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PDHPE: Semester One

Topic One:
Mastering Life:
Focus Point One:
Life Management:
The life management issues we face can be divided into eight areas and
placed on what is commonly known as the wheel of life. The issues are:
1. Mind: Moods or emotions as well as self efficacy, attitude, self-image
and developed coping skills.
2. Body: Medical self-care, nutrition, fitness, lifestyle choices regarding
health and safety.
3. Values: Spiritual or religions values as well as cultural, philosophical
and environmental beliefs and the meaning of life to an individual.
4. Knowledge: Education, skills/attributes, information technology,
general knowledge and learning opportunities.
5. Finances: Retirement or super, saving and spending, budget vs. debt
and disposable income.
6. Social: Confidant or mentor, friendships, fun, isolation and
community involvement.
7. Family: Mutual fulfillment in a family, communication, time,
parenting and partnering.
8. Career: Job satisfaction, effort/reward (R&B), autonomy, opportunity,
and manager or peers.
To better balance these life management issues and more towards a
higher quality of life, it is possible to utilize the MASTery Process. It
involves the following steps:
Mission: What the goal is (What is important to an individual and
their personal goals, their values and vision of the future, and their
motivations and inspirations.
Attainment: Current position (Current performance in relation to
values, satisfaction with current management of the eight life
functions, identification of causes of stress and understanding of
how to manage stressors, pressures and challenges in life)
Strategic Planning: Process (Deciding on a plan to assist in
improving and maintaining all the functions of life, translating vision
and purpose into carefully chosen goals.)
Trouble Shooting: Overcoming barriers to success (Identification of
internal and external resources to assist in carrying out Life Balance
Plan, development of problem solving and decision making skills
that will assist in fulfilling the mission.)
Focus Point Two:
The Five Pillars of Good Health:
There are five pillars of good health which assist in managing personal
wellbeing. They are:

Eat Well
Keep Fit
Manage Stress
Dont Smoke
Focus Point Three:
Eat Well:
Each person has nutritional requirements. Nutrients are components of
food that are essential for an effectively functioning body. They include
carbohydrates, fats, proteins, vitamins, minerals and water. The table
below outlines the nutrients, functions and sources.



Best Sources
Primary source of energy Starchy foods such as
for the body.
bread, cereals, pasta,
rice, vegetables.
Secondary energy source Meat,
and cooking oils.
insulation from the cold.
Growth and repair of Meat, fish, eggs, dairy
body tissues such as products, nuts.
bone muscle and skin.
Assists in a range of Fruit, vegetables, lean
reactions meat,
occurring in the body products,
such as energy release, eggs.
and promotes healthy
skin and helps resist
Helps maintain a range of Fruit, vegetables, dairy
internal body functions products, lean meat, fish.
such as blood formation,
bone strength and water
Maintains hydration of All drinks and most foods,
carries but plain water is the
nutrients in the blood and ideal source.
assists in maintaining
ideal body temperature.

Note: Carbohydrates can be simple or complex. Simple carbohydrates are

sugars such as fructose (fruits), sucrose (sugar) and lactose (milk).
Complex carbohydrates are starchy foods such as those listed above.
Dietary fibre is technically not a nutrient but it does play an important role
in the body and is derived from food. A major function of dietary fibre is
the assistance it provides in digestion and the removal of waste products.
Dietary fibre is commonly found in most fruits and vegetables as well as
starchy foods.

It is recommended that the majority of nutritional intake should be

complex carbohydrates. The following Nutrient Intake Proportions can be
used as a guide:
Carbohydrates: 55-60%
Fats: 20-25%
Protein: 12-15%
Vitamins/ Minerals/ Water: 8-10%
Young peoples diets tent to be lower in the consumption of
carbohydrates, vitamins, minerals and water but higher in protein, fats
and sugars. This increases likelihood of obesity, cardiovascular disease
and diabetes.


Another way of classifying food is in food groups. Individuals are
encouraged to select foods from each of the five food groups every day. It
is also important to choose a variety of foods from within each group.
The Five Food Groups are:
1. Breads, cereals, Rice, Pasta, noodles (Five or more Serves)
2. Vegetables, Legumes (Four Serves)
3. Fruits (Three serves)
4. Milk, Yoghurt Cheese (Two Serves)
5. Meat, Fish Poultry Eggs (One Serve)

While extra foods such as biscuits and other snack foods are not including
as a food group, they should only be eaten sometimes and in small
amounts. A healthy diet should consist of:
Large amounts of foods derived from plants.
Moderate amounts of foods derived from animals.
Small amounts of extra foods
Lots of water.
Basal Metabolic Rate is the amount of energy expended in an individual
while at rest in the post absorptive environment, while the digestive
system is inactive, usually requiring about twelve hours of fasting. It is
also known as the bodys idling speed and decreases with age and loss of
lean body mass. Increasing muscle mass increases BMR. Basal Metabolic
Rate is partly genetic but can be increased by stopping diets, eating
breakfast, slowing down eating, exercise and eating more carbohydrates.
The most common differences in nutritional requirements are a result of
age. Special dietary requirements during adolescence include the
importance of minerals such as calcium and iron for females. A large
proportion of the adolescent diet should be derived from complex
carbohydrates to meet the high energy requirements of the age group. An
adequate supply of vitamins is also essential. Physical activity is important
for all adolescents and they should be encouraged to eat from all the food
groups. Care should be taken to limit saturated fat, not diet, choose foods
low in salt, consume only moderate amounts of sugars and eat food that
has been prepared and stored safely.
Cholesterol is a lipid found in the cell membranes and blood of all animals
and humans. It assists in establishing membrane fluidity and though it is
essential an excess of cholesterol may cause atherosclerosis, a hardening
of the arteries caused by fatty deposits. To prevent excess cholesterol,
people should lose weight, take part in aerobic exercise, eat more fibre,
unsaturated fats and fish oils. This will also increase HDL, higher density
lipo-protein, good cholesterol. They shouldnt smoke, intake too much
caffeine or be too stressed as this will increase risk of cholesterol.
There are five components of health and these are:
Body composition
Cardiovascular Fitness
Poor diet has also been linked to cancer among a number of other lifestyle
factors shown below:
Lifestyle Factor

% of Cancer Deaths

Tobacco Usage
Sexual Behaviour
Food Additives, Geophysical Factors


Anti-Oxidants are super oxides that neutralize free radicals. This prevents
oxidization, or the breakdown of cells caused by the metabolisation (NOT
A WORD) of oxygen. Foods that have antioxidants include dark chocolate,
raisins, strawberries and spinach.
Focus Point Four:
Keep Fit:
The successful implementing of an exercise program is interplay between
the barriers of success and motivation. Higher levels of motivation can
help people to succeed in the face of major obstacles; however
motivation fatigue means this success may be short. The real key to long
term success in fitness lies in the identification and resolution of the core
issues which impede progress towards a goal. Once this is achieved an
individual wont require a large amount of motivation. Reasons for lack of
exercise include no time, lack of energy, weather, illness, injury, no peer
support, facilities, no pleasure or desire to exercise. Using sound problem
solving strategies to overcome the barriers to success is the best long
term solution.
However an excess of exercise also has negative impacts. It is important
to find the right amount of time in which to exercise. To fit exercise into a
day, an individual must plan, expect the unexpected, develop transfer
skills, minimize barriers, recruit peer support and set goals. An example of
fitting exercise into a day is involving thirty minutes incidental activity in a
schedule, as looking for opportunities to be active. There are basic
principles to consider in devising training programs. These are
summarized in the FITT formula in any type of training. It is used as
Frequency: This refers to the number of times an individual trains in a
It is important to remember that fitness and activity levels are
relative. An example may be ten minutes of physical activity three
times a day. The level of activity will affect the level of benefits.
To reach the type of fitness required for a triathlete however, eight
to ten different types of sessions are required and training becomes
very specialized.
Sessions should generally be completed three to five times a week
with sessions organized so as to enable recovery and a rest day.

Intensity: This refers to the amount of effort required during each

Aerobic fitness requires that heart rate increases to 60-80% of the
maximum heart rate of 220 beats per minute minus age. This will
gain a training effect for the lungs.
This means that the lower range is around 120 and the higher is
160. Training harder than this means that an individual is training
anaerobically and the body can only sustain this for a short time. To
determine measures of intensity two other measures are if an
individual can still talk and the perceived rate of exertion from one
to ten.
Generally an individual perspires if working within the training zone.
Time: This refers to the period of time that continuous exercise is
undertaken. A base line of twenty minutes is required to secure an aerobic
training effect.
Type: This refers to the nature of the exercise undertaken. In terms of
gaining an aerobic training effect, activities based on using the large
muscle groups are recommended as being more effective.
Focus Point Five;
Manage Stress:
Stress is when a person is under an amount of physical, emotional,
spiritual or mental pressure. Challenge is a set task which requires
perseverance and a certain amount of stress. Challenge and stress can be
the same depending on the way an individual perceives it.
Causes of Stress include:
Stressors in interpersonal relationships
Stressors in the Physical Environment
Stressors caused by personal thoughts.
Stress is a biological and autonomic response to an environmental
stimulus. Physical reactions to stress include:
Pupils dilating
Confusion in thoughts
Sweaty palms
Increased breathing
Dry mouth
Churning Stomach
Loss of coordination
Slowed reflexes
Increase in muscle tension
Increase in blood pressure
Increase in heart rate
Acute hearing

Increased alertness




Gastro-Intestinal Motility


Immune responsiveness

Blood Pressure

Saliva Production

Clotting Capacity

Skin Blood Flow


Every system in the body can be affected by stress.

Respiratory System: Stress can cause a narrowing of the respiratory
pathways and can cause a bronchitis type reaction.
Reproductive System: Difficult to take part in intercourse, may lower
fertility rates
Immune and Inflammatory Systems: Suppresses immune system and thus
leaves you more susceptible to disease.
Digestive System: Makes it difficult for the body to digest nutrients, may
cause heartburn and cramps.
Musculoskeletal System: Muscles tighten and tense and can reduce
muscle performance.
Prolonged stress may raise blood pressure and can cause heart attacks or
strokes. Stress is also linked to various exfoliating skin disorders such as
eczema and dermatitis. Psychoneuroimmunology has established firm
links between psychological state and predisposition to disease and
suppression of the immune system. Stress has dramatic effects on CHD
(coronary heart disease) prevalence, cancer rise and causes of mortality.
Because major stressful events do not occur that frequently there is a
tendency to catastrophise the more common minor stressful events.
Rational emotive therapy is a field of psychology which assists people in
mediating their responses to a stressful life in a rational and appropriate
manner as a stress control mechanism.
Large stressors in life usually relate to issues of high importance and
uncertain outcomes and extend over a protracted or unknown period of
time. Stressors which fail to meet all of these criteria can often be
rationalized so they are minimized or controlled. This IUD principle is

useful in helping individuals determine whether a stress reaction is a

legitimate response to an event.
It thus follows that stress arises from an imbalance between perception of
demands and an individuals ability to cope with them.
Some coping skills to deal with stress are recreation, effective
communication, high self esteem, setting priorities, having a sense of
humor, positive attitudes, and rational beliefs and expectations.
Instead of receivership, recession and rejection, positive reactions to
stress may be challenge or commitment. Learned optimism is also a
positive step, involving permanence, pervasiveness and personalization.
Stress is poorly managed by Ignoring, Pretending, and Selective Listening.
Attentive Listening and Empatheticness would seem to be good, but Im
not sure because I cant read my writing. Communication may be
prevented by judging, sending solutions, and evasion. Proficient
Communication involves leveling, listening and validating. Communication
should involve the following steps:
1. Pause to organize thoughts
2. Repeat question
3. Give one main idea
4. Use I statements
5. Mirroring
6. Slow down
7. Watch body language
8. Deepen voice
9. Listen
Focus Point Six:
The health impacts of inadequate sleep are not limited to fatigue but can
be devastating and include:
Poor productivity, mood disturbances and irrational behavior
diabetes/syndrome X risk
Immunosuppression, thereby increasing the risk of all illness/disease
Impaired growth hormone secretion, leading to premature cellular
There are several disorders relating to sleep (48 to be precise) and they
range from benign to fatal. Sleep hygiene is a term that refers to
management of sleep. Good sleep hygiene involves:

Understanding the circadian and ultradian rhythms (constant cycles

of patterns such as temperature, sleep etc. These can be reset by
external stimuli and continue in constant environments.)
Managing the sleeping environment (light, noise etc.)
Conditioning sleep by developing a pre-bed routine
Avoiding clock-watching
Using relaxation techniques
Understanding the role of physical and psychological stimulants
Managing stress and intrusive thoughts
Activity (physical exercise) can half time taken to fall asleep.
Any major deviation from the normal seven to eight hours of sleep is
associated with reduced life expectancy.
Focus Point Seven:
Future Planning:
Emotional Quota or emotional intelligence may be the best predictor of
success in life. It involves self awareness, personal decision making,
handling stress, communication, personal responsibility, conflict resolution
and impulse control. SEE BOOK FOR FULL LIST.
Self Awareness
Handling Stress
Self Disclosure
Self Acceptance

Observing own feelings, building a vocabulary to describe

them and knowing the relationship between thoughts,
feelings and reactions
Explaining actions, and knowing their consequences and
applying these insights to food choice hedonistic behavior,
life choices etc.
Reducing internal negative messages, realizing how to
handle fears, anxieties, anger and sadness.
Learning and applying basic principles of stress management
Understanding others feelings and taking their perspectives
Effectively discussing feelings, becoming a better listener,
distinguishing between what someone does and individual
reactions. Judging by intentions.
Valuing openness and building trust in a relationship
Identifying patterns in emotional life and reactions, and
recognizing patterns in others.
Feeling pride and seeing one in a positive light, recognizing
an individuals strengths and weaknesses.
Taking responsibility, recognizing consequences of decision
and actions, accepting feelings and following through on
Stating concerns and feelings without either anger or
Co-operation, knowing when and how to lead and when and
how to follow
How to fight fair with others, and the negotiating