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IS 7504 1995

© All Rights Reserved

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Whereas the Parliament of India has set out to provide a practical regime of right to

information for citizens to secure access to information under the control of public authorities,

in order to promote transparency and accountability in the working of every public authority,

and whereas the attached publication of the Bureau of Indian Standards is of particular interest

to the public, particularly disadvantaged communities and those engaged in the pursuit of

education and knowledge, the attached public safety standard is made available to promote the

timely dissemination of this information in an accurate manner to the public.

1 +, 1 +

01 ' 5

Jawaharlal Nehru

IS 7504 (1995): Gears - Cylindrical Gears - Accuracies Methods of inspection [PGD 31: Bolts, Nuts and Fasteners

Accessories]

! $ ' +-

Satyanarayan Gangaram Pitroda

! > 0 B

BharthariNtiatakam

( Reaffirmed 2005 )

Indian Standard

GEARS-CYLINDRICA~L GEARS-ACCURACIESMBTHODSOFINSPECTION

( First Revision )

UDC

621-833.1 : 620~111~1

Q BIS 1995

BUREAU

MANAK

OF

BHAVAN,

INDIAN

9 BAHADUR

NEW DELHI

December 1995

STANDARDS

SHAH

ZAFAR

MARG

110002

Price Group 9

Lhl 13

FOREWORD

This Indian Standard ( First Revision ) was adopted by the Bureau of Indian Standards,

draft finalized by the Gears Sectional Committee had been approved by the Light Mechanical

ing Division Council.

after -the

Engineer-

This standard was originally published in 1974. The present revision incorporates the latest internationally accepted techniques for inspection of cylindrical gears which includes inspection of gear blanks of

meshing gears, inspection of teeth forms of gears pairs and the inspection of gear pairs in assembled

conditions. The gears are classified into 12 grades based on their accuracies. The revision also incorporates the methods for determining individual errors,_schematic for electronic pitch testing equipment,

schematic circuit for single flank testing and measurement of double flank total composite error

Assistance has been derived from the following standards

i) DIN 3960 : 1987 Definitions parameters and equations for involute cylindrical gears and gear

pairs, issued by DIN. Dxutsches Institut fiir Normung, Germanv.

ii) DIN 3961 : 1978 Tolerances for cylindrical gear teeth, issued by DIN. Deutsches Institut ftir

Normung, Germany.

iii) DIN 3967 : 1978 System of gear fits, backiash tooth thickness allowances, tooth thickness

tolerances, principles, issued by DIN. Deutsches Institut fiir Normung, Germany.

IS 3681 : 1994 Gears -- Cylindrical

and notations.

gears -

Accuracies

In reporting the result of a test or analysis made in accordance with this standard, if the final value,

observed or calculated, is to be rounded off, it shall be done in accordance with IS 2 : 1960 Rules for

rounding off numerical values ( revised ).

IS 7504 : 1995

Indian Standard

GEARS -

METHODS OF INSPECTION

( First Revision )

1 SCOPE

SMax -

1.1

Win

sb

Fn

cylindrical gears of involute, modified involute flank

forms, comprising of gears with straight or inclined

teeth for connecting parallel shafts.

I.2 This standard covers the inspection methods for

gear teeth oncylindrical gears of module 1 to 70 and

with reference circle diameter up to 10 000 mm graded

in 12 gear tooth qualities.

2 REFERENCES

IS 3681 : 1994 Gears - Cylindrical gears - Accuracies (first revision)may be referred for definitions

and notations.

3 SYMBOLS

a

SC -

Number of teeth

zv

Factor (Table 7)

Cl -

Factor (Table 8)

c2

Factor (Table 9)

OM

distance)

Ff

Face width

Fi

F;

4

db

FP

Fpk -

dM

Fpz/a-

ff

fi

Fs

Fr

IT

fP

Tooth width

fv

Ml

fu

MR

fHa -

Rp

h-v fif -

Rs

cl

Pressure angle

Ii

Chordal height

an

at

Normal backlash

aw

&

In

Tolerance grade

awt

Module

aR

ma

aRt

mt

Transverse module

Pb

Base pitch

fib

Helix angle

Base helix angle.

Tooth thickness

IS 7504 : 1995

4 INSPECTION

CYLINDRICAL

METHODS FOR

GEARS

a) Machining the blanks of the two gears,

b) Cutting of the teeth of the hvo gears, and

c) Assembling the toothed wheels in operating

condition.

It is, therefore, normal to carryout the

inspection in corresponding order:

successive

2. Inspection of the teeth of the two gearqand

3. Inspection of the assembly conditions of the two

gears.

5 INSPECTION

stylus which is in contact with the radial cylindrical

reference surface during a complete revolution of the

gear.

53.2 Axial Run-Out (wobble)

This is the total range of movement of an indtcator

stylus which .is in contact with the axial reference

surface during a complete revolution of the gear.

5.4 Tolerauces on Gear Blanks

The tolerances on gear blanks shall be as given in

Table 1.

INDIVIDUALERRORS

the bore is adopted as the reference axis.

measured on thereference circle or any other circle as

close to it as possible and concentric with respect to the

gear axis. The difference between the measuring circle

diameter & and the reference circle diameter d influences the measurement of the error by the factor

d&d and these errors aregenerally negligible.

be the bearing axis of the bearings.

In order to facilitate the operations of machining,

inspection and assembly of toothed wheels, it is

recommended that radial and axial auxiliary reference

surfaces should be indicated clearly on the working

drawings ( see Fig. 1).

of the teeth with respect to reference axis and also by

profile error.

Inspection of the pitch by measuring the deviation from

the design value is normally performed only on high

precision gears where exact angular transmission is

indispensable, A tooth flank is butted against a fixed

anvil in the region of the reference circle while a

movable measuring feeler senses the corresponding

flank of the adjacent tooth. The differences between the

adjacent pitches csn be read from a dial indicator

( see Fig. -2 ).

Eccentricity of the teeth with reference to the gear axis

gives rise to an error curve of overall sinusoidal form.

FIG.1 REFERENCE

SURFACES

\\

operated comparator, the computation of the individual

pitch error, tooth to tooth pitch and total cumulative

pitch error is carried out as given in Table 2 and the

graph of the errors can be drawn from the values thus

computed.

5.2.1 Tip Dimne~er

The value of the tip diameter is not of essential importance. In cases where the apparatus for inspecting the

tooth thickness rests on the tip cylinder, allowance

should be made for the tip diameter error.

values gives tooth to tooth pitch error, fU. Then the

algebraic mean value is calculated from all the

measured values. The difference between the measured

values and the mean valuegives individual ptich error,

ft The algebraic addition of individual pitch error fp

gives the cumulative pitch error. The total cumulative

pitch error Fp is given by the difference between

maximum and minimum values of cumulative pitch error.

This is the total range of movement of an indicator

stylus which is in contact with the tip cylinder during a

complete revolution of the gear (seeFig. 1). This check

is important only in the case where certain tooth inspection instruments rest on the cylinder.

electronic pitch testers. Individual pitch errors are

2

( Clause 5.4 )

Quality

Bore

ITl

In

In

In

IT6

IT6

error of form

Shaft

error of form

Xp diameter

) Radial b-out of

Xp cylinder

Radial run-out of the

reference surface

Axial run-out of the

reference surface

2.5

10

IT3

IT4

IT4

IT6

IT6

IT6

IT7

ITa

IT3

IT4

IT4

IT5

ITS

IT5

IT6

In

IT7

IT7

IT7

IT7

IT7

IT8

Il?3

n-9

T

0.014 + 5

NOTE-&

) When the tip cylinder is used as a datum surface for a checking instrument.

0.0&f, + 10

Usd, + 15

IT8

IT8

IT11

IT11

O.O4d,

+ 25

G SUPPORT

FIG.2 INS~YXX~ON

OFGEARTmm POR

INDMDUAL

ERRORS

testers, which operates on the comparison pitch

measuring principle and at the same time defines a

mean value. Figure 3 shows a schematic of an

electronic pitch testing equipment. The attachment

compares the initial comparison pitch value 0 of any

one pitch of the gear with all subsequent pitches. This

is achieved with the electric tracer K which, with its

pair of styli M switched to difference measurements,

measures values in relation to the initial datum value

0. When the last measured value has been recorded,

electronic unit R automatically evaluates the mean

value which k then drawn automatically as a straight

line through the previously recorded pitch diagram. The

actually recorded individual pitch errors are then read

Hoffalong the line.

transverse pitch.

In a gear with z teeth there are z individual pitch errors

of the right flank and as many of the left flanks. The

errors, fP are obtained as the difference between the

individual measured value and the mean of all z

measured values.

6.12 Cumulative Pitch Error, Fpk

This is the deviation of the actual dimension of a pitch

interval over k individual pitches from the corresponding nominal value. The cumulative pitch error is

obtained as the algebraic sum of the k individual pitch

errors contained in the interval, provided the error of

measurement is sufficiently small.

k

Fpk-Zf

Individual pitch error,fpis the difference between the

OP

( Clause 6.1 )

pitch No.

%x?

izil%%f

Individual

Pitch Emu-

fp.CM

;;IuhtAa4a;

Fp7w

fu,Irm

+l

+l

2

3

4

+3

+5

+l

3

2

4

+4

+6

+2

+5

+I1

+13

-1

+13

-3

-2

+I1

-5

-4

+7

-3

-2

+.5

-6

-5

-2

-2

10

-3

11

-1

-2

12

+l

+2

NOTE -

Mean value -+lO 22 - - 1 (Mean value to be rounded off to the nearest micrometer).

12

4

Ckria side for eleck tracer K

Gvrier side for electric tracer L

I!kctric tracer for pitch tests, etc

F%ztric tracer for true nmning tests

Pair of tracer styli of K switched to

different measurements.

direction setting for M

distance betwken tracer styli of M

locking members

Counting mechanism

R

S

T

iJ

V

W

Stroke mechanism

Stroke restriction

Indicator instrument

Ekctric tracer for involute tests, etc

FIG.3 ELECRCNW

PITQI

TEWNG

If the errors of all the pitch intervals are measured from

a particular reference tooth profile or calculated from

and then plotted against the corresponding teeth numbers, then the cumulative pitch errors are obtained as

per Fig. 4.

and

E~JIPMENT

ciradar pitch measurements as the difference of

measurements offleighbouring pitches.

65.7 Base Pitch Error, fp

Base pitch erroris the difference between the ac-1 and

nominal values of the base pitch. Deviations measured

in the transverse plane are denoted by fpt and in the

normal plane by fpea.

Fpzf8

This is the Amulative pitch error over-aniuterval of l/8

circumference of the gear (k = z/8).

measuting instrument which is pie-adjusted to setting

i.lA T&al Cumulative Pdch Errs, Fp

gauges. Either portable or bench instruments can be

The maximum cumulative pitch errorin agear is called . employed. In both cases, measurement is independent

the total cumulative pitch error. It is indicatedwithout of the gear axis with no influence of radial run-out on

sign and is obtained from the cumulative pitch ermrs as the base pitch. -Se2Fii. 5.

the difference belweeu the algebraic maximum value The absolute value of the base pitch on the line of action

ksn idicative of the pressure angle. Error in the base

and the algebraic minimum value.

piti Implies an error ln the pressure angle.

6.1.5

RangeofPitch Errors, Rp

For spur gears, error in the pressure angle can be

This is the difference between maximum and minimum determined by means of the equation:

actual values of the transverse pitches of the right or left

flanks of a gear.

For helical gears, the measured error of the base pitch

6.I.6 Tooth to Tooth P&h Errol fi

may be due to an error in the pressure angle or in the

The tooth to tooth pitch error is the difference between

helix angle or both. Measurement of the base pitch on

the actual values of two successive right or left the line of action is particularly important for the gears

tmnsverse pitches.

produced by si@e tooth cutters.

5

Is 7504 : 1995

FLANK

F(O.

21

1 2

12131415161718192021

8 9101-l

r

II

PjTCH NO.

1 r-fu

r

b

a-

b-Total

cumulative pitch error referred to flank 21.

Fp - Total cumulative pitch error.

c -Cumulative

teeth,&3

(k =

FIG.4 DEIERMNKIION

OFPrm ERROR(Eg : 21)

MEASURING F

ER SUPPORT

BASE

BASEPm

6

ERROR

Is 7504 : 1995

tester,

flank test graph as shown in Fig. 7 can be

obtained.

4.2 FlankDeviations

This inspection, together with the pitch measurement is

of foremogt importance in the schedule of individual

error tests, since for the correct meshing and the

measurement ofgears it is essential that the tooth flanks

are really involutes.

The formof the profile can be opticallyenlarged and

compared with the drawing of an involute, especially

in case of fme pitches. The diftkulty lies in determining

the position of the proftie in relation to the base circle.

Usually the test is made by means of an apparatus which

generates the true involute by roiling a straight edge on

a base circle disc and records the deviations of the

actual tooth profile to an enlarged scale on graph paper.

See Fig. 6. The diameter of the base circle disc follows

from the equations:

For spur gears:

db = z.m cosa

STRAIGHT

EDGE

d,=z.m=

cos&

FE. 6 IXSPECXON

OFTCIOIXPROFILE

Profile

Flank Line

BB

Nominal profile

Actual profile

Nominal profile

Nominal-flank lines which envelop the actual flank

Actual helical lines which envelop the actual flank

Nominal flank lines which cut the actual flank lines at the beginning

and end point of the teat range

0

AA,AA

RB, BB

Cc, CC

FIG. 7 FLANKDIZVIATONS

ANDTESTGRAPH

7

IS 7504 : 1995

6.2.1.1 Totalprofile err06 Ff

Ff is the measurement made perpendicular to the paper

feed direction between the parallel lines AA and A' A',

drawn in the direction of the paper feed within the profile

test region through tbe extreme point of the test graph. Tbe

desired modifications from the involute form are taken

into consideration by corresponding deviations of the

lines AA and AA from tbe straight line.

6.2.1.2 Pnzjile form error, ff

ff is the measurement taken perpendicular to the paper

feed direction between the lines BB and BB which

am parallel to the actual involute BB. Line BB is drawn

to average the involute curve which touches tbe test

curve within the profile test region.

62.13

fHa, is the measurement taken perpendicular to the

direction of paper feed between the lines CC and

CC parallel to AA, which cut the line BB at the start

and end point of the profile test region respectively.

FIG.8 A~PARKIUS

FORMENSWUNG

TOOTH

,~GNMENTERROR

of the Eat& line angle error. In all production documents, test reports, etc, the direction of the effect of the

errors should be clearly indicated.

623.1

an apparatus that imparts the gear, a rotation corresponding to the helix angle set on the apparatus. This

rotation, combined with the movement of tbe feeler

parallel to tbe gear axis, results in a vertical straight line

diagram, if tbe acutal helix angle coincides with the

design value.

error,fHg is the distance measured perpendicular to the

direction of the paper feed, between the lines CC and

CC which are parallel to the 1ineAA and cut the line

BB at the end of the Eank line test region.

Fg is the distance, measured perpendicular to the paper

feed direction, between the parallel lines AA and AA

which are drawn iu the direction of paper feed within

the flank line test region through the extreme points of

the test graph. The intended deviations from tbe helix

line form are taken into account by corresponding

deviations of the lines AA and AA from the straight

line.

difference of a measuring piece (Ball, cylinder or

wedge), placed successively in all the tooth spaces,

which touches the tooth flanks near the reference circle,

while tbe gear is mounted on its guide axis, free to

rotate. Fr is used to designate the maximum difference

between the measurements at the gear peripbery.

of small and medium diameter gears consists of successively introducing a ball or roller into all the tooth

spaces, whilst the-gear is supported between centres.

The relative depths attained by tbe ball iu the tooth

spaces are mad from a dial indicator. See Fig. 9.

The longitudinal

distance between the two helix lines with the actual

lead, which touch and envelop the actual flank line

within the flank line t&t region taking into account the

intended deviations from the helix line form.

Measurement

distance taking into account, tbe inevitable tooth errors:

gear pair, 3 flank line angle for an external gear is

considered a:, pcsitive when it is right banded with

respect to a helix line witb the nominal lead and it is

considered negative wbcn it is left handed with respect

to a helix line with the nominal lead. In case of an

iuternal gear, the signs are opposite. Thus in case of a

spur ge;lr mating, equal errors with opposite signs csnccl each other out.

mainly for setting up the gear production

machine. It should be noted that tbe specifying

of the tooth thickness consistent with a likewise

specified backlash at the theoretical centre distance postulates that all mothererrors are withirr

their respective limits, particularly the radial

and axial run-out. Thus the measurement of

8

FIG. 9 MFASJREMENTOF

RADLAL

RUN-OUTERROR

b)

cl

regarded as a form of acceptance test only on

condition that other errors (radial run-out in

particular) are also inspected and remain within

the limits specified.

The measurement of tooth thickness with reference to the axis, usually-included in the acceptance test schedule,supplies the most important

information for the determination of the effective tooth thickness, namely, the tooth thickness

of an imaginary gear concentric with the axis,

which encloses all the errors of the gear.

The theoretical tooth thickness measured on the

reference cylinder is:

--S-i

AL

\/\

REFERENCE CIRCLE

-J)--

difference between the maximum and minimum

tooth thickness s of a gear:

4 = %,-

FIG. 10 MEAWREMENT

OF Too-m THKKNES~

ON

hFERENCE&'LINDEB

&I

Ii-m+;m(l-c0s~)fx.m

in -which y) = $

a) Meizsurement on the reference cylinder

Refer Fig. 10. Measurement on the reference

cylinder is given b-y:

<-mqsin11,

-$ -$

for

modifications.

t F

~gears

(in radians)

without

addendum

IS 7504 : 1995

points of the periphery. All individually measured tooth

widths must lie within the tolerances in accordance

with tooth thickness fluctuation, R,

For spurgears: zv = z

invat

to be reduced by &

b)

reduced by the appropriate amount.

Inspection by constant chord method

Refer Fig. 11, in this case, the measurement is

not taken on the reference cylinder, but a little

~higher, which has a detrimental effect when the

~pressure angle is large and/ or the number of

teeth is low.

gears. In case of helical gears, measurement has to be

made~in the normal plane.

NOTE - * sign used in the formulae given in the text

means plus sign forpositive correction and minus sign for

negative correction and the absolute value of xis to be

substituted in the formulae.

The general formida for nominal dimension A4of tooth

width is:

M=mncc6

a,[(k-05)x+z.

inv at]

+ 2r.mn.sina..

.. . ..(1)

and tooth flanks is made near half the tooth depth,

k must be calculated from:

YC-m. cos2a[t*Zr.tana]

1 - Ic sina cosa f x . cos2a

4

[

I

For module = 1 and a - 20, & - 1.387 05

EC-m

k_f

tmw

--2EtananII cos2Bb

k must always be rounded off to a whole number.

The transversti working pressure angle awt on the

cylinder with the diameter (d + 2x.mn) can be

calculated from:

cosawt-cosat

Z

z+2r.cosp

.....(3)

from:

.....(4)

tana,

....

tanat = cosS

BASE ClRCLf

correction

a) Spur gears

The odoth width M in case of a spur gear is

calculated from:

M - m cosa [(k - 0,0.5) n + z&v a]

.. ...(a)

The number of teeth measured is computed

from the formula:

k=z - ao + 0,OS (rounded off to whole

180

......(7)

number)

In case of spur gears, without profile correction with module = 1; the value of k and the

width ikft for the pressure angles a = 14.9,

lS, 2@ and 30 can be obtained from the

Tables 3 to 6. With any given module, the

tooth width is computed from:

......(8)

M = M1.m.

Dimension

The tooth width M is the distance betweeri two parallel

planes each touching a right and left flank in the vicinity

of the pitch circle, measured over k teeth. See Fig. 12.

Its particular advantage is that it permits measurement

of the tooth width independent of the outside diameter.

Since the variations in the pitch also come into the

measurement, it is necessary to measure at several

10

Is 7504 : 19YJ

Tabk3 Tooth Width of Gears Without Profile Correction, Module = 1, PressureAngle = 14.F

( Clause6.4.2.2 )

z = number of teeth in gear blank, k = number of teetb measured, MI = tooth width for module 1

a = 14.50

IS 7504 : 1995

Table 4 Tooth Width of Gears Without Profile Correction, Module = 1, Pmssure Angle = 15

( Chse

6.4.2.2 )

z = ,number of teeth in gear blank, R = number of teeth measured, Ml = tooth width for module 1

pe = m.3c.cosW

= 3.034 546.m

a = 15O

)l159!

/~/~!~757

/+j+%%j~!

17.0821

12012

4.6706

117016

12312

4.6884

117317

35 13

/ 7.7943

1185 18

/ 42

1 4 1 10.8704

IL

45

( 4 1 10.8882

11 95

1 23.2640

1 8 1 233234

14

! 41.9109

112

) 10 ) 29.4935

11162 1 14 1 41.9287

115

1 10 1 29.5113

10 ! 29.5173

!!~166! 14

ll116!

11165 1 14 1 41.9465

! 41.9525

!!209!

18

! 54.3461

ll1351~12

1 35.6992

111851 16

1 48.1344

11235)20

j 60.5697

jj145(

) 38.7932

11195) 17

1 51.2284

I1245 1 21

1 6

13

IS 7504 : 1995

Table 5 Tooth Width of Gears Without Profile Correction, Module = 1, Pressure Angle = 20

( Clause 6.4.2.2 )

z = number of teeth in gear blank, k = number of teeth measured, MI = tooth width for module 1

pe = m.n ws20 - 2.952 133.m

a-20"

t-,mf$$

t-\-j@

2.5 ! 75.3524 1

1 32.2719 IL

I!S7504:1995

hble 6 Tooth Width of Gears Without Profile Cormction, Module = 1, Pressurp Angle = 30

( Cluuse 6.4.2.2 )

z = number of teeth in gear blank, k = number of teeth measured, MI = tooth width for module 1

a-300

795930

11211 I36

I 106.4068

73931

5465

138 17

43.5466

1 19.4534

46.4068

11138b41

703603

11411241

/+!-%%j#%%ii&42!24!

145 ] 8 1 225000

150

1 9

1 25.4534

1195 116 ]

465930

\\100\ 17 1 49.5465

)]145)25

Ill50126

ii236 1 40 1 118.453 3

187 1 32 1 94.406 8

237 1 40 1 118.4998

ljl88l

32 (

70.4999

11191)32

705465

!!192!33!

1 73.4068

1 76.3602

14

11 186 1 32 1 94360 2

j1200)

94.45331rUign

1 94.59301241

97.3602

)I195133

jl242141

,l 1 121.4067

l-:21.4533

1

1

1.97.4

33 1 97.5464

11246 ( 42 1 124.360 2 j

34 \ 100.4533

1[12itjy .2 1 124.5464

kOOT

CIRCLE

M

FIG. 12 MEASUREMFN OF Tocrrn WIDTH

b) Helical

gears

In case of helical gears the tooth width is computed from:

j%fI ma.cosaa [(k - 0,O.S) rt + z.inv at] .....(9)

and the number of teeth is measured from:

t.mattan2

Bb

R;

......(lO)

Cl Anv at. cosan

The values of A for various values of k are given in

Table 7. The values of Cl for various helix angles

p and various pressure angles an can be obtained

from Tabb 8. The minimum face width 6 required

for M-measurement is calculated from formula 19.

6.433

By introducing, constants that can be tabulated,

formula 4 can be simplified as follows:

.....(n)

M-ma(A+z.Cl)

a) Spur gears

The nominal dimension M of the tooth width of

a spur gear with profile correction factor n over

k teeth is: .

FIG. 13 NUMBER

OFTEEIHMEASUREMENT

FOR g, I u)O

15

Table 7 FactorA

( Clause 6.4.2.2 )

(d + 2xm) is computed from:

. ......(12)

Number of teeth measured, k is computed from:

tana,,,-2Ztsna-inva

+OS

cosaw =eosa-

.....(13)

EVEN

NUMBER

.....(15)

b) Helical gears

The nominal dimension M~of the tooth width of a

helical gear with profile correction over k teeth

according to formula 1 is:

simplified as:

M-m.(Mt

+C2)

.....(14)

Value of C2 can be obtained from Table 9.

Value of Ml can be obtained from Tables 3 to 6.

0)

z

2+2X

+

OF TEETH

b)

2xmn sin an

ODD

NUMBER

FIG. 14 DLMENSION

OVERBAUDORPINSFORE-AL

16

.....(16)

OF TEETH

GEARS

IS 7504 : 1995

Table 8 Factor C,

( Chse 6.4.2.2 )

,

a, - 14.50

an - 1.5

0.0053 68

0.005 940

lo

0.005 370

0.005 943

0.005 378

0.005 950

24O

0.006 988

0.007 723

0.018 113

3O

0.005 390

0.005 967

25O

0.007 153

0.007 914

0.018526

0.005 407

0.005 982

5O

0.005 428

0.006 007

26

0.007 327

0.008 102

0.018 968

0.005 455

0.006 036

27

0.007 515

0.008 310

0.019 440

0.005486

0.006 071

7 lo 51

0.005 493

0.006 078

0.005 522

o.cKl6 112

9O

0.005 564

0.006 155

lo

0.005 614

0.006 212

104825

0.005 657

0.006 259

1402840

0.005 899

0.006 527

181236

0.006 238

0.006 900

0.006 323

0.006 994

190

0.014 103

1 1 25O5640

k=-

1 0.018 942

11

a0

! 0.0~7716 1 0.008531

0.019 944

0.015 355

11

38O

1 0.010721

0.027 431

cosa,

2 is:

bna,

- 2:tatq

Jc cos2p,

[

1 0.008092

0.014 307

formula

1 0.007 317

= cosa,

1 0.011849

.. . ..(18)

z+2xcos~

-_inv a, + 0.5

1

.....(17)

obtained:

M=m,(A+z.Cl+Cz)

.....(19)

where

A = (k - 0.5)x cosa,, according to Table 7,

The transverse working pressure angle awr~on the

diameter (d + 2xmn) follows from:

Ct = cosa,,.invat

according

to Table 8, and

17

Table 9 Factor C,

( Clause 6.4.2.3)

In the case of negative profile correction a minus sign (-) must be placed before the values cz.

18

IS 7504 : 1995

the face width must be:

b 2 iti sin& + b co@,

ASSEMBLY CONDITIONS

... ..(20)

prescribed centre distance with either the right or left

flanks in constant contact. See Fig. 16. The single flank

composite errors of the right flank are generally

different from those of left flank of the same gear. The

deviations of the rotating positions of the gear with

respect to nominal positions given by the positions of

the mating gear and by the ratio of the number of teeth

are measured starting lrorn a start position. For this, a

comparative measuring device is required where the

error free rotating angle positions are obtained. The

errors are generally indicated as paths along with

circumference of a measuring circle, for example, the

reference circle or base circle. The errors can also be

given in angles.

measuring surface in tooth width measurement.

For gears without chamfering

&f z 1.2 + 0.018M

bkj > 2.0 + 0.03M

Summary of the important formulae~for the tooth width

measurement with the aid of M-test dimension for spur

and helical gears are furnished in Table IO.

6.4.3 Tolerance on M-Test Dimension

The upper allowance and tolerance on M-test dimension

can be obtained by multiplying the upper tooth thickness

allowance (A,,) and tooth thickness tolerance (7,, values

from Tables 7and 8 of IS 3681 : 1995, respectively by

cosa,.

Tooth thickness can be determined by taking the measurement over pins or balls placed in diametrically

opposite tooth spaces as shownin Fig. 14 and Fig. 15.

This method is suitable for both external and internal

spur and helical gears. The size of the balls or pins should

be selected in such a way that they touch the tooth flanks

on or approximately near the reference circle.

The theoretical dimension,Mu over the pins or balls can

be calculated from Table 11. The selection of pin orball

diameter and the calculation procedure for other

parameters are given in Table 12.

The tolerance on dimension, MR over pins or balls can

be obtained by multiplying the upper tooth thickness

allowance (A,,) and tooth thickness tolerance. (Ta

values loom Tables 7 and 8 of IS 3@31 : 1995, respec-

flank total composite error, Fi is the difference between

the maximum and minimum distance of the recorded

test graph from the axis of rotation of the test chart,

namely, F, is the difference between the maximum

and minimum Y-axis of the test graph.

7.12 Single Flank Tooth to Tooth Composite Error, fi

The single flank tooth to tooth composite error,j is the

maximum difference that occurs in the rotating posi-

to the period of a tooth contact.

7.2 Double Flank Total Composite Error Testing

In this test two gears are meshed with each other and

rotated with a left and right flank of thegears always in

contact at the same time (two Sank contact) under the

inlIuence of a force acting in the direction of the centre

distance. See Fig. 18. In this process, the changes of the

centre distance arc measured. The centre distance found

in the double flankcomposite error testing is designated

as a.

sinaRt . wsf3

6.5 Blue Bearing Test (TR4)

Due to various gear errors and inIluence of working

conditions..a near flank will not have full bearinn on the

mating flank & a gear mesh. The blue bearing t&t indi-

cates the bearing zone of one flank with its mating flank.

a)

Error Testing

b)

FIG. 15 DIMENSION

OVERBALLSORPINSFOR INERNALGEARS

19

Table 10 Summary

of Important

(Clause 6.4.2.3)

Gear Prome

correction

spur gears

Helical gears

Tooth Width, M

Number of Teeth

Measured, t

M=m.M1

According to

Tables 3 to 6

M-m.(A

Aaxrding to

Fig. 13

+r.Cl)

spur gears

Gears with profile

crorrecGon

Helical gears

Ml = according to Tables 3 to 6

A = according to Table 7

Cl = according to Table 8

C2 = according to Table 9

) check whether the value of k read from Tables 3 to 6 and also from Fig. 13 are tbe same. If the value is not same, use

the fomitiae 12 and 13 of 642.3 to evaluate M and k.

73.1

Fi is the diEerence between the maximum and minimum working centre distance within one test rotation.

7.22

Radial Run-Ou

Fr

of the test diagram. This component can be obtained by

drawing zm averaging line thereby suppressing the

short-wave components. The radial run-out error, Fr is

21 = DRIVING GEAR

an averaging line.

7.2.3

Double

Composite

Err04 X

The double flank tooth to tooth composite error, fi

is the difference between the maximum and minimum working centre distance that occurs within a

turning angle corresponding to the period of a tooth

contact.

22

= DRIVEN GEAR

23 = f,(-12)

22

puuu/s

FIG.16 BLOCKDIAGRAM

OFCIR~JKFDXSINGLE

FLANKTFS~ING

Table 11 Calculation

of Theoretical

( Clause 6.4.4 )

Internal Gears

External Geam

Dimension

With

even

No.of

teeth

Dimension

over pins

or balls

MR-ms

COSci,

=+DM

Mtt-q.z-

a=R

co%

MR-mzz-DM

+DM

CosuR

+44

MR-m,s

waRt

bfRm$--

With

odd No.

of teeth

MR-mz

kklical Gears

Spur Gears

Helical Gears

Spur Gears

+DM

MR-ms

wsaR

a=%

*=Rt

-D,

MR'T.Z

axaRt

hi

-DM

aRt

and q~

( Chzuse 6.4.4 )

Gears

Exterual Gears

Internal Geals

DM - 1.728m

D, - 1.44m 1)

Spur gears

Pin or ball touching the tooth

flanks above the reference circle

(without correction)

aR

kaRinva+~COSQ--f-

2rtanat)

2

Inv

a,,

inv%

dR

22

bin%

1)

invaRt

DM - mz sinq/cxw$t

- invat

dR

+----fm,zccsa,

L

25

D, - mz sinv/waR

flanks on the reference circle

aR+a-3

m, z sin *cosa,

Helical gears

DM-

D,cosaRt

. co=t

Rt%-q

DM=nm.cbsa

invaR=inta*+

flanks below the reference circle

Helical gears

DM

2r

inva& = inva, f -

mn z sim+xosq,

cDsaRt

%-a,+*

spur gears

2x tana 1)

z

--

D, - 1.44%

_7C,

mnzoxa,

sc

22

mzcosa

DM - 1.72&n,,

Helical gears

spur gears

n

22

Use + sign for positive correction and - sign for negative correction. Substitute the apolute value of x in the equations.

tAna, 1)

Z

. *=I

aanq,

Z

1)

IS 7504 : 1995

1 ROTATION

OF

THE

GEAR

UNDER

TESt

40

so

20

10

0

llIllIllllllllIllll111111

125242322212019181716151413121110

-c--

DIRECTION

OF

CHART

125

FEED

FIG. 17 SINGLE

FLANK

TOTALQMP~SIIEERROR

DMGRAM

8

gears, the racks are checked.for following values:

- Tooth thickness,

- Penetrating depth of a pin or ball (corresponding

to runout of a gear),

- Profile.

For the inspection of tooth thickness, the measurement

with balls or pins is the most accurate procedure. Refer

Fig. 20.

FIG.18 TIWINGONDOUBLE

FLANKTOTALCOMFYBITE

ERROL

23

IS 7504: 1995

U)

fr

fl

b)

FIG.19 DOUBLJZ

FLANKTOTAL

COMWSITE

ERROR

DIAGRAM

formula:

DM = $&-

(Round

diameter)

For double flank composite error testing of racks of

limited length, double flank checking machines with

suitable attachments are employed.

The pin or ball diameter, &+.t can be calculated from

suitable for profile and pitch inspection of racks.

T

b

FIG.20 INSPECXJON

OFTOOTH

THKKNFSS

24

are

BIS is a statutory

institution

established

under

the Bureau ofIndian StandardsAct, 1986 to prom-ote

harmonious

development

of the activities

of standardization,

marking and quality certification

of goods

and attending

to connected

matters in the country.

Copyright

BIS has the copyright

of all its publications.

No part of these pubhcations

may be reproduced

in any

form without the prior permission

in writing of BIS. This does not preclude the free use, in the course

of implementing

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details,

such as symbols

and sizes,

type or grade

designations.

Enquiries

relating to copyright be addressed

to the Director

( Publications

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Review of Indian Standards

Amendments

are Issued to standards

as the need arises on the basis of comments.

Standards

are also

reviewed periodically;

a standard along with amendments

is reaffirmed when such review indicates

that

no changes are needed;

if the review indicates that changes are needed,

it is taken

up for revision.

Users of Indian

Standards

should ascertain

that they are in possession

of the latest

amendments

or

edition.

This Indian

Standard

from Dot:

Amendments

Amend

No.

Date

BUREAU

No. LM 13 (4280).

Text Affected

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