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IS 7504 (1995): Gears - Cylindrical Gears - Accuracies Methods of inspection [PGD 31: Bolts, Nuts and Fasteners
Accessories]

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( Reaffirmed 2005 )

Indian Standard

GEARS-CYLINDRICA~L GEARS-ACCURACIESMBTHODSOFINSPECTION
( First Revision )

UDC

621-833.1 : 620~111~1

Q BIS 1995

BUREAU
MANAK

OF
BHAVAN,

INDIAN
9 BAHADUR
NEW DELHI

December 1995

STANDARDS
SHAH

ZAFAR

MARG

110002
Price Group 9

Gears Sectional Committee,

Lhl 13

FOREWORD
This Indian Standard ( First Revision ) was adopted by the Bureau of Indian Standards,
draft finalized by the Gears Sectional Committee had been approved by the Light Mechanical
ing Division Council.

after -the
Engineer-

This standard was originally published in 1974. The present revision incorporates the latest internationally accepted techniques for inspection of cylindrical gears which includes inspection of gear blanks of
meshing gears, inspection of teeth forms of gears pairs and the inspection of gear pairs in assembled
conditions. The gears are classified into 12 grades based on their accuracies. The revision also incorporates the methods for determining individual errors,_schematic for electronic pitch testing equipment,
schematic circuit for single flank testing and measurement of double flank total composite error
Assistance has been derived from the following standards

while revising the standard:

i) DIN 3960 : 1987 Definitions parameters and equations for involute cylindrical gears and gear
pairs, issued by DIN. Dxutsches Institut fiir Normung, Germanv.
ii) DIN 3961 : 1978 Tolerances for cylindrical gear teeth, issued by DIN. Deutsches Institut ftir
Normung, Germany.
iii) DIN 3967 : 1978 System of gear fits, backiash tooth thickness allowances, tooth thickness
tolerances, principles, issued by DIN. Deutsches Institut fiir Normung, Germany.
IS 3681 : 1994 Gears -- Cylindrical
and notations.

gears -

Accuracies

(Jivsi revision ) may be referred for definitions

In reporting the result of a test or analysis made in accordance with this standard, if the final value,
observed or calculated, is to be rounded off, it shall be done in accordance with IS 2 : 1960 Rules for
rounding off numerical values ( revised ).

IS 7504 : 1995

Indian Standard

GEARS -

CYLINDRICAL GEARS -ACCURACIES


METHODS OF INSPECTION
( First Revision )

1 SCOPE

SMax -

Maximum tooth thickness

1.1

Win

Minimum tooth thickness

sb

Tooth thickness on base cylinder

Fn

Chordal tooth thickness

This standard covers the general plan for


cylindrical gears of involute, modified involute flank
forms, comprising of gears with straight or inclined
teeth for connecting parallel shafts.
I.2 This standard covers the inspection methods for
gear teeth oncylindrical gears of module 1 to 70 and
with reference circle diameter up to 10 000 mm graded
in 12 gear tooth qualities.
2 REFERENCES
IS 3681 : 1994 Gears - Cylindrical gears - Accuracies (first revision)may be referred for definitions
and notations.
3 SYMBOLS
a

SC -

Constant chordal tooth thickness

Addendum modification co-efficient

Number of teeth

zv

Virtual number of teeth

Factor (Table 7)

Cl -

Factor (Table 8)

c2

Factor (Table 9)

OM

Measuring pin or ball diameter

Radial pitch distance (double flank pitch


distance)

Ff

Total profile error

Single flank total composite error

Face width

Fi

Reference circle diameter

F;

Double flank total composite error

4
db

Top diameter, Blank diameter

FP

Total cumulative pitch error

Base circle diameter

Fpk -

Cumulative pitch error over k pitches.

dM

Measuring circle diameter

Fpz/a-

Cumulative pitch error over 1/8%ofperiphery

ff

Profile form error

fi

Double flank tooth to tooth composite error

Fs
Fr
IT

Total alignment error

fP

Individual pitch error

Tooth width

fv

Base pitch error

Ml

Tooth width for module 1

fu

Tooth to tooth pitch error

MR

Dimension over pins or balls

fHa -

Profile angle error

Rp

Range of pitch errors

h-v fif -

Flank line angle error

Rs

Tooth thickness fluctuation

Longitudinal form error

cl

Pressure angle

Ii

Chordal height

an

Normal pressure angle

Constant chordal height

at

Transverse pressure angle

Normal backlash

aw

Working pressure angle

&
In

Single flank tooth to tooth composite error

Radial run-out error


Tolerance grade

Number of teeth measured

awt

Transverse working pressure angle

Module

aR

Pressure angle, pin or ball

ma

Normal plane module

aRt

Transverse pressure angle, pin or ball

mt

Transverse module

Pb

Base pitch

fib

Helix angle
Base helix angle.

Tooth thickness

Tooth thickness semi-angle

IS 7504 : 1995
4 INSPECTION
CYLINDRICAL

5.3 Reference Surfaces

METHODS FOR
GEARS

53.1 Radial Run-Out

4.1 The logical order of manufacture of a gear pair is:


a) Machining the blanks of the two gears,
b) Cutting of the teeth of the hvo gears, and
c) Assembling the toothed wheels in operating
condition.
It is, therefore, normal to carryout the
inspection in corresponding order:

successive

1. Inspection of the blanks of the two gears.


2. Inspection of the teeth of the two gearqand
3. Inspection of the assembly conditions of the two
gears.
5 INSPECTION

This is the total range of movement of an indicator


stylus which is in contact with the radial cylindrical
reference surface during a complete revolution of the
gear.
53.2 Axial Run-Out (wobble)
This is the total range of movement of an indtcator
stylus which .is in contact with the axial reference
surface during a complete revolution of the gear.
5.4 Tolerauces on Gear Blanks
The tolerances on gear blanks shall be as given in
Table 1.

OF THE GEAR BLARES

6 INSPECTION OF GEAR TEETH FOR


INDIVIDUALERRORS

5.1 Reference Axis

6.1 Circular Pitch Errurs

In the case of pinions or wheels with bores, the axis of


the bore is adopted as the reference axis.

Circular pitch errors called as pitch errors in short, ilre


measured on thereference circle or any other circle as
close to it as possible and concentric with respect to the
gear axis. The difference between the measuring circle
diameter & and the reference circle diameter d influences the measurement of the error by the factor
d&d and these errors aregenerally negligible.

In the case of pinions on shafts, the reference axis shall


be the bearing axis of the bearings.
In order to facilitate the operations of machining,
inspection and assembly of toothed wheels, it is
recommended that radial and axial auxiliary reference
surfaces should be indicated clearly on the working
drawings ( see Fig. 1).

The measured values are also affected by eccentricity


of the teeth with respect to reference axis and also by
profile error.
Inspection of the pitch by measuring the deviation from
the design value is normally performed only on high
precision gears where exact angular transmission is
indispensable, A tooth flank is butted against a fixed
anvil in the region of the reference circle while a
movable measuring feeler senses the corresponding
flank of the adjacent tooth. The differences between the
adjacent pitches csn be read from a dial indicator
( see Fig. -2 ).
Eccentricity of the teeth with reference to the gear axis
gives rise to an error curve of overall sinusoidal form.

FIG.1 REFERENCE
SURFACES
\\

When pitch measurement is carried out using a hand


operated comparator, the computation of the individual
pitch error, tooth to tooth pitch and total cumulative
pitch error is carried out as given in Table 2 and the
graph of the errors can be drawn from the values thus
computed.

5.2 Tip Cylinder


5.2.1 Tip Dimne~er
The value of the tip diameter is not of essential importance. In cases where the apparatus for inspecting the
tooth thickness rests on the tip cylinder, allowance
should be made for the tip diameter error.

The difference between the consecutive measured


values gives tooth to tooth pitch error, fU. Then the
algebraic mean value is calculated from all the
measured values. The difference between the measured
values and the mean valuegives individual ptich error,
ft The algebraic addition of individual pitch error fp
gives the cumulative pitch error. The total cumulative
pitch error Fp is given by the difference between
maximum and minimum values of cumulative pitch error.

5.2.2 Radial Run-Out


This is the total range of movement of an indicator
stylus which is in contact with the tip cylinder during a
complete revolution of the gear (seeFig. 1). This check
is important only in the case where certain tooth inspection instruments rest on the cylinder.

The circular pitch errors can also be measured by using


electronic pitch testers. Individual pitch errors are
2

Table 1 Tolerances on Gear Blanks (pm)


( Clause 5.4 )

Quality
Bore

ITl

In

In

In

IT6

IT6

error of form
Shaft
error of form
Xp diameter
) Radial b-out of
Xp cylinder
Radial run-out of the
reference surface
Axial run-out of the
reference surface

2.5

10

IT3

IT4

IT4

IT6

IT6

IT6

IT7

ITa

IT3

IT4

IT4

IT5

ITS

IT5

IT6

In

IT7

IT7

IT7

IT7

IT7

IT8

Il?3

n-9

T
0.014 + 5

NOTE-&

- Blank diameter, mm.

) When the tip cylinder is used as a datum surface for a checking instrument.

0.0&f, + 10

Usd, + 15

IT8

IT8

IT11

IT11

O.O4d,

+ 25

G SUPPORT

FIG.2 INS~YXX~ON
OFGEARTmm POR
INDMDUAL
ERRORS

measured Lvith an attachment for involute and helix


testers, which operates on the comparison pitch
measuring principle and at the same time defines a
mean value. Figure 3 shows a schematic of an
electronic pitch testing equipment. The attachment
compares the initial comparison pitch value 0 of any
one pitch of the gear with all subsequent pitches. This
is achieved with the electric tracer K which, with its
pair of styli M switched to difference measurements,
measures values in relation to the initial datum value
0. When the last measured value has been recorded,
electronic unit R automatically evaluates the mean
value which k then drawn automatically as a straight
line through the previously recorded pitch diagram. The
actually recorded individual pitch errors are then read
Hoffalong the line.

actual value of a single transverse pitch and nominal


transverse pitch.
In a gear with z teeth there are z individual pitch errors
of the right flank and as many of the left flanks. The
errors, fP are obtained as the difference between the
individual measured value and the mean of all z
measured values.
6.12 Cumulative Pitch Error, Fpk
This is the deviation of the actual dimension of a pitch
interval over k individual pitches from the corresponding nominal value. The cumulative pitch error is
obtained as the algebraic sum of the k individual pitch
errors contained in the interval, provided the error of
measurement is sufficiently small.
k
Fpk-Zf

6.1.1 Individual Pitch Error, fp


Individual pitch error,fpis the difference between the

OP

Table 2 Pitch Errors on Gears


( Clause 6.1 )
pitch No.

%x?

izil%%f

Individual
Pitch Emu-

fp.CM

;;IuhtAa4a;

Fp7w

fu,Irm

+l

+l

2
3
4

+3
+5
+l

3
2
4

+4
+6
+2

+5
+I1
+13

-1

+13

-3

-2

+I1

-5

-4

+7

-3

-2

+.5

-6

-5

-2

-2

10

-3

11

-1

-2

12

+l

+2

NOTE -

Mean value -+lO 22 - - 1 (Mean value to be rounded off to the nearest micrometer).
12
4

Base or guide- body for H and J


Ckria side for eleck tracer K
Gvrier side for electric tracer L
I!kctric tracer for pitch tests, etc
F%ztric tracer for true nmning tests
Pair of tracer styli of K switched to
different measurements.

Selector switch for separate tracer pressure


direction setting for M

Fine setting screw for adjusting the


distance betwken tracer styli of M

Supporting ball pin or ball/type stylus of

L for true running teats

Measuring head adjustment swivelling


locking members

Counting mechanism

R
S
T
iJ
V
W

Computer for mean value evaluation

Measured Glue store


Stroke mechanism
Stroke restriction
Indicator instrument
Ekctric tracer for involute tests, etc

FIG.3 ELECRCNW
PITQI
TEWNG
If the errors of all the pitch intervals are measured from
a particular reference tooth profile or calculated from

the individual errors& according to the above equation


and then plotted against the corresponding teeth numbers, then the cumulative pitch errors are obtained as
per Fig. 4.

and

E~JIPMENT

Tooth to-tooth pitch errors are directly obtained from


ciradar pitch measurements as the difference of
measurements offleighbouring pitches.
65.7 Base Pitch Error, fp
Base pitch erroris the difference between the ac-1 and
nominal values of the base pitch. Deviations measured
in the transverse plane are denoted by fpt and in the
normal plane by fpea.

6.13 Cumulative Pitch Ermr Over 118 of Periphery,


Fpzf8
This is the Amulative pitch error over-aniuterval of l/8
circumference of the gear (k = z/8).

Insped~on is performed by means of a base pitch


measuting instrument which is pie-adjusted to setting
i.lA T&al Cumulative Pdch Errs, Fp
gauges. Either portable or bench instruments can be
The maximum cumulative pitch errorin agear is called . employed. In both cases, measurement is independent
the total cumulative pitch error. It is indicatedwithout of the gear axis with no influence of radial run-out on
sign and is obtained from the cumulative pitch ermrs as the base pitch. -Se2Fii. 5.
the difference belweeu the algebraic maximum value The absolute value of the base pitch on the line of action
ksn idicative of the pressure angle. Error in the base
and the algebraic minimum value.
piti Implies an error ln the pressure angle.
6.1.5
RangeofPitch Errors, Rp
For spur gears, error in the pressure angle can be
This is the difference between maximum and minimum determined by means of the equation:
actual values of the transverse pitches of the right or left
flanks of a gear.
For helical gears, the measured error of the base pitch
6.I.6 Tooth to Tooth P&h Errol fi
may be due to an error in the pressure angle or in the
The tooth to tooth pitch error is the difference between
helix angle or both. Measurement of the base pitch on
the actual values of two successive right or left the line of action is particularly important for the gears
tmnsverse pitches.
produced by si@e tooth cutters.
5

Is 7504 : 1995
FLANK

F(O.

21

1 2

12131415161718192021

8 9101-l

r
II

PjTCH NO.

1 r-fu

r
b

a-

Individual pitch em+

marked as vertical blocks between the flnak numbers.

R, - Range of pitch exror, fU - Tooth to tooth pitch error


b-Total
cumulative pitch error referred to flank 21.
Fp - Total cumulative pitch error.
c -Cumulative

pitch error over intervals of every three

teeth,&3

(k =

3) shown a5 vertical blocks in the middle of the flanks.

FIG.4 DEIERMNKIION
OFPrm ERROR(Eg : 21)

MEASURING F
ER SUPPORT

BASE

FIG.5 Mars UREMENTOF


BASEPm
6

ERROR

Is 7504 : 1995

tester,
flank test graph as shown in Fig. 7 can be
obtained.

4.2 FlankDeviations

6.2.1Inspection of the involute Profile


This inspection, together with the pitch measurement is
of foremogt importance in the schedule of individual
error tests, since for the correct meshing and the
measurement ofgears it is essential that the tooth flanks
are really involutes.
The formof the profile can be opticallyenlarged and
compared with the drawing of an involute, especially
in case of fme pitches. The diftkulty lies in determining
the position of the proftie in relation to the base circle.
Usually the test is made by means of an apparatus which
generates the true involute by roiling a straight edge on
a base circle disc and records the deviations of the
actual tooth profile to an enlarged scale on graph paper.
See Fig. 6. The diameter of the base circle disc follows
from the equations:
For spur gears:

db = z.m cosa

STRAIGHT

EDGE

For helical gears:

d,=z.m=

cos&

By plotting the flank deviations with the help of a flank

FE. 6 IXSPECXON
OFTCIOIXPROFILE

Profile

Flank Line

Total profile error, Ff

Total alignment error, Fp

Profile angle errorha

Flank line angle error&

Profile form error,fi

Longitudinal form error faf

BB

Intermediate actual profile


Nominal profile
Actual profile
Nominal profile

Intermediate actual flank line


Nominal-flank lines which envelop the actual flank
Actual helical lines which envelop the actual flank
Nominal flank lines which cut the actual flank lines at the beginning
and end point of the teat range

0
AA,AA

RB, BB
Cc, CC

FIG. 7 FLANKDIZVIATONS
ANDTESTGRAPH
7

IS 7504 : 1995
6.2.1.1 Totalprofile err06 Ff

In a test graph, as shown in Fig. 7, the total profile error,


Ff is the measurement made perpendicular to the paper
feed direction between the parallel lines AA and A' A',
drawn in the direction of the paper feed within the profile
test region through tbe extreme point of the test graph. Tbe
desired modifications from the involute form are taken
into consideration by corresponding deviations of the
lines AA and AA from tbe straight line.
6.2.1.2 Pnzjile form error, ff

In a test graph as shown in Fig. 7, the profile form error


ff is the measurement taken perpendicular to the paper
feed direction between the lines BB and BB which
am parallel to the actual involute BB. Line BB is drawn
to average the involute curve which touches tbe test
curve within the profile test region.
62.13

Profile angle err03 fia

In a test graph as shown in Fig. 7, the profile angle error,


fHa, is the measurement taken perpendicular to the
direction of paper feed between the lines CC and
CC parallel to AA, which cut the line BB at the start
and end point of the profile test region respectively.

FIG.8 A~PARKIUS
FORMENSWUNG
TOOTH
,~GNMENTERROR

Hence, there are two different definitions for tbe sign


of the Eat& line angle error. In all production documents, test reports, etc, the direction of the effect of the
errors should be clearly indicated.

6.2.2 Inspection of Tooth Alignment Errors


623.1

Total alignment error Fp

For measuring the tooth alignment errors, Fig. 8 shows


an apparatus that imparts the gear, a rotation corresponding to the helix angle set on the apparatus. This
rotation, combined with the movement of tbe feeler
parallel to tbe gear axis, results in a vertical straight line
diagram, if tbe acutal helix angle coincides with the
design value.

In a test graph, as shown in Fig. 7, the flank line angle


error,fHg is the distance measured perpendicular to the
direction of the paper feed, between the lines CC and
CC which are parallel to the 1ineAA and cut the line
BB at the end of the Eank line test region.

In a test graph as per Fig. 7, the total alignment error


Fg is the distance, measured perpendicular to the paper
feed direction, between the parallel lines AA and AA
which are drawn iu the direction of paper feed within
the flank line test region through the extreme points of
the test graph. The intended deviations from tbe helix
line form are taken into account by corresponding
deviations of the lines AA and AA from the straight
line.

Radial run-out error, Fr of a gear is tbe radial positional


difference of a measuring piece (Ball, cylinder or
wedge), placed successively in all the tooth spaces,
which touches the tooth flanks near the reference circle,
while tbe gear is mounted on its guide axis, free to
rotate. Fr is used to designate the maximum difference
between the measurements at the gear peripbery.

6.3 Radial Run-Out-Error, Fr

The simple method to measure the radial run-out error


of small and medium diameter gears consists of successively introducing a ball or roller into all the tooth
spaces, whilst the-gear is supported between centres.
The relative depths attained by tbe ball iu the tooth
spaces are mad from a dial indicator. See Fig. 9.

62.2.2 Longitudinal form error, fpf


The longitudinal

form error, fbf of a tooth flank is the


distance between the two helix lines with the actual
lead, which touch and envelop the actual flank line
within the flank line t&t region taking into account the
intended deviations from the helix line form.

6.4 Tooth Thkkness

Measurement

The measurement of tooth thickness is to guarantee the

6.2.2.3 Flank line angle error, fHp

observance of a specified backlash for a given cenire


distance taking into account, tbe inevitable tooth errors:

For all the defiirritions and calculations concerning the


gear pair, 3 flank line angle for an external gear is
considered a:, pcsitive when it is right banded with
respect to a helix line witb the nominal lead and it is
considered negative wbcn it is left handed with respect
to a helix line with the nominal lead. In case of an
iuternal gear, the signs are opposite. Thus in case of a
spur ge;lr mating, equal errors with opposite signs csnccl each other out.

a) Measurement independent of the axis is applied


mainly for setting up the gear production
machine. It should be noted that tbe specifying
of the tooth thickness consistent with a likewise
specified backlash at the theoretical centre distance postulates that all mothererrors are withirr
their respective limits, particularly the radial
and axial run-out. Thus the measurement of
8

FIG. 9 MFASJREMENTOF
RADLAL
RUN-OUTERROR

b)

cl

tooth thickness, independent of the axis can be


regarded as a form of acceptance test only on
condition that other errors (radial run-out in
particular) are also inspected and remain within
the limits specified.
The measurement of tooth thickness with reference to the axis, usually-included in the acceptance test schedule,supplies the most important
information for the determination of the effective tooth thickness, namely, the tooth thickness
of an imaginary gear concentric with the axis,
which encloses all the errors of the gear.
The theoretical tooth thickness measured on the
reference cylinder is:

--S-i

AL
\/\

REFERENCE CIRCLE

-J)--

The tooth thickness fluctuation, R, is the


difference between the maximum and minimum
tooth thickness s of a gear:
4 = %,-

FIG. 10 MEAWREMENT
OF Too-m THKKNES~
ON
hFERENCE&'LINDEB

&I
Ii-m+;m(l-c0s~)fx.m

6.4.1 Measurement tif the Tooth Thickness by Means of

Gear Tooth Calipers


in -which y) = $
a) Meizsurement on the reference cylinder
Refer Fig. 10. Measurement on the reference
cylinder is given b-y:
<-mqsin11,

-$ -$

for

modifications.

t F
~gears

(in radians)
without

addendum

IS 7504 : 1995
points of the periphery. All individually measured tooth
widths must lie within the tolerances in accordance
with tooth thickness fluctuation, R,

For spurgears: zv = z

invat

For helical gears : zv = z inv a

For backlash allowance $ the dimension S is


to be reduced by &

b)

For corrected gears the dimension & must be


reduced by the appropriate amount.
Inspection by constant chord method
Refer Fig. 11, in this case, the measurement is
not taken on the reference cylinder, but a little
~higher, which has a detrimental effect when the
~pressure angle is large and/ or the number of
teeth is low.

Measurement is possible in case of both spur and helical


gears. In case of helical gears, measurement has to be
made~in the normal plane.
NOTE - * sign used in the formulae given in the text
means plus sign forpositive correction and minus sign for
negative correction and the absolute value of xis to be
substituted in the formulae.

6.43.1 General formulae


The general formida for nominal dimension A4of tooth
width is:
M=mncc6

a,[(k-05)x+z.

inv at]
+ 2r.mn.sina..

.. . ..(1)

To ensure the contact between the measuringjaws


and tooth flanks is made near half the tooth depth,
k must be calculated from:

YC-m. cos2a[t*Zr.tana]
1 - Ic sina cosa f x . cos2a
4
[
I
For module = 1 and a - 20, & - 1.387 05
EC-m

k_f

tmw

inv at + 0.5 .....(2)


--2EtananII cos2Bb
k must always be rounded off to a whole number.
The transversti working pressure angle awt on the
cylinder with the diameter (d + 2x.mn) can be
calculated from:

and & = 0.747 58.

cosawt-cosat

Z
z+2r.cosp

.....(3)

The helix angle on the base cylinder is computed


from:
.....(4)

tanfib - tar+ cosat

The transverse pressure angle is calculated from:


tana,

....

tanat = cosS
BASE ClRCLf

6.4.2.2 Gears wtihoutprofile

correction

a) Spur gears
The odoth width M in case of a spur gear is
calculated from:
M - m cosa [(k - 0,0.5) n + z&v a]
.. ...(a)
The number of teeth measured is computed
from the formula:
k=z - ao + 0,OS (rounded off to whole
180
......(7)
number)
In case of spur gears, without profile correction with module = 1; the value of k and the
width ikft for the pressure angles a = 14.9,
lS, 2@ and 30 can be obtained from the
Tables 3 to 6. With any given module, the
tooth width is computed from:
......(8)
M = M1.m.

6.4.2 Tooth Width Measurement with theAid of M-Test


Dimension
The tooth width M is the distance betweeri two parallel
planes each touching a right and left flank in the vicinity
of the pitch circle, measured over k teeth. See Fig. 12.
Its particular advantage is that it permits measurement
of the tooth width independent of the outside diameter.
Since the variations in the pitch also come into the
measurement, it is necessary to measure at several
10

Is 7504 : 19YJ
Tabk3 Tooth Width of Gears Without Profile Correction, Module = 1, PressureAngle = 14.F
( Clause6.4.2.2 )
z = number of teeth in gear blank, k = number of teetb measured, MI = tooth width for module 1

p, - m.n cos14.5 = 3.041527. m


a = 14.50

IS 7504 : 1995
Table 4 Tooth Width of Gears Without Profile Correction, Module = 1, Pmssure Angle = 15
( Chse

6.4.2.2 )

z = ,number of teeth in gear blank, R = number of teeth measured, Ml = tooth width for module 1
pe = m.3c.cosW

= 3.034 546.m

a = 15O

)l159!

/~/~!~757

/+j+%%j~!

17.0821

12012

4.6706

117016

12312

4.6884

117317

35 13

/ 7.7943

1185 18

/ 42

1 4 1 10.8704

IL

45

( 4 1 10.8882

11 95

1 23.2640

1 8 1 233234

14

! 41.9109

112

) 10 ) 29.4935

11162 1 14 1 41.9287

115

1 10 1 29.5113
10 ! 29.5173

!!~166! 14

ll116!

11165 1 14 1 41.9465
! 41.9525

!!209!

18

! 54.3461

ll1351~12

1 35.6992

111851 16

1 48.1344

11235)20

j 60.5697

jj145(

) 38.7932

11195) 17

1 51.2284

I1245 1 21

1 6

13

IS 7504 : 1995
Table 5 Tooth Width of Gears Without Profile Correction, Module = 1, Pressure Angle = 20
( Clause 6.4.2.2 )
z = number of teeth in gear blank, k = number of teeth measured, MI = tooth width for module 1
pe = m.n ws20 - 2.952 133.m

a-20"

38.5262 /1166! 19 ! 56.9393 !!216!

t-,mf$$

t-\-j@

141 1 5 1 13.8588 11 91 Ill

2.5 ! 75.3524 1

! 47.6768 lj187! 21 1, 63.1377 1)237! 27 ! 81

1 32.2719 IL

I!S7504:1995
hble 6 Tooth Width of Gears Without Profile Cormction, Module = 1, Pressurp Angle = 30
( Cluuse 6.4.2.2 )
z = number of teeth in gear blank, k = number of teeth measured, MI = tooth width for module 1

p,-m.ncos300= 2.720 698.m

a-300

795930

11211 I36

I 106.4068

73931

5465
138 17

43.5466

1 19.4534

46.4068

11138b41

703603

11411241

/+!-%%j#%%ii&42!24!

145 ] 8 1 225000

150

1 9

1 25.4534

1195 116 ]

465930

\\100\ 17 1 49.5465

)]145)25

Ill50126

ii236 1 40 1 118.453 3

187 1 32 1 94.406 8

237 1 40 1 118.4998

ljl88l

32 (

70.4999

11191)32

705465

!!192!33!

1 73.4068

1 76.3602

14

11 186 1 32 1 94360 2

j1200)

94.45331rUign

1 94.59301241
97.3602

)I195133

jl242141

,l 1 121.4067
l-:21.4533

1
1

1.97.4

33 1 97.5464

11246 ( 42 1 124.360 2 j

34 \ 100.4533

1[12itjy .2 1 124.5464

kOOT

CIRCLE

I!3 7504: 1995

M
FIG. 12 MEASUREMFN OF Tocrrn WIDTH

b) Helical

gears
In case of helical gears the tooth width is computed from:
j%fI ma.cosaa [(k - 0,O.S) rt + z.inv at] .....(9)
and the number of teeth is measured from:

t.mattan2
Bb
R;

......(lO)

where A = (k - 0.5)~. cosas


Cl Anv at. cosan
The values of A for various values of k are given in
Table 7. The values of Cl for various helix angles
p and various pressure angles an can be obtained
from Tabb 8. The minimum face width 6 required
for M-measurement is calculated from formula 19.
6.433

for &-- 200, k can be obtained from Fig. 13.


By introducing, constants that can be tabulated,
formula 4 can be simplified as follows:
.....(n)
M-ma(A+z.Cl)

Gears withprofile correction

a) Spur gears
The nominal dimension M of the tooth width of
a spur gear with profile correction factor n over
k teeth is: .

All dimensions in millimetres.


FIG. 13 NUMBER
OFTEEIHMEASUREMENT
FOR g, I u)O
15

Table 7 FactorA
( Clause 6.4.2.2 )

The effective pressure angle aw on the diameter


(d + 2xm) is computed from:

M - mcosa[ (k - 0,5) x + zinva] + 2xmsina


. ......(12)
Number of teeth measured, k is computed from:
tana,,,-2Ztsna-inva

+OS

cosaw =eosa-

.....(13)

EVEN

NUMBER

.....(15)

b) Helical gears
The nominal dimension M~of the tooth width of a
helical gear with profile correction over k teeth
according to formula 1 is:

By introducing constant C2, the formula 12 can be


simplified as:
M-m.(Mt
+C2)
.....(14)
Value of C2 can be obtained from Table 9.
Value of Ml can be obtained from Tables 3 to 6.

0)

z
2+2X

M = mn cosa [(k~- 0,s) x + z.inv at]


+

OF TEETH

b)

2xmn sin an

ODD

NUMBER

FIG. 14 DLMENSION
OVERBAUDORPINSFORE-AL
16

.....(16)

OF TEETH

GEARS

IS 7504 : 1995
Table 8 Factor C,
( Chse 6.4.2.2 )
,

a, - 14.50

an - 1.5

0.0053 68

0.005 940

lo

0.005 370

0.005 943

0.005 378

0.005 950

24O

0.006 988

0.007 723

0.018 113

3O

0.005 390

0.005 967

25O

0.007 153

0.007 914

0.018526

0.005 407

0.005 982

5O

0.005 428

0.006 007

26

0.007 327

0.008 102

0.018 968

0.005 455

0.006 036

27

0.007 515

0.008 310

0.019 440

0.005486

0.006 071

7 lo 51

0.005 493

0.006 078

0.005 522

o.cKl6 112

9O

0.005 564

0.006 155

lo

0.005 614

0.006 212

104825

0.005 657

0.006 259

1402840

0.005 899

0.006 527

181236

0.006 238

0.006 900

0.006 323

0.006 994

190

0.014 103

1 1 25O5640

k=-

1 0.018 942

11

a0

! 0.0~7716 1 0.008531

0.019 944

0.015 355

11

38O

1 0.010721

0.027 431

cosa,

2 is:

bna,
- 2:tatq
Jc cos2p,
[

1 0.008092

0.014 307

k the number of teeth measured, computed horn


formula

1 0.007 317

= cosa,

1 0.011849

.. . ..(18)

z+2xcos~

By using tactors A, Cl, Cz the following formula is


-_inv a, + 0.5
1

.....(17)

obtained:

M=m,(A+z.Cl+Cz)
.....(19)
where
A = (k - 0.5)x cosa,, according to Table 7,

k, for a, = 20 can be obtained from Fig. 13.


The transverse working pressure angle awr~on the
diameter (d + 2xmn) follows from:

Ct = cosa,,.invat

according

to Table 8, and

C;?= &.sina, acwrdingto Table 9.


17

Table 9 Factor C,
( Clause 6.4.2.3)

In the case of negative profile correction a minus sign (-) must be placed before the values cz.
18

IS 7504 : 1995

To ensure that two parallel planes touch the flanks,


the face width must be:
b 2 iti sin& + b co@,

7 INSPECTION OF GEAB TEETH IN


ASSEMBLY CONDITIONS

... ..(20)

7.1 Single Flank Total Composite

tat& = tang. cosar

In this test two gears are meshed and rotated at the


prescribed centre distance with either the right or left
flanks in constant contact. See Fig. 16. The single flank
composite errors of the right flank are generally
different from those of left flank of the same gear. The
deviations of the rotating positions of the gear with
respect to nominal positions given by the positions of
the mating gear and by the ratio of the number of teeth
are measured starting lrorn a start position. For this, a
comparative measuring device is required where the
error free rotating angle positions are obtained. The
errors are generally indicated as paths along with
circumference of a measuring circle, for example, the
reference circle or base circle. The errors can also be
given in angles.

where !q,.t = Constant line overlap or width of the


measuring surface in tooth width measurement.
For gears without chamfering
&f z 1.2 + 0.018M
bkj > 2.0 + 0.03M
Summary of the important formulae~for the tooth width
measurement with the aid of M-test dimension for spur
and helical gears are furnished in Table IO.
6.4.3 Tolerance on M-Test Dimension
The upper allowance and tolerance on M-test dimension
can be obtained by multiplying the upper tooth thickness
allowance (A,,) and tooth thickness tolerance (7,, values
from Tables 7and 8 of IS 3681 : 1995, respectively by
cosa,.

7.1.1 Single Flank Total Composite Errol; Fi

6.4.4 Tooth ThicknessMeasurement Over Pins or Balls


Tooth thickness can be determined by taking the measurement over pins or balls placed in diametrically
opposite tooth spaces as shownin Fig. 14 and Fig. 15.
This method is suitable for both external and internal
spur and helical gears. The size of the balls or pins should
be selected in such a way that they touch the tooth flanks
on or approximately near the reference circle.
The theoretical dimension,Mu over the pins or balls can
be calculated from Table 11. The selection of pin orball
diameter and the calculation procedure for other
parameters are given in Table 12.
The tolerance on dimension, MR over pins or balls can
be obtained by multiplying the upper tooth thickness
allowance (A,,) and tooth thickness tolerance. (Ta
values loom Tables 7 and 8 of IS 3@31 : 1995, respec-

In a circular test graph as shown in Fig. 17, the single


flank total composite error, Fi is the difference between
the maximum and minimum distance of the recorded
test graph from the axis of rotation of the test chart,
namely, F, is the difference between the maximum
and minimum Y-axis of the test graph.
7.12 Single Flank Tooth to Tooth Composite Error, fi
The single flank tooth to tooth composite error,j is the
maximum difference that occurs in the rotating posi-

tions deviations within a rotating angle corresponding


to the period of a tooth contact.
7.2 Double Flank Total Composite Error Testing
In this test two gears are meshed with each other and
rotated with a left and right flank of thegears always in
contact at the same time (two Sank contact) under the
inlIuence of a force acting in the direction of the centre
distance. See Fig. 18. In this process, the changes of the
centre distance arc measured. The centre distance found
in the double flankcomposite error testing is designated
as a.

tively by a factor given by --*


sinaRt . wsf3
6.5 Blue Bearing Test (TR4)
Due to various gear errors and inIluence of working
conditions..a near flank will not have full bearinn on the
mating flank & a gear mesh. The blue bearing t&t indi-

cates the bearing zone of one flank with its mating flank.

a)

Error Testing

EVEN NUMBER OF TEETH

b)

ODD NUMBER OF TEETH

FIG. 15 DIMENSION
OVERBALLSORPINSFOR INERNALGEARS

19

Table 10 Summary

of Important

Formulae for the Tbotb Width Measurement

(Clause 6.4.2.3)
Gear Prome

Gears without profile


correction

spur gears
Helical gears

Tooth Width, M

Number of Teeth
Measured, t

M=m.M1

According to
Tables 3 to 6

M-m.(A

Aaxrding to
Fig. 13

+r.Cl)

spur gears
Gears with profile
crorrecGon

Helical gears

Ml = according to Tables 3 to 6
A = according to Table 7
Cl = according to Table 8
C2 = according to Table 9
) check whether the value of k read from Tables 3 to 6 and also from Fig. 13 are tbe same. If the value is not same, use
the fomitiae 12 and 13 of 642.3 to evaluate M and k.
73.1

Double Flank To& Composite Errq fi

Refer Fig. 19. The double flank total composite error,


Fi is the diEerence between the maximum and minimum working centre distance within one test rotation.
7.22

Radial Run-Ou

Fr

The radial run-&

error& is the longwave component


of the test diagram. This component can be obtained by
drawing zm averaging line thereby suppressing the
short-wave components. The radial run-out error, Fr is

21 = DRIVING GEAR

the distance between the highest and lowest points of


an averaging line.
7.2.3

Double

Flank Tooth to Tmth

Composite

Err04 X
The double flank tooth to tooth composite error, fi
is the difference between the maximum and minimum working centre distance that occurs within a
turning angle corresponding to the period of a tooth
contact.

22

= DRIVEN GEAR

23 = f,(-12)
22

puuu/s

FIG.16 BLOCKDIAGRAM
OFCIR~JKFDXSINGLE
FLANKTFS~ING

Table 11 Calculation

of Theoretical

Dimension Over Pins or Balis, MR

( Clause 6.4.4 )

Internal Gears

External Geam
Dimension

With
even
No.of
teeth
Dimension
over pins
or balls

MR-ms

COSci,

=+DM

Mtt-q.z-

a=R

co%

MR-mzz-DM

+DM

CosuR

+44

MR-m,s
waRt

bfRm$--

With
odd No.
of teeth
MR-mz

kklical Gears

Spur Gears

Helical Gears

Spur Gears

+DM

MR-ms

wsaR

a=%
*=Rt

-D,

MR'T.Z

axaRt

hi

-DM

Table 12 Calculation of dR,aR,

aRt

and q~

( Chzuse 6.4.4 )

Gears

Exterual Gears

Internal Geals

DM - 1.728m

D, - 1.44m 1)

Spur gears
Pin or ball touching the tooth
flanks above the reference circle
(without correction)

aR

kaRinva+~COSQ--f-

2rtanat)
2

Inv

a,,

inv%

dR

22

bin%

1)

invaRt

DM - mz sinq/cxw$t

- invat

dR
+----fm,zccsa,

L
25

D, - mz sinv/waR

Pin or ball touching the tooth


flanks on the reference circle

aR+a-3

m, z sin *cosa,

Helical gears
DM-

D,cosaRt

. co=t

Rt%-q

DM=nm.cbsa
invaR=inta*+

Pin or ball touching the tooth


flanks below the reference circle
Helical gears

DM
2r

inva& = inva, f -

mn z sim+xosq,
cDsaRt

%-a,+*
spur gears

2x tana 1)
z
--

D, - 1.44%

_7C,

mnzoxa,

sc
22

invaR - inva _2!L+_*


mzcosa

DM - 1.72&n,,

Helical gears

spur gears

n
22

Use + sign for positive correction and - sign for negative correction. Substitute the apolute value of x in the equations.

tAna, 1)
Z

. *=I

aanq,
Z

1)

IS 7504 : 1995
1 ROTATION

OF

THE

GEAR

UNDER

TESt

40

so
20
10
0

llIllIllllllllIllll111111

125242322212019181716151413121110
-c--

DIRECTION

OF

CHART

125

FEED

FIG. 17 SINGLE
FLANK
TOTALQMP~SIIEERROR
DMGRAM
8

INSPECTION OF XNVOLUTE RACKS

8.1 Corresponding to the measurement of external


gears, the racks are checked.for following values:
- Tooth thickness,
- Penetrating depth of a pin or ball (corresponding
to runout of a gear),

- Double flank composite error, and


- Profile.
For the inspection of tooth thickness, the measurement
with balls or pins is the most accurate procedure. Refer
Fig. 20.

FIG.18 TIWINGONDOUBLE
FLANKTOTALCOMFYBITE
ERROL
23

IS 7504: 1995

U)

fr

fl

b)

FIG.19 DOUBLJZ
FLANKTOTAL
COMWSITE
ERROR
DIAGRAM

The dimension MR, over pins or balls is given by the


formula:

DM = $&-

(Round

off to a standard pin or~ball

diameter)
For double flank composite error testing of racks of
limited length, double flank checking machines with
suitable attachments are employed.
The pin or ball diameter, &+.t can be calculated from

Measuring microscopes and profile projectors


suitable for profile and pitch inspection of racks.

T
b

FIG.20 INSPECXJON
OFTOOTH
THKKNFSS

24

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