoted 97% of news time whereas English news channels
devoted 87% of their prime time news space. During these 13 days, on nine days in the case of Hindi channels
and four days in the case of English channels, other news was completely blacked out.
Interestingly, Television news channels covered Mumbai terrorist attack in 2008 with least advertisements.
However, in Annas movement television news channels not only spiked in viewership but also a good share of
commercial time during prime time. Approximately news channels devoted 27% of their prime time on
advertisements. 23 to 31% of prime time of news channels around a quarter in the case of English channels
and one-third in the case of Hindi channels- were allotted for commercials.
On four days (24th to 27th) NDTV 24x7 fully filled up their prime time news time with Annas movement.
CNN IBN also had four days (16th, 24th, 25th, and 27th) of 100% coverage on Anna. Star News and Aaj Tak
blacked out all news other than Annas revolution for nine days.

28

Among news channels Star News devoted 97.8% of its news time followed by Aaj Tak with 94.6%. NDTV 24x7
and CNN IBN devoted 88.7 and 84.5% of news time respectively on Annas protest.
Note: CMS Media Lab analyses the content and market trends of news media
(http://brpbhaskar.blogspot.in/2011/08/news-channels-prime-time-coverage-of.html)

2.4.3 Magazine:- Role of News Magazines in civil revolution (in context of Anna Hazare India Against
Corruption ).
Anna Hazare makes it to Time Magazine's top 10 list
New Delhi: From Hitler to Obama - Time Magazine has featured people who 'for better or for worse, have done
the most to influence the events of the year' on the cover of its special annual issue. And this year the Person of
the Year is - the Protestor. While the Arab Spring and Occupy Wall Street Protests dominated world headlines, in
India, it was Anna's year.
Anna Hazare's anti-corruption movement that saw Indians rally in support has been named among the top 10
news stories in the world this year by Time magazine, which listed the Arab Spring and killing of Osama bin
Laden as the top attention-grabbing headlines.
In its section on People Who Mattered, Time Magazine says "It's hard to imagine this diminutive, celibate
octogenarian being the dynamo behind an entire popular movement. But in India, Anna Hazare cut a Gandhian
pose that transfixed the world's largest democracy and put its sitting government's feet to the fire."
It goes on to say, "Hazare's repeated fasts against corruption attracted tens of thousands of supporters and
paralyzed India's Parliament. While critics spy corruption within his own ranks and point to Hazare's ties to the
Hindu right wing, his protest channeled the widespread exasperation and anger of India's rising middle class,
frustrated with the age-old habits of graft that still dominate much of India's calcified bureaucracy."
The magazine says - Mr Hazare, a former military man who spent much of his life helping govern his tiny
village in western India, summed up his 2011 in a recent interview with TIME: "I am still bemused as to how
this all came about. A pauper living in a temple, who has no money, no power, no wealth; for him the entire
country united and spoke in one voice."
Anna also makes it to Peter Hapak's Photo Essay on the Cover Story. Among the 36 pictures is a close-up
profile of a smiling and Gandhi-cap wearing Anna Hazare and one in which he is sitting cross-legged. Its
caption reads "anti-corruption crusader in India."
"When God wants to bring in change, he needs a vehicle of change, and I became that vehicle," Mr Hazare,
quoted.

OUTLOOK COVERAGE

29

courtesy: outlook
LOKPAL BILL
Thus Spake Hammurabi ( covered by Outlook)
As the Lokpal Bill gets mired in a tortuous birthing, the debate shifts to who exactly has the right to pass a law
Why Politicians Hate Civil Society

Unelected activists stealing Parliaments right to make laws, undercutting role of parliamentarians

Demands like an all-powerful Lokpal directly impact political-bureaucratic class and the status quo

Rigid deadlines, fasts unto death to press home issues are akin to holding government to ransom

Streetcorner populism of activists runs counter to both the demands of realpolitik and tenets of
democracy

Sparring Points
Besides Lokpal Bill, politicians have sparred with civil society on four key pieces of legislation

RTI Act: Various arms of government first block it, now place conditions designed to strangle
transparency

Right to Food: The Planning Commission differs with activists on what percentage of poor should be
covered

Land Acquisition Bill: Many opinions even within govt, from ceding the role to industry or not.
Activists want to go beyond compensation, against coercive displacement.

Communal Violence Bill: Saffron parties allege new discriminatory bill, drafted by NAC, is being
rammed down their throats.
***

A few days in June have never looked so different from a few days in April. Two months ago, when the crowds
had begun to swell at Jantar Mantar in support of a fasting Anna Hazare, the mood of the citizens was upbeat,
the media unquestioning and a scared government anxiously monitoring upcoming elections in five states. As

30

the din over corruption grew, the Congress finally acceded to the demand of setting up a joint drafting
committee including civil society representatives and government nominees for the proposed Lokpal Bill. The
exercise was to lead to the formation of a body that would address corruption in high places.

The government has not


consulted us. We are only
observers. Whatever we have to
say, we will say it in
Parliament.Arun Jaitley, BJP
Leader

By June, when Baba Ramdev took stage to roll out his version of the hunger
strike, the assembly elections were long over. The government, which had
seemingly capitulated, now reversed and progressively hardened its stand,
jeopardising the very creation of the Lokpal Bill. The language its ministers
employed became tougher, and the non-government representatives on the
drafting committee were left fighting a rearguard action. Union minister for
human resources Kapil Sibal, who is also part of the committee, fired the first
of many salvos when he said the government would go ahead with drafting
the bill even if Hazares team boycotted meetings, which they did last week
after Ramdevs fast was busted in a midnight operation.

Between April and June, the summer had seen a distinct shift in the balance of
power between government and civil society. First, there was the smear campaign against the father-son duo of
Shanti and Prashant Bhushan. When that failed, civil society itself was sought to be divided. Soon enough, it
ceased to be a battle between civil society and the government and became a struggle between a few members
who called themselves civil society and virtually the entire political class. Opposition parties like the BJP and
the Left felt that democracy and the supremacy of Parliament was being subverted by a few unelected
anarchists. Congress spokesperson Manish Tewari took the argument further to say, Under the Westminster
system of democracy, it is the right of the government to propose legislation and the sovereign right of
Parliament to agree or dispose. So if anybody is under the misconception that they will be able to impose their
will over the collective sovereign, then they are living in an illusion.
Consultation does not mean the power to veto. Tewari also made it clear that
the UPA government had been, and will be, accommodating. The National
Advisory Council (NAC) was an attempt at constructive engagement. But
can we give in to anarchists masquerading as civil society? We need to make
a sharp distinction between anarchists and civil society.
What exactly is civil society? One definition says the term is understood
to define a space and a sphere of action that exists between the private
sphere, the economy and the state. Acts in this sphere are based on a
minimum consensus of norms that include tolerance, fairness and freedom
from violence. Far from being a homogeneous mass it is normally
understood to be, civil society comprises different shades of opinion. Where
the Right can go with the Left and fight a common cause. Where Hazare &
Co or the Ramdev brand of mass upsurgeone legalistic and moderate and
the other unpredictable and extremist in naturecan sit together comfortably
in a united fight against corruption.

If anyone thinks
they will be able to
impose their will on
that of the collective
sovereign, they are
living in an
illusion.Manish
Tewari, Congress
Spokesperson

But it isnt civil society per se as much as the proposed Lokpal Bill that has invoked the wrath of the politicians
across the board. This is perhaps because it will make elected representatives and the bureaucracy accountable
should they indulge in corrupt acts. And the disagreement with civil society on the exact contours of the bill is
what has forged a consensus between sworn enemies and the Left and the Right. No one is supportive of the
tough clauses that the civil society representatives want included and the manner in which they want to dictate
terms while drafting the bill. Neither do the politicians like the idea of presuming their entire class to be corrupt.

31

Stead Fast Anna Hazare supporters at Rajghat


Says D. Raja of the CPI, Painting all politicians with the same brush is not good for democracy and can lead to
anarchy, which in turn breeds fascism. Rajas concern stems from the basic premise of Hazares movement that
all politicians are corrupt. He also feels the coercive tactics of the group in forcing itself on the government and
drafting the Lokpal Bill do not augur well for democracy. Its the governments job to draft a bill and present it
to Parliament and it is here that the bill should be debated and discussed. What is this civil society which is codrafting the bill with the government? What is its sanctity? Raja urges civil society groups to be a little cautious
in their approach and advises the government to consult political parties first before introducing a legislation.

No one is denying
the importance of
civil society, but
passing laws is the
preserve of the
elected
representatives of the
people.Sitaram
Yechury, CPI(M)
Leader

CPI(M)s Sitaram Yechury is also critical of the government for forfeiting its
responsibility to take the political parties into confidence before putting the
bill to debate. You cannot send a list of objective-type questions on such a
serious issue like the Lokpal Bill and expect parties to answer, he says. No
one is denying the importance of civil society, but passing laws is the preserve
of the elected representatives of the people. The objective questions Yechury
is referring to pertain to a letter that Union finance minister Pranab Mukherjee
sent last fortnight to political parties and chief ministers with an appended
questionnaire on the bill. Many non-UPA CMs have written back either
complaining about the questions or wondering why political parties were not
consulted during the drafting process and now being used as a convenient
afterthought.

Union home minister P. Chidambaram, in an extensive interview to


Doordarshan, said, I support civil society speaking up, raising its voice. But I
do not support elected representatives yielding their obligations and
responsibilities to civil society representatives. Lets remember that the
foundation of this country is parliamentary democracy.
But why has civil society mobilised itself now on the corruption issue? Explains political sociologist D.L. Sheth:
There are moments when a more generic voice takes root and allows civil society to mobilise itself like now.
Going by Sheths observation, the efforts of Anna Hazare and even Ramdev could qualify as movements where
effective mobilisation took place to rouse the state from slumber. The recent spate of mega scams only amplified
this systemic apathy. Money that could have been better spent on education, food and health was pocketed by a
handful of people in powercorruption that was assiduously brought to light by a vigilant media chronicling
their actions. When people begin to see the government being treated as a jagir by those who they elected,

32

says Sheth, they resent it. Legislative and bureaucratic power can become defunct if not countervailed by civil
society.
And it was the UPA government itself which had opened its doors to civil society and gave it the legitimacy
previous governments had not. This it did in the first term of UPA by setting up the NAC, which has since been
poring over tens of thousands of important legislations (see graphics). Activists like Medha Patkar and Sandeep
Pandey say the creation of the NAC was a good sign in that it brought in sections of people who had fought at
the grassroots level for people-friendly policies into the mainstream where they are in a position to act as
pressure groups. So even as some politicians blame the government for outsourcing its work of drafting
legislations to the NAC, activists welcomed its creation. Says Medha Patkar, The NAC is only a drafting
committee, not a passing committee. Moreover, issues like corruption require a perseverance that political
parties dont have. Ultimately, Parliament has to pass legislations.
This breed of activists is now finding itself at odds with other members of the civil society. It is not that they do
not want a strong anti-corruption mechanism, but they are not comfortable with the methods employed by
Hazares team. We support everything Arvind Kejriwal and Prashant Bhushan have done so far, a member of
the National Campaign for the Peoples Right to Information (NCPRI) told Outlook. But we also detect a
certain intolerance for contrary views and at times they do end up trivialising some of the positions that we have
taken on the draft bill.

The State Speaks Police action at Bhatta-Parsaul villages


An amalgamation of many opinions which came together to create the Right to Information Act between 1996
and 2004, the NCPRI today cannot see eye to eye with Hazares team. Its convenor for several years, Shekhar
Singh, recalls, We went through several processes. It is a myth to believe
that a law can be drafted with 1,00,000 people. When we worked on the RTI
Act, we made a draft and then met people. If we got a negative feedback, we
would reflect and redraft it. But the idea was to incorporate greater diversity
and take the most prominent voices coming in.
Senior bureaucrats are now adamant that no inch will be conceded to
Hazares team any more. This is like blackmail. Tomorrow, the Maoists
could also operate in a similar manner. Would you expect us to give in to
them as well? Can we use hunger strikes to decide an agenda or draft a bill?
asks a senior bureaucrat familiar with the drafting process. But Kejriwal, who

I feel there should be


a greater debate
within civil society on
a crucial issue like the
Lokpal Bill. I hardly
see the debate.Justice
A.P. Shah, Former
33
Delhi HC Chief Justice

is in many ways the driving force behind the bill, points out to several inequalities in the current discourse. We
are in an unequal position in the drafting committee. We keep making suggestions and the government keeps
ignoring us. We even asked for a public debate on some of the contentious issues which could be telecast live.
They refused. Is that democratic? The panel member also points out that they are not trying to subvert
democracy or the legislative process, but to broaden and deepen it. Isnt democracy supposed to be more
participatory than this? Its not just about elections. Does that mean that once I have elected an MLA or an MP,
he becomes a dictator for the next five years?
Eventually, as Sheth says, civil society has its own legitimacy and accountability and this it draws from the
causes it espouses. Nobody will embrace a cause that doesnt sound credible. For now, corruption and the move
against it is credible, for it has the ringing endorsement of thousands of Indians.
(http://www.outlookindia.com/article.aspx?277045)

India today coverage


India Today Newsmaker 2011: Anna Hazare

News covered by India today

Anna Hazare
Hope is a repudiation of today's desperation and a celebration of
tomorrow's opportunities. Hope is the father of change. It shapes the
dreams of the disillusioned. It is the power of the betrayed. In the
histories of national freedom, it is hope that fuels dissent, and
mobilises the voiceless against the lies of the state. In India 2011,
hope wore a Gandhi topi. It fasted, dared the stormtroopers of a
paranoid state, went to jail, awakened the middle class from its cozy
stupor, brought the young and the idealistic to the mean streets of
politics, and shook the foundations of a corrupt regime that kept
changing its fig leaf in its anxiety to curtain shame. Hope became
Anna Hazare in the year India's scandals boiled over into popular rage.
This portly satyagrahi from the Maharashtrian village of Ralegan Siddhi walked into the consciousness of India
at a time when the country was on the verge of abandoning hope and taking refuge in fatal stoicism. Between
the dubious multi-crore 2G spectrum deal and the scandalous preparations for the Commonwealth Games, the
overwhelming banality of corruption became the defining character of the UPA Government. A few went to jail,
but India recognised them for what they had become: scapegoats. The highest echelon of the regime remained
immune to accountability. As the stench pervaded the nation, Hazare thrust himself to the centrestage as Citizen
Outraged. He led the uprising against the citadel on Raisina Hill as Citizen Rearmed.
A boy offers sweets to a portrait of Anna Hazare in Ahmedabad.
The discredited Government thought arrogance was an adequate response to dissent.
India, the world's most volatile democracy, also has the most evolved civil society in
Asia, and it has been consistently unforgiving to rulers swayed by totalitarian
temptations. Parliament is the highest shrine of a civil society and Hazare, as a
pilgrim let down by the gods of democracy, took his war to the sanctum sanctorum.
His argument was moral, his method was Gandhian, though, as he repeatedly
accepted, he was no Mahatma. He wanted Parliament to legislate an honest
mechanism which incorporated the popular will to fight the cancer of corruption.
The government resisted the intrusion of the outsider-for a while and at a heavy
cost.
The sweep and scope of a Jan Lokpal, a people's ombudsman, as envisaged by
Hazare and his comrades in India Against Corruption (IAC) was a nightmare for the UPA. The Government has
enough reason to shield the corrupt rather than punish them: the guilty are from its fold. A war against
corruption meant a war on the regime itself; so, obviously, the Government opened hostilities against the
inconvenient messenger. But Hazare under attack spawned a multitude of Hazares across the country, in towns
and villages, spanning gender, class and age. When the street embraced the romance of 'we-are-all-Anna-

34

Hazare-today', Delhi trembled, the fig leaves fell, and a triangulating regime lost the argument. Anna's
movement did not defy Parliament; it sought to enlarge and empower institutions to curb corruption. Indians
were inspired by a 74-year-old man, a former driver in the Indian Army. The fierceness of his commitment was
only matched by his perseverance.
Click here to Enlarge
Even when faced with a volcanic street, the
Government seems more interested in
containing Hazare than curbing corruption.
The draft Lokpal Bill, put together by the
UPA's wily legal brains (Kapil Sibal, P.
Chidambaram and Salman Khurshid), is a
partial submission, full of deviations that could
weaken its ability. A wider section of the lower
bureaucracy will come under the Lokpal but
the central investigating agency, the CBI, will
continue to be the handmaiden of the
Government. This is a rebuff to Hazare, who
wants the agency under the control of the Lokpal. The principal Opposition party, BJP, wants CBI to be
autonomous. Even though the Prime Minister is included in the ambit, enough escape routes have been left open
in the name of national security. Even in this moment of seeming surrender, honour is not a virtue visible in
South Block. If Hazare is an open book, the UPA Government is a secret text about survival.
Anna Hazare with a young fan
Hazare's response is in character: to up the ante. When INDIA TODAY caught up
with him on a wintry evening in Delhi's Maharashtra Sadan, the only sign of change
was the choice of his cap: the trademark white cotton Gandhi topi was replaced by a
blue woollen one. Anna could take on the frozen conscience of the ruling
establishment, but the December chill of Delhi was a bit too much. Still, the feisty
tormentor of a beleaguered UPA wouldn't give in to the vagaries of weather: "Look
at me, do I look ill?" Indeed, there was no heater in his room, though there were two
in the visitor's room, full of volunteers and sundry worshippers of the saint who
shook the state. In the course of the interview, he played down his own legend.
"Mujhe Gandhi ke saath mat jodo (Don't make me a Gandhi)," he said (see
interview). It was Vivekananda who taught him that "inner happiness comes from duty".
Anna Hazare (centre) with his team at a press conference in New
Delhi.
Gandhi was a later influence. He deployed the Gandhian weapon of
satyagraha against the power of a crooked state. He set the power of
hunger against the hunger for power. In many ways, his moral
system, conditioned by the discipline of the barrack and wisdom of
the countryside, is in some conflict with the aspirations and attitudes
of the metropolitan youth who have become his fan club. In time, the
contradictions will emerge. In rural Ralegan, the Hazare country, he
has declared war on vices such as drinking.
There is a frightening simplicity-and clarity-about Hazare's idea of a
perfect state with a few lofty men as arbiters. The moral dictatorship
of the wisest has no patience for debate or consensus. The so-called Team Anna, a group of self-righteous
Sancho Panzas, are not exactly the ideal ambassadors of a civil society; the power of protest and primetime
exposure has already given them a false sense of invincibility. Hazare is the mascot; they provide the script that
sustains the aura.

35

What makes their text of redemption, personified by the Gandhian, acceptable to the hopeless
majority that lives outside Lutyens' Delhi is the political context. In a year that witnessed the serial
blasts of reputations, Anna alone stood tall as the inspiration for a new iconography of heroism.
Sonia Gandhi took the lead in the war against Hazare, bringing out her heaviest firepower.
Courtiers of 10 Janpath were mobilised to sabotage Hazare's movement. It would be their Bill or
nothing else. While the much eulogised moderniser-prime minister turned out to be a shade too
tolerant of colleagues, Hazare soared above the sleaze of Delhi. When the ventriloquism of
Manmohan Singh failed to restore faith in the ruling class, the folksy gospel of Hazare swayed the
mind of India.
When the smarmy interlocutors of the Government tried their lawyerly arguments, Hazare, with
the purity of his purpose and the integrity of his character, won India. Hazare brought streetfighter
chic back to politics. His combatant was worthy of his wrath: a Government, frightened but
vengeful, that would go a long way to silence the man who shattered its comfort zone. The
midnight knocks on the door of his apartment or a stint in Tihar Jail did not silence Hazare. They
only added to the legend of the rebel.
{mosimage}As the year of infamy draws to a close, the rage of Hazare has already changed the
politics of India-and enlarged the idealism of a generation. He frightened the political class, and
thereby reduced the distance between ruler and ruled. Hazare shifted the centre of political gravity: the prime
minister is now in office, not in power. Hazare's own strength derives directly from the anger and aspirations of
a people let down by a regime that has made corruption its official religion. In a country that is growing
demographically younger, it took the audacity of a moral warrior from the remoteness of rural India to make the
urban youth stakeholders in politics. Hazare brought We the People to the vanguard of a freedom movement
through the politics of conscience.
Anna Hazare is INDIA TODAY'S Newsmaker of the Year because the velocity of his rage shattered the
cynicism of rulers and restored hope among the ruled. The struggle of Citizen Hazare has redeemed Indian
democracy, and empowered the hopeless for a generation (http://indiatoday.intoday.in/story/india-todaynewsmaker-2011-anna-hazare/1/165519.html)
2.4.4 New media ( social media):- Role of New Media in civil revolution (in context of Anna Hazare India
Against Corruption)
New media may be defined as latest tool of communication which has all the aspects of decoding message
effectively through integrated platforms. The rise of new media has increased communication between people
all over the world and the Internet. It has allowed people to express themselves through blogs, websites,
pictures, and other user-generated media. (Donk, 2004)
:2.4.4.1Anna Hazares India against Corruption: Role of New Media in Mass Movement
Mass movement is supported by large segments of a population. Many movements have been witnessed
beginning from the struggle from independence to the current Anna Hazares anti corruption movement.
The New media refers emerged in the latter part of the 20th century referring to on-demand access to content
anytime, anywhere. It is giving new dimensions being very popular among youth. In context of Hazares
campaign; Internet & Social Media sites have been abuzz with articles/messages showing support for Anna
Hazares fight against corruption and his plea to pass Jan Lokpal Bill. New Media can be a best tool now-a-days
to increase reach of mass movements. The rise of new media has increased communication between people all
over the world and the Internet. The scale of Anna Hazare movement on Social Media was extended to remote
South, East, North, and West. Only Facebook witnessed 5.5 Lakh followers who just not only participated in
the discussion but they have followed the posts daily during Hazares fast at Ram Lila Ground in New Delhi.
Twitter and other tags have also witnessed massive response on the same issue and hence complimented each
other as far as reach and access of the message from team Anna is concerned.
As compared to other aspects of social movements New Media is becoming more significant and instant way of
disseminating the information globally. The virtual world is gradually finding its social relevance and people not
withstanding their geographical location are able to view/ review/analyze events across the world. The Internet
is set to make the globe more coherent with its ever-increasing reach out to the nook and corners of the world.

36

(http://sciencesblog.org/management/anna-hazares-india-against-corruption-role-of-new-media-in-massmovement/)
2.4.4.2 Article on afaqs:How powerful is Anna Hazare on Facebook and Twitter?
afaqs! decodes the strength of Hazare and his 'India Against Corruption' movement on leading social media
platforms.
Social activist Anna Hazare and his movement 'India Against Corruption' (IAC) has become significantly
powerful on social media, especially on Facebook and Twitter.
More than 150 Facebook pages related to 'Anna Hazare' and 'India Against Corruption' have emerged in the last
few months. Surprisingly, majority of these pages seem to be created by various enthusiasts, who do not form
the part of Anna's official team.

For instance, one of the page titled, 'Join Anna Hazare's Fast To Bring the Jan Lokpal Bill'
(Facebook.com/joinanna), created by a Mumbai-based Facebook user named 'Mohammed Zaid Shaikh', is
followed/liked by more than 38,000 users.
The official 'India Against Corruption' page (facebook.com/IndiACor) has managed to rope in more than 3.2
lakh fans, so far. More than 13,000 of these fans joined the page yesterday, and over 60,000 users joined it in the
last 17 days. (The figures have been derived from Facebook Analytics tool named Buzzref.com).
The power of Anna's movement can be gauged from the fact that the official 'India Against Corruption'
Facebook page (with less than one million users) has managed to garner more user engagement than many
leading brands, which employ dedicated resources for social media handling.
According to Buzzref.com, the IAC Facebook page received over 71,000 'likes' and 13,000 comments for mere
170 posts updated in the month of August. However, MTV India (Facebook.com/mtvindia, 2.9 million fans)
and Dominos (Facebook.com/dominospizzaindia, 0.5 million fans) received 21,000 'likes' (for 59 posts) and
11740 'likes' and 1568 comments (for 41 posts) respectively, during the same duration.
The power of Anna's movement could be well seen on Twitter too. A humungous chunk of internet users posted
messages in support of Anna on Twitter. Topics related to 'Anna Hazare' and 'Jan Lokpal' became the most
discussed subjects on Twitter in India, in the last two days.
For instance, hashtag - #isupportannahazare remained the most discussed topic on August 17 with over 8000
tweets mentioned or used this hashtag. More than 9000 tweets cited conversations related to
hashtag(#Janlokpal) during August 16 and 17. According to Topsy.com, about 15,000 tweets with the mention
of Anna Hazare have been published on Twitter in the last two days.
The influential power of official Twitter account/handle of the movement (Twitter.com/Janlokpal) has notably
jumped by six points in the past two days. The Klout score of @janlokpal went up from 68 on August 15 to 74
on August 17. For the uninitiated, Klout.com determines the influential power of a Twitter handle.
It's a great score, if we consider Klout scores of some of the most influential Twitter handles in the country, as
shown by Pinstorm India Influencers list (which ranks most influential people/brands on Twitter). The list

37

mentions Shahrukh Khan (Twitter.com/iamsrk) and Dalai Lama (Twitter.com/DalaiLama) with Klout scores
of 77 and 86 as the most influential Twitter users in India.
And it's not just the common man who is tweeting in support of Anna but also the influential people such as
Anupam Kher (Twitter.com/AnupamPkher, Klout score of 78), Shekhar Kapur (Twitter.com/shekharkapur,
Klout Score of 72) are also fuelling Anna's power in the social media domain.

38

(http://www.afaqs.com/news/story.html?
sid=31413_How+powerful+is+Anna+Hazare+on+Facebook+and+Twitter)2.5 Impact of media in Anti corruption movement:Anna Hazare at CNN IBN Indian of the year award said, It is media which is responsible for making me a
national icon.
India is passing through a transitional phase, old values are crumbling; new values are formed, what was earlier
considered blasphemous are now being considered sacred at least by educated class. This period is very
uncomfortable and excruciating so here comes into play the crucial role of media as media deals with ideas
besides media forms an integral part of the lives of all of us. So, by its very nature, media can play extremely
crucial role in this transitional phase by shaping opinion of the hoi polloi (the masses). Almost every democratic
country, be it USA or UK, was at some point of time severely plagued by graft. The media there played
extremely crucial role in spreading rational idea to emerge from such difficult phase. It now Indias turn where
every form of media be it Social mediathe newest entrant in media section, Print MediaWith maximum
reach to the hinterland, Electronic Mediawhich has greatest impact on rising middle class, has to display
exceedingly significant role in creating awareness about the current anti-corruption movement.
2.5.1 Characteristics of the movement:
Movement comprised of people who generally dont participate in politics
People participating in the movement had little knowledge of political parlance
The crowd at the demonstration was mostly middle class who was disheartened with the rampant corruption
prevalent ubiquitously in the society
Lokpal has been a perennially deferred promise of the successive governments, for the last 44 years
The movement has been led by a leader named Anna Hazare, who is down to earth, simple living and simple
conversing social worker
A prominent member of the Anna team has wide experience in civil service area, non-governmental
organization and active in the struggle for strengthening democracy .
The movement was termed as Peoples Movement for anti corruption
This movement was featured as one of the top 10 stories in the Time Magazine for the year 2011
The movement gathered support not only in India but also in foreign
Media, today, plays extremely vital role in people life. Media is like a mirror to the society which reflects each
and everything about the society to people, thus shapes peoples perception. The media has enormous power to
affect their opinion. The media affect our perception in three ways- Social, Economic and Political. In the
current anti corruption movement, the assessment presented by the media has greatly helped in gaining critical
perspective on the anti-corruption movement like the finer point of the law, including legal and constitutional
issues and flawed notions such as the supremacy of the Parliament.
Media greatly helped in making the movement a grand success. It greatly helped in raising the awareness about
the movement.
Social Media also played extremely crucial role in spreading awareness about anti corruption movement. In the
contemporary world, more and more people are on social networking sites. Social networking sites play a vital
role in shaping the opinions and spreading awareness about various contemporary issues. In the current situation

39

its often reiterated that Team Anna used this tool quite well to garner the support of netizens in turn making the
movement a success.
On the other side, media also tried to kill the movement by targeting team Anna. A counterfeit CD featuring
prominent member of team Anna, Prashannt Bhushan, was circulated without proper verification. Even Arvind
Kejrival and Kiran Bedi were targeted.
Thus, media has played a pivotal role in current anti-corruption or rather I should say certain media has played
the role of an activist. It was proclaimed that Anna is a media creation only. But there is more to it. To see the
anti-corruption movement only as media creation is gross misjudgement/misreading of the mood of the nation
as people got attracted to it because people saw this movement as antithesis to what happens in our society viz.
corruption. Media contribution to current anti-corruption movement is obvious as there is no gainsay to the fact
that 24*7 media coverage has helped the campaign to reach out to the masses remarkably.
Media should capture the mass movement against graft but should not take sides as it will adversely affect the
neutrality of the media. Media should portray the real image of what is happening, not the fake image which
arises due to stray incidents of paid news. (http://theviewspaper.net/role-of-media-in-anti-corruption-movement2/)

40

Chapter 3 - Methodology
3.1 Qualitative: Textual analysis:
For this project I will use Textual analysis of various media to study role of media in civil revolution ( in context
of Anna Hazare movement India Against Corruption) .Mckee defines textual analysis Textual analysis is a way
for researchers to gather information about how other human beings make sense of the world. It is a
methodology - a data-gathering process - for those researchers who want to understand the ways in which
members of various cultures and subcultures make sense of who they are, and of how they fit into the world in
which they live. Textual analysis is useful for researchers working in cultural studies, media studies, in mass
communication, and perhaps even in sociology and philosophy (Mckee, 2003)
In a large part of analysis I will also use a descriptive method of analysis to generate a basis on which to be able
to define the role and impact of civil revolution (in context of anna hazare movement India Against Corruption)
In the second chapter which contains the literature review I explore the scholarly mapping of various mass
media ( Tv , newspaper, magazine and social media ) .
The literature review compare different mass media and their coverage on Anna Hazare movement India Against
Corruption.
3.2 Textual analysis on Anna Hazare movement India against corruption.
3.2.1Textual analysis on The Hindu newspaper:Print media do better than TV: coverage of Hazare fast
The second fortnight of August 2011 saw one of the largest mobilisations of people in recent years against
corruption in India. The struggle led by Anna Hazare dominated the media all through the fortnight.
A new feature was the participation of the social media, which helped mobilise people in different corners of the
country in support of the Team Anna. Twitter, Facebook, other social media sites, and blogs played a significant
part in bringing people together in peaceful demonstrations, candle protests and so on. Team Anna may have
been the first major beneficiary of the technology.
As for the performance of news television channels, public opinion seems divided. Those who supported or
sympathised with Team Anna were naturally happy with the round-the-clock saturation coverage, which was
overwhelmingly favourable to the movement. However, veteran journalist B.G. Verghese was quoted as saying:
The media has magnified the event beyond its worth. It has not at all been objective in its coverage. This only
speaks to the low political stock of the government and its lack of credibility in the wake of a series of
corruption cases and scams.
Print media coverage of this second phase of the Anna-led, fortnight-long agitation against corruption at various
levels was clearly more balanced and insightful, reflecting various points of view, at least in the case of major
mainstream newspapers with a long tradition. The editorial coverage critically addressed the core issues,
including legal and constitutional issues and flawed notions such as the supremacy of Parliament. To engage
the more discerning readers, a few newspapers published articles explaining the legal, political, and social
aspects of corruption.
The Hindu, which gave extensive coverage to the Team Anna's crusade against corruption and its initiatives to
get legislation for a strong and effective Lokpal authority expedited, wrote four insightful and hard-hitting
editorials between August 17 and 28.

41

The first leader (Corrupt, repressive and stupid, August 17) was bold and strongly worded. It said: A corrupt
government devoid of moral authority is ill equipped to deal reasonably with legitimate public anger. The
scathing editorial commented that through the illegitimate detention of Anna Hazare even before he began his
fast and the arrest of peaceful protesters in Delhi, the central government revealed its ugly, repressive face. It
noted that the government missed several opportunities to arrive at a consensus with Team Anna on setting up an
empowered Lokpal and instead attempted to push through a farce of a Lokpal Bill.

The next editorial (Anna is not India nor India Anna) was published three days later, when Mr. Hazare won
the first round, with the government yielding to his demand that he be allowed to go on an indefinite fast in
Delhi to achieve legislation for a strong and effective Lokpal. The wise course for the government, the
newspaper advised, is to withdraw the Bill, immediately, without standing on false prestige. The editorial took
issue with the Prime Minister's contention that it was the sole prerogative of Parliament to make a law. This
was true only in the most literal, superficial, banal sense, the editorial pointed out. It affirmed that in India,
unlike the United Kingdom, Parliament was not supreme; it was the Constitution that was supreme. But the
editorial criticised a prominent member of Team Anna for getting carried away and proclaiming, in a way that
recalled an authoritarian era, that Anna is India and India is Anna.
The third editorial, a single leader (The way out, August 22), analysed the relative merits of key sections of
the two Bills, the Lokpal Bill of the Central Government now before the Standing Committee and Team Anna's
Jan Lokpal Bill. The fourth editorial, a single leader analysing the specifics agreed upon and the issues that
needed to be settled (Significant victory, August, 28), hailed Parliament's unanimous adoption of a resolution
agreeing in principle with Team Anna's position on a few controversial points as a triumph for the anticorruption moods in the country.
Besides these editorials, The Hindu carried four substantial editorial page articles during this period, when the
fast by Mr. Hazare was entering a crucial stage. The articles, written by an acclaimed writer, two academics, and
a political leader, were enlightening, each looking at the dramatic developments from different angles.
The essay I'd rather not be Anna (The Hindu, August 22, 2011) by Arundhati Roy was highly critical of the
Anna Hazare phenomenon and what it represented. In the writer's view, corruption in the society could not be
seen in isolation from many other factors in the country. The article, which was widely circulated and won
national as well as international attention, received a huge number of responses, especially at the newspaper's
website.
The second article (Ambedkar's way and Anna Hazare's methods, August 23) by Sukhadeo Thorat, economist
and educationist, argued that Team Anna should use constitutional methods and enhance people's faith in them.
Otherwise, Dr. Thorat noted, it will convey the message that only coercive and unconstitutional methods
work. He recalled how coercive means forced Dr. B.R. Ambedkar to give up his demand for a separate
electorate when Mahatma Gandhi was on a fast-unto-death.
The third article (Messianism versus democracy, August 24) by the economist Prabhat Patnaik contended that
the substitution of one man for the people, and the reduction of the people's role merely to being supporters and
cheerleaders for one man's actions, was antithetical to democracy. Messianism substitutes the collective
subject, the people by an individual subject, the messiah. The people may participate in the activities of the
people, as they are doing reportedly at Anna Hazare's fast but they do so as spectators.
The fourth of the articles (For a strong and effective Lokpal, The Hindu, August 25) by Prakash Karat, general
secretary of the Communist Party of India (Marxist), observed that the attitude of the UPA Government and its
failure to tackle corruption had fuelled public anger. He said that the government was seen as being complicit in
corruption and this had been seen as the most corrupt government in the history of independent India. Since
Hazare's first hunger strike in April, Mr. Karat noted, anti-corruption movement had gained momentum.

42

Together with the editorials, these assessments helped readers gain a critical perspective on the Anna Hazare
phenomenon, the anti-corruption mood in the country, and the major issues at stake. On the whole, the coverage
of the fortnight's drama not just by The Hindu but by several other dailies, including The Times of India, The
New Indian Express, The Indian Express, and magazines, notably Outlook and India Today, reminded and
reassured observers that for credible information, analysis, and diverse comment, it was the mainstream Indian
press that still held the field. (http://www.thehindu.com/opinion/Readers-Editor/print-media-do-better-than-tvcoverage-of-hazare-fast/article2423886.ece)
3.2.2 Studied the pattern of article written on Outlook magazine and India today on Anna Hazare
Methodology
The content writing of Outlook was partially objective and has a elements of extremist
And , India today content writing does not show objectivity in coverage of Anna Hazare movement.
3.2.3 Case study on How powerful is Anna Hazare on Facebook and Twitter?
afaqs! decodes the strength of Hazare and his 'India Against Corruption' movement on leading social media
platforms.
Social activist Anna Hazare and his movement 'India Against Corruption' (IAC) has become significantly
powerful on social media, especially on Facebook and Twitter.
More than 150 Facebook pages related to 'Anna Hazare' and 'India Against Corruption' have emerged in the last
few months. Surprisingly, majority of these pages seem to be created by various enthusiasts, who do not form
the part of Anna's official team.

For instance, one of the page titled, 'Join Anna Hazare's Fast To Bring the Jan Lokpal Bill'
(Facebook.com/joinanna), created by a Mumbai-based Facebook user named 'Mohammed Zaid Shaikh', is
followed/liked by more than 38,000 users.
The official 'India Against Corruption' page (facebook.com/IndiACor) has managed to rope in more than 3.2
lakh fans, so far. More than 13,000 of these fans joined the page yesterday, and over 60,000 users joined it in the
last 17 days. (The figures have been derived from Facebook Analytics tool named Buzzref.com).
The power of Anna's movement can be gauged from the fact that the official 'India Against Corruption'
Facebook page (with less than one million users) has managed to garner more user engagement than many
leading brands, which employ dedicated resources for social media handling.
According to Buzzref.com, the IAC Facebook page received over 71,000 'likes' and 13,000 comments for mere
170 posts updated in the month of August. However, MTV India (Facebook.com/mtvindia, 2.9 million fans)
and Dominos (Facebook.com/dominospizzaindia, 0.5 million fans) received 21,000 'likes' (for 59 posts) and
11740 'likes' and 1568 comments (for 41 posts) respectively, during the same duration.

43

The power of Anna's movement could be well seen on Twitter too. A humungous chunk of internet users posted
messages in support of Anna on Twitter. Topics related to 'Anna Hazare' and 'Jan Lokpal' became the most
discussed subjects on Twitter in India, in the last two days.
For instance, hashtag - #isupportannahazare remained the most discussed topic on August 17 with over 8000
tweets mentioned or used this hashtag. More than 9000 tweets cited conversations related to
hashtag(#Janlokpal) during August 16 and 17. According to Topsy.com, about 15,000 tweets with the mention
of Anna Hazare have been published on Twitter in the last two days.
The influential power of official Twitter account/handle of the movement (Twitter.com/Janlokpal) has notably
jumped by six points in the past two days. The Klout score of @janlokpal went up from 68 on August 15 to 74
on August 17. For the uninitiated, Klout.com determines the influential power of a Twitter handle.
It's a great score, if we consider Klout scores of some of the most influential Twitter handles in the country, as
shown by Pinstorm India Influencers list (which ranks most influential people/brands on Twitter). The list
mentions Shahrukh Khan (Twitter.com/iamsrk) and Dalai Lama (Twitter.com/DalaiLama) with Klout scores
of 77 and 86 as the most influential Twitter users in India.
And it's not just the common man who is tweeting in support of Anna but also the influential people such as
Anupam Kher (Twitter.com/AnupamPkher, Klout score of 78), Shekhar Kapur (Twitter.com/shekharkapur,
Klout Score of 72) are also fuelling Anna's power in the social media domain.

44

Chapter-4
4. Findings:4.1 Mass media leads to Mass movement of Anna Hazare India Against corruption.
India is passing through a transitional phase, old values are crumbling; new values are formed, what was earlier
considered blasphemous are now being considered sacred at least by educated class. This period is very
uncomfortable and excruciating so here comes into play the crucial role of media as media deals with ideas
besides media forms an integral part of the lives of all of us. So, by its very nature, media can play extremely
crucial role in this transitional phase by shaping opinion of the hoi polloi (the masses). Almost every democratic
country, be it USA or UK, was at some point of time severely plagued by graft. The media there played
extremely crucial role in spreading rational idea to emerge from such difficult phase. It now Indias turn where
every form of media be it Social mediathe newest entrant in media section, Print MediaWith maximum
reach to the hinterland, Electronic Mediawhich has greatest impact on rising middle class, has to display
exceedingly significant role in creating awareness about the current anti-corruption movement.
4.1.1 Movement outcomes:
Movement comprised of people who generally dont participate in politics
People participating in the movement had little knowledge of political parlance
The crowd at the demonstration was mostly middle class who was disheartened with the rampant corruption
prevalent ubiquitously in the society
Lokpal has been a perennially deferred promise of the successive governments, for the last 44 years
The movement has been led by a leader named Anna Hazare, who is down to earth, simple living and simple
conversing social worker
A prominent member of the Anna team has wide experience in civil service area, non-governmental
organization and active in the struggle for strengthening democracy .
The movement was termed as Peoples Movement for anti corruption
This movement was featured as one of the top 10 stories in the Time Magazine for the year 2011
The movement gathered support not only in India but also in foreign
Mass media helped India youth in expressing itself politically:Mass media brought the class room drawing discussions onto the street protesting against corruption and
4.2 The Anna Hazare Movement: In Retrospect Analysis
As Anna Hazare broke his 12 day long fast on 28 August 2011, lakhs of people celebrated across the country in
various ways. While some consider Annas anti-corruption movement a way forward for Indias democracy,
critics have described Annas methods as blackmail and the movement undemocratic and intolerant. However, it
is important to examine the broad aspects of the movement and assess the impact of the movement on the
society.
.Anna Hazare
The protests remained peaceful throughout, despite the fact that it was spread over 13 days and included
thousands of people. The movement involved all sections of the society, with majority from the middle class.
Moreover, many people who did not come out on the streets continued to feel a part of the movement and

45

followed every development on their televisions screens and on the social media. Clearly, the whole of the
country was not out on the streets asking for a change in the way they are governed as seen during the Arab
Spring.
4.2.1 The Criticism
Throughout the movement, there was a tussle between the critics and supporters of Anna Hazare and the Jan
Lokpal Bill. There was no single point of criticism but many and it would be impossible to state all due to
limitation of space. Primarily, commentators stated that Annas method was outright blackmail, showing
disrespect for the Parliament which is the supreme law making body in the country. The Jan Lokpal Bill was
draconian and would facilitate a police state. One of the most frequent statement echoed in the TV studios
was, Laws are made by the Parliament, not on the streets. Many also professed that there was no need of a
Lokpal but a need to strengthen the present systems and laws to ensure a corrupt-free society. R Jagannathan in
his article Answering Annas critics: 10 Posers and Rebuttals in Firstpost, attempts to rebut almost all the
points that critics periodically used throughout the movement and even today. Responding to the issue of
blackmail, he states that form of pressure can be seen as blackmail whether strike by workers and even the
censoring of the latest film, Aakarshan. On other issues of Jan Lokpal resulting in a police state and flaws in the
bill, he goes on to highlight the need for more discussions and compromise. Finally, rebutting the point that laws
are not made on streets, he stated that laws cannot be made in vacuum and the rising need of consulting
people at all levels.
4.2.2 Opposition: The Beneficiaries
Undoubtedly, it was not easy for the UPA government to handle the impasse. The periodicity of their errors and
the resulting situations were a disaster if seen through Public Relations scales. Anna Hazares arrest even
managed to turn many of Annas critics into his supporters. BJP sought to revive its position with the Anna
movement and indeed managed it very well. Other opposition parties like the Left parties, Shiv Sena, TDP etc
also capitalised on the Anna wave. While the opposition remained on the fence for long and remained
ambiguous about their stand, on the last day of Annas fast, they cornered the UPA government and sided openly
with Jan Lokpal and the Anna Team. Young Turks like Rahul Gandhi, Sachin Pilot and Jyotiraditya Scindia tried
their best to manage the reigns, but Anna supporters instantly got attracted to Varun Gandhi. Varun Gandhi was a
hit among the youngsters when he went to Ramlila to express his solidarity with Anna Hazare and also gave a
speech in the Lok Sabha openly expressing his support for the anti-corruption movement. Clearly, the politicians
who supported the Anna Hazare movement instantly struck a chord with the protesting masses. While the
government lost out on its credibility with thousands, the opposition gained points, especially at the last day of
Annas fasts through their speeches in the Lok Sabha.
4.2.3 Impact on the Society
First and foremost, the Anna Hazare movement has activated many politically disenchanted or inactive members
of the Indian society. According to National Council for Applied Economic Research, Indias middle class is
almost 160 million people presently and is likely to rise up to 267 million by 2016. The voting record of the
Middle Class is very poor owing to various reasons ranging from their preoccupation with daily lives to
disenchantment with the politics of the country. Unfortunately, many of the protesters on the streets may have
not ever voted, but continue to feel the side-effects of bad governance. Annas movement has awakened the
youngsters and a politically uninterested section of the society and compelled them to come on the streets and
have a collective voice against the plague of corruption. It has forced them to think about their inactivity and
their non-voting nature, which is likely to change in the next elections. Over a period of time, such an
awakening is likely to be evident in the future of the electoral patterns of the country and a mirror of the
peoples aspirations. The movement has forced the common man to reconsider his chalta hai attitude with
regard to taking or giving bribes, corruption and many other relevant issues, which should bring about a
significant change in the country.

46

The anger displayed on the streets has cautioned the ministers and the government about their callous and
unresponsive attitude towards the citizens of the country. It has made every politician realise that they would
eventually have to be accountable for their actions and not just woo voters every five years and then bury their
expectation in the cold storage. The political landscape of India has seen the prominence of the civil society and
its relation with the Parliamentarians. The recent events have attempted to redefine the ways in which the
government interact with its people. While some criticise this trend, it is a new layers of dynamism added to the
Indian democracy. The Lokpal bill was first introduced in 1968 but eventually lapsed. The subsequent versions
of the bill were re-tabled in 1971, 1977, 1985, 1989, 1996, 1998, 2001, 2005 and in 2008. Without the
movement, the bill would have continued to be kept at the back-burner and would have probably died its natural
death without even being noticed by the masses. It was the Anna Hazare movement that highlighted the
seriousness of the issue, made the public aware and forced the government to take a serious view towards the
same.
Additionally, the non-violent method of protest, even though criticised by many, has been a success story and
has rekindled peoples faith in the Gandhian methods. However, there are some issues that can result in
worrying patterns for the future. There may be times when people resort to similar protests for causes that does
not enjoy popular support. Such instances in the future may not always be very healthy for the society and can
act as a source of conflict and resentment among the people.
4.2.4 What has India gained?
The most important action of the Parliament was to not accept the Jan Lokpal bill as it is. This would have been
disastrous in the long run; owing to the lacunas in the same and the assumption that one bill could uproot the
problem of corruption in the Indian society. While maintaining the supremacy of the Parliament, the government
also included the peoples voice in the process of law-making.
While the House agreed to Hazares three points in principle, the victory remains symbolic but yet very
important for every citizen who feels more involved in the democratic process of the country. To that extent, it is
a victory of the people. The Anna Hazare Anti-Corruption movement has restored a degree of self-esteem in
every Indian that was fast eroding away with stories of corrupt politicians siphoning off millions of rupees. Most
importantly, the movement has given a much needed feeling of Indianness to every citizen, a feeling that
would need to be nurtured everyday and would demand much more than just support for the right cause.
4.3 Findings in print media :
The Hindu covered more space to anna hazare movement
Print media coverage of this second phase of the Anna-led, fortnight-long agitation against corruption at various
levels was clearly more balanced and insightful, reflecting various points of view, at least in the case of major
mainstream newspapers with a long tradition. The editorial coverage critically addressed the core issues,
including legal and constitutional issues and flawed notions such as the supremacy of Parliament. To engage
the more discerning readers, a few newspapers published articles explaining the legal, political, and social
aspects of corruption.
The Hindu covered lot of article on anna hazare movement
The first leader (Corrupt, repressive and stupid, August 17) was bold and strongly worded. It said: A corrupt
government devoid of moral authority is ill equipped to deal reasonably with legitimate public anger. The
scathing editorial commented that through the illegitimate detention of Anna Hazare even before he began his
fast and the arrest of peaceful protesters in Delhi, the central government revealed its ugly, repressive face. It
noted that the government missed several opportunities to arrive at a consensus with Team Anna on setting up an
empowered Lokpal and instead attempted to push through a farce of a Lokpal Bill.

47

Besides these editorials, The Hindu carried four substantial editorial page articles during this period, when the
fast by Mr. Hazare was entering a crucial stage. The articles, written by an acclaimed writer, two academics, and
a political leader, were enlightening, each looking at the dramatic developments from different angles.
The essay I'd rather not be Anna (The Hindu, August 22, 2011) by Arundhati Roy was highly critical of the
Anna Hazare phenomenon and what it represented. In the writer's view, corruption in the society could not be
seen in isolation from many other factors in the country. The article, which was widely circulated and won
national as well as international attention, received a huge number of responses, especially at the newspaper's
website.
The second article (Ambedkar's way and Anna Hazare's methods, August 23) by Sukhadeo Thorat, economist
and educationist, argued that Team Anna should use constitutional methods and enhance people's faith in them.
Otherwise, Dr. Thorat noted, it will convey the message that only coercive and unconstitutional methods
work. He recalled how coercive means forced Dr. B.R. Ambedkar to give up his demand for a separate
electorate when Mahatma Gandhi was on a fast-unto-death.
The third article (Messianism versus democracy, August 24) by the economist Prabhat Patnaik contended that
the substitution of one man for the people, and the reduction of the people's role merely to being supporters and
cheerleaders for one man's actions, was antithetical to democracy. Messianism substitutes the collective
subject, the people by an individual subject, the messiah. The people may participate in the activities of the
people, as they are doing reportedly at Anna Hazare's fast but they do so as spectators.
The fourth of the articles (For a strong and effective Lokpal, The Hindu, August 25) by Prakash Karat, general
secretary of the Communist Party of India (Marxist), observed that the attitude of the UPA Government and its
failure to tackle corruption had fuelled public anger. He said that the government was seen as being complicit in
corruption and this had been seen as the most corrupt government in the history of independent India. Since
Hazare's first hunger strike in April, Mr. Karat noted, anti-corruption movement had gained momentum.
Together with the editorials, these assessments helped readers gain a critical perspective on the Anna Hazare
phenomenon, the anti-corruption mood in the country, and the major issues at stake. On the whole, the coverage
of the fortnight's drama not just by The Hindu but by several other dailies, including The Times of India, The
New Indian Express, The Indian Express, and magazines, notably Outlook and India Today, reminded and
reassured observers that for credible information, analysis, and diverse comment, it was the mainstream Indian
press that still held the field.
4.3.1 Even Times of India covered Anna Hazare Movement
The Delhi edition of The Times of India, covered the Anna Hazare saga over 123 broadsheet pages branded
August Kranti (August Revolution), with 401 news stories, 34 opinion pieces, 556 photographs, and 29
cartoons and strips.
# On seven of the 13 days of the fast, the front page of Delhi ToI had eight-column banner headlines. The
coverage, which included vox-pops and special pages, even spilled over to the business and sports pages, with
the Bofors scam-accused industrialist S.P. Hinduja offering his wisdom.
# In launching a toll-free number for readers to give a missed call if they wanted a strong Lokpal bill, ToIwas
almost indistinguishable from the India Against Corruption movement behind Hazare. ToI claims that over 46
lakh people have registered their vote.
In short, backed by an online campaign titled ACTAgainst Corruption Together plus the Arnab Goswami
show on Times Now, the Times group provided substantial multi-media heft to the Jan Lok Pal campaign.
In its almost completely uncritical coverage of Round II, The Times of India provided a sharp contrast to the
almost completely cynical coverage of Round I by The Indian Express four months ago, the former batting out
of his crease for for the wider constituency of the reader, consumer, voter and citizen.

48

Remarkably, also, for a publication of its size and girth, ToI took an unhesitatingly anti-establishment stand in its
headlines and choice of stories, showing where it stood on corruptionan issue agitating readers in its core
demographicin a manner in which most large newspapers are loathe to do.
There were only token negative pieces like the Shahi Imam of Delhis Jama Masjid calling the protest antiIslam; Dalits wanting a Bahujan Lokpal bill; or Arundhati Roy calling Hazares stand undemocratic. On the
whole, though, ToI coverage was gung-ho as gung-ho goes, especially judging from some of the mythological,
militaristic headlines.
Just what was behind the ToIs proactive stand still remains to be deciphered.
Was it merely reflecting the angst and anger of its middle-class readership? Was it taking the scams, many of
which it broke and which brought the Lok Pal issue to the head, to its logical conclusion? Or, does the
involvement of its in-house godman in the proceedings, Sri Sri Ravi Shankar of the Art of Living, lend a clue?
Was it willy-nilly taking part in the dark rumours of regime-change swirling around Delhi? Or, was it just
doing what a good newspaper is supposed to do: taking a stand, making sense of an increasingly complicated
world to a time and attention strapped reader, and speaking truth to power?
Whatever be the truth, the fact that Times of India took such a popular-with-readers, unpopular-withgovernment stand when it is involved in a no-holds-barred campaign to stall the implementation of the Majithia
wage board recommendations for newspaper employees, speaks volumes of its conviction on the Lok Pal issue
Impact of print media ( newspaper and magazines ) led common people and middle class family drawing
room and tea-table discussions onto the streets protesting against corruption and malpractices and
fighting for justice.

4.4 Findings in New media: Social media drive Anna Hazare movement and mobilise Indian youth in
expressing itself politically:Social activist Anna Hazare and his movement 'India Against Corruption' (IAC) has become significantly
powerful on social media, especially on Facebook and Twitter.
More than 150 Facebook pages related to 'Anna Hazare' and 'India Against Corruption' have emerged in the last
few months. Surprisingly, majority of these pages seem to be created by various enthusiasts, who do not form
the part of Anna's official team.
For instance, one of the page titled, 'Join Anna Hazare's Fast To Bring the Jan Lokpal Bill'
(Facebook.com/joinanna), created by a Mumbai-based Facebook user named 'Mohammed Zaid Shaikh', is
followed/liked by more than 38,000 users.
The official 'India Against Corruption' page (facebook.com/IndiACor) has managed to rope in more than 3.2
lakh fans, so far. More than 13,000 of these fans joined the page yesterday, and over 60,000 users joined it in the
last 17 days. (The figures have been derived from Facebook Analytics tool named Buzzref.com).
The power of Anna's movement can be gauged from the fact that the official 'India Against Corruption'
Facebook page (with less than one million users) has managed to garner more user engagement than many
leading brands, which employ dedicated resources for social media handling.
According to Buzzref.com, the IAC Facebook page received over 71,000 'likes' and 13,000 comments for mere
170 posts updated in the month of August. However, MTV India (Facebook.com/mtvindia, 2.9 million fans) and
Dominos (Facebook.com/dominospizzaindia, 0.5 million fans) received 21,000 'likes' (for 59 posts) and 11740
'likes' and 1568 comments (for 41 posts) respectively, during the same duration.

49

The power of Anna's movement could be well seen on Twitter too. A humungous chunk of internet users posted
messages in support of Anna on Twitter. Topics related to 'Anna Hazare' and 'Jan Lokpal' became the most
discussed subjects on Twitter in India, in the last two days.
For instance, hashtag - #isupportannahazare remained the most discussed topic on August 17 with over 8000
tweets mentioned or used this hashtag. More than 9000 tweets cited conversations related to hashtag(#Janlokpal)
during August 16 and 17. According to Topsy.com, about 15,000 tweets with the mention of Anna Hazare have
been published on Twitter in the last two days.
The influential power of official Twitter account/handle of the movement (Twitter.com/Janlokpal) has notably
jumped by six points in the past two days. The Klout score of @janlokpal went up from 68 on August 15 to 74
on August 17. For the uninitiated, Klout.com determines the influential power of a Twitter handle.
It's a great score, if we consider Klout scores of some of the most influential Twitter handles in the country, as
shown by Pinstorm India Influencers list (which ranks most influential people/brands on Twitter). The list
mentions Shahrukh Khan (Twitter.com/iamsrk) and Dalai Lama (Twitter.com/DalaiLama) with Klout scores of
77 and 86 as the most influential Twitter users in India.
And it's not just the common man who is tweeting in support of Anna but also the influential people such as
Anupam Kher (Twitter.com/AnupamPkher, Klout score of 78), Shekhar Kapur (Twitter.com/shekharkapur,
Klout Score of 72) are also fuelling Anna's power in the social media domain.

Courtesy : afaqs
4.5 News covered on mobilisg Indian youth
Even before the build-up at Ramlila Maidan, the India Against Corruption (IAC) team was at Malhar - the
annual college festival of Mumbai's St Xavier's College.
Its aim was to get students to join Anna's movement.

50

"Public sector may be dishonest and inefficient. We need to set that right. That's what the Lokpal is supposed to
do," noted lawyer and Team Anna member Prashant Bhushan while addressing the students.
"More that 60 per cent population is below the age of 30. We want these people be with us and we want their
participation," said Naresh Thakur, Coordinator, India Against Corruption, Mumbai Chapter.
It was a dead obvious target: Colleges with their captive audience.
"The response we got was quite overwhelming. We had a capacity of around 120 people and we got registrations
over 600," said Nidhi, a student of the St Xavier's College.
From cafeteria conversations to classrooms, Team Anna's message was everywhere.
"I think during cafeteria conversation what used to be discussion was Jan Lokpal, and according to me this was
never before ever happened in our college or school," said Vanshika Goenka, from BD Somani International
School.
India Against Corruption's Mumbai Chapter now has a database of xx supporters, most of them youngsters. If
the movement has gone national, much of it is powered by our youth.
(http://www.ndtv.com/article/india/mobilising-the-young-the-anna-effect-131901)

51

Chapter 5
5. Discussion
This section elaborates on the findings and draws conclusions based on the broader literature. To provide a
more comprehensive analysis, the qualitative research and textual analysis is done in order to see how media
influence Anna Hazare Movement India Against Corruption .
From the above findings, I observe among mass media Newspaper and Social Media were quite
influential in mobilizing the youth and common people for Anna Hazare movement India Against
Corruption .
5.1 In Print Media ,
The Hindu covered at least 18 articles and Front page cover to Anna Hazare Movement
and even, Times of India gave Front page news for Anna Hazare Movement and various articles.
5.2 In, Televison news, News channels' prime time coverage of Anna Hazare's fast: study report
Reproduced below is a report from CMS Media Lab on how much prime time selected English and Hindi news
channels devoted to coverage of Anna Hazares Fast and how much rime was devoted to commercials:
Anna Hazares movement against corruption received blanket coverage on the prime time of television news
channels, according to a study of CMS Media Lab.
To understand the coverage of Annas movement on television news channels, CMS Media Lab tracked and
analyzed the prime time content (7PM to 11PM) of leading two Hindi (Star News & Aaj Tak) and two English
(NDTV24x7 & CNN IBN) news channels from 16th to 28th August 2011.
News channels had a combined coverage of 8047 minutes (91.1%) of prime time news coverage on Anna
Hazares movement. Hindi news channels devoted 10% more news time to Annas movement compared to
English news channels. Hindi news channels devoted 97% of news time whereas English news channels
devoted 87% of their prime time news space. During these 13 days, on nine days in the case of Hindi channels
and four days in the case of English channels, other news was completely blacked out.
Interestingly, Television news channels covered Mumbai terrorist attack in 2008 with least advertisements.
However, in Annas movement television news channels not only spiked in viewership but also a good share of
commercial time during prime time. Approximately news channels devoted 27% of their prime time on
advertisements. 23 to 31% of prime time of news channels around a quarter in the case of English channels
and one-third in the case of Hindi channels- were allotted for commercials.
On four days (24th to 27th) NDTV 24x7 fully filled up their prime time news time with Annas movement.
CNN IBN also had four days (16th, 24th, 25th, and 27th) of 100% coverage on Anna. Star News and Aaj Tak
blacked out all news other than Annas revolution for nine days.
Among news channels Star News devoted 97.8% of its news time followed by Aaj Tak with 94.6%. NDTV 24x7
and CNN IBN devoted 88.7 and 84.5% of news time respectively on Annas protest.
Note: CMS Media Lab analyses the content and market trends of news media
5.3 High-tech revolution of Anna Hazare against corruption
One of its kind, Anna Hazare India Against Corruption became the first ever campaign which hit the
cyberspace to a great extent. Social networking platforms such as Facebook and Twitter have done a
lot.Facebook, already a massive hit in the country, has let people expresstheir sentiments the way they want. A
number of Facebook Pages havebeen created dedicated to Anna Hazares movement. India AgainstCorruption

52

(IAC), an NGO supporting the anti-graft campaign, ownsa Facebook page and has more than 454,000 likes till
the movement officially ended. And many other groups and communities have beencreated in the name of fight
against corruption. People are tagging theirfriends in images and texts related to the cause. The democratic setuphas let everybody keep their views, whether one agrees or contradicts.Facebook tools such as poll have also
been used extensively forgarnering more public opinion. The dynamics of Facebook is suchthat one cannot
simply ignore what others are doing. Internet & SocialMedia sites have been abuzz with articles/messages
showing support for Anna Hazares fight against corruption and his support for Jan Lokpal Bill. Facebook now
has over 100 pages dedicated to Anna Hazare andhis campaign and have garnered over 200,000 likes in just
couple ofdays.Twitter, the popular micro blogging site, has also pushed themovement further. Some of the
recent hot trends in Twitter have beenidentified as hashtage: #isupportannahazare, #annahazare #kiranbedi
#DelhiPolice #janlokpal. People were keenly following the updates on Anna Hazares fast and how the political
drama in Delhi has been unfolded. There was a vital role of technology behind the scene which was created for
16th august. It is 4-5 months hard work by team Anna who is sending messages through internet, phone to
every citizen of India. In this SMS, email, and missed calls played a major role. Mumbais Netcore Company
provided its services to team Anna. Some of its services were free of cost. The company has used IBM
technology to send bulk SMSs to lakh of people in one go. India Against corruption has paid 2 paisa/SMS to this
company. Whereas company did not charged Team Anna for missed call services and it also did not charge for
the phone calls in reply to missed calls from the people. This was the donation from the company for this
revolution.
In the year 2009, Pink Chaddi Campaign was similarly started on Facebook with registration of 2,900. The
campaign raised its voice in favour of todays Indian women. It is interesting to observe the power of Online
Campaigning.On the other hand, a mobile application called India Against Corruption for Symbian and
Android enabled phones has been launched which was a great way to support Anna Hazare and his movement.
This mobile application is free available anyone can download it from the Ovi Store or Android Market
5.3.1 Celebritiy presence through Twitter
Some of the celebrities actively twittering in favour of Anna
Hazare are:
Anupuma Kher tweets, On my way to Jantar Mantar, Delhi from Pune to pledge my support to Anna Hazare
and more than One Billion INDIANS against corruption.:)
Farhan Akhtar tweets,I support Anna Hazare. Our country has suffered from corruption for too long NOW
is the time we get together and do something about it.
Rakesh Junjunwala tweets, Sharad Pawar has quit the GoM. I think he requested Anna Hazare to reduce his
burden.
IbnLive tweets, A larger debate is required for the Bill #JanLokpal.
Youtube is not far behindThere have been hundreds of videos that have been uploaded in support of Anna
Hazares campaign.
Even the Television News channels covered every second of this campaign. It is also for the first time that
foreign Media (online as well TV) has given quite a bit of coverage.
More than 150 Facebook pages related to Anna Hazare and India Against Corruption have emerged in the last
few months. Surprisingly, majority of these pages seem to be created by various enthusiasts, who do not form
the part of Annas official team.
(Facebook.com/joinanna), created by a Mumbai-based Facebook user named Mohammed Zaid Shaikh, is
followed/liked by more than 38,000 users.

53

The official India Against Corruption page (facebook.com/ IndiACor) has managed to rope in more than 3.2
lakh fans, so far. Morethan 13,000 of these fans joined the page yesterday, and over 60,000users joined it in the
last 17 days. (The figures have been derived from Facebook Analytics tool named Buzzref.com).
According to Buzzref.com, the IAC Facebook page received over 71,000 likes and 13,000 comments for mere
170 posts updated in the
5.4 More in Characteristics of the movement:
Movement comprised of people who generally dont participate in politics
People participating in the movement had little knowledge of political parlance
The crowd at the demonstration was mostly middle class who was disheartened with the rampant corruption
prevalent ubiquitously in the society
Lokpal has been a perennially deferred promise of the successive governments, for the last 44 years
The movement has been led by a leader named Anna Hazare, who is down to earth, simple living and simple
conversing social worker
A prominent member of the Anna team has wide experience in civil service area, non-governmental
organization and active in the struggle for strengthening democracy .
The movement was termed as Peoples Movement for anti corruption
This movement was featured as one of the top 10 stories in the Time Magazine for the year 2011
The movement gathered support not only in India but also in foreign

5.5 Do the media was objective while covering Anna Hazare Movement
The Anna Hazare movement, which appears to have now subsided, raises crucial issues relating to the role of
the media.
The first and foremost role of the media is to provide accurate and objective information to the public to enable
it to form rational opinions, which is a sine qua non in a democracy.Obviously the people cannot go everywhere
to collect information about important events,and hence the media acts as an agency of the people for supplying
such information. Hence it plays a vital role in a democracy.
The problem, however, arises, when journalists do not maintain detachment and objectivity, and instead identify
themselves with the event. This is precisely what happened to a large section of the media in December last year
during the Anna Hazare stir. Most journalists practically became part of the movement instead of remaining
detached observers and reporters. It reminded one of the Babri Masjid Ram Janmabhumi agitation when a
section of the media (particularly a large section of the Hindi press) practically became kar sewaks.
A journalist must maintain some distance and detachment from the event he is covering. He has to cover and
report the event, not become part of it. He should behave professionally, like a doctor who does not get
personally involved with his patient while doing his best for him, or like a lawyer who does not identify himself
with his client, while arguing for him. If one gets identified with his subject how can he maintain accuracy and
objectivity?
A journalist may have sympathy for the subject he is reporting, but he must never forego his critical faculties
and rational analysis.
Even a little rational thinking reveals that the Anna Hazare movement was only an emotional outburst and
cannot make even a scratch on the prevailing rampant corruption in the country. Yet, like the Pied Piper of

54

Hamelin, Anna led the gullible people of India in a dance of stupidity, ably assisted by most of our media. I was
reminde of a line in Shakespeare's Macbeth "It is a tale told by an idiot, full of sound and fury, signifying
nothing".
In those days one never heard of a critical analysis by the media of the Janlokpal Bill, whose enactment Anna
was insisting upon.Probably nobody had even read it.
Section 2 (e) of the Bill states that employees covered by the Prevention of Corruption Act come within the
purview of the Lokpal. There are over 2 crore such employees, 39 lac Central Government employees, 55 lac
employees of public sector undertakings and statutory bodies, 1.2 crore state government employees, and other
categories like cooperative societies employees, teachers, judicial officers, etc.
Now if this law is made there are bound to be tens of lacs of complaints every year. This will require perhaps 2
lac lokpals to deal with them. These lokpals will have to be provided salaries, staff, housing, offices,etc. placing
an additional heavy financial burden on the state exchecquer And considering the low level of morality
prevailing in our country it is almost certain that most of them will become blackmailers. It will be creating a
Frankenstein monster,a parallel bureaucracy which will at a stroke double the corruption in the country. And
who will guard these praetorian guards? A body of superlokpals?
Should the media not have coolly and rationally considered all this instead of joining the revelry and merry
making at Jantar Mantar and Ramlila grounds?
Apart from the above, there is a second role of the media, which is particularly important in the transitional
period (from feudal agricultural to the modern industrial era) through which our country is passing, and that is
of giving leadership and guidance to the people in the realm of ideas.
This transitional period is always a very painful period in history, full of turbulence, turmoil, wars, revolutions,
social churning, intellectual ferment, etc. A study of the history of Western Europe in the 17th to 19th Centuries,
when European society was passing through its transition, shows that it was only after going through this fire
that modern society emerged in Europe. India is presently going through this fire. We are going through a very
painful period in our history, which may last another 15 to 20 years.
In this transition period the role of ideas, and therefore of the media, becomes extremely important. The media is
not an ordinary business which deals with commodities, it deals with ideas. To help society get over the
transition period faster and with less pain the media should promote modern scientific ideas and combat
backward feudal ideas and practices like casteism, communalism, and superstitions. In this connection I may
refer to the glorious role played by the European media when Europe was passing through its transition. Voltaire
attacked religious bigotry, Rousseau attacked the entire feudal system and Thomas Paine proclaimed the Rights
Of Man.
In my opinion the Indian media should play a similar role. Instead of pandering to the low intellectual level of
our masses and perpetuating it, it should seek to uplift it so as to make the masses part of enlightened India.
The Indian media has a glorious role to play in the coming days, provided it realizes its mistakes and
corrects itself. I am sure the Indian media will do so, and thereby win the respect of the Indian people.

55

Conclusion:Mass media drive the mass movement . All media,television news, newspaper, magazines and new
media( social media ) gave full coverage to Anna Hazare movement, India Against Corruption.
All mass media especially newspaper and social media has brought the middle class drawing room discussions
onto the streets protesting against corruption and malpractices and fighting for justice.
Tv news also helped in setting propaganda for Anna Hazare movement and even,
News and current affair magazine tried to maintain the objectivity of Anna Hazare movement and telling both
side government as well as Anna Hazare
Mass Media also helped Indian youth in expressing itself politically.
Also compared to other aspects of social movements New Media is becoming more significant and instant way
of disseminating the information globally. The medium provided a larger platform to discuss the ongoing logjam
and share a range of sentiments. The Internet has been arguably the most harnessed medium among all kinds
and has seen the largest audience participation. It helped propagate the word outside India and drew muchneeded global attention.
The virtual world is gradually finding its social relevance and people notwithstanding their geographical
location are able to view/ review/analyze events across the world. The massive turnout in the virtual world
certainly indicates at the growing power of this media and its impact on the masses, especially the youth. The
Internet is set to make the globe more coherent with its ever-increasing reach out to the nook and corners of the
world.

56

References:

(2004). Cyberprotest: New Media, Citizens and Social Movements. In W. v. Donk.


Routledge, London UK.
http://brpbhaskar.blogspot.in/2011/08/news-channels-prime-time-coverageof.html. (n.d.). Retrieved from www.brpbhaskar.blogspot.in:
http://brpbhaskar.blogspot.in/2011/08/news-channels-prime-time-coverageof.html
http://editindia.blogspot.in/2011/08/anna-hazare-tv-channels-media-driving.html.
(n.d.). Retrieved from www.editindia.blogspot.in:
http://editindia.blogspot.in/2011/08/anna-hazare-tv-channels-media-driving.html
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/2011_Indian_anti-corruption_movement. (n.d.).
Retrieved from www.wikipedia.org: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/2011_Indian_anticorruption_movement
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/2012_Indian_anti-corruption_movement. (n.d.).
Retrieved from www.wikipedia.org: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/2012_Indian_anticorruption_movement
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Anna_Hazare. (n.d.). Retrieved from
www.wikipedia.org: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Anna_Hazare
http://indiatoday.intoday.in/story/anna-hazare-fast-against-corruption-began-in1991/1/148573.html. (n.d.). Retrieved from www.indiatoday.in:
http://indiatoday.intoday.in/story/anna-hazare-fast-against-corruption-began-in1991/1/148573.html
http://indiatoday.intoday.in/story/india-today-newsmaker-2011-annahazare/1/165519.html. (n.d.). Retrieved from www.intoday.in:
http://indiatoday.intoday.in/story/india-today-newsmaker-2011-annahazare/1/165519.html
http://oxforddictionaries.com/definition/english/media. (n.d.). Retrieved from
www.oxforddictionaries.com:
http://oxforddictionaries.com/definition/english/media
http://sciencesblog.org/management/anna-hazares-india-against-corruption-roleof-new-media-in-mass-movement/. (n.d.). Retrieved from www.scienceblog.org:
http://sciencesblog.org/management/anna-hazares-india-against-corruption-roleof-new-media-in-mass-movement/
http://theviewspaper.net/role-of-media-in-anti-corruption-movement-2/. (n.d.).
Retrieved from www.thwviewspaper.net: http://theviewspaper.net/role-of-mediain-anti-corruption-movement-2/
http://www.afaqs.com/news/story.html?
sid=31413_How+powerful+is+Anna+Hazare+on+Facebook+and+Twitter.

57

(n.d.). Retrieved from www.afaqs.com: http://www.afaqs.com/news/story.html?


sid=31413_How+powerful+is+Anna+Hazare+on+Facebook+and+Twitter
http://www.civilserviceindia.com/subject/Essay/anna-hazare-againstcorruption.html. (n.d.). Retrieved from www.ccivilserviceindia.com:
http://www.civilserviceindia.com/subject/Essay/anna-hazare-againstcorruption.html
http://www.ndtv.com/article/india/anna-hazare-makes-it-to-time-magazine-s-top10-list-158582. (n.d.). Retrieved from www.ndtv.com:
http://www.ndtv.com/article/india/anna-hazare-makes-it-to-time-magazine-s-top10-list-158582
http://www.ndtv.com/article/india/mobilising-the-young-the-anna-effect-131901.
(n.d.). Retrieved from www.ndtv.com:
http://www.ndtv.com/article/india/mobilising-the-young-the-anna-effect-131901
http://www.outlookindia.com/article.aspx?277045. (n.d.). Retrieved from
www.outlookindia.com: http://www.outlookindia.com/article.aspx?277045
http://www.thefreedictionary.com/print+media. (n.d.). Retrieved from
www.thefreedictionary.com: http://www.thefreedictionary.com/print+media
http://www.thefreedictionary.com/television+news. (n.d.). Retrieved from
www.thefreedictionary.com: http://www.thefreedictionary.com/television+news
http://www.thehindu.com/news/national/people-back-at-jantar-mantar-its-war-oncorruption/article1983604.ece. (n.d.). Retrieved from www.thehindu.com:
http://www.thehindu.com/news/national/people-back-at-jantar-mantar-its-war-oncorruption/article1983604.ece
http://www.thehindu.com/opinion/Readers-Editor/print-media-do-better-than-tvcoverage-of-hazare-fast/article2423886.ece. (n.d.). Retrieved from
www.thehindu.com: http://www.thehindu.com/opinion/Readers-Editor/printmedia-do-better-than-tv-coverage-of-hazare-fast/article2423886.ece
http://www.whatislokpal.in/the-role-of-the-times-of-india-in-propping-up-annahazares-movement-of-august-2011/. (n.d.). Retrieved from www.whatislokpal.in:
http://www.whatislokpal.in/the-role-of-the-times-of-india-in-propping-up-annahazares-movement-of-august-2011/
(2003). textual analysis. In Mckee. sage publications.

58