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PRACTICAL
BUILDING CONSTRUCTION

Practical
Building Construction
A HANDBOOK FOR STUDENTS PREPARING FOR THE
EXAMINATIONS OF THE SCIENCE AND ART
DEPARTMENT, THE ROYAL INSTITUTE

OF BRITISH ARCHITECTS, THE


SURVEYORS' INSTITUTION,
ETC.
!)e0ig;neli al0o

a^ a Book of Eefecence foe ^Ber^on^ (EngapD in Builtimff

JOHN PARNELL ALLEN


SURVEYOR
LECTURER ON BUILDING CONSTRUCTION AT THE DURHAM COLLEGE OF SCIENCE,
NEWCASTLE-ON-TYNE

Containing over

ne ITbousanD

illustrations

SECOND EDITION, REVISED

6?^\>fe

LONDON

CROSBY LOCKWOOD AND SON


7,

STATIONERS' HALL COURT, LUDGATE HILL


1897

LIBRARY
758102
UNiVcoo.T-/

f)p

TORONTO

PREFACE.
work,
IN inthisevery

which

is

intended primarily for students

trade concerned in

and

Building Construction,

which has been arranged on the basis of Notes

prepared for a Course of Lectures on the subject,

Author has endeavoured


manner, with

all

He

building.

the

to deal, in a concise

details

of the

and

the

practical

construction

of a

has aimed also at giving such a description

of the nature and characteristics of the various Building


Materials

in

general

as

use,

should be sufficient (with

other subjects dealt with in the volume) for the purposes

of the examinations

Building Construction prescribed

in

by the Science and Art Department, the Royal


of

British

Architects,

and

Surveyors*

the

Institute

Institution,

respectively.

Students

who may be preparing

and Advanced Examinations

for the

Elementary

and

Art

Department (see Appendix, pp. 421 to 424) will be


by following the abstract of the requirements of

able,

several

stages,

of the

Science

to omit, in their reading,

those portions

of the work with which their particular class

cerned
for

the

while

Honours

Examinations

students,

of

the

and

Royal

their

not con-

is

those

preparing

Institute

or

the


PREFACE.

VI

Surveyors*

Institution,

find

will

the ground sketched by

work covers

the

that

Syllabus of each of those

the

bodies.

While the courses prescribed by the several


referred to

authorities

above are those which the Author has had

specially in mind,

it

need hardly be pointed out that the

materials here provided will be available for preparation


for other examinations

covering similar ground, as well

as for students not seeking certificates

having been

the Author s aim

provide what he believes

to

not to be

is

found elsewhere in a form at once so complete and so

namely,

Handbook of Practical Building


Construction, which should be found useful by all who
compact

seek proficiency in the rudiments of the Building Arts.


It

that the

believed, also,

is

material service as a

well

Estate Agents,

Surveyors

whose

are

with
It

its

will

be found of

Book of Reference by both Operative

and Master Builders, as

interests

work

and

be

to

by Houseowners and

as

Architects,

and

others

promoted by acquaintance

subject.

should be mentioned that the numerous diagrams

and other

illustrations,

about one thousand

have been specially drawn and engraved

The Author

takes this

in

number,

for this work.

opportunity of tendering his

thanks to those personal friends and other gentlemen


specialists

in

their

several

departments

who

have

so

kindly assisted him with their suggestions in relation to

one or other portions of

Newcastle-on-Tyne,
September 1893.

this

work.

PUBLISHERS' NOTE TO SECOND


EDITION.

IN

issuing the present edition, the opportunity has been

taken by the Author of carefully revising the work


throughout, and of inserting a few additional illustrations,

with

original

view

necessary

the

illustrations

to greater

explanatory

have also

effectiveness.

improvements, the work

is

text.

few

been re-drawn,

of the
with a

Subject to these several

again issued, without abridg-

ment, substantially in the form in which


attained to

it

such extended popularity as the

has already
*'

best

most complete text-book on Building Construction."

September 1897.

and

CONTENTS.
CHAPTER

I.

BRICKS AND THEIR COMPOSITION.


Bricks as Building Material

Brick-earth

Brick-earth

PAGE

and

its

Constituents

Varieties

of

Manufacture of Bricks Varieties of Bricks Purpose-made


i

Bricks

CHAPTER

II.

BRICK BOND AND ITS APPLICATIONS.


Bond

in

Brickwork

Structures

of Brickwork

Different

Kinds of Bond

12

Application of the Various Bonds

CHAPTER

28i

III.

BRICK REVEALS, ARCHES, AND POINTING.

Forms of Arches Construction of Arches


Pointing Fireplaces Flues Hoop-iron Bond Wood
Bricks and Pads Brick Corbelling

Reveals and their Construction

Bond

of Arches

CHAPTER

DAMP AND
Danger of

Damp Protection

Prevention of

Damp

51

52

59

7r

IV.

ITS PREVENTION.

below Ground

Rising

29

Protection

above Ground

Prevention of Damp Descending


CHAPTER

58:

V.

BUILDING STONES AND STONE WALLING.

Limestones Stone

Stone as a Building Material Sandstones


Limestone Facings Sandstone Facings

Walling

CONTENTS.

CHAPTER

VI.

STONE DRESSINGS, JOINTS, AND STAIRS.

PAGE

Heads, and Jambs Mullions and Transoms Hoods or Labels


Strings and Cornices
Parapets and Balustrades Quoins Copings
Steps Handrailing
Joints

Plinths

Sills,

72

85

CHAPTER Vn.
WOOD FOR BUILDING PURPOSES.

Wood in the Tree Good and Bad Timber Seasoning


Preservation of Timber Deal or Fir Elm Oak Teak
Mahogany Walnut Beech Ash Sycamore Birch

Carpentry and Joinery

....

of Timber

CHAPTER
Naked Floors and Floor -boards

8698

Vni.

WOOD FLOORS.
Single Floors Floor Joints Double Floors

Framed Floors Flooring

CHAPTER

99

122

123

131

132

163

IX.

PARTITIONS.
Partitions defined

Framed or Quartered Partitions Trussed Partitions


CHAPTER

X.

ROOFS.

Local Adaptation of Roofs Couple Roof Couple-close Roof Fished Joints


Scarfs
King-post Roofs Queen-post Roofs Wood and Iron Kingtrusses
Wood and Iron Collar-truss Queen Flat-truss Mansard Roof
Details of Roofs

CHAPTER XL
IRON AND STEEL.

Pig Iron Cast Iron Cast Malleable Iron


and Joists Steel

Wrought Iron Rolled

Girders

164169

CHAPTER XIL
RIVETS AND RIVETING.

Riveted Work Hand Riveting Machine Riveting


of Rivets Methods of Riveting

Forms of Rivets Size


170 175

CONTENTS.

CHAPTER

XI

XIII.

IRON ROOFS.
PAGE

Wood Wood

versus

Iron

Members Iron

Members ^Joints and Connections

Trusses

Dimensions

CHAPTER

Strains

on

Truss
176

187

XIV.

COVERINGS FOR ROOFS,


Lead Work

Lead on RoofsZinc Work Zinc on Roofs Slates Forms


Fixing of Slates Tiles Fixing of Tiles Special Forms of

of Slates

188212

Tiles

CHAPTER

XV.

FIREPROOF FLOORS.
Essentials

Fireproof Construction

of

Brick

Arches

Concrete

Floors

Special Systems

213

CHAPTER

2i8cZ

XVI.

JOINTS AND MOULDINGS IN JOINERY.


Joinery

Framed Joints Angle Joints Dovetails Scribing


Match Boarding Affixing Joinery Work

....

defined

Mouldings

CHAPTER

AND

FASTENINGS.

Door Frames Ledged Door Ledged and Braced Door Framed and Braced
Door Framed and Ledged Door Fanlights Panelled Doors and
Panelling Door Casings Dadoes Skirtings

CHAPTER

Window

FINISHINGS.

Frames Solid Frames and Casements Borrowed Lights

Finishings

Shutters

272

CHAPTER

WOODEN
Stairs

236271

XVIII.

WINDOWS AND WINDOW


Sash, or Cased

235

XVII.

DOORS: THEIR FINISHINGS

219

XIX.

STAIRS.

and Staircases Definition of Terms and Rules


and Details Handrails

struction of Stairs

302

Kinds of Stairs Con303

322

CONTENTS.

XII

CHAPTER XX.
SKYLIGHTS AND LANTERNS.
PAGE
Skylights

Lanterns on Roofs and Flats Louvres Ceiling Lights


CHAPTER

AND

GLAZING,

Work Materials Plaster Work Processes External Work OrnaWork Glass and Glazing Patent Glazing

mental

323 332

XXI.

PLASTERING, PAINTING,
Plaster

333

344

CHAPTER XXIL
CENTRING, FOUNDATIONS, SHORLNG, SCAFFOLDING, SERVERS.

Foundations Different Soils Sewers Shoring


Hoisting Tackle Underpinning

Centring

and Strutting

Scaffolding

345

362

CHAPTER XXHL
MISCELLANEO US MA TERIALS.
Asphalte Granite Limes and Cements Mortar Concrete Marble
Terra-cotta

Artihcial Stones

363

369

CHAPTER XXIV.
STRESSES:
Definitions

Loads Stresses Reactions Discernment of Strains

370380

CHAPTER XXV.
CALCULATION OF STRAINS.
Computation of Strains on Cantilevers, Girders, and Trusses variously loaded

381402

CHAPTER XXVI.
SANITATION.

Model

Dv^^elling

Air and Ventilation Draughts External Ventilators

Ventilating

Inlet

Fans Drainage Traps Drain

Inspection Opening and Ventilation Inlets

as

Pipes and Testing

Ventilation Outlets Flushing

Cesspools Sewage Irrigation Water Closets and Soil Pipes Baths


Water Supply

403

420

APPENDIX.
Syllabus of the Subjects in which Examinations in Building Construction are
held by the Department of Science and xVrt

421

INDEX

425-450

424

PRACTICAL

BUILDING CONSTRUCTION.
CHAPTER

I.

BRICKS AND THEIR COMPOSITION.


Bricks as Building Material

Brick-earth and Constituents Varieties of Brick-earth


Varieties of Bricks Purpose-made Bricks.
its

Manufacture of Bricks

Bricks as Building Material.

Bricks,

bricklayer, are hard rectangular blocks, of

the chief material of the

an originally clayey substance,

which has been tempered and moulded into the shapes required, and then
burnt in a clamp or kiln until it is quite hard.
Bricks are an ancient building material, having been made and used by
the

Romans

for arches, facings, pavings, etc.

period, of larger

and smaller

sizes

Though they

were, at that

than those used generally in the present

ft^

day, they were always


their width in length

They

made

to

with half-bricks or double

bricks double

allow of bond, as will hereinafter be explained.

thus varied in length from 7| to 22 inches, and were generally very

thin (about i| inch), the smaller sizes being used for facing rubble walls,

and the larger sizes


were also used

latter

for

The

bonding every fourth course or thereabouts.

for arches.

In more modern times bricks have been used for walling, facing, arches,
and paving and generally their dimensions are now about 9 inches long
;

by 4I inches (or half their length) in breadth, so that two laid crosswise
They are made from 2| to 3I inches in
will cover two laid lengthwise.
height, according to local custom or the requirements of construction.
They are of numerous different qualities, kinds, and colours, each from
its

peculiar nature adapted to a particular purpose or use.

classification of the various kinds, their peculiarities, qualities,


will

concise

and

uses,

be given hereinafter.
It is to

which

it

is

be noted that the quality of a brick depends on the clay from

made, and on the

different manipulation

which the clay

will

BUILDING CONSTRUCTION.

Brick-earth and
such as

is

used

for

Constituents.

its

common

red bricks,

A
is

good

brick-earth or

clay,

composed of

silica

generally

and alumina, accompanied by a slight percentage of lime or other flux


(to fuse the two into a hard mass), and a still smaller percentage of
oxide of iron, manganese, magnesia, or an alkali to give it its colour.

The

properties of the different constituents of clay are as follows

the greatest in bulk,

Silica,

bined

state, it is infusible,

sand

practically

is

that

is,

in

whether alone or with alumina, w^ithout a small

quantity of flux in the form of lime or oxide of iron; and

preventative to cracking, shrinking, or warping.

the

more

silica

there

is

of the resulting brick.

The

brittle.

silica

an uncom-

Up to

acts as a

more even the

the better the shape and

An

it

a certain proportion
texture

excess of silica (or sand) renders a brick too

should be in chemical combination with the alumina, as

mere mechanical admixture.


Alumina is the principal and most important constituent of a good
clay, as it imparts the plastic qualities, though it shrinks, cracks, and
opposed

to a

warps very considerably under the influence of heat, which renders

it

very hard.

Lime may be
effect

it

called a flux, though

presence in the bulk has a double

its

both diminishes the contraction in the process of drying the raw

and

material,

it

blends the

silica

and alumina together

in the burning^

This carbonate of lime must be present in very small quantities, comminuted and equally distributed throughout the mass for if it exists in
;

be slaked by moisture, and cause the disintegration of the

lumps

it

brick,

whether

Iron

will

is

laid or not in the finished work.

also a flux,

when

of nearly equal quantities of

form of an oxide, and in the presence


and alumina. It is the colouring matter

in the
silica

of most kinds of bricks, the intensity of the colour (from a light yellow to

a dark red) being in proportion to the quantity of iron oxide present.

With 8 or lo per cent, of oxide of iron, the colour is a dark blue or purple,
and the addition of a small proportion of manganese gives almost a black
colour to the brick and with lime the two impart a cream colour, the one
darkening and the other lightening the shade. Magnesia and iron oxide
;

make a yellow

brick.

The presence

of alkalies

trouble, as they act too strongly as a flux

may be

only a small percentage.

when

the resulting brick unsymmetrical, while giving

good brick-earth contains

is

generally a source of

any quantity, though that


They melt the clay, as it were, and render
silica

in

it

a greenish-blue

and alumina

in

tint.

due proportions,

together with such a percentage of a flux (in whatever form) as will fuse

the

silica

them

and alumina without running the bricks together and rendering

vitrified.

Varieties of Brick-earth.There are three


earth, as follows:

different kinds of brick-

BRICKS.

Pure

1.

clay, also called Plastic or

Strong cXdiy which contains

silica

and

alumina, with such a small proportion of lime, iron oxide, or other flux that
calls it *' foul clay," as it is of very little use by itself, a soft,
uncombined brick being the result of what little burning the clay will stand.
The addition of more lime or other flux improves the clay greatly for

the brickmaker

brick-making purposes.

Sandy, Miid, or

2.

Loamy

clays are so loose that they are useless for

the manufacture of bricks unless a flux

make

is

added

in sufficient quantity to

the fusion perfect.

Marls or Limy

3.

constituents in the

clays are the best of

first

as they contain the necessary

all,

instance, without further addition, except to regulate

the burning.

An

brick-making clay of this quality, called malm, can be

artificial

obtained by washing the clay and mixing

it

with the necessary lime in

a mill.

Having dealt with the qualities and peculiarities of the diff'erent


and their constituents, a short resume of the process used in the
preparation of the clay and manufacture of the b-rlcks may with adclays

vantage be given
different

proceeding to a detailed classification of the

before

kinds of bricks and their characteristics.

Manufacture of Bricks.
which

soil,

is

After the removal

called encallowing, the clay

is

dug

of the turf and surfaceout, in the

placed in heaps or places called kerfs, and there the

mixed together and other ingredients added,

the clay

is

hard or uneven,

it

is

ground

out,

Of

course,

reduced
foot, or

in a mill to a finer admixture.

during the

about the end of March, the winter's seasoning having

and,
its

stones

all

and sometimes, when

This done, the clay remains in these heaps or kerfs


winter

kinds are

as the nature of the clay

requires, for the production of a first-class article.

and other unsuitable substances are picked

autumn, and

diff'erent

liability

ground

to

warp,

in a mill,

the

clay

is

turned over,

trodden under

which tempers the clay and renders

ready

it

for conversion into bricks.

Malm, the washed and artificial brick-making earth, is likewise


made in the autumn by mixing the newly dug clay with a proportion
of chalk, to make up the deficiency in the natural constituents.
This is
done in a
it

in

and

mill,

as soon as the mixture

becomes of a creamy

nature,

run through large sieves into what are called backs, large tanks
which the substance becomes hardened, after which a layer, of fine

is

screened ashes

is

sandwiched between two layers of malm, and

in this

condition the mass remains during the winter to mellow.

The
into

clay

bricks,

ready to be

made

which can be done by machinery or by hand, the

latter

or

malm

being thoroughly

.making the better bricks.

ripe,

it

is

BUILDING CONSTRUCTION.

Machine-made

Machine- made Bricks.


or plastic

condition,

is

the

in

when

still

in

sticky

soft,

in-

but the width of a brick lengthwise and the height of

a brick on edge (that

about lo

is,

When

platform.

sufficient

through the channel

the supply

clay,

are of two kinds, dry

through a rectangular channel of

forced by pressure

definite length

iron

the

case

latter

bricks

5 in.) on to a smooth greased


descended on to the platform,
cut off, and what remains, being

in.

has
is

X 5 in. and of indefinite length, is cut by knives or wires, in a frame


worked by machinery, into the height of the brick required whether
10

in.

it

be

or 3

2 1 in.

course of a few seconds, cuts a definite number of

the

This, in

of the clay, and these are carried away to a shed or out

out

bricks

in.

into the sun to dry gradually.

bricks can also be formed from clay which has

Machine-made

dried and ground to a powder, which

hand-made
mass

of

treating

in

hereinafter

put into a mould

is

pressure, so that a consolidated

bricks)

^rtd?-moulded

(which

made

is

so

required,

as

whereas

for the latter the

mould with sand,

Sd5;z^-moulded
regular,

cases

flat

and

alike,

same end

is

than

shape

malm

is

great

size

slop

the

of the

malm

adhering to

or

mould
brick

dries)

its

is

sides ?

attained by sprinkling the inside

to

be

ground powder.
cleaner,

j/(?/)-moulded

more sharp^

bricks.

In both

pressed by hand into the mould on

and

the

block of

clay

table,

two kinds,

ultimate

the

considered

are

in

the clay or

and smooth

than

fine ashes, or a specially

bricks

perfect

of

shrinkage as the clay or

prevent the clay from

dipped into water, to


of the

larger

little

to allow for

are

being that, for the former,

difference

the

subjected to

formed of very even surfaces.


ready to be burnt in the kiln.

is

The resulting brick, being already dry, is


Hand-made Bricks. Hand- made bricks
;

and

been

explained

(as

superfluous

clay

is

cut

ofl"

by a

straight edge.

The

rectangular

is

then turned out of the mould'

and taken to the shed to dry, exactly as with the machine-made bricks.
In some cases a frog or indent is formed on the bed of a brick,
either hand-made or made by machine; or the brick may be made
by hand and afterwards machine-pressed to give it a closer body
and finer finish.
This frog or kick^ as it is called, is made by a projection on
the stock board, over which the mould is placed and fitted to form
a bottom before the clay is pressed home within the mould to form
the
left

brick

or in the

case

of machine-pressed bricks, projections are

on the top and bottom plates of the pressing box.


Drying. The soft, half-dry bricks are then dried gradually, in the

sun

or

under

sheds, being

scintled^

that

is,

stacked

diagonally,

so-

BRICKS.

When they are


round them.
on hacks \ these are long narrow
above the ground which is covered with dry material,
have free access

that the air can

all

dried out of doors, they are placed

banks, raised

such as ashes or brick rubbish, to reduce the moisture to a


and to facilitate the drying process.
Burjiing.

When

the raw bricks are sufficiently dry they are wheeled

clamps and stacked in

kilns or

into the

of breeze, channels, filled with faggots,

bricks, covered with six inches


left

draw the

across the bottom to

covered up or the ends

-clamps

and kept burning


'they are allowed

for a period

cool,

to

sometimes diagonally,

layers,

of the heat from a bottom of burnt

to allow of a perfect circulation

being

minimum

of

blocked, the

from two to

and the brick

This done, and the

heat.

of kilns

is

then

fire

is

lighted

weeks, after which

six

ready and

fit

for the

builder.

Clamp-made
or breeze

the

better

fire

should always have a certain amount of ashes

them in the mixing, so


and burn more readily.

Clajjips are

purposes

bricks

that they

incorporated in

chiefly

may

take

used in country brickyards, and for temporary

they consist of walls, built of dried raw bricks, smeared with

and encircling a honeycomb of flues, on which the


on layers of breeze, laid over the flues, in
such a way as to leave each brick as far as possible exposed on all sides
and they are then covered
to the heat during the process of burning
over by a few courses of burnt bricks, after which the fires are lighted,
when the whole mass, connected by the flues, commences to burn
clay to hold the heat,

bricks to be burnt are stacked,

gradually.

Kilns.

Kilns

are

more permanent

structures,

and

may be

either

orcular or rectangular in plan, the former being the better of the two
but a detailed description of them

Glazed bricks are burnt

notes.

Defects.

As

run together, called

more

or

is

domed

beyond the province of these


kilns.

soon as the bricks are cool they are

they require some selection

and

in

less

burrs

fit

for use,

though

those near the flues being over-burnt and

and those near the outside

imperfectly

burnt,

called

/>/ace

bricks^

being
grizzles^

soft

or

samels.

Chuffs are bricks on which rain has fallen while they are hot, making
them full of cracks, and otherwise wholly defective.
Sound Bricks. A sound, good brick should be hard, well-burnt, square,
and regular in shape, with clean sharp arrises. It should give a clear ring
when struck be free from lumps of lime and other impurities, and as non-

absorbent as possible.

Varieties of Bricks.

The

chief kinds of bricks at present in the

market, and their characteristics, are as follows

BUILDING CONSTRUCTION.
Gaults are bricks

made from a natural clay with sufficient lime in the


flux.
They are made in the southern and eastern

form of chalk to act as a

and are very hard, heavy, and durable, of the

counties,

first

quality, suit-

able for best facings, and usually of a white colour, though the inferior
bricks have a slight pinky tinge.

have

proportion

The

pinky ones,

of

Ca?nbrtdge
the

common

mixture being

white bricks
as

classified

Mingles.

Malms, as the name implies, are made from a marl


and principally used for facings and other best work.
of a similar quality, and mostly of a light colour.

Common

made from

firebricks are

pure alumina and

silica in

or chalky mixture,
Stiffolk bricks are

a refractory clay containing almost

the proportion of one part of the former to three

they are generally of a whitish yellow or light brown


and rather porous.
They should be uniform in texture, and of
They are made chiefly in Shropshire,
course free from lime and iron.
They are
Staffordshire, and near Leeds, Newcastle, and Stourbridge.

parts of the latter

colour,

used

for lining blast furnaces, setting grates

resisting flues

exposed

and

furnaces,

to the action of

Dinas

and

in fact in

and

boilers,

and casing

fire-

any position where brickwork

is

fire.

firebricks are

made

in

Glamorganshire

from sand,

/>.,

pure

mixed with i per cent, of lime and a little water, and


They are the best firepressed together by machinery before burning.
bricks in existence, of a porous nature, and they will expand and withstand
silica,

which

is

an enormous heat.

made from a hard fireclay marl found in the coal


ground and pugged and moulded in the ordinary way.
They are closer in grain, and superior to firebricks for furnaces, etc.
Giiismiiyda firebricks are similar to the Dinas bricks.
Lee Moor firebricks are made near Plymouth, from the refuse of china
Ganister bricks are

measures, which

and

clay,

is

and are very hard, compact, and of a

Thompson's are
Cheshire

light,

they are of a

strong,

common

dull red colour.

fireproof bricks, lately introduced

from

red colour, and extraordinarily light in

weight.

Glazed bricks are made extensively in the south-west of Scotland, in


Wales, Warwickshire, Yorkshire, Northumberland, and Durham, from the
is generally ground much finer than for
Glazed bricks are made by hand and machinery (the latter
and all, when sufficiently dry, are pressed and as fine a skin put

best qualities of fire-clay, which


firebricks.
chiefly),

on them as possible; after which the glaze, of whatever tint required,


wet
is put on by either of two methods, called respectively the dry and
previous
the
dip.
Of these two methods the former is the better, because
drying (as hereinafter explained) prevents any further contraction.
The dry dip consists of dipping the bricks in the glaze after they have

BRICKS.
been once burnt in the
is

kiln

whereas, in the " wet dip " process, the glaze

applied to the wet, undried, or unburnt bricks.

After they have been

dipped each process is completed by burning the bricks at a very high


Glazed bricks are generally one-eighth of an inch higher
temperature.
than the ordinary kinds, so as to reduce the mortar joint ; and they may

be either glazed at one end or one side only, or

at

both ends, both sides,

or on end and side as required.


Farehai7i

they can be

deep

red,

and Woodville red bricks are of a close, sandy nature ; or


made smooth, coming from a moderately plastic clay. Their

even colour, and good surface, render them most suitable for

facings.

Staffordshire or Nuneafofi blue

and black bricks are very hard, wellwill resist enormous weights and

burnt and close, non-absorbent, and

They are used for damp courses, pavings, weatherings, piers,


and positions requiring great compressive strength, and for damp
They are made from a clay containing about lo per cent, of
situations.
oxide of iron, which gives them their colour. The clay is also made into
copings, channels, and many other specialities.
Black bricks, made in Berkshire, have no uniformity in colour, but are
hard, close, and sandy in texture, and make a good mottled front, their
ends being alternately black, blue, and a glazed yellow or white so
much so that they give the appearance of being daubed irregularly with
pressure.

dressings,

soot before being burnt.

Rubber

bricks are of a soft,

sandy nature, of

fine, rich,

red colour, and

They

capable of being cut, carved, or rubbed into any shape or form.

colour, texture,

even

and hardness, so that they cannot be scored with a

in the centre

slightly larger

while they should rub well.

Dutch or adamantine
Adamantine

They

They

are generally

knife,

made

than ordinary bricks, to allow for the rubbing down.


clinkers are small, cream-coloured,

bricks, vitrified throughout,

the

are

near Birmingham and Bracknell, and should be compact, of uniform

made

is

and used

chiefly for paving

and very hard

and,

if

anything,

the better brick of the two for the purposes required.

are grooved or chamfered, to give a firmer foothold for horses, etc.,

in pavings.

Candy s
more

though perhaps harder and yet


and they are supposed to ** wear rougher." They are of a
colour, of a more watery appearance, and suitable for the same
bricks are of a similar character,

brittle,

lighter

purposes as the clinkers.


Concrete and breeze bricks are made of cement and gravel or breeze,
and used for fixing purposes. They are supposed to be fireproof, and yet
suitable and easy for use with woodwork to be attached thereto.
Dust bricks are blue bricks, which have been made in, moulds sprinkled

with dust instead of sand.

BUILDING CONSTRUCTION,

Pressed bricks are those made by machinery under pressure, and


Dressed bricks have had their sides and beds beaten with a "dresser,"
which gives them a better arris and more even face.

Of course, it will be understood that most of the above kinds of bricks


can be moulded (before being burnt) into any shape, form, or size, to suit
requirements.

Purpose-made Bricks are of innumerable kinds, and made in various


The chief kinds are enumerated below, though it must be underclays.

stood that this

list is

not,

and cannot be made, exhaustive

special circum-

stances requiring special bricks, which should be ordered early, before the

operations of building are

commenced,

so that

no delay may be caused

while they are being made, as their manufacture occupies a considerable

time in some cases.

On

Bullnoses are bricks with rounded angles.

(showing special-purpose-made bricks)


to a 25-inch radius;

fig.

fig.

fig.

the accompanying plate

represents a bullnosed angle

a double bullnosed angle to a 2^-inch radius;

3 a bullnosed angle to a 4j-inch radius

fig.

4 a double bullnosed

angle to a 4|-inch radius.

Cants are jamb-bricks with an angle cut, as shown in

fig.

fig.

fig.

being a double cant.

Birdsmouths are

for internal angles

representing a stretcher and


fig. 9, is

called a squint^

and

fig.
is

other than right angles

8 a header.

The

converse, as

used for external angles.

shown

in

BRICKS.
Jamb-bricks of another kind are represented by
fig.

12

illustrates

and

a string brick,

figs.

lo and ii

13 and 14

figs.

stretcher

while

and

header plinths.

F1(^.12.

rig.i3.

F1^.1 5.

r/g/4

Of

the

one-centred arch brick,

a header and a stretcher, and


a circular brick.

fig.

figs.

15

and

......

Fig. 16

16

17 a compass brick,

show
fig.

respectively

18 representing

lO

BUILDING CONSTRUCTION.
Ca?fiber arch-bricks

by

fig.

are

shown by

fig.

19,

and

Ft p. 22

External rounded angles are represented by

by
by

elliptical

arch-bricks

20.

fig.

22

fig.

23.

FiQ.23.

fig.

21,

and

internal ditto

while square angles, both internal and external, are depicted

BRICKS.

Of

II

fig. 24;
moulded bullmoulded
squints
fig.
by
moulded
cants
26;
by fig. 27 ;.
25
external angles by fig. 28, and internal angles by fig. 29.

fnoulded bricks, quoins are illustrated by

noses by

fig.

Fi(j2Q

F 1(^27

Fi^.29.

Soaps are bricks 9 inches long, 2| inches only in breadth, and 3 incheswhile splits are 9 inches long, 4I inches broad, but only about
;
i^-inch high (or thick).
Stocks are the sound marketable clamp burnt London bricks when the

high

removed and the " picked " stocks selected for


"stock" is the medium quality and they are
mostly burnt in clamps, having a quantity of ash refuse and breeze incorporated in them, so that very little fuel is required to burn them.
Brindled bricks are inferior common blue bricks, of a browny blue
*

place bricks " have been

superior purposes

colour, very hard

the

and durable, and

suitable for engineering purposes.

should be noted that good blue bricks are


purple marl, which

ready for moulding.

damp

situations,

chemical gases,

is

ground

The

It

out of a hard blue or

powder and pugged into a plastic state


and soundest bricks are excellent for all

to a

best

some being
etc., and all

made

specially annealed for use in storage tanks for

true blue bricks should be close, hard,

absolutely non-absorbent, though not necessarily blue

Sometimes dust bricks are made by the dry process

all

and

the way through.

similar to

tiles.

CHAPTER

II.

BRICK BOND AND ITS APPLICATIONS.


Brickwork defined

Bond

Brickwork

strictly

Brickwork Structures of Brickwork Different Kinds of


Application of the Various Bonds.

in

Bond

speaking

understood by the trade to mean work

is

executed with standard-sized bricks,

and from 2|

to 3I inches high,

/.^.,

and any

9 inches long, 45 inches wide,


larger-sized materials used are

considered out of the province of the bricklayer.

Bond

in Brickwork.

The principal point which the bricklayer must

always have in view in his work, beyond good workmanship, with the good
materials given to him,

is

to

have one pervading bond throughout each

separate piece of work, so that the

many

bricks used will form one con-

By this word bond


meant the arrangement of
the bricks in such positions beside and above each other, that no single
vertical joint between any two bricks is immediately in line and above that
between two others; that is to say, the bricks must always break joint on the
tinuous unbroken mass from every point of view.

which

is

the very essence of sound work

is

solid surface of a brick beneath.

straight vertical joint

of the course below

is

between two bricks exactly over a similar joint

exceedingly bad construction, and an unsound, weak

piece of work, which should never be overlooked.

Moreover,

in

good bond

the bricks should break joint vertically both in the length and thickness of
the wall, so as to bind the several bricks forming the mass into one solid
piece of work, and fairly to distribute the superincumbent weight.
Fig.

and

30

effect

illustrates this principle of

in

breaking

joint,

and

also

distributing the load, as the dotted lines show

carried from one brick on to the centres of the bricks below.

^^S
W^
riq.30.

its

object

how

it

is

BRICK BOND

AND

ITS APPLICATIONS.

13

1 shows a piece of walling with no bond, or breaking joint, and


32 the effect a heavy load would have on an unsound foundation ;
the bricks immediately underneath the weight would sink down, and leave
those adjacent to them, on each side, in their original position. The same

Fig. 3

fig.

applies to the thickness of the wall as well as to


figs.

33, 34,

and

35,

r1^.3

on the same

principle.

its

length, as

shown

in

Fi(^.32.

1.

Having shown the necessity for such a principle, to break joints and
effect a bond both lengthwise and crosswise, it will be convenient, before
proceeding, to explain the modes of carrying out that principle
first, to
:

note that

all

longitudinal joints, or the beds of the bricks,

horizontal, so that the vertical joints can

without unnecessary trouble, inasmuch as


rectangular in form

on

must be

perfectly

be made perfectly perpendicular


all

bricks are, or should be,

all sides.
<-

9-

made

BUILDING CO]
bricks

by

side,

brick which measures,

on the

41

directions

in different

.longitudinally side

face or

inches long

back of a

and

one

rCTION.

course transversely

when

laid,

wall, is called

3 inches high

two others

is

9 inches long and 3 inches high

a stretcher; and one which shows


called a header;

a whole

horizontal course of stretchers only

^nd one

of headers alone a heading: course.

with

and so on.

is

and consequently

called a stretching course^

AND

BRICK BOND
King

ITS APPLICATIONS.

closers are cut to shape, as

fig.

15

showing 2|-inch

43,

face, and,

with 4|-inch at back, 9 inches inwards.

Bats may be either J,


bear to the size of a whole

i,

or | bats, according to the proportion they

brick.

Heading course

^11
h^lL

II II II
r

Closers or

III
Stretchina
I

course

ir.
f.
"
FiaAO.

Bats.

Having got
duties assigned,

all

must be adhered
varieties of

our materials, and their several

and

to in all kinds of

bond before giving a description of the

be

bond.

Structure of Brickwork.

To

positions,

emphasise a few points and rules which

attended to under
I.

sizes,

as well to

will

it

all

The

cardinal points of brickwork, to be

circumstances, are

place a closer next

where there is a plumbing


angle where a bricklayer has

to
/>.,

the first header in


after

the

header,

each alternate course


at

to use his plumb-rule to

each and every

mark the upright

BUILDING CONSTRUCTION.

i6

the last-mentioned being the result of

inattention to this rule

vide the

comparison of lengths of figs. 46 and 47, representing the plans of the


heading course, with closer for a wall 18 inches thick.

IZ3

I
'1'
I

'1'

'1

II

II

'

.I

9=?-i
V
II II II r

r)

'1'
I

I.I

F/5f44.
4.

To

showing

angles, where possible, ivith headers; 2\ inches


and the other 2\ inches being within the angle of

internal

tie

in elevation,

the wall.

.1

II

-^

Pairs

'

I.

'

1'

Pairs

>

ri.

1.

1'

'1'

'1'

'1'

'?^

Pairs

Fi^. 45.

5.

in

To

start

according

every heading course at both ends, as in

to

the

bond

specified

and the

n(^4G.

48^,

filling

must

FigA7.

begin at doth ends, as shown in

bond

fig.

stretching course

48^* the filling in being according to

fig.

specified.

Anv

Bond

E
\^*'^'->\

7:^

'

F/g.48*

Different Kinds of Bond.


bond,

i
|<--9

Fi^4.8

There

different bonds, including the following

Heading

Any Bond

K--9-->i

are a considerable

number

of

which consists entirely of headers,

is

very seldom used

BRICK BOND AND ITS APPLICATIONS.


because of the

difficulty there

is

in

making a

being necessary to use a stretcher at the


course, as

shown

in

fig.

48.

It

of or exceeding 9 inches.

II

Mill

finish

and bond

commencement

can only be used

17
as well,

it

of each alternate

for walls of the thickness

BUILDING CONSTRUCTION.

i8

of 14 inches and over in thickness, and that

it

entails the use of false

or half-headers, a 14-inch wall being formed of two skins, not


together in the one course,
in the others.

It is

and only

slightly

bonded by

bonded

alternate headers

a very inferior bond, and only used to save expensive

o:

BRICK BOND AND ITS APPLICATIONS.


Footings should always be bonded, or
effected without closers

For

a closer.
best,

most

this

by making the

purpose English bond

and most used

suitable,

as

break-joint;

offsets
(if

and

this

can be

2\ inches, instead of using


it

may be

called so)

bricks in footings should

all

is

the

show

Fi^. 58

riQ57.

as headers,

19

and whatever

stretchers are absolutely necessary

must be used

the midd/e, because an offset taking place over a stretcher allows of

only 2^ inches bearing for the top brick, as

Mill
II

II

>

I
1

shown by

fig.

should be
inches per

2 1 inches,

offset.

Fig.60

and the bottom course

of the wall

built

All offsets

End Elev&Uon

Fi^.59.

the width

57.

Figs. 58, 59,

of footings generally

double

or 6
and 60 represent the footings of a 9-inch

thereon

the

steps rising

either

BUILDING CONSTRUCTION.

20
enumerated

it

being remembered that the

the footings should be a stretching course

first

i.e.^

course of the wall above

start

with a stretcher.

BRICK BOND
course,

AND

ITS APPLICATIONS.

and the other way in the next course,


and always with a header, if possible.

21

shown by the

alternately (as

arrows),

FiaJI.

Fi^.70
Figs. 63, 64,

and 65

represent, in plan

and

two alternating

section,

courses at a corner or angle, with a blank eftd of 9-inch wall, English

*'
i^

I
I

bond; and
same for a

figs.

66, 67,

14-inch,

and

68, 69,

70,

and

71,

and

72, 73,

and

74, the

an 18-inch, and a 22-inch wall respectively.

F 1(^.7^
^jgs. 75, 76,

and 77

FiqJ5.
illustrate, similarly,

a 9-inch wall in Flemish

bond;

BUlLDirfG CONSTRUCTION.

22
figs.

78, 79, 80,

and

same

81, the

for a

14-inch wall in single Flemish

Fig

Fi(j.7e.

p-i

'
I

Fig.

X',

7 7.

O a
I

F1O.79

78

Sec(ionb6.

Section. AA.

^ig.80.

Fig.81.

Fi^ 82.

Fig

84

Fia.83.

bond, showing

false headers,

the same being

shown

marked thus X X; double Flemish bond for


and 84 ; while, for an 18-inch wall,

in figs. 82, 83,

BRICK BOND AND ITS APPLICATIONS.


double Flemish

bond

F\qQ5.

riQ.87

riq.88

is

shown

in

figs.

85, 86,

and 87

and

23
single

Flemish

BUILDING CONSTRUCTION.

24
wall in

Flemish bond, from which

it

will

be seen that Flemish becomes

very troublesome and weak in thicker walls, as compared with English


the angles having to be tied in with stretchers internally, which

is

against

the rule previously laid down.

Fig. S3

Fiq.92

The modes

and construction for irregular angles are


and 97, which represent 14-inch bay-window
English and Flemish bond respectively.
The external angles

dealt with in
angles, in

figs.

of treatment
94, 95, 96.

of these are called squints^

and the

internal birds7nouths

the

bricks

measuring 6| and 2^ inches on the two faces, which are placed alternately
each course with a closer always coming next the 2|-face in the work,
this

being equivalent to a header.

BRICK BOND

AND

ITS APPLICATIONS.

Fiq.$6.

2S

BUILDING CONSTRUCTION.

26
be noticed
and irregular

It will

inferior

that the
;

in

Flemish bond

fact,

there

is

(as figs. 96 and 97) is very


no regular system about it

no two bricklayers working such angles


difficulty

being in the internal work.

The

alike

Flemish

in

bond,

only rule that can be laid

the

down

F\a.QQ.

them is that they must be bonded in alternate courses


by pairs of headers cut and tied in by the stretchers within the angle
one course, and without the next, as shown in the figures ; the same

with regard to

rule,

of course, applying to English

bond

as well

the internal header

being placed at the back of the 6| face of the squint brick.

In the same way, figs. 98 and 99 represent the methods of treatment


and construction for two courses of an acute angle in an 18-inch wall.
Intersections of internal and external walls are done very simply, the
internal wall toothing into the external wall 25 inches in each alternate
course, as in

figs.

100, loi, 102,

and 103

the joints being broken alter-

BRICK BOND

AND

nately on the respective courses, as

ITS APPLICATIONS.

27

shown by the arrows, and care being

taken that where possible each should

tie in

with a header.

Fi^.lOl.

ri(j.lOO.

Brick piers are subjected to the same treatment with regard to the
necessary closer at the plumbing angles to break the joint

n^. 102

though

it

Flci.103.

cannot be applied to anything smaller than piers with sides of 18 inches


wide or more, in which case they are treated as shown in figs. 104, 105,

Fi^.l04

106, 107, 108,

the

bond

n^ 106.

Fi^.105

and 109

from which

necessarily used.

it

will

Fi^.107

be seen that English alone

BUILDING CONSTRUCTION.

28

Sleeper walls supporting

and about 8

ground

floor joists are built

reduce the spans of the

feet apart, to

4J inches thick,
room%; and

joists in big

they are either built with openings here and there to allow of ventilation,
or as

fig.

no, which

is

called honeycomb work.

Fi^.109

F/gf /08.

Fender walls are those

and take the ends of the


Brick
flat lintels

cores

built

round

Fij. HO.

fireplaces to carry the hearthstones

which would otherwise have to be trimmed.


are the irregular-shaped brick surfaces between the tops of

and the

soffits

joists,

of relieving or discharging arches, as in

fig.

m.

CHAPTER

III.

BRICK REVEALS, ARCHES, AND POINTING.

Forms of Arches Construction of Arches Bond of


Pointing Fireplaces Flues Hoop-iron BondWood Bricks and Pads

Reveals and their Construction

Arches

Brick Corbelling.

Reveals.

A reveal

is

that part of an opening which returns at right

angles from the front of the wall

i.e.^

that

between the necessary angle from the face

^'9

'-2

which shows vertically


and the front of the door

part

line

Reveal

Fi^.llJ.

112.

Fi^.ll4.

window frame, as in fig. 112, fig. 113 being an illustration of a splayed


and fig. 114 a splayed jamb explaining the difference between that
and a splayed reveal the former applying to the internal and the latter
or

reveal^

to the external finish.

r/^. //5.

Whether a reveal be square or splayed, the student must always bear in


mind that a closer must be used on each side of the opening in the same

same course as that in which the closer is placed at


For instance, fig. 115 represents a square reveal in a

horizontal line in the

the main angles.

BUILDING CONSTRUCTION.

30
wall, in the

heading course of English bond, where the king closers will


fig. ii6 being the succeeding or stretching
course

be seen to advantage,
of the same.

Fig.llG

It

as

it

should be pointed out that the setting back of the jamb (or reveal,
sometimes improperly called) varies in wid^/i according to the

is

k"

9''!

4^ ZK fi
r/gf.///

joinery frame that

it has to take, usually being


4I inches wide for sashwindows, and from ij to 3 inches for door and solid window frames.

It will

be obvious that a splayed reveal

is

made by

the peculiar shape

r.Q.lia.

of special bricks called canfs, as shown by the dotted lines to figures

whereas a splayed jamb


convenience in bonding.

is

generally roughly cut,

and worked according

to

FigJt9.

and 118 represent succeeding courses up both window jambs,


and
119 and 120 that in an 18-inch or 2-brick wall; fig. 121 showing the

Figs. 117

with a reveal in a 14-inch wall with a splayed jamb, English bond;


figs.

BRICK REVEALS, ARCHES, AND POINTING.


same, without the splayed jamb
the other course.

the dotted lines on

fig.

31

119 representing

BUILDING CONSTRUCTION.

33
Below the

sills

the brickwork

is

backs from

window board

to

Vide

Forms

fig.

window
making
a
140),
and between the

to floor-line to allow of

shown on
below the window

floor

14-inch wall only 9 inches thick

jambs.

often set back within the thickness

down

of the wall, the jambs continuing

(as

fig.
sill

126.

of Arches.

An arch

an arrangement of bricks, placed

is

any shape or curve over an opening, so that each brick

mutual pressure from

is

neighbours, the whole being wedged

its

to

supported by
in,

as

it

were, over the jambs on each side of the opening.

t\tvAUon.

for

Window

Back

Plan.
Fi^ 126.

Before proceeding to explain the application of bricks to the formation


it will be as well to make the student acquainted with the diff'erent
an arch, their names, and the various kinds of arches in use.
T27 is an elevation of a semicircular arch, the capital letters refer-

of arches,
parts of
Fig.

ring to the text with explanations, as follows

which support the arch, and from which

it

springs

represents the abictments


;

they are really the jambs

of small openings, and dopier will act as abutment to two arches, as


at

P on

the illustrations

the ex trados,
sidesy

top,

back,

is

the crown or top of an arch

or outside

i^

is

the /ace

shown

indicates

are the haicnches,

or shoulders, comprising the sides of an arch up to a point halfway

BRICK REVEALS, ARCHES, AND POINTING.

between the springing and the crown;


bottofn^

or under-side of

abutments and piers

S indicates

the arch
is

33

represents the intrados^

shows the jambs or

sides

soffit^

of the

the keystone^ or central voussoir or archstone

the spandrih^ the spaces over the extrados and haunches up to

a Une horizontal with the crown

Sp

is

the springing^ or place from which

ricjl27.

the arch starts

called

skew-backs in other than semicircular arches

and form a key to keep the arch

they

and wedge or
tighten it up
Sn represents the span^ or width of the opening over which
the arch is built ; Spg is the springing or horizontal line, from which the
arch commences ;
is the rise of the arch, from the springing to the sofifit
radiate to the centre,

in

Centre

FiQ.128.
'3

of the crown;

Fare

the voussotrs, blocks, or bricks, which form the arch,

radiating from the centre-point,

and supported by mutual pressure from

their neighbours.
Fig.

128

is

a segmental arch, shown for the purpose of indicating the

which do not occur in semicircular arches.


and nomenclature apply as in the last case.

position of the skewbacks,

same

reference-letters

The

BUILDING CONSTRUCTION.

34

semicircular arch (shown in Fig. 127) is made from one centre


on the springing hne, halfway between the jambs of the abutment.
The segmental or '^scheme " arch (shown in Fig. 128) is formed with a curve

The

situated

J"

sy

ny29.

which

is

part of a circle, also struck from

jambs of abutments, but

at a distance

one centre, halfway between

below the springing

line,

which may

vary according to the rise of the arch.

Fig. 129

is

a straight ox flat arch, the bricks (or voussoirs) varying ^n

hickness from a

maximum

minimum

of 3 inches at the extrados to a

thickness at the intrados, so as to radiate to a centre below

it.

ng. \z\.

is an elliptic arch, has half an ellipse for


wide spans, where only a small rise is obtainable.

Fig. 130
for

Fig. 131

is

a catnbered

ing that the intrados or

2irch^

which

is

its

curve,

and

is

used

similar to a straight arch, except

soffit rises slightly in

flat

curve towards the centre.

BRICK REVEALS, ARCHES, AND POINTING.


As a rule, in

fact, all flat

camber, to allow for


Fig.

132

is

or straight arches should be thus

35

made with a small

settling.

an equilateral arch

i.e.^

one whose curves have each

an angle of an equilateral triangle as its centre, the two meeting


This is also called a Gothic arch.
third angle.
Fig. 133 represents
is,

as will

an arch struck from

be seen, akin to the

elliptic

arch

three centres^ as

(fig.

at the

shown, and

130).

Flg\ 133.

Fig. 134

arch

shows an arch struck from four

centres,

and

being also a Gothic arch, but of a later period than

called a

fig.

Tudor

132.

In setting out three- and four-ceritred aches, the line joining the centres

BUILDING CONSTRUCTION.

36

should be at an angle of 30 degrees with the


contrived by altering the

Trimmer arches

will

vertical,

which can always be

radii.

be explained hereinafter, when treating of the

Fig. 13^-.

construction of fireplaces, chimneys, and

which intersect one another

flues.

Groined arches are those

at various angles.

Having thus become acquainted with the

different

kinds of arches,

Section

and the names of the various

parts, the student will

enabled to master the constructional points and

the

more

easily

be

details.

Construction of Arches.The principal kind of arch, most commonly used, is the ordinary brick relieving or discharging arch, made of

BRICK REVEALS, ARCHES,


rough

bricks,

AND

POINTING.

37

over the inside

internal openings.

It springs

openings of doors and windows and


from skewbacks outside the ends of lintels,

n
rig. 136.

and is bedded on a brick core, over the lintel, as shown in fig. 135, or
on a circular extrados cut on the Hntel, as fig. 136. These relieving arches
rise in the centre about one inch for every foot of span.

mmm
Fig. 13 8

Fig. 137

Such arches, of a very small span and of a considerable rise, are built
in half-brick rings, as shown in fig. 137, in order to obviate the
excessively large joints, which would result from the use of whole bricks,
at the extrados, as shown in fig. 138.
up

J' 3" 3

3'

Fig. 139.

French or Dutch arches are


differing

from

fig.

29.

flat

or straight, as

shown

in

fig.

139,

BUILDING CONSTRUCTION.

38

Other kinds of arches are

built

on temporary wooden framings

or

centres of the required dimensions and curves, to support the brickwork


until

has

it

into

settled

proper position, and become duly bound

its

together and solidified by the setting and

hardening of the cement or

mortar.

The commonest

which requires centres, is the


flat or cambered arch, but
distinct from the ordinary flat arch (fig. 129), by a diff'erent mode of
construction in regard to the arrangement of the bricks, as appears from
arch of this

French or Dutch arch.

139

fig.

but,

from

its

This

is

class,

a rough

unsightliness,

it

is

only suitable for walls which

are to be plastered or otherwise covered up.


All the

kinds of arches

diff'erent

plastering, with the

rubbed and gauged

ordinary

common

can

be

built,

either

bricks, or they can

for facework, as hereinafter explained

rough

for

be axed or
and all such

arches should be built in cement, for the best work.

An

axed arch

roughly or

finely,

is one formed of hard


by the bricklayer's axe,

which are

bricks,

cut,

wedge-shaped

to the

either

size

and

shape required.

Rubbed and gauged arches are built of


which have been cut and finely rubbed

They

" rubber " or other soft bricks,


to

the

form and dimensions

are usually set in " putty," with very fine joints

and
and
at right angles with and within its face ; so that the pressure may be
equally distributed, and the edges of the bricks not liable to crack and
split away from any undue pressure at the outside, where they are bound
Some arches are built with special-made bricks of the
to show a line.
required wedge-shape and size.
The student will notice that, in openings with rubbed or axed arches
outside and a rough arch inside, the inner arch is to be set back to
required.

care should be taken that the joint of each brick

the
as

full

depth of the jamb, outside the line of

shown

in figs.

140 and 141

or as already

is

soffit

shown

perfectly true,

of the outer arch


in

fig.

135,

when

applied to lintels and discharging or relieving arches.

There is only one,


diff"erence by which the various kinds of arches can be distinguished on
drawings, common brick arches showing thick wedge-shaped joints, and
each brick measuring 3 inches at the intrados, while the bricks

in both

axed and rubbed and gauged arches show 3 inches on the extrados and
the difference between the two is further shown by two grades of the^
;

lines, thin lines indicating

common

the superior kind, while the thick lines denote

work.

Inverted arches are those turned upside down, for the purposes of
spreading the weights and pressure from piers, and in special places, on
to a wider area of foundation

and arcades, shown

in

fig.

142.

as in such instances as big chimney-breasts

BRICK revb;als, arches,

^
1^

and

Wood brick

Wood

brick

Wood

brick

pointing.

Section
rig, 141

Wood

brick

Ground

Lini

Fig. 14.2.

BUILDING CONSTRUCTION.

40

Bond

of Arches.

as that of walls, etc.

The bond

of arches

is

not generally so intricate

though there must necessarily be some system of

binding the component parts together. Before entering into this subject,
it is necessary to point out that brick arches are described by

however,

Fig. #43

the

number of

rings or half-brick rings in

whicn they are

built

a ring

indicating a course of the arch struck from the centre.

English and Flemish bond, in arches formed of a single-brick ring,


similar to fig. 143, the usual well-known

are alike in elevation, being

F
Fig. 144.

difference only
as appearing

Fig. 146.

Fig. 145.

occumng

on the

in

the arrangement of the bricks from the face

144 being the plan of the soffit


from underneath) of an English bonded arch; and fig. 145
Flemish bond.
soffit

fig.

(as

seen

that

of

Fig. J 47.

Headifig bond, in an arch of a single-brick ring,

is

illustrated

by

146 ; but the most practically bonded arch (which has also the best
appearance) is the brick-and-a-half-ring arch shown in fig. 147.

fig.

BRICK REVEALS, ARCHES, AND TOINTING.


Half-brick-ring arches, ^Moh
half-brick rings
easily built

show a

as that depicted in

fig.

finer joint, with less labour,

4r

148 formed of several


and they are the most

but in big spans the rings are apt to separate from each.

r/9. 745.

other at the coursing joint, from want of bond.

and

solidity frequently

This absence of unity

becomes a source of weakness

and

in order

to-

guard against such defects in heavy arches, a few courses must be bonded
occasionally,

when

the heading joints which radiate are in line so as ta

>

-^-

BUILDING CONSTRUCTION.

42

been properly jointed. The semi-fluid mortar runs into all crevices that
have been left, and forms the whole, when set, into one solid mass.
Dinging is the term used to describe the brushing over of the brickwork

may

with a wet brush while the mortar

Wigging

is

damp

is

after

being " struck

fair."

a term employed in Dublin to denote the facing treatment

applied to the rough bricks used there, the vertical joints being

filled

with blue mortar and the horizontal ones with red, the whole being

wards pointed with a white cut

Pointing." Pointing

"

is

up

after-

joint.

the finishing off (with the trowel) of the

I
Fig. 152.

Fir- 151

mortar in the rough joints between the bricks, so as to give the work a better
appearance on the face ; and the stipulation should be specified, that no

when

four courses of 3-inch bricks should exceed 135 inches in height


Figs.

151 and 152 represent

respectively
in

stritck-joitit

which the mortar

is

enlarged sectional

in

pointings or, as

it

is

and

laid.

front view

also called, broad pointings

pressed in with the trowel.

CJL

Fig.

154-.

Figs. 153 and 154 show, similarly, the latter, when the joint is cut with
the trowel on the bottom edge, called cut pointing. It has a better effect

than that shown in

fig.

151,

and

it

has a cleaner and sharper appearance,

the bottom edge of the mortar being cut to a horizontal


Figs. 155

and 156 explain

done with the

trowel, the

in like

manner

line.

weat/ier-pointingj

which

is

upper edge of the mortar, under the bottom of

the upper brick, being pressed

in.

BRICK REVEALS, ARCHES, AND POINTING.


Figs. 157

43

and 158 also represent a rule joint, the mortar being pressed
and then a jointer of thin bar-iron, bent to the form

in with the trowel

JDC
EZZ
Fig. 156.

of an S,
line,

is run along the middle of the mortar to press it in a horizontal


being guided by a straight-edge or rule laid along the joint, on

Ftg. 157

BUILDING CONSTRUCTION.

44
Figs. i6i

and 162 represent beaded ^omxing^ the work being done just
made to impress a bead on

as the two last-named, but with the jointer

the joint.

Fig. 161

Figs.

In

this

Fig. t62

163 and 164 are examples, in the same way, of

mode

/z^^r^-pointing.

of pointing, after the ordinary mortar has been pressed into

the joint or scraped out, and the joint stopped up flush with mortar the
colour of the bricks, a straight-edge

is

laid horizontally along the joint,

II

and

BRICK REVEALS, ARCHES, AND POINTING.


wood

with that view trinwier arches were devised for

The

45

floors with ceilings

round the chimney breast (as is


explained in Chapter VIII.), and the open space left in front of the
fireplace is filled in with brick-arching 4I inches thick, springing from
a skewback cut into the breast of the chimney, above the ceiling line, to
under them.

joists

are framed

he trimmer-joist, as shown in fig. 165, and resting on light centring,


which is left in for the purpose of carrying the ceiling-lath underneath.
Another method is shown in fig. 166, a feather-edged wood springer
being nailed to the trimmer-joist, and the arch springing from both sides

Fig. 161

instead of from only one

above
the

this

tiles,

trimmer-arch

{i.e.

the wall), as

is filled

shown

cement, or hearthstones about 2 or

the sections.

The

in

fig.

and

The

165.

spandril

up

to receive

2 J inches thick, as

shown on

in with concrete,

levelled

shown

which
shows the trimmer-arch under the front hearth to be 14 inches wider on
each side of the jambs of the fireplace, and to project 14 inches outward
though 18 inches would be better. Certainly it should project no

plan of the hearth,

etc., is

as

in

fig.

167,

BUILDING CONSTRUCTION.
less

than 14 inches, and be no less than 9 inches wider on each side of the

fireplace jambs.

no

Ground-floor fireplaces^ in stone or brick-paved compartments, require


and those with wood floors have
;

special provision for safety from fire

their hearths as for the upper floors

but, instead of being supported

by

Fig. /66.

trimmer-arches, they are secured by sleeper walls enclosing the usual space
filled in

with concrete, as explained by

fig.

168.

Fireplace openings are generally arched over

on a 2| in. by in. wroughtand with the ends going

iron chimney-bar, curved to the form required,

ms^
Outside

Elevation

Fig.

169

split and turned up and down to keep them in,


At the back of this the jambs are gathered over, by
2|-inch projections, to the size of the flue ; and in best work a York-stone
slab is generally placed on the top course to act as a ledge to stop down-

9 inches into the breasts,


as seen in

fig.

169.

draughts of wind.

This construction

is

delineated in

fig.

170.

When

BRICK REVEALS, ARCHES, AND POINTING.

A7

circular fireclay flue-pipes are used to line the flues a special-made radiating,

pot

(fig.

As

171)

used

is

to gather the

opening over to the

to the construction of the flue

been gathered

after the

itself,

in or collected to the flue,

it

size

of the

flue.

brickwork has thus

must be impressed on the

made of less dimensions


and they may be made as large as 18 by 18

student that no flues should be

internally than

9 by 14 inches,

inches, though.

FlQ.ni

r/g. 170

it

is

essential they should

be of the same

should, however, not be built straight

way or another,

as

much

all

size exactly

the

throughout.

way up, but

They

diverted, in

as possible, as a good, well-constructed flue

one

should

not allow daylight at the top to be visible to any one looking up from the

The

fireplace.

chimneys

will

necessary arrangement of a breast and stack of several

be understood from

178, representing

The supplementary
etc, on the

uppermost

showing how

172, 173, 174, 175, 176, 177,

figs.

and

complete plans and sections of a large chimney-breast.

flues are,

fig.

179

floor,

is

and

an enlarged detail-section of the breast,


fig.

180

is

a section through a cottage^

from separate chimney-breasts, sometimes brought

together.

Flues.

Flues should be cored

and all
must be smoothly purged
or pargeted, or covered with mortar mixed with cowdung, to prevent cracking or the inside flue-faces may be built in smooth regular bricks, and neatly
flush-pointed in cement mortar
a process which has an advantage over

obstruction cleared

off";

and the

i.e.^

tested for their uniformity,

interior surface

BUILDING CONSTRUCTION.

48

Plan

af

Pi.B.

Fig.nS

iHriBj
Plan at c.o
Fig 174.

lij-in
Plan at
e.f

Fig. 175.

PI a n at G

Fig. 176.

i_nij
Plan
at i.j.
Fig. 177.

^L_ri

iTOr
Fig.

Plan et K.L
Fig. 178.

BRICK REVEALS, ARCHES, AND POINTING.

49

00

BUILDING CONSTRUCTION.

50
Course

Course

2.

WB

^
^

V/'/'W/M

wTm

Fig. 1 81

Course

Course

I.

2.

1
i

Fig. 182.

Fig. 183.
pargeting in that there

happen when

The

is

alterations

partition-walls

no coating

between

of course, they should be


the outside casing.

to

knock

off the flue- walls,

have to be made next the

which may

flues.

flues are called withes^ or mid-feathers

bonded each way,

Fig. i8i represents

and,

at every alternate course, into

two alternate courses of English

BRICK REVEALS, ARCHES, AND POINTING.


bond, ^-brick thick, and

shows that there

is

fig.

182 those in Flemish bond, while

practically

little

9-inch outside walls of whatever

arrangement which has

The

caps of

its

51

bond;

fig.

fig.

183

bonding the withes into

difficulty in

182A showing a much-used

advantages, although not strictly Flemish bond.

chimney stacks are made more or

use of moulded bricks or terra-cotta, but more

less

ornamental by the

commonly by means of several

oversailing courses, projecting or corbelling out one above another, as

shown

in

fig.

184,

and mitring

chimney, and finished

at the angles, or returning all

off with a

always be set in cement

and

it

and

all

pot.

The

round the

top courses should

should be here remarked that no corbel

or oversailing brick should project


offsets

chimney

more than 2\ inches

at

a time, just as

projecting bricks should be headers.

Hoop-iron bond, which has superseded

the use of longitudinal bond-

timbers, consists of thin long strips of wrought-iron, about \\ inches

/84
^\inch

laid

and

Fig.

by

85

built in along the walls,

two or three

feet in height

at the ends

up

between the courses, in rows at every


above head, and below sills of window, and turned

joints to assist in preventing rupture of the

2ontally from unequal settlements.

brickwork hori-

and
sanded before being built in.
Wood bricks are often built in jambs for fixing joinery work to;
though they are now generally superseded by breeze and patent bricks,
-which are fireproof.
Elm fads, 4I inches by 9 inches by 5 inch, are also
used for the same purpose, and built in the joints, sometimes vertically, for
the attachment of skirtings,

Brick corbelling

is

It is

often specified to be tarred

etc.

a series of projecting bricks, for the purpose of

giving additional suppor' to, or to carry, wall-plates

over plain walls below.

Vide

fig.

185.

and other projections

CHAPTER
DAMP AND
Danger of

is

damp.

materials in

all

The

It will

chief,

directions;

if

not the greatest,

descend,

ascend,

inattention, carelessness, or

make

ITS PREVENTION.

Damp Protection below Ground Protection above Ground Prevention


Damp Rising Prevention of Damp Descending.

Danger of Damp.
builder

IV.

enemy

of

of the

and penetrate i.e., attack


makes or is allowed from

and wherever it
want of forethought,

in the first instance, to

an inroad, it brings ruin to the building itself, in every manner,


by sowing the seeds of decay ; ruin to the furnishing and finishing of the
Therefore
building ; and oftentimes ruin to the health of its occupants.
it is the duty, and should be the chief care, of the builder to keep damp
out, by one or other of the various means which will hereinafter be pointed
out and explained.
This duty generally falls to the bricklayer and mason, except in so
far as roofing is concerned, when it devolves on the carpenter, plumber,
and slater ; and all these will be dealt with, respectively, in their proper
places.

The

bricklayer, however,

of the carpenter's work from

the

latter,

when

possible,

is

damp

though

it

should be the business of

due precautions have been taken


the woodwork which it is his business

to see that

with the brickwork before he puts in


to attend to.

Protection

often really responsible for the decay

below Ground. There are numerous methods of


damp through the enclosing walls into

preventing the penetration of

apartments below
1.

By

"-.he

ground

line

building the walls of greater thickness, and setting the bricks

cement a simple method, but often rather expensive ; and, moreover,


on valuable sites, a considerable quantity of room is sacrificed for this
purpose, as compared with another mode of prevention which could have
been used to greater advantage.
2. By hollow dry-area walls around the external faces, as illustrated

in

52

iti

DAMP AND
by the section
the cavity

is

This also

i86.

Fig.

method No.

reason as

and ample

The open

when

and

it

it.

for

the same

must be taken

this cavity, as well as the

area should

commence from

The

any

the footings, the bottom

should be wide enough to allow of

requisite.

to prevent

accumulation of any refuse

walls built battering, in cement,

its

air

Moreover, while providing such

ventilation, every precaution

being paved in cement, and

bottom

disadvantageous,

thoroughly well ventilated, so as to maintain a current of

vermin harbouring in
therein.

is

53

and, in addition, care should also be taken that

always passing through every part of


free

PREVENTION.

ITS

its

from the

being cleaned out,

top should be covered over with York slabs well

Fig. 166

secured together

which also

is

or

it

should be arched over, as shown by dotted

Through

often done, in addition to the slabs.

lines,

ventilation

should be secured by ventilators at the top and bottom, the holes of


the gratings, of course,

being

made

very small

in order

to

keep out

vermin.
3.

By

lining the inside with a

between

thm

brick

wall in

cejnent,

with a small

and the main outer wall, as shown in fig. 187. This


also takes up room, but otherwise is a good remedy.
It is usually adopted
for thick rubble stone walls, which are sometimes tarred before the bricklining is built up securely, and free from ventilation.
This method has
the advantage also of being applicable to rooms above the ground floor
line.
The heading and bonding bricks should have their ends (which go

cavity left

it

into the stone wall) well tarred before being built in.

BUILDING CONSTRUCTION.

54
4.

Another method

run Hygeaji

to

is

Rock

while hot,

asphalte^

within the vertical joints of the enclosing thick walls.

This

is

usually

done about half a brick or 4I inches from the external face, the first
vertical joint inwards, longitudinally, being left open, as shown in fig. 188.
The asphalte is poured in at every three or four courses, filling up the
This is a cheap
crevice, and forming a complete coating inside the wall.

Fi(^

f87j

method, but it is only applicable with advantage to brick walls ; still, it is


very effectual, and also very convenient and useful for the upper part of
the wall.

English Garden

Wall

Bond

F/g
5.

To

168.

face the wall externally with blue-brick work^ built

in cement.

and bonded

This has been proved to be a simple and effectual remedy

against the penetration of damp.


6.

To

render the external face over with cement and sand,

about

one inch thick. This is another simple remedy, which can be used both
above and below the ground floor line; the upper portion admitting of
treatment ornamentally, without any great expense.

DAMP AND
7.

PREVENTION

outer faces of the basement

The

asphalte,

ITS

laid

on

about

hot,

though very expensive,


penetration of damp.

is

walls

can also be coated with

of an

three-quarters

inch thick; which,

method of preventing the

the most effectual

Seysell

55

and Val-de-travers asphaltes are the best

for this purpose, and should be laid on by the company's own men.
Protection above Ground. The walls of rooms above ground-line

are protected from


1.
2.

The
The

damp by

the following methods

use of the Hygean Rock composition (as before mentioned).


cement rendering.

Blue brick facing (also as previously explained


not very bright and pleasant-looking to the eye).
3.

4.

though the

Building the walls hollow with the "thick skin," as

either inside or outside

bonded together

the two being

Fig

F,g 189

of galvanised iron wall-ties {^ide

bonding bricks, as shown in


or a halfbrick thick)

is

fig.

built

fig.

190.

up

189)

with

top and bottom for the circulation of the

simultaneously with

the

inner

or

falling inside

allow of

vitrified

which

is

a non-conductor

about

five

bonding

used to each superficial yard about twelve inches


height, and from two to three feet horizontally.
Thin strips

should be used during construction,


I

/90.

by the patent

portion,

bricks or ties being

apart in

called,

by the use

outer skin (about 4I inches


2-inch cavity, ventilated at

air,

thicker

{b)

The

is

it

{a)

latter is

its

the cavity

in

or sand courses

order to keep the mortar from

may be

being cleaned out when finished

left at

though

the bottom, to

this latter

method

not so good, from a practical point of view, for the stability of the
work.
is

It

is,

however, to be noted also that hollow walls are a source of

trouble, wherever openings

occur, especially at the

heads

the jambs

BUILDING CONSTRUCTION.

56

being easily got over, as shown

at fig.

191.

The

the heads, in hollow walls are unprotected against


falling

on

The

upper surfaces.

to their

source of weakness, in good work,

is

best

possibility of

all

wet

to guard against this

to lay thin sheet lead (formed into

a gutter) over them, between the joints i^ide

both ways from the centre of the

way

heads, or lintels over

lintel,

fig.

and having a

192),

so that the wet

is

carried

fall

and

off them by the gutter, which should project two or three inches
beyond the end of the lintel.
It is better to have the thin skin at the outside, and the thicker (or
main) walls inside ; inasmuch as the penetration of damp is all the sooner
stopped by the circulation of the air in the cavity, and there is then a
This, in fact, is the strongest, best, most adthicker dry wall inside.
vantageous and economical system ; as, with the thin skin inside, all

thrown

C&rity

^5^ZSS^
192.

and other bearing timbers can only get a bearing of 4^ inches,


on a half-brick wall, which is not sufficient, as the 4I wall is not strong
hence all such
enough to carry the whole weight of the building
bearings have to be of increased length to go into the outer wall, which,
though it is the thicker and stronger, is also more exposed to damp.
Bridging over the cavity at these points of support may be recom-

joints, roof,

mended

as a

remedy, to avoid that increased expense

but, obviously, that

would be to do away with all or most of the benefit, for the attainment
whereof the hollow wall had been employed ; seeing that it would break
the non-co7iductor^ and the damp would be transmitted from the outside
to the inside wall by the bridge.
5. The external face of the walls may be slated or tiled to wood
If
laths nailed to bond timbers on pads built in as the work proceeds.
^

slates

be used

this

method

gives the building too

much

of the appearance

of a roof, and creates a dull and uniform monotony of colour.


tiles

are used, which

in form, they
slates

and

may be

When

of a different and lighter colour, and varied

can be treated ornamentally, which cannot be done with

to obviate the use of

wood

battens and plugs thin Wright's breeze-

DAMP AND

ITS

PREVENTION.

57

fixing blocks are built in, alternately with every brick

course, having a

on which the nib of the tile rests, while the tile itself is
nailed to the blocks which are the "gauge" from centre to centre, two
courses of blocks and one of bricks replacing two ordinary brick courses.
slight projection

The

6.

Of

the

and other unimportant buildings are often


keep out the damp.

outside of barns

coated with tar to

means used

to stop

building, Szerelmey's solution

damp where
is

it

one of the

has penetrated the walls of a


best, a coating or

two of the

solution (either applied internally or externally) often completely stopping


it

and rendering the wall water- and damp-proof.


Blundell's petrifying liquid is also a good remedy, and can be applied

in various colours, which, having a glassy surface,

The

walls can also

can be readily washed.

be covered with Willesden paper, which

said to be

is

and rot-proof; or they may be papered with laminated lead or tinIf the walls are very
foil papers before the decorative work is applied.
damp, it may be advisable to plaster the walls in Portland cement instead
of the ordinary materials, and finish them in Parian for paint or in other
cases the external walls are battened and lathed as hereinafter explained.
Prevention of Damp rising. The ascent of damp is guarded
against by the use of damp-proof courses, of different materials, laid
across the whole width of the walls, a little above the general surface
of the ground, and under all timbers, wall plates, etc., which are liable
The following kinds of damp-courses are
to be affected by damp.
employed in different parts of the country
which consist of blue bricks, with open
1. Blue brick dainp-courses
cross vertical joints, laid in cement, and with the two next courses of
brick, above them, built in cement mortar.
This is a most effectual
method, besides being inexpensive, and raising the building at the same
time assuming that there can be no objection on the score of apwater-

pearance.
2.

S/ate

and cement damp-courses are made of two


bedded and jointed

courses of good non-absorbent slates,

thicknesses or
in cement,

and

overlapping each other at the joints.


3.

Asphalte

damp-courses

asphalte, are very effectual,

of

Val-de-travers,

though a

slightly

Seysell,

or

Limmer

more expensive remedy

still

they have the advantage of being hidden in the joint, whereas the blue

would be apparent and out of character.


on hot, and by experienced workmen.

bricks
laid

4.
felts

asphalte should be

Anderson' s^ McNeill's^ and Engert <^ Rolfe's patent fibrous asphalte

are another effectual remedy,

sold, they are

lengths
(

The

and

and

particularly convenient

because, as

ready to be laid by the ordinary workmen, being

to the widths of ordinary walls.

courses, lapped at the joints, or double

/.e.,

They
in

made

in

are either laid in single

two thicknesses.

BUILDING CONSTRUCTION.

58

Cemefit afid saftd^ gauged strongly (as one of cement and one of

5.

sand)

is

time to

sometimes used as a damp-course


before any heavy work can be

set,

and

it is

on

built

but requires

effectual,

it.

6. A composition of tar^ safid, and pitch is a common and successful


remedy ; though it requires experience in the boiling, as it will only set
properly when laid on hot immediately after it has reached a certain

state after boiling.

Lead

though

seldom nowadays used as a dampmust be stout besides which it has


the disadvantage of being affected and eaten away by cement or lime ; and
it will not carry very heavy weights.
7.

course.

is

It is

Hollow

8.

sometimes

expensive, because

vitrified

non-conductor as

They

used.

blocks^ to

allow the

on in two courses, breaking

and

as reasonable in price,

can be applied

it

joint.

Callender's bituminous damp-proof sheeting

9.

of such

circulation

remedy, and frequently

are also another effectual

air,

are laid

brick

it

is

very effectual, as well

continuous lengths.

in

Damp

descending. The descent of damp, in


and chimneys, is stopped by similar
methods to its ascent, as explained above. The common method, however which only checks, but does not prevent the descent of damp, in
ordinary walls and other places where it penetrates or descends is to
throw it off by weatherings and projections. All string-courses^ sills, copings, and projections should be weathered or splayed, and the underside
''
check-throated," so that the wet runs down, and being checked by the
throat on the projection (as at x in fig. 193), drops off.

Prevention

of

special cases, such as parapet walls

Copings of stone or blue or red bricks are also used at the top of walls
for this purpose,

and may be

Fig 193

ftg

saddle-back and throated, as


bull-nosed or half-rounded,
last
is

this

tile

fig.
fig.

194

and

literally

rounded and throated,

196.

creasing,

as

shown

in

walls,

fig.

193

fig.

and

fig.

195

or

All these are effectual except the


as,

without the throat,

poured down the face of the

coping and projection to

as

/9y.

does more harm than good,

collected

and throated,

either weathered

197,

is

often also

consists

all

the wet

wall.

employed

of two courses

breaking joint, and built in cement, projecting from the wall

of

line.

as

tiles

CHAPTER

V.

BUILDING STONES AND STONE WALLING.


Stone as a Building Material

Sandstones LimestonesStone
Sandstone Facings.

Walling

Limestone

Facings

to

Stone as a Building Material It is only proposed,


to some of the chief points requiring

draw attention

in this chapter,

attention with

regard to building stones generally, after which a short account will be

given of the nature and characteristics of the chief building stones in

Granite and other building materials, not


be found treated of in Chapter XXIII.
the student that, whereas hard-and-fast rules can be

general, as against local use.

mentioned elsewhere,
It will

laid

down

solid,

be patent
for the

will

to

guidance of bricklayers, to enable them to make good,

well-bonded work with a material of regular and standard

such rules can be

made

of no certain fixed

size,

for the

and

is

size,

use of a material, such as stone, which

no
is

subject to the varying influence of innu-

merable matters of both great and small importance.

Therefore a great

judgment of the mason, who should


thoroughly understand the principles, which he must endeavour, in more

deal must necessarily be

left

to the

or less degree, to carry out, as far as possible, according to circumstances.

He

should never, under any circumstances, allow one joint to be exactly

make the joint, in any position, over another


be half or three-quarter bond. All he has to do
is to break the joints ; and, in addition
subject to judgment and discretion
to this, he must take care that every stone, excepting projections and
weatherings, is laid on its natural bed i.e.^ on the bed on which it lay
when in the quarry, before it was taken from the solid mass. This bed
except in very close, hard, uniform, and even-grained stones can easily
be distinguished, as all formation and stratification, shells, changes of
colour, and nature in the stone, grit or other, are practically laid
horizontally on the stone.
Therefore such marks, indications, and pecu-

over another; but he can


solid stone,

whether

it

liarities

are generally found in lines approximately parallel with the natural

or quarry-bed of the stone.


59

BUILDING CONSTRUCTION,

6o

On

the other hand,

all

projections, weatherings,

should h^ joint-bedded', that


vertically
is

and

at right angles to

up and sometimes

lift it

to tie the beds in, as

it

especially copings,

the horizon or bed of the course, which

necessitated by the fact that wet

a stone, and

and

the natural or quarry-bed must be placed

i-,

and

frost will penetrate the

off altogether.

Therefore

it

bed of
is

best

were, together at the joints by neighbouring stones,

so that they cannot get away.

The mason should

also take great care that the surfaces of all

beds and

joints are at true right angles, with the face of the stone or the direction of

the superincumbent pressure of the weight above, so that the pressure on


the stones

is

equally distributed over the whole area of the stone

uneven-

ness tending to cause the angles to split off the stone, from the influence

of gravity, making
fig.

198), or

it

take

its

proper bed and bearing under the pressure

sometimes the stone cracks

(as in

fig.

Fig. /9a.

(as

199).

Fig 193.

Bonders and their uses

will

be dealt with

later on, in

connection with

the subject of walling.

There are two


respective

their

composed of

classes of building stone in general use, called,

composition, sandstones and

limestones.

from

Sandstone

is

cemented together by carbonate of lime


or of magnesia and other binding substances, while limestone is little more
than pure carbonate of lime.
The varieties of stone are of numerous
colours, including red, blue, brown, white, and yellow, and their innumerable shades. The grain varies from fine to coarse, with beds which
are oftentimes difficult to distinguish, some being close and some open?
though

pure, clean sand,

their strength

Sandstones.

may be the same.

Sandstones

are used for paving, general building pur-

poses, carving, or for heavy engineering works,

on account of their great


some of the best qualities being capable of
resisting a pressure of between 600 and 700 tons per square foot before
they crack even, and more before being crushed completely. They are

power

to resist compression,

BUILDING STONES AND STONE WALLING.

6l

and durable ; they absorb from 8 to lo per


is from 120 to 170 lbs. per cubic foot.
A good sandstone should be of an even grain, and crystalline in texture.
\Mien chipped into clear water, and stirred about, it should not make the
water muddy; and it should absorb no more than 10 per cent, of water
when poured on to it, while for work requiring strength it should be capable
hard, though free-working,

and

cent, of water;

their weight

of taking, at the very

least,

350 tons per square foot

compression before

in

fracture takes place.

The

best

and most well-known

Craigkith stone

Edinburgh.

It

is

contains 98 per cent, of pure sihca, with

carbonate of lime.
strong

sandstones are as follows

the most durable in Great Britain, found near

It

is

some beds being three times as

of such a fine grain that

it

per cent, of

of a greyish colour, very hard, durable, and

may

strong as

Aberdeen

hardly be called a

granite

It

grit.

and

takes a very

and never wears smooth. Its principal use is for steps, paving,
and heavy engineering works requiring great strength.
The Derbyshire sand or gritstones are a very useful and good stone,

fine arris,
etc.,

weathering well, carrying a fine

arris

and nice even-coloured face,

especially

the Burntwood and other fine Darleydale qualities, which have been proved
to withstand a

smoky atmosphere where other stones have decayed

and

the coarser qualities, found near Matlock Bridge, have great powers of

them most suitable for pad-stones, engineand column-bases. Stone blocks of such a size as 8 feet square and
deep are often procured out of the best quarries.

resistance to crushing, rendering

beds,
3 feet

Forest of

measures.

Dean

It is

hard stone, of a fine

Mansfield stone
spectively red

stone

is

found

in

among

Gloucestershire,

and white

work generally.

is

coal

soft

in colour.

It is

a close crystalline gritted stone,

quarried in large blocks, has a nice uniform appearance,

weathers well, and

the

and hard, according to bed, the best yielding a


grit, which can be quarried in large blocks.
is found in Nottinghamshire, and of two kinds, re-

both

is

suitable for dressings, pavings, stairs,

Mansfield stone

is

called a dolomite,

easily

worked,

and ornamental

and contains almost

equal quantities of the carbonates of magnesia and lime.

The

Yorkshire stones are of

many

varieties, including

Scotgate Ash, Parkspring, Robin Hood, Elland Edge,

Bramley

Howley

Fall,

Park, and

most of which are good hard stones, suitable for paving, dressand engineering work. They work and weather well,
stand considerable wear, and are close and even in the grain, brown or
blue in colour, and of numerous shades.

Spinkwell
ings,

pad-stones,

The Yorkshire quarries are worked by open workings, or by shafts, in


manner as coal, some of the beds being sandstones of the lower
coal measures.
The depth of stone varies from a few feet to over two
hundred feet below the surface.
The quarries produce "blocks" and

a similar

BUILDING CONSTRUCTION.

62
"flagstones"

the

being converted into

latter

flagging for streets, kitchens, passages, etc.

stills

chemical works,

for

while the thinner

lifts

are used

as roofing "slabs," the small pieces of the flags being dressed into wall
stones.

The

block stone

for use

slabs

produces the thicker kinds of flagstone, and

is

sawn

into

chimneypieces, dressings, and monumental

staircases,

in

work; the waste or smaller pieces being converted into "setts" and
"paviors" for streets.
Of the brown and blue varieties found, it must be understood that the
latter is by far the better stone where strength is required, it being capable
of taking a weight of 668 tons before cracking, and 728 tons before being
crushed, whereas brown will only bear the pressure of 484 and 514 tons
respectively, these results being obtained

Runcorn

is

on 6-inch cubes.

a good, useful, strong, durable, red building stone, found

near Liverpool, being free-working, and of nice open


Cefn, a yellow

of fine grain,

grit stone,

is

grit.

found in Wales, and used for

most building purposes.


HoUington is another good weathering sandstone, either red or white
in colour, found in Staff'ordshire, and very often used for general building
purposes.

Limestones.

Limestones,

as a whole, are inferior as building material

to sandstones generally, though Portland

from that category.

They

may be

considered as excepted

consist of almost pure carbonate of lime,

and

by the sulphurous and smoky atmosphere of large


are, of
manufacturing towns, which gradually eats away the stone. Compared
with sandstones, as a building stone, they are less durable; they weigh
course, aff"ected

from 116

to

per square

150

foot,

lbs.

per foot cube, withstand a pressure of about 250 tons

and are much more

easily

worked, especially when freshly

quarried and green with quarry sap.

and uniform, both in structure


and crystalline texture ; and moreover, they will weather well, and, especially in some atmospheres, are the
most economical stone, being preferred for their uniform colour and

The

best of the limestones are dense

and composition, with a

facility

of working.

fine

They

even

are

grain,

often

coated with other substances, to

preserve them, as will hereinafter be explained.

good limestone should have most of the qualities enumerated


more than 17 per cent, of water, and be free from
any earthy or dull appearance. There are several classes of limestone,
including the Compact, the Granular^ the Shelly^ and the Magnesian. The

above, absorb no

first
is

of these

is

chiefly

used

unnecessary to refer to

it,

for

road material, pavings,

etc.

wherefore

it

not being a building material.

Granular limestones, as the name

implies, consist of grains of car-

bonate of lime cemented together by the same substance

and they belong

BUILDING STONES AND STONE WALLING.


to

the Oolite

or

Pea

stones^

formation, those with

large

grains

and those with small grains Roe

resemble the roe of a

fish in

appearance.

They

icid in a town atmosphere

included several very good and


is

stones,

commonly used

because they

brown or yellow

liable to the attack of

though some of them are

md will weather well in ordinary positions. Among


Bath Stone

being called Pisolites

are of a

from their nature, rather absorbent, and

colour, and,

63

less so

their

than others,

number must be

building stones,

viz.

perhaps the best-known building stone in the country,

reing a free-working oolite, containing 95 per cent, of pure carbonate of


including Box Ground, Coombedown, Monks
lime, and of various kinds

Corsham Down, Farleigh Down, Westwood Ground, and


Winsley Ground all similar in general appearance, and only to be
correctly distinguished from one another by a skilled and practised eye.
St. Aldhelm Box is the best w^eathering stone of the lot ; and Corsham or
Monks Park is the most suitable for external work, other than weatherings
Park, Corngrit,

while the other varieties are only

good

fit

for interior work,

though they are

soft suitable stones for inside purposes.

The Bath Stone


worked

quarries are

partly underground, the

running in

fairly level beds,

really stone mines,

because they are

depth of stone varying from 6 to 20

feet,

The

increasing in depth the lower they get.

done by the use of pick and saw, without any explosive,


a horizontal groove about 10 inches high and 5 feet deep being picked out
next the ceiling of the mine, into which groove the quarryman puts a saw,
working downwards to the bottom of the bed, nearly 4 feet down.
Another cut is then made at a distance of 3 feet from the last, and
directed towards it at the back, making the stone-block narrower at the
back than in front. The block is then got by means of wedges inserted
under the bed, at the bottom, and into the saw cuts at the side, and these
being driven home, they burst the stone off at the back, and the block is
brought out. The quarrymen then have a start into that bed or beds,
the other stones being easily procured afterwards, and trimmed with axes
and saws into the required sizes of blocks.
The colour of Bath Stone may be said to be light brown, creamy, or
stone colour.
It is of a nice, even nature, and good, when free from yellow
or earthy beds, easily worked, and suitable, in one or other of its varieties,
for most purposes
especially when coated with the fluate which the
" Bath Stone Firms Limited " recommend as a means of hardening and
quarrying

is

preserving

its

face

so

that, taking all things into consideration,

it

is

most useful building stone.


Portland, containing 95 per cent, of pure carbonate of lime, is, in very
ways, a splendid stone, of the Oolite formation, found in the island

many

of Portland, in quarries with generally three


different purposes, as follows:

different beds, in use for

BUILDING CONSTRUCTION.

64

The

roach bed, the

first

good one found

in the quarry,

is

a mass of

The

thoroughly cemented together with pure carbonate of lime.

fossils,

a corkscrew in form, and only appear in this bed, which

fossils are like

is

of a light brown colour, very tough and strong, and of a very high resist-

ance to the action alike of air and water ; so that it is in great requisition
works of all kinds, though not for ordinary building pur-

for engineering

poses,

on account of the

The whit
roach,

and

fossils

and the holes

is

while

face,

it

tint,

to the

arris

and

" roe "-like in


hard to distinguish from the " base

excellently

bed," an inferior quality found lower

down

well.

It

is

in the strata.

bed comes the bastard roach

to the whit

comes next

and capable of taking a good

weathers

appearance under a microscope, and

Next

it.

open, well-cemented, hard, and crystalline stone,

fine,

suitable for the best buildings,

smooth

in

bed, of either a white or brown

distinct

from the true

roach, which it resembles in appearance, though it never contains the


" screw " fossil among its mass of fossils, and its cementing matter is so

bad

that

altogether inferior; in fact, not

is

it

fit

to use at all for

any

purpose.

The

coming

base bed^

next,

is

a similar

stone to the whit bed, but

not so good, being softer and not able to withstand the weather
it

is

often substituted

for

the whit bed, from which

it

though

can hardly be

distinguished.

Caen

is

carving, etc.,

soft,

and

is

creamy-coloured stone, used only for internal work,

found in Normandy.

Chilmark, Tisbury, or Wardour stone is more of a sandy nature,


found near Salisbury, and considered to be a good, durable, fair-working
stone, which weathers well, and can, from certain beds, be adapted for
internal staircases, not exposed to extraordinary wear, besides being suit-

able for general purposes.

Ketton

is

another good, useful stone of this formation, and one which

shows the " roe-stone


durable, free-working,

Of

" grains very plainly.

the hard,

three qualities,

and

medium, and

It is

found near Stamford

soft; the best of

suitable for all kinds of dressings

which

and

is

in

very

stairs.

the Shelly limestones, the only one of any note used for building

purposes

is

the

Hopton Wood (found

in Derbyshire),

which

is

a very hard

on account of the fossils it contains. It is capable of


and is suitable for steps, staircases, chimneypieces, and

stone, looking well

taking a polish,

other ornamental work.

The Magnesian

limestone formation supplies us with a few good stones,

which are called Dolomites (as previously mentioned), the chief variety
being Bolsover stone, found in Derbyshire, of a light yellow-brown colour,
and of great durability. It is crystalline, and very even in texture, and
was extensively used in the erection of the present Houses of Parliament

BUILDING STONES AND STONE ^Yx\LLING.


Stone Walling.

In stone

walls, the material

65

should be bonded just

the same, and for the same object, as in brick walls />., as regards
breaking joint both vertically and horizontally; though this, for obvious
cannot be done in rubble walls. Consequently such walls are
reasons,

weaker, and of necessity have to be thicker to be of the same strength


Moreover, rubble walls
brick and other uniformly bonded walls.

as

the stones from which they are built having neither square beds nor joints
require a greater quantity of mortar to bed each irregular-shaped piece

of stone, and as a

result,

there

is

on the drying of the mortar.


prejudicial results

quare bads and

when rubble

more and unequal settlement

This

is

in

them

a defect which cannot but have

walls are faced with brick or stone, set with

joints, and, of course, less mortar.

F,g 200.

fig 201

The facings or linings (whether of


may be thoroughly bonded, as in fig.
lined rubble wall

but this has

little

brick or stone) to rubble stone walls


200,

which

is

a section of a brick-

advantage as regards their strength

as a whole.

On

an average, no

superficial

less

than three bonders should be used to each

yard of stone facing to

rubble walls, though the necessary

number of such bonders varies from five in thin-coursed facing, such as


shown in figs. 206, 207, 208, 209, and 210, to only one in large block-incourse work, as fig. 212.
These bonders may either be what are called
throughs,

bonders

which go from face

the

latter, I think,

the unequal settling, which

to

back

of the

wall,

or

three-quarters

being preferable to the former on account of

would cause the through bonders

to

split

when

they would

take the form of lintels, supporting the part of the wall above,

and forming

in two, especially in double-faced walls (as

fig.

201),

BUILDING CONSTRUCTION.

66

Another disadvantage is that " through


damp
and moisture into a building.
conduct
stone
porous
of
bonders

no uniform mass

The

as

it

should be.

"

courses of stone-facing, in addition to special bonders, as previously

Section

fig 20^

fi^ZOZ
explained, should not be

all of one depth on the bed, where it is possible


have them of depths similar to brickwork i.e., with two or three courses
of about 4I inches or more on bed to one of about 9 or 12 inches, and so

to

on, in like principle

and proportion.

-^"^^^^A
fi^

The

different

rubble^ illustrated

which

it

kinds of stone walling or stone facing dcc^ Random

by

figs.

be seen that

will

Section
f1^205

ZO^

202 and 203, in elevation and section


it

is

stronger and

more

solid

when not

from
faced,

though weak under any circumstances.

Random
than the

rubble built up to courses, as in

last,

though levelled up

at

figs.

204 and 205,

is little

every foot or two of height.

better

BVILDIN-G STONES
Sijiia7'd

in every

had

their

AND STONE WALLING.

or sjiecked uncoursed rubble^ as

way

to either of the preceding,

figs.

206 and 207,

e?
is far

superior

being built of stones which have

beds and joints squared or snecked, and consequently require


with less moisture to dry up and cause settlements.
In

less mortar,

BUILDING CONSTRUCTION.

6^

Squared or snecked coursed rubble, which it will be seen demands that


eich rise of stone shall form a horizontal course of its own, is illustrated by
fiof.

2IO.

Section

Fi^ZIO
Ashlar, as shown in
a regular system,

fig.

and with

vertical joints, so that,

211,

is

the finest of

all

facing,

being built on

beds and
show no more

finely chiselled, perfectly horizontal

when

set in the work, the joints

2H
than |th of an inch

and good ashlar

9 or 10 inches in a course

hould be no more

is

never supposed to

rise

more than

and, in limestone or soft stones, each stone

in length than three times its height, or in depth i|

BUILDING STONES AND STONE WALLING.


times to twice

much

as

times for

4^ times

i.e.^

course^

which

limit in height, rising


fig.

Sandstone

height for

its

its

take about half

will

and from

length,

2 to 3

depth.

its

Block in

height/.^., on the bed.

its

again

69

really

from 10

is

large ashlar, or that

to 16 inches

which exceeds the

each course,

is

by

illustrated

212.

Limestone Facings (as sho\\Ti in figs. 206, 208, 210, 211, and 212)
may have the faces of the stones treated in various ways, as follows
1. Axed by which is meant that the face is gone over with a mason's
:

axe, leaving rough, irregular, coarse, vertical ribs or marks.


2.

much

which is a superior
and finer.

finish to the last-named, the ribs

Cliopped^

closer

being

F,g 211
3.

Rock-faced^ in which the

others, but,

from a

beds and joints are squared, as in the

line all round, the face

the four sides towards the

centre

to

look

is

knocked

from

off slanting

rough and with a rock-like

appearance.
4.

Dragged

is

of a tool, toothed
across

its

the finish

made on

like a saw,

which

limestone ashlar by means


drawn backwards and forwards

plain
is

face.

Combed

is

the

term applied to

the

finishing

off

of

moulding

in

limestones.

Sandstone Facings
1.

to the

of a hard nature

treated as follows

rough labour employed on beds, and the rough squaring up of

hard stones for engine beds,


2.

may be

Scapp/ed, or scabbled, punched, or boasted, which are terms applied

Chiselled

etc.

work has the face worked over

either

on the

straight or

BUILDING CONSTRUCTION.

70
skew with a

chisel,

the marks or " bats " often being as close as 8 to

the inch.
is done with a broad "chisel," the strokes being parallel
and from 3 to 5 to the inch. (This is called " droved " work

Too/ing

3.

to the joints,
in Scotland.)

Hammer- dressed

4.

where the
5.
6.

Drafted

roughly levelled, leaving indents

is

It is also called "

chisel has been.

Scutched work

and broached

the term

is

"

broached

more

similar to the last, but

is

hammer

the term applied to work done with a

is

with a chisel point, by which the face

work.

finely executed.

used for the work done to

quoins, a draft or margin

being chiselled or tooled round the face

the stone, and the

enclosed thereby

down

to give

7.

panel

of

broached

or

a rough appearance.

it

Drafted and diatnond-picked or hammered work

but the panel from

last,

hammered

is

roughly chiselled face

its

is

'*

is

similar to the

picked up" by a

F,g. 2/3

number of small points


work on tombstones;

Vermiculated work

8.
first

of the tool being


9.
its

is

Rubbed^

left,

as in

large
fig.

deep holes are picked

like " frosted

"'

the face being


out,

no maik

213.

or polished work,

cleansed,

is

that used in large base stones

and afterwards

chiselled,

form of a hammer, which

in the

face smoothly rubbed, after being

name implies, has


down level or to the

the

as

chiselled

required shape.
10.

Pointed work has

hammer"

its

driven along

is

whereas " scutching


Polled work

"

is

face

chiselled, after

longitudinally

done with short

long sweep

strokes.

hammer being used

to split

and square

stones.

Some

stones,

and

never weather nor

last

especially limestones,

without being coated

There are numerous preparations which are


prevent

which the "chisel

with

the term applied to hard stones such as granite and

is

whinstones, a large square short

up the

first

face

its

this

decay, those

being the most efficacious

containing
;

some atmospheres will


some material
recommended in order to

in

over with

a silicate of an alkaline

though such simple things as

nature

paint,

soft

EUILDING STONES AND STONE WALLING.


soap, milk, or paraffin are frequently used,
fair

to

amount of
be

which

success.

(i) Szerelmy's,
is

The

said

to

in a

best remedies

smaller degree, with a

now

in

may be

use

be a bituminous solution of a

applied in two or three coats with a brush

made by
and wood with

and

(2)

Avenarius, a preparation

Peters of Derby, which

preserve both stone

success.

The Houses

were coated with Szerelmy's solution.


The Bath stones class should be coated with the "

mended by

the firms

who

supply the stone.

said

silicate,

Carbolinium
is

said

to

of Parliament

fluate "

recom-

CHAPTER

VI

STONE DRESSINGS, JOINTS, AND STAIRS.


Heads, and Jambs Mullions and Transoms Hoods or Labels Strings
Plinths
and Cornices Parapets and Balustrades Quoins Copings Joints Steps HandSills,

railing.

Stone

dressings are used for the ornamental

be said

to include the following different

of a building,

finishings

being worked to various details out of free-working stones

members

and they may

{vide figs. 214, etc.)

a. 2 14

Plinths^ the horizontal course

chamfered, as shown in

fig.

A, on

215,

or

generally taking place at this level.


72

fig.

214, which can be either

moulded, as

fig.

216, a "set-off"

STONE DRESSINGS, JOINTS, AND STAIRS


Siils, as at

windows,

B, on

fig.

214, are the finish to the

73

bottom of openings for


throw off the

in contrast to steps for doors, their object being to

water which naturally would collect on a

Fia 213.

flat

surface.

They can be

plain.

Fiq.216

shown in elevation and section in figs. 217 and 218, or moulded, as


219 and 220. They should project not less than 2 inches beyond the
wall line, and be throated (as at X) on the underside, to make the water
figs.

drop down.

BUILDING CONSTRUCTION.

74
and stopped,

as

on

figs.

219 and 220.

It

is

also necessary that

sills

be

grooved, to receive the lower half of a metal tongue, of which the upper
half

is

also let into the underside of the

wood

sill,

to stop

any draught

llevation.

Section

Fia 219

Fi(j

220

from getting between the beds, as

at C, figs. 218 and 220; and stone sills


bedded in mortar under the jambs and mullions to prevent
cracking on the building taking its settlement they are " pointed up "

are only

afterwards.

glF^^
^^$^
Elevadon
FiCj

221.

Secdon
rig 222.

Heads^ as C on fig. 214, support the wall above the opening, and may
be either plain and square, as figs. 221 and 222, moulded, as figs. 223 and
224, the moulding being stopped at the jamb, or stop-chamfered, as figs.
225 and 226 the heads in the preceding cases being revealed for the

STONE DRESSINGS, JOINTS, AND


head of the frame,
plain at the back.

as

marked

in figs.

STAIRS.

222 and 224, whereas

75
fig.

226

is

BUILDING CONSTRUCTION.

76
Stone

is

used instead of bricks, each stone being made of such dimensions

work in with the bricks without cutting. They may be either


moulded plain or chamfered as the heads and those which are the wider
on the face (as at i, figs. 227 and 228) are called "out-bands," and the

as will

Pidnof

2^

riq.229

narrower ones (as at

2, figs.

227 and 229) are called

*'

in-bands," because

they go inwards beyond the reveal, and are checked or revealed out, for
the frame, as

shown on plans

(figs.

228 and 229).

They can be moulded

or chamfered on the edge.

STONE DRESSINGS, JOINTS, AND

STAIRS.

77

and with stoolings, like sills, to give the perpendicular members a level
bed to start from.
Hoods or Labels are mouldings, either worked on the solid head or of

iR^^^'^'^vr^^

Z.

Sill

Fi(j

thin stone

moulded on the edge,

as

fig.

and door-heads to give them a greater

233.

They

233.

are placed over

window

effect.

Strings are longitudinal horizontal courses, either plain or moulded,

Fig 23^
running round a building and dividing
as E,

as F.

fig.

Fig.

moulded

it

in height, as

it

were, into floors,

between openings,
234 gives sections of a plain weathered and throated and a

214; or simply a continuation of the

string course.

sills

BUILDING CONSTRUCTION.

78

Cornices are the longitudinal mouldings which go along the top of the

H,

building, as

as

fig.

fig.

When

235.

214, being weathered on top and

more

or less moulded,

they are quite plain, and only used for supporting the

gutter of the roof, they are called eaves courses.

Blocking courses are the top members or crown of a cornice, as G,


214, and X,

fig.

fig.

235

whereas

the small moulding below that

is

2l

frieze

the plain part below, and

is

called the necking.

walls, at the eaves of a roof, behind which the gutters


and they take the place of the blocking courses, where greater

Parapets are thin


are formed

height

is

required.

F{$Z3S

Balustrades are used for

r.

similar purpose

but they are of a lighter

and more ornamental appearance, consisting of turned


within a base and cornice, as fig. 236.

balusters enclosed

Quoins are the stones used at the angles of the building, being made
to

range with the brickwork.

on the one

face

by from 10

They

vary in size from 18 inches to 14 inches

to 13 inches high,

and the return

face

would

be 9 or 14 inches wide, the stones being of the same size, but placed alternately to show a long face in front and a short one on the return, and rice
versa, as figs.
size,

237 and 238.

Of

course,

stonework they are larger in

according to the character of the building.

I]

STONE DRESSINGS, JOINTS, AND

STAIRS.

79

shown in figs. 237 and 238.


Drafted and hammer-dressed quoins are of the same sizes, but with the
faces worked, as previously explained in Chapter V.
Plain-cut quoins are those

fi^23S
Drafted and diamond-picked^

rock-ftued^ vermiculafed^

tooled^

or chiselled

quoins are similar in size and application, but worked in a different


as the

name

manner

implies {vide also Chapter V.).

Elevation

Fi^.238.

Rusticated quoins are as


alternate stone at the bed.

fig.

FiQ

239

239, h.'.vJng a rebate sunk out of every

BUILDING CONSTRUCTION.

So

chamfer on each joint or bed, forming a

two beds,

is

the joint

may be moulded,

often substituted for the plain rebate, as


as

fig.

between the

joint
fig.

240

or again,

241.

rig. 2^0.

ri<j.2ii.

Birdsmouth and squint quoins

refer

to

the

irregular

internal

and

external angles, as explained for bricks.

Scuntion quoins are the rough squared angle quoins used in rubble
walling at the plumbings of internal openings.
Copijtgs

to walls, otherwise

called

water

tailings^ ate

explained

in

Fia.242.

Chapter IV. (figs. 193, 194, 195, 196, and 197) under Brickwork; the
same remarks and illustrations applying to stone copings, which, it must be
noticed, are

much

gable-walls, as X,

The bottom
a springer;

extensively used
fig.

and especially up the sloping tops of

242.

stone. A, with the coping

that

and intermediate

at

the

top, B, the

stones, C,

worked on
apex, being

whereof the object

is

it

as shown,

similar

to

is

called

ridge

to give the coping

STONE DRESSINGS, JOINTS, AND


firmer
is

hold on the

wall,

are

kneekrs or

called

STAIRS.

8i

knee-stoftes.

Fig.

243

a section of the coping described as moulded, throated, and feather-

edged,
It

are

because
is

it

is

weathered from a thick edge to a thinner one.


that most of the above dressings

almost needless to remark

worked with labours

similar to those explained in

Chapter V.

Fiq 244

F/9 245.

a special

name

so that

t^

student the

given to a particular dressing

manner of the labour

that

it

is

intended to convey to the

has had upon

it,

as previously

explained with regard to quoins.

Good

masonr}' often requires that the joints be secured together by

Lead

special

means, so that the various members

mass, in length as well as in height.

may be

united into

Longitudinally they are

one

bound

means of cramps^ which are strips of galvanised iron or


down at each end into each of two adjoining stones and
with molten lead, or " leaded in," as figs. 244 and 245.

together by

copper, turned

run in

P\&n.

Lead

Fiq 247.

dovetails or plugs consist of

each stone at

this joint, as fig.

the two stones together.

246,

Sometimes

a wedge-shaped mortise cut into

and run

the bed of the stones at the joints, as


in

in with lead,

this dovetail is
fig.

which binds

mortised out below

247, the lead being poured

through the hole from the top or bed-joint.

BUILDING CONSTRUCTION.

82

Rebated joints are suitable

for copings

to

gables and similar work,

a rebate being sunk out of each stone alternately, as


lapping, as

The

it

fig.

248, one stone

were, into the rebate of the other.

stones

are

secured vertically by means of dowels^

pebbles, slate, or copper, about

either

of

inch square, and of different lengths,

^
245

F/9

according to circumstances

one half or part being

let into

the top bed

of the bottom stone, the other half going into a similar mortise on the

bottom bed of the upper stone, as fig. 249. They are run in with cement
to render them firm and to fix the dowels securely in the mortises.
This joint is very suitable, and much used for securing mullions to
sills, heads, and transoms at the stoolings.

Weatherina

n^

260

Joggle joints are used to connect

form of joint being suitable


landings, etc.

The

simplest form of

the joints of adjoining stones, as

up to each other, to run


and connects the stones

stones in different positions, this

for ashlar,

fig.

it

as well as for cornices, strings,


is

to cut a

250, and,

groove roughly on

when they

into the hole liquid cement,

together.

Landings are

are

which

bedded

sets hard,

joggle-jointed,

as

in

STONE DRESSINGS, JOINTS, AND


the tongue, as

251,

fig.

it

may be

into a groove of similar section

Tabled joints are

little

called,

on the

STAIRS.

83

on the one stone being

let

other.

used, but they are formed by letting a wide

projection of one stone into a sinking in another.

Cornices and other large projections often have their joints saddled,

which

done

is

to throw the water off the joints,

being carried out by

leaving a projection or stop on the weathering at the joint at each

of each stone, as

fig.

fi\S

252

Dressings for stone stairs have the same names and terms (as

they go) applied to them, as will be explained under

Chapter XIX.,

wood

stairs,

to

end

252.

which the student

is

referred.

"wooden

But stone

are of simple construction, though they

may be

stairs,

far as
stairs,"

unlike

of the

same

various kinds.

Stone steps consist of solid blocks of stone, of various sections


as

fig.

253,

and

spandril,

as

254

fig.

each

square,

being plain or moulded,

^'9- 253

according to

taste.

They

are supported

by being

built

into the

walls

from 4^ to 9 inches, according to the width of the stair and the projection
of the steps, or the distance to which they hang out.
Some kinds,
however,

are

built with

both ends into the

walls,

as

in straight

stairs

798 (Chapter XIX.).


Dog-legged stairs, as fig. 804 (Chapter XIX.), whether with or without

similar to

winders,

fig.

and

open,

or geometrical stairs, as

explained by

(Chapter XIX.), are, of course, essentially hanging


enclosing staircase walls from

Iso

4-J

to

it,

and

figs.

812, 815

tailed into the

12 inches, as required, the landings

being treated in the same manner.

in supporting those above

stairs,

Each

step

for that purpose,

is

supposed to

and

for better

assist

work-

BUILDING CONSTRUCTION.

84

manship, they are jointed, as


section of a

returned,

The

is

moulded
shown on

soffits

Circular

step,
fig.

figs.

and 257; the latter being^a


end view, with the moulding

255, 256,

of which the

258.

rubbed face.
up of steps of a form

are generally left plain, with a

stairs,

or turret steps, are built

illustrated

STONE DRESSINGS, JOINTS, AND

STAIRS.

85

by fig. 259, the wide ends being built into the wall and the rounded
ends laid one upon the other, forming a sort of newel in the centre,
from which all the risers radiate, appearing on plan as fig. 260.

The

handrailing of stone stairs

iron bar balusters, about

tread

of each

liquid sulphur,

step,

which

Fig.

is

generally supported by wrought-

inch square, mortised and leaded into the

though

sometimes

sets very

they are

secured by burning

hard on cooling.

259
Fig. 260.

The newels may be

of wrought or cast-iron, according to the amount


ornament required, mortised and leaded into the steps (like
the balusters).
The whole may be filled in with scroll-work or other
The tops
ornament, to make it showy and light, according to taste.
of the balusters and handrail are connected by a thin wrought-iron
core, which is sunk into the underside of the handrail, and secured by

and

class of

screws,

mass.

making the

staircase

and

its

requisite accessories

one connected

CHAPTER

VII.

WOOD FOR BUILDING


Carpentry and Joinery

Wood

the

in

PURPOSES.

Tree Good and Bad Timber Seasoning of


Fir Elm Oak Teak Mahogany

Preservation of Timber Deal or


Beech Ash Sy ca more Birch.

Timber
Walnut

Carpentry and Joinery. In one or


wood is the material which,

kinds and forms


exclusively,

as

it

other of

before

entering

upon a

kinds, to explain the difference

although practically
different tools to

many and

varied

almost

were, belongs to the carpenter and joiner, being the

chief material to which their labours are devoted.


advisable,

its

in the building trade,

allied,

work

it,

detailed

It will, therefore,

description

be

of the various

between the two trades above named

for,

each uses either a different kind of wood, or

or deals with

Carpentry, generally speaking,

is

it

in a different

method

the term applied to the

or form.

woodwork

including centres, floors, roofs, partitions,

in the carcase of a building,

and other rough framings, which

are required for construction,

and are

intended, figuratively speaking, to be the foundation for the other trades,

including that of the joiner.

Carpentry, in other words,

is

the art of putting together or framing the

rough materials which form the carcase of a building; whereas joinery


deals with the completion of the building as regards interior finishing,

convenience,

utility,

and adornment.

In the former, the principal tools required by the workman '.are the
with the supplementary aid of
saw, axe, chisel, and hammer, with which

assumed that he can put together and fix


the various framings of wood which are required, from time to time, to

nails, screws,

and

bolts

it

is

complete the skeleton of the building.


It

must, however, be understood that the carpenter requires quite as

good, and certainly as

whether

many

tools, to fix in position the various finishings

they be doors and windows with their frames, dados, skirtings,

or any other kind of moulding or framing

as

the joiner uses in making,

WOOD FOR BUILDING

PURPOSES.

8/

moulding, and framing together, in the shops, those several framed

finish-

ings ready to be sent to the buildings for the carpenter to fix in their

proper positions.
also be borne in mind that quite as much care is required in
making all kinds of joinery, especially in mitring and scribing
the various mouldings, etc., together all joints in joinery having to be
made with the same nicety and regularity, whether those joints be made
by the joiner in the shops, or by the carpenter on the building, in

must

It

fixing as in

position.

The

same
woods will

carpenter, in fixing, must, of course, be acquainted with the

varieties of

be given

wood

as the joiner (a full description of joiner's

later on)

but in ordinary carpentry, or framing together of the

rough carcase of a building, the following woods only are met with, as
a

though perhaps others may be used

rule,

in

special cases, the

woods

being mentioned here in their order of precedence, from the point of view
of their

utility

Pine^ under which

1.

and

name

are included balk-timber of different kinds,

These are what

planks, deals, battens, etc.

in

fir,

are called soft

woods, and found generally in cold climates.


2.

Oak.

3.

Elvi.

Teak and Greenheart.


These three are generally
4.

On

called

"hard

" or

" leaf" woods.

the other hand, the joiner requires a plane in addition to chisels,

saws, hammers,

etc.,

to

complete his work, which includes the doors,

windows, and other external and internal finishings of a building, whether


required for comfort, utility, or ornament.
His business is to join and
put

together the

labours are
1.

finishings

and the woods on which he generally

Finey but of a "kinder" nature

and considerably

better quality than

that required for carpentry.


2.

Oak,

3.

Mahogany.

4.

Teak.

5.

Walnut.

These four

latter

woods, being hard, more beautiful, and

much more

expensive, are only used in best work.

Before proceeding to a

full

varying characteristics, uses,

description of each kind of wood, with

etc.,

it

will

a few general points, including the growth of the


teristics

of good timber, and

preserving

some of

it,

its

tree, the main characmeans of seasoning and


the selection of good timber, and

defects,

and a few remarks as

to

its

perhaps be advisable to deal with


the

the peculiarities which are to be avoided.

BUILDING CONSTRUCTION.

88

Wood

the

in

Tree.

All

trees

which provide us with material

the carpenter and joiner's use are what are called outward-growing

for

trees

that

to

is

those

say,

whereof the

gradually

increased

size

is

which might be said to be formed


around the circumference of the stem or trunk, and close underneath
Each year generally adds one of these layers or rings,
within the bark.
brought about by successive

and consequently they

The

colour.

and

are called

made up

double, being

annual

rings

but each ring

is

more apparent

as

it

were,

composed of

power of resistance

to either

resin,

it is

and

certain kinds of timber,

in

usually a source of weakness in a varying degree

is

is,

of two distinct layers of a different nature

darker layer

being, for the most part,


little

layers,

inasmuch as

of a soft nature, with very

while, on the
;
which possesses the greater

compression or tension

other hand, the lighter-coloured layer

is

that

tenacity.

The

growth-processes, of which these annular rings are the result, are

briefly as follows
all

The

tree,

during the autumn and winter, having been to

appearances dead, when spring comes round absorbs, by means of

roots, a considerable

amount of moisture out of the

soil

and

this, in

its

the

and causes the leaves


As summer advances the leaves become
stronger and of more substance, owing to the carbon extracted by them
from the air ; and as autumn again draws near the sap, in its more substantial state, begins to descend, leaving a layer of wood immediately
form of

and

sap, ascends the cellular tubes of the tree,

signs of

life

under the bark

to appear.

then the leaves, owing to the loss of nourishment, drop

This action takes place each year, so that the age of a tree

off.

(in

number of its annular layers


In cold climates, where of course trees do not grow so fast, the
not so thick, and the inner or " heart " wood is more compressed

ordinary climates) can be ascertained by the


or rings.
rings are

The
so that timber of slow growth is considered to be of greater strength.
" heart " wood or " duramen " is the strongest, best, and most durable
part of the tree, the outside or sappy part being considerably weaker,

and

practically unfit for use.

In addition to the annual layers or rings just explained, trees have


what are called medullary rays, which are thin and generally broken lines,

and vice versa, as fig. 261.


These medullary rays or transverse septa are not very easily seen in some
woods, but in some kinds of oak they are very apparent and if the wood
radiating from the centre or pith to the bark,

is

cut obliquely they form

called,

but also

known

a very beautiful figure, as

as felt or silvered grain,

and hard, polished appearance.


It may be as well to mention
the middle of the winter,
rest.

There

is

when

from

is

it

its

be felled in
and the tree is at
as the young ones

that trees generally should

the sap has descended

also a proper age for the felling of trees,

commonly

light-coloured,

WOOD FOR BUILDING


and the old ones decayed

are full of sap,


will

enable one

may be

a tree

to

cut from the

at the heart

judge of the proper time to

said to be at

fell,

89

but only experience

as the period at which

prime varies from 50 to 150 years.

its

Good and Bad Timber. The


of bad timber

PURPOSES.

characteristics of

good and the

defects

may be dealt with simultaneously. Good timber should be


heart wood of a well-matured tree, free from sap (of either

white or blue colour), as well as from large loose or dead knots, shakes

(whether they be cup, heart, or star shakes), rind- gal Is, and unevenness of
colour.

planed

should be regular,

It
its

straight,

and

and

should shine

it

worked, smell sweet, and, when struck, give forth a clear sound
should be so straight and continuous that,

them would be cut through.

The

heart

and when

close in the grain,

shavings should be long and stringy

when

itself

when

the fibres

converted, very few of

of a tree

is

much

given to

" shakes.''

Wood

is

a conductor of sound,

and the soundness of a log

/Inrjua/

is

often

R/ngs

Medullary Rays

r/5. 261

ascertained by the
Failure as

other.

way in which it transmits a " tap " from one end to the
a sound conductor, or the transmission of a dull sound,

indicates decay.

Sap

is

the most

common

defect in the timber of to-day,

result of the converter's desire to get as

much

and

is

the

bulk of timber as possible

out of his tree, and being thus obliged to cut outside the circle of the hard or
heart

wood

bad

in the

Sap is, therefore, found at the sides or edges


Sap can either be of a blue or white colour the one is as

into the sap.

of the wood.

end as the

work cause a dark

other.

stain.

They both

There

is

lead to decay,

no cure

for

it,

and

it

and in varnished
must be cut away.

Knots^ of whatsoever kind, whether hard, loose, or dead, are a source


of weakness, as they break the continuity of the fibres
serious a defect

or

where great

when hard and sound, except


tensile

quantity of knots

Cup shakes

is

strength

is

required.

but they are not so

in the centre of a

The

presence

beam,

of a large

always a serious defect in timber.

are those which encircle the pith and separate the annual

BUILDING CONSTRUCTION.

go
curved

in a

rings

line,

and, unless they are long and separate a large

portion, they are not dangerous, vide

Heart
tree, and

shakes^ the

most

common

radiate towards the bark, as

the wood, and render

262.

fig.

of shakes, occur at the centre of the


fig.

263.

These, of course, weaken

impossible to convert the tree into large-sized

it

stuff.

Star shakes are similar to the last-named, but more numerous from the
centre of the tree.

Rind galls

are the result of the growth of the tree over a place

branch has been improperly cut

off.

They

usually take

where

the form

of

irregular swellings.

Unevefiness of colour.

This defect includes both " foxiness

"

and "

doati-

which betokens decay, and


foreboding the same thing, which is met with

ness," the former being a red or yellow stain,

the latter a speckled stain


in

American oak and beech.


Seasoning of Timber.

better than cure,

we

On

the principle that prevention

will deal first with

is

always

the seasoning of timber, which

is

.2B2.

the next thing in importance to be attended to after the

procured from a

fully

matured

The

tree.

wood has been

object of seasoning timber

is

to get rid of the sappy moisture which, as has previously

been pointed out


in these notes, is a great source of decay.
This can be done by either
drying up or driving out the superfluous moisture, a proceeding which
of course reduces the weight of the timber.

timber was not seasoned and


of

its

original weight

and

fit

Tredgold maintained that the

use until it had lost one-fifth


work he considered that iti should

for carpenter's

for joiner's

have parted with moisture to the extent of one-third

was

fit

its

weight before

it

for best work.

There are several methods of


as follows

Natural seasoning
the timber, after

while the

attaining this end, the chief of which are

air

it

is

a very simple procedure, and consists of stacking

has been converted, edgewise on perches, so

can have free access

touch the edge.

all

round

it,

the sun

that,

and wet can only

WOOD FOR BUILDING


The method
timber
(fig.

is

264),

of operating

reared

is

PURPOSES.

briefly explained thus

One

length of

B and D
board from the damp

edgewise, and alternately from the

which should protect the bottom of the

91

sills

of

CO

arising to the cross-piece

moving

air

at the top,

and the

by which means they are secured from


all round the wood, except just

can circulate

immediately over the cross-piece, without exposing the width, the greater
surface, to the weather.

BUILDING CONSTRUCTION.

92

Floor-boards and other thin woods are sometimes stacked on the

on bearers raised

off the

thus

They

(fig.

265).

flat,

ground, with a lath between each row of boards,

are generally covered over,

on the top

only, with

or other waterproof material.

felt

In large yards the timber, of

whereas

The

sizes, is

all

best perched in the open,

it is

if in

stacked under covered sheds,


a shady position.

seasoning process requires, for complete drying, about a year, for

every inch in thickness, for converted and sawn oak or other hard woods,

when perched or stacked under ordinary circumstances, and for fir and
other soft woods about half as long
Next to the natural seasoning comes the water seasonings which is
a simple method of washing the sap out, though this is generally applied
only to logs.

of submerging the whole of the timber under

It consists

either ordinary or salt water; the former being preferable, as the latter

water has a tendency not only to harden the wood, but also to attract

moisture

when

inasmuch as

in the work,

Lat/)

salt is generally affected

by any

every 5 or 6 feet

ScaAc.

r\(^265

The

excess or variation of humidity in ihe atmosphere.

logs are kept

wholly under the running water until the sap has had time to get washed!

then the logs are taken out, dried by the

out,

and cut

air,

to sizes

forj

unless they are dried before use they will be subject to dry rot.

Boiling
in the

and steaming,

one the sap

is

or the hot-air method, are similar: that

supposed

the other by the steam or hot

to

air.

either water or natural seasoning

is

to say,!

be driven out by the hot water, and

They

are

all

but they are certainly more expensive,

and, moreover, they have injurious effects on the timber, by reducing


strength
It

and

may be

taken

outside,

the

off,

its

elasticity.

as well to

mention that many kinds of timber require more

than one seasoning, because each time the surface


is

in

quicker processes than

the

wood

is

and form a casing

wood under

is

planed, or anything

apt to shrink, as the air seems to harden the


to the inside,

ordinary circumstances.

and thus prevent its penetrating


This more particularly applies

and joinery, where the least shrinking is noticeable.


Preservation of Timber. The object in preservation of timber

to floor boards

save

it

from

rot,

whether wet or

dry.

There

are

many

different

patented methods of trying to prevent these forms of decay

is

to

ways and

but, before

WOOD FOR BUILDING


proceeding to explain them,

and dry

it

will

be

PURPOSES.

93

as well to say a few

words on wet

rot.

JFei rot

portions

decomposition of the wood, especially the sappy

really the

is

and

it

takes place while the tree

gases can escape

is

standing,

and

when the

also

whereas dry rot occurs in the converted timber, and

is

generally brought about by fermentation, the result of confinement and lack of


circulation of the air,

wood and suck

the

Wood

which causes a fungus, similar to a cobweb, to encircle


very nature out, until it is reduced to a powder.

its

most subject

is

with no circulation of

to dry rot

should be placed where the

result arises

damp and warm

get rid

it.

The

When

and the

result

damp

floor.

The

soon apparent.

is

walls without a passage of

once in a building

it

which

soon spreads

of course, renders timber dead as far as sound goes.

rot,

ventilation

can circulate underneath the whole

from timbers built into

of.

situations,

with no ventilation, or

Oilcloths also favour this form of decay,

around them.

difficult to

Dry

air

corfiers are generally ignored,

same
air

in

joists,

misplaced ventilation, are soon attacked by

with

The

when

Ground-floor

air.

is

all

log

very
over.

may

be good outside, while the inside is a mass of dry rot. This can be
detected by the fact that it will not conduct a sound from end to end ; or,
in boring

powder

it,

after the

outside skin

is

penetrated, there

is

nothing but

to resist the pressure.

The

method of preservation is, of course, to paint or tar the


wood itself has previously been thoroughly
seasoned, or the paint will keep the moisture in, and be itself the cause
of decay.
The same thing applies to charring the ends of posts, joists,
etc., and creosoting.
This latter is a process by which a mixture of oil
and tar is forced (under pressure in tanks) through the pores of the wood.
This is the most common, and perhaps the best, way of preserving timber
which is required to withstand damp, especially sills and posts resting on
or in the ground ; but, at the same time, it is an objectionable method,
because it makes the timber of a dark brown colour, almost black, and
very greasy and, moreover, the whole of the piece must be treated in the
same way, so that nothing can afterwards be done to make it look respectsimplest

work, care being taken that the

able.

It will

charring

is

take neither paint nor whitewash.

far

superior,

In

this respect

though rot so generally used, as

necessary to char that portion of the timber which

is

it

it

is

is

that

only

required to withstand

more than ordinary moisture.

Among

the patent processes the most

Burnet's, by which the timber

is

common

soaked

in a

are

watery solution of chloride

of zinc, in the proportion of 4 gallons of water to i lb. of chloride of zinc.


The advantage of this process is that it is colourless, and protects the

heart; whereas the creosote is more greedily taken by the sappy


This mode is very much used for wood-blocks for paving.

part.

BUILDING CONSTRUCTION.

94
Boucherie's

method

consists of forcing sulphate of copper through the

pores, but not in a tank, as in creosoting, the liquid being in this case
at the top of the log, and the weight of the liquid
coming from a tank above forces the other through. The disadvantage of
this method is that the wood has to be cut into to allow the liquid to get

poured into a hole

start.

Peters' (of
is

Derby) Carbolenium is a mixture similar to creosote, which


joists.
It can be applied with a brush before the

put on the ends of

joist is

and it is said to be a great success.


and other members generally, whenever

placed in the building

on

also used

all

wall-plates

It is

built

within or into the walls.

Kyanising consists of injecting

corrosive

diluted with water, into the wood.

venting

rot,

and

Deal or

Fir.

Pine^ red

though incorrectly
which

is

grown a

called,
little

It is either

Russia.

grown

stuff,

works

be efficacious

in pre-

especially used for seasoning railway sleepers, having

is

an advantage over creosoting,


inflammable.

dissolved and

sublimate,

It is said to

in

that

and yellow

it

does not

fir^ or "deal," as

the

is

it

wood

in Scotland, but

chiefly in

of a red or yellow colour, very

and

used

is

The

fir-tree

Norway, Sweden, and


full

of resin in quickly

for all ordinary

country, whether for joinery or carpentry.

so

commonly

obtained from the northern pine, a

is

easily,

make

purposes in this

ordinary trees are cut up

and 11 inches, by 2 J, 3, and 4 inches in thickness,


from 20 to 25-feet lengths, according to district ; but the best and
largest trees are converted into " balk timber," which commands a higher

into widths of 7, 9,

and

in

owing to its scarcity, and


and up to 35 feet in length.
price,

White
t)f

dealy cut

from the spruce

the red or yellow kind

knots,

and only

fit

varies in size from 12 to 18 inches square,

it

is

for painted

fir,

work

of whatever kind, has very

Fir,

closer the annual rings the stronger

very

little

has not the strength and durability

of a very dry
in

indistinct
it

fibre,

common
is

full

of loose dead

joinery.

medullary rays, and the

though, at the best,

it

has

bearing strength, or power, or resistance, owing to the trees

being felled before they have arrived at the age of maturity.

Balk timber is imported chiefly from the ports of Memel, Dantzic,


while the planks, deals, and battens
and Riga on the Baltic
as the
ii-inch, 9-inch, and 7-inch widths are respectively called
come from
Norway, Sweden, Northern Russia, and Finland, countries where the
;

coldness of the climate does not allow of the trees growing to a size
suitable for balk timber.

Memel

balk timber

and only

is

of a coarse nature, neither of slow nor quick

and engineering purposes, owing

growth

to

coarse grain, and the large quantity of resin which

its

suitable for carpentry

it

contains.

WOOD FOR BUILDING


There are two or three

of

qualities

PURPOSES.
and

variety,

this

95
generally

is

it

considered the strongest timber in the market, on account of

its

straight

and freedom from knots and shakes.


Dantzic balk timber is chiefly grown in
knotty nature than Memel, though harder,

of

fibres

grain

but

it

Prussia,
cleaner,

and
and

is

more

closer in

the

nevertheless considered inferior.

is

Riga balk timber

almost unknown now

in the

market

is

similar to

the other two qualities, being of a very straight growth, comparatively free

from sap, but rather shaky.


Norwegiaji planks, deals, and battens are distinguished by the blue

marks on

stencil

They

their ends.

of a very first-class quality

are either white or yellow, and not

being only

though a large quantity comes into


match-boarding,

joards,

etc.

for carpentry

fit

and

scafifolding,

country converted into floor

this

Drammen and

Christiania are the

chief

ports of shipment.

Swedish planks, deals, and battens are imported from Gefle, Soderhamn,
Stockholm, and

mark on

many

other ports, and are distinguished by a red stencil

They

their ends.

are superior to Norwegian, the best qualities

being very sound, even, and comparatively free from sap.

They

are used

chiefly for carpentry, floors, etc.

Russian planks, deals, and battens are more of the red quality,
superior to either the Norwegian or Swedish,

and used

far

chiefly for joinery

being harder, brighter, cleaner, stronger, freer from sap and knots, and of

The Petersburg, Archangel, Onega, and


to work.
Uleaborg (Finland) are the best kinds, and are distinguished by marks
cut in the ends by a branding hammer.
Fir, of whatever kind, weighs on the average about i ton per 50 cubic

a kinder nature

feet.

The working

stress of

compared with 10

cwt.,

inferior qualities of

America and

wood

good Memel, per square inch of section, is about


in compression, and 12 cwt. in bearing;
7 cwt., and 7 cwt. respectively for the ordinary

10 cwt.

12 cwt. in tension,

fir.

New

they produce

is

Zealand both grow


inferior to that

trees of the pine class, but the

from the Baltic

in strength

though

from knots and other imperfections, kinder in nature, of wider


width, and more suitable for joinery and cabinetwork.
The chief kinds
freer

it is

are
it

the Canada red pine, which bears

inclined to be knotty,

is

though expensive,
has

all

close,

is

and

is

an invaluable wood

the usual qualities, except that

American yellow

pine,

to joiners in this country, as

it

the good qualities of a joiner's wood, with a kind nature, bright,

and easy

grain,

comparative freedom from knots,

procured in very wide widths, so that


It is

all

not very wide.

it

is

and can

be

excellent for panelled work.

not very strong or durable in this climate, but passable

when

painted.

BUILDING CONSTRUCTION.

96

Pitch pine is grown in the Southern States of North America, the best
coming from the neighbourhood of Savannah. It is a very red wood
owing to the large amount of resin it contains, and consequently is
difficult

to work,

hardness makes

it

as the

heavy

is

Its

and comparatively
it

will

12 to

affects

it

it

Its

has a most

suitable for best varnished work.

On

from knots.

and can be procured

8 inches square,

grain straight,

its

account of the resin

not take paint properly, nor yet creosote.


1

some of

annual rings are very conspicuous,

free

times as long as 70

the joiner's tools.

for wear, while

but very durable and strong, though subject to

in weight,

shakes and sap.

wood

which renders

beautiful appearance,
It

soon

viscidity

a valuable

it

contains

imported in logs of

It is

in very long lengths,

some-

feet.

Oregon, Quebec, and St. Johns pine are other names given to North
American pine, distinguishing the districts whence it comes.
Kawrie pine, found in New Zealand, is a hard, pink-tinted wood, with
a very close, even grain, free from knots and other defects. It can be
procured in very wide widths, will take polish well, and is most suitable
for table tops, cabinetwork, etc.

Elm comes from a British-grown tree of the same name, can be


procured in wude widths, and withstands damp, though not alternate wet
and dry atmospheres;
almost unknown to

grain

its

is

very coarse and tough,

but rotten holes are often met with

it,

it

shakes are
is

of

warm

and the sap of a light cream. Elm is


similar work exposed continually to wet, and in
damp situations, pump-planks, stable divisions and doors the latter on
account of the dislike that horses have to biting it and its great resisting
power renders it very useful for curbs, bumping-blocks, etc.

brown colour tinged with


chiefly used for piles and

purple,

Oak.

The chief

and American.

varieties of this

It is

both carpenter and joiner.


rays in

it

to a

wood

are English, Stettin, Wainscot,

very hard, tough, close, and durable, and


It is

of a light

brown

used by

is

colour, has medullary

conspicuous degree, in addition to the annual rings, which

should be close and regular to denote the best quality.

The

English variety

is

obtained from either the "stalk" or "cluster

fruited " trees, the latter being the darker in colour, heavier, tougher,

more durable

quality

country, where strength


for

window and door

of the two.

and

Both kinds are much used

and

in this

durability are the chief requirements, especially

sills, w^all-plates,

roofs, steps, posts, fencing, etc.

It is

hard to work, especially when young and wet, being more of a carpenter's
than of a joiner's wood,

may

is

very elastic,

and can be

easily bent

when steamed.

about 40 cubic feet per ton, and its compressive strength


be taken at 13 cwt. per square inch ; bearing strength at 25 cwt., and

Its

weight

is

tensile strength at 16 cwt.

These

results are

based on the same standard,

or working stress, as other safe quotients given in these notes.

WOOD FOR BUILDING


The
comes

which oak contains corrodes

gallic acid

in contact

wherefore, screws, bolts,

PURPOSES.
all

97

iron with which

be used with

etc., to

it,

it

should

always be galvanised.
Stettin oak, so called after the port

similar to the English species,

and

not nearly so strong or durable.

is

whence

shipped,

it is

is

at lirst sight

very often substituted for

and

It is softer

it,

easier to work,

but

it is

though

Loose dead knots and decayed pores are very often


and when it is wet and unseasoned it gives off a sour odour.
Jt is imported in logs, and is employed for the same uses as the English.
American oak has a pink tinge in it, and is similar in texture to the last
named, though sound, hard, tough, and elastic. It is used as a substitute
inclined to be woolly.

met with

in

it,

for English oak.

Wainscot oak
Dantzic.

It is

shipped from the

chiefly

is

imported into

this

Baltic

country in logs cut

ports,

"on

Riga and

the quarter."

is grown chiefly in Poland and Austria, and is essentially


wood, being more expensive than the other kinds, and used only

This kind of oak


a joiner's

compact, and even grain, though

.durable

knots are seldom met with in

leads

ithat

of a light brown colour, with a

It is hard,

for best internal finishings.


.close,

some people

which

.Stettin,

in

is,

it

it,

is

and

to note the difference

fact,

very

much

like

it

kinder in nature and less


is

it

the absence of knots


it and the best
most other respects.

between
in

and sometimes white specks ; the medullary


properly converted " on the quarter," and
appearance.
The "Crown Riga" is often
give it a beautifully figured
It is used for all kinds of joinery and
.specified as the best quality.
.cabinetwork, as well as for flooring, and will take polish well.
Teak is both a carpenter's and joiner's wood, found in Southern India
^nd Burmah, where it is sometimes called the Indian oak. It is very
-straight in the grain, has no medullary rays, and is of a warm brown colour,
Wainscot

is full

of

little

pores,

jays are very conspicuous,

if it is

tinged with yellow, in contrast to the purple tinge of elm.


brittle,

iron

whereas oak

it

tough.

is

never swells, and

is

It

as strong as oak, free

.occasionally to shakes at the heart.


5teps, bumping-blocks,

use a great deal of

it

Teak

is

very

has a peculiar smell, but does not corrode

It is

from knots, but subject

used for window-sills, treads to

and the best kinds of joinery. Railway companies


on account of its non-liability to

for carriage doors,

and it is much used in shipbuilding. It will polish well.


Greenheart, found in the North of Southern America, is very often
used as a substitute for teak, being much cheaper, and at the same time
possessing the qualities of teak
viz., a fine, hard, and close grain, and great
strength and resistance to crushing.
jswell,

Mahogany is imported in very large square but short logs from


Honduras and Cuba, the former being very much softer than the latter,
And easier to work ; in fact, some of it, called " Baywood," is very little
7

BUILDING CONSTRUCTION.

98
more

work than

costly to

brown, and yellow

general defects, but


tops, handrails,

and

In colour

deal.

it

will

specks
is far

variety, darker

due to the

a light mixture of red^

is

It will take

internal best finishings.

Cuba, or Spanish mahogany,

named

it

and yet kind in grain, free from the


not weather, and is only used for joinery, table-

shiny, close, hard,

and

is

considerably

richer in colour, full of

presence of lime

superior to the other kinds,

which

a nice polish.

harder than the


little

last-

pores and silvery

dull the joiner's planes.

more expensive, harder

and

to work,

It
is-

only used for the best polished work.

Walnut

is

of two kinds, Italian and American, very different from each

other in quality and nature.

The

Italian

though occasionally used in the best of

is

really

a cabinet-maker's wood^

joiner's work.

It is

much

harder,

and of a brighter colour than the American. It is principally used


for piano cases and best cabinetwork ; while the American is made up.
the colour
into doors, windows, dadoes, and other best joinery finishings
"
though
it
is
often
light
mauve,
called
American
brown
dull
a
being
.valnut," being imported from New York, while the "American Olack
walnut " is imported from Quebec in Canada.
Beech, the only other wood which is really of any great use to the
building trades, is a hard, close, light-coloured, and speckly wood, obtained
from the English tree of the same name. It is chiefly used for sinks,
drainers, etc., where its hard, non-absorbent properties are of advantage;
and the handles of carpenters' and joiners' tools are made of this kind of
closer,

wood.

Ash, an English-grown wood, is remarkable because it has apparently


no sapwood. It is tough, though easily worked, and very durable in a
continually dry atmosphere.
It is of a brownish-white colour, and used
chiefly by cabinetmakers, on account of its elasticity and flexibility, which,
render

unsuitable for building purposes.

it

Sycamore

is

a white or yellow-coloured wood, from the plane

found in the North of England.


quality,

and

will

not warp.

It is

tree,,

of a very compact, firm, and durable

Builders scarcely ever use

it,

except for

patterns.

Birch
wood than

is

another hard, English-grown wood, being more of a builder's-

either of the

rails, stair-treads,

and even

etc.

in the grain,

of furniture.

two preceding kinds, as


It

is

it is

often used for hand-

of a light yellow, speckly colour, very close

and sound.

It is

much used

in the manufacture:

CHAPTER
WOOD
Naked

Floors and Floor-boards

FLOORS.

Single

Floors

Naked

Floors and Floor-boards.

made up

Floor Joints Double

Floors

Flooring.

Framed Floors

speaking,

VIII.

Wood

floors

are,

practically

of a skeleton framing, called " naked flooring," sur-

rounded and supported by a

brick, stone,

wood, or iron enclosure, and

covered by boards of different kinds, to form a close and level platform

above an open space.

The

floor-boards are of various

one and

all

and more or

different kinds of

naked

flooring, without

of the floor as a whole, provided


sufficient

and the same

Naked

less intricate sections,

the

any real detriment

to the strength

various sections

be each of a

thickness.

floors are really of three classes,

though there may be different

ways of carrying out the principles which distinguish one


another.
consisting

but

could be used at the same time as a covering to each of the

class

from

The simplest and most common class are called single floors,
of common joists only placed 12 or 13 inches apart, or 15 to

16 inches centre to centre, forming a bridge from wall to wall to support

room above and the ceiling of the room beneath.


name of bridging joists to those joists which in all
classes carry the floor-boards.
The other two kinds of naked flooring are
called double and framed floors, each of which will be fully described in
the boarded floor of the
It is this that gives the

the course of these notes later on.

Single Floors.

Single

floors are suitable for all

though they must be strutted after the span exceeds 8


simplest, cheapest,

and strongest kind of naked

noted, only of the bridging or

common

joists,

spans up to 16
feet.

They

feet,

are the

floor, consisting, as

before

spanning from wall to

wall,

and carrying the flooring above and ceiling beneath. These advantages
are, however, accompanied by the following disadvantages, which sometimes, in special cases, predominate

BUILDING CONSTRUCTION.

100
1.

The

bridging
2.

ceilings are apt to

when

joists,

Wood

on account of the sagging of the

crack,

in long lengths.

being a conductor of sound, these

joists,

having no

inter-

mediate space between them, and carrying both the floor of the one room
and the ceiling of the other, conduct the noises from one room to the
other.
3.

The

going from wall to wall, and having no other supports,

joists,

whole length of two of the


mass or full of openings, in
which case either the joists have to be carried by plates or lintels built in
over the doors and windows in the wall beneath, or they have to be
" trimmed " round them.
Both methods cause weak points in the condistribute the load of the floor equally along the

enclosing walls, whether the wall

is

one

solid

struction of a building.

The joists of the ground floors of buildings, when not above cellars,
need not be so strong as for other floors, because dwarf sleeper walls,
which reduce the spans, can be built on the ground to carry the wall plates
which support and distribute the weights and pressure of the bridging joists.
Fig. 266, in plan and sections, illustrates a ground floor supported by
simple naked flooring, consisting of bridging

joists,

J,

carrying the floor-

boards from wall to wall, with intermediate dwarf walls to lessen the span

and carry the wall

The dwarf

plates,

W P, to

which the bridging

or sleeper walls both render the floor

more

joists are secured.


rigid,

and

effect

saving of timber

damp-proof course must always be put under the

prevent the

damp

arising

and

it

is

wall-plates,

to

better that these ground-floor wall-

plates should be of oak.


It

should be noted that the wall-pb.tes,

are not built into the

inasmuch
building

main

wall,

as the building-in of

is

W P, on the outside main walls,

but supported on sleeper or dwarf walls


all

wall-plates into the carcase walls of a

held to be objectionable, on account of the dampness of the

them to rot. It is the best plan to put the joists on


two rows of hoop-iron, so as to distribute the weight to the extent required

walls soon causing

on corbels or over-sailing courses


main walls, care being taken to anchor the ends of the
by means of iron, so that the enclosing walls are tied

in the walls, or to support the wall-plates

projecting from the


joists to the walls

together by the

Where

joists.

fireplaces

occur in ground-floor rooms

it

is

usual

to build

on section A B, fig. 266, to carry the wallplates, and thus save trimming, which will be explained later on.
When single naked floors are used above other rooms it is obvious
fender walls round them, as

that the only support the bridging joists can have

and consequently

it is

tion to the distance

is

the enclosing walls

necessary that the joists must be stronger, in propor-

between the walls which have to carry them.

WOOD

FLOORS.

lOI

Scalej^mch - / foot

Section on

n^

line

266

CD.

i
i

BUILDING CONSTRUCTION.

102

yiP.on oversaifmg course

^-m-B

'

/ Strutting

Floorinq

H^l^^il^^^il^^^i^^i^P^^i^
^ Ceiling

Section on line

4^0'-

A B

_J

4q'- -f----4

--4

Section on

line

Section on

C D

line

Fi^ 267
'Fig.

boarded

267
floor

in plan and section, a single


above and ceiling beneath.

illustrates,

floor,

carrying a

WOOD
It will

FLOORS.

103

be seen therefrom that the bridging joists span from wall to wall,
and carry the floor above and the ceiling below.

a distance of 12 feet,

Section.

fiQP66

The ends

on the wall-plates,
P, which are either built
shown on the right-hand side of section C D, or rest on two
brick oversailing, as on the left hand of the same.

of the joists rest

the walls, as

ourses of

''sSceile

BUILDING CONSTRUCTION.

T04

When

the cornices below allow of the wall-plates being put on projec-

and not built in the walls, that is the best, as the joists can be nailed
them but when this cannot be done, it is better as wall-plates built
to lay the ends of the joists on two rows of hoop-iron,,
in soon decay
instead of on the wall-plates shown on the right-hand side of section C D.
On account of the risk of fire to which the building would be exposed
if the ends of the joists rested on or near the chimney breast, it will be
noticed on the plan, fig. 267, that the joists are trimmed round the fireplace
tions,

to

to avoid

any such

joist,

risk.

stouter in width, called a

trimming

joist,

J,

is

placed am

inch or two away from the side of the breast; and at 14 or 18 inches-

P/an

n^.269

away from the


hearthstones

face of this breast

another

Scale.

according to the width required

joist, called

a trimmer, T,

is

for

the

placed, running parallel

and the ends of it are framed into the trimming


and
along
the
trimmer, in equal spaces of about 15 inches^
J;
from centre to centre, the trimmed joists are framed, with the other end
resting on the supporting wall.
The plan and section, fig. 268, are intended to illustrate the explanation just given of trwiming round fireplaces.
Fig. 269 will show the student how to trim round well-holes, trapdoors,
and other openings, where the bridging joists run in a different direction.
efore proceeding to define and illustrate joints usually met with in
single floors, it will be as well to explain one or two items which, though
belongmg to other kinds of floors as well, are connected with single floors.
to the face of the breast,

joists,

WOOD
Herritig-bo7ie

FLOORS.
or

cross-nogging,

strutting^

strengthening and stiffening the bridging or


of small pieces of 3
the joists, as

fig.

i-inch or 3

2-inch

105

means of
and consists
diagonally between

stemming^

common

stuff,

fixed

is

joists,

270.

There are two independent lengths

in a

row of

it,

as

AA

and B B, and

they stretch from wall to wall, thus forming one continuous connection

or support between the walls,

and rendering each joist perfectly stiff one


row abutting on each side of the top of the joist, and the other at the

Fig 270

bottom thereof. A row of this strutting, consisting of two courses, should


be inserted every 4 feet apart where the span exceeds 12 feet.
Solid strutting or stemming is an alternate method to the latter, and
used in a similar way for the same, and

it

consists of a solid piece of

the depth of the joist and ij inches thick,

let in

between the

wood

joists in

one

continuous line from wall to wall.

Fiq 271

Pugging

supposed

be a remedy

the prevention of sound


by means of the floors. On
each side of the joists i| x |-inch laths are nailed from wall to wall
and resting on these laths, between the joists, the sound boardings as
it is called, is laid, to carry the mixture which is to deaden the sound.
is

to

being conducted from one

(See

fig.

it

for

to another

271.)

This mixture

and

room

is

laid

on the boards

to a thickness of

consists of either ordinary mortar, with

about 3 inches,
an admixture of hay, or

of sawdust or ashes, or of asbestos or silicate cotton in slabs.

BUILDING CONSTRUCTION.

io6

Another method is to nail cedar-felt from joist to joist, as on sketch


(fig. 272), and fill in the space with sawdust.
Some of these kinds of pugging cause the joists to rot, owing to the

Fig 272

dampness of the mixture or the want of air-circulation which they entail


and, to obviate this, some floors are constructed specially with a view to
prevent the conduction of sound ; but they involve extra expense, and
raise the building a very little higher.
Some people would call the

Fia 273

method a " double


though
Fig.
joists,

it

" floor

may be double

but this

is

not done for the purpose of strength,

in construction.

273 shows ceiling beams, C B, inserted between the bridging


placed about 8 feet apart, to carry the ceiling joists ; which, it

B J,

I
/Vy 27^

will

be seen, make the ceiling independent of the

be affected by any vibration of the floor

Floor Joints. All

joints

in

floor

and not

liable to

itself.

carpentry should

be made

in such

WOOD

FLOORS.

107

manner that the timbers are weakened as little as possible by loss of


wood and wherever one bearing timber has to support others it is of
great advantage, if possible, to nail fillets on to the sides of the timber,
and notch the others over it (as figs. 274 and 275), to avoid weakening
;

The weaker

the one by the mortises to take the tenons of the other.

method is shown on the


on the left

right,

and the preferable and stronger method

i^crsus

<:;

27S

/"/y

Wall-plates,

when not

of sufficient length to go the whole length of

the wall, are connected by scarfs


cut out of each end, so as to

fit

two ends, as shown in

The halving
plate,

276), a wedge-shaped piece being

(fig.

one another when connected

they return at angles the connection

halvings the

*=>-

is

fig.

then

made by

and where

halvings or bevelled

277.

process consists of cutting a piece off the end of each

across their entire width,

bevelled halving the

and

to half their depth

while in the

remaining parts are bevelled alternately, to

fit

one

another and prevent any displacement of the joint.

I
FiCj

The

dove-tailed notch

one side of each plate


being drawn out, as

The

joists

are

fig.

is

S76

cutting halfway mto each plate, with


and the other dovetailed, to prevent its

made by

left straight

278.

generally spiked

notched 2ind nailed on to the plates

on to the

(fig.

they are

wall-plates, or

279).

Another method of attaining the same object

is

though

by cogging

seldom used except for beams when a " notch " is made in the
underside of the beam, which fits on to a piece left on the wall-plate,

it

is

which

is

similar to the cog of a wheel

cogging"

The

(fig.

whence the method

is

called

280).

only other joints

met with

in single flooring are those

connected

io8

BUILDING CONSTRUCTION.

WOOD

FLOORS.

109

with trimming, and they apply as well to double and framed floors as far
as the joists are concerned.

The

joint

between the trimmer and the trimming joists is called a


illustrated by fig. 281, where it will be seen that the

and

tusk tenon J

tenon, T, with the horn,

H, and

tusk,

K, are cut out on the trimmer and

a similar mortise, with the bearing or shoulder, S, on the trimming

let into

After they have been tightened up together, in

joist.

situ,

a pin, P,

is

shown on the plan, fig. 282.


The trimmed joists are framed into the trimmer by means of a joint
similar to the last, only without the tenon being pinned, as shown in
driven through a mortise in the tenon, T, as

283.

fii.

Trimmer

ri^.281.

Single naked flooring can be made quite strong enough for ordinary
purposes over spans up to 16 feet, the strength of the floor depending

on the depth of the joists, the safe strength and depth of which
be ascertained by "halving the span in feet, calling the quotient
inches, and adding 2, which gives the depth required in inches."
For
example the span being 10 feet, 10 feet -^ 2
5 inches -f 2
5 inches

chiefly

cm

inches

therefore the depth

must be no

less

than 7 inches, and the

no

BUILDING CONSTRUCTION.

width

2 J or 3 inches,

little depends
Trimmers and
is usual to add
every trimmed joist

according to circumstances; although

on the width, which is usually either 2, 2J, or 3 inches.


trimming joists of course need to be stronger, and it
I

inch in thickness for them, or ^th of an inch for

which need only be the same as the common or bridging joists.


Double Floors. Double floors are used for spans of over 16

feet.

K\'

T\/l

Trimmer

r/g.282.
to

reduce the bearing of the bridging joists;

beams

called binders are placed

for

which purpose large

at intervals of every 10 feet, at

most

between two of the walls and resting on the other two.


Double floors have the advantage of stopping the passage of sound,

and rendering the bridging joists


liable to crack ; and they also act

stiff'er,

so that the ceilings are not so

as a tie to the walls of the building.

Trimmed

Joist

riq283.

On

the other hand, they are

always a defect

more complicated

in construction,

which

is

and, moreover, they raise the building and add expense

thereby.
It should always be borne in mind that, as the " binders " collect the
weight of the floor off the " bridging joists," they must be supported by

solid masonry, brick, or ironwork

done with the ordinary

joists.

not

This

is

placed over openings, as can be


sometimes an advantage, especially

WOOD
where the

FLOORS.

Ill
In such cases the " binders,"

walls beneath are full of openings.

carrying, as

it

were, the whole weight of the floor, can be placed over solid

Scale

V''

inch

root

JUUUUUUUUUU^-iUL-'i^
^ Fillets

Binder

Section on

line

CD

Fig 284
parts,

sometimes specially designed

the openings can be

In

fig.

left

for

them

without any weight at

284 the plan and sections are

and the weaker


all on them.

illustrations of

parts

a double

above
floor.

BUILDING CONSTRUCTION,

112

The
t le

space between the binders

is

called a Case

Bay, and that between

binder and the wall a Tail Bay.

The

" binders " should rest

on stone templates on the

walls, in a little

Stone Lintel

Stone

f/3
recess, as

fig.

joints

285

i'

used in

damp

walls

is

always conducive to

this flooring are similar to those last

r/9.

are fixed to the binder.

it to

this

is

The

rot.

described for

286

single floors, the only addition being that

but

Scale

285, so that the air can circulate round the wood, as to

build any timbers into the

The

Template

whereby the bridging

joists are generally

joists, etc.,

notched on, as

fig.

286

a bad way, as the notches, being cut out of the " binder," weaken

a great extent.

WOOD
The

better plan

FLOORS.

113

as before explained, to nail

is,

fillets

on the

sides of

the binder and notch the joists, instead of the binders which carry the

and the floor, as fig. 287.


Sometimes the ceiling is put on the underside of the bridging joists
where the height of the rooms below will not allow of special ceiling joists
in which case the *' binder " is planed and moulded to prevent its being so

joists

r Scale.

n^.287.
great an eyesore,

and

has to be notched for the bridging

joists,

or they

are cut away where they take the bearing, a process which in

no way

weakens the framing

The
floor.

chase-77iortise
It

it

(vide
is

fig.

288).

also a joint that

consists of a tenon cut

on the

lkj.288.

mortise which
as

shown

in

fig.

also used

employed

in

this

and put

kind

of

into the

Scale.

cut out of the fixed " binder " with bevelled slide into it,
"
This joint is very handy in cases where the " binders
289.

is

(or mortises) are so placed that the


is

is

ceiling joist

when

tenon cannot be fixed in as usual.

It

the space allotted to the depth of the floor will not allow

of the ceiling joists projecting below the binder.

Binding

joists are only

exceptional circumstances.

feet, unless under


on the memory the

required for spans above 16

The best way

to impress

sectional dimensions required for the different spans

is

to take 5 inches

wide and 8 inches deep as the standard for 10-fect spans, and to add
I

BUILDING CONSTRUCTION.

114
I

inch in depth and i an inch in width for every additional 2

we should have

the following dimensions

feet,

8 inches deep by 5 inches wide, suitable for lo-feet spans.

5i
6

Thus

\YOOD FLOORS.

10- 0'

Plan.

n^.290.

"s'ScAle

IIS

BUILDING CONSTRUCTION.

ii6
depth

have

and

| an

inch

in

width

for

each additional

feet in span,

for

20 feet span a girder 13 inches deep by 11


22

24
26

28

14

inches wide.

we

WOOD
Wooden beams,

them that

and

binders,

FLOORS.

117

girders are often flitched to strengthen

they are cut in half, and reversed with a thin wrought-

is,

Fig 294

^^
\

4.

[za

J^
Sectional Plan
iron

plate

between them, as

transversely, as

shown

fig.

a.t

A.

295, the

three being bolted together

in the section.

FiQ

295

Or, they are, in exceptional cases, trussed^ as


or by a

queen

truss, as in fig. 297.

fig.

296, by a king truss,

BUILDING CONSTRUCTION,

The beam
of the

or girder

plate a

flitch

is

and reversed as the last, but instead


composed of vvrought-iron abutments

cut in half,

framed

truss,

and hardwood struts, is bolted between the two halves, as shown.


Another, though inconvenient, method of trussing is as figs. 298
and 299, which explain themselves, the shoes, Z Z, and stays, Y Y, being of
-J

IT-

*'

F,g.29G
cast iron,

X X,

and the rods,

In this case the

The

illustrated.

beam

is

being of wrought iron to

when

it

becomes.

strutting underneath,

to

This

is

it is made the more


on the same principle

in-

as

and tying

298

tight a piece of string

from each end of the

strut.

Flooring

is

covering

the

F>g
consists of

as

thin boards are strengthened to carry flower-pots by

f/g

Flooring.

it,

297

from the beam, and consequently the stronger


convenient and unsightly

board over the

the tension.

strength of the truss depends on the length of the struts

Ftg

that often seen

resist

not cut in two, but the rods go through

the

naked

framing,

and

293

one or other of the many

1 inch in thickness, nailed

of

difl'erent

kinds of floor boards from

(on each of their edges) on to each of

the bridging joists in either single, double, or framed floors.

The difl'erent kinds of joints for flooring boards (which should always
be rebated or grooved so that a greater thickness of floor-board
is left on
the top side where it will be worn) are as follows :
Straight or plain jointed {^g. 300), in which the joint of each
board is
straight

and

plain.

WOOD

FLOORS.

119

Grooved and tongued^ where one edge of the board has a tongue and
the other a groove

(fig.

301).

Grooved and tongued with hoop-iron tongues,

Floor

in

which both edges of

Joist

Fia 300

Fig. 301

FiQ 302.

Fig. 303.

the board are grooved and an iron tongue inserted, half in each board
(fig.

302).

Rebated, with the edge of each board rebated out alternately top

bottom

(fig.

303).

and

BUILDING CONSTRUCTION.

120
Rebated^ grooved,

a?id tongued

(fig.

304), a combination of

figs.

301

and 303.
Rebated and filleted,

in

which each board

Fig

each

side,

and a loose

fillet

rebate on each board i^ide


Secret-nailed,

is
fig.

is

rebated out on one face

30^

laid

on the

joists

and overlapped by the

nailed on

the tongue to the joist

305).

by which each board

is

^^^
Fig 305

and covered by the top of the other (grooved) board, which


by its (tongued) predecessor (fig. 306).

is

held

down

Dowelledj where small oak or other hard-wood dowels are driven into

Fig 306

the edge of the fixed board and the other

is

cramped up

dowel enters both boards and keeps them together


secretly nailed obliauely between the dowels.

(fig.

to

it,

307).

so that the

They

are

WOOD
Fillistered are similar to

Floughed and

fig.

303, " rebated."

tongued are the

new method

121

FLOORS.

same

and tongued
been invented.

as grooved

of secret fixing has

lately

(fig.

302).

It consists

Fi^307
of

shouldered brads, one point of which

hammering the shoulder, and the board


fig.

is

is

driven

driven

into the joist

down on

to

it,

by

as in

308.

Fig.30S
Headings are the

joints of the

more

They may be

lengths.

i e.^ where they are not


room, and have to be in two or

boards crosswise

in sufficient lengths to go the length of the

either square or bevelled, as

310, or cross-tongued, as
fig.

309 and

F/Q.3I0

Fig 309.

tongued, as

figs.

fig.

31T, or tongued, as

fig.

312, or rebated

and

313.

Floor boards are usually laid in " uniform " thicknesses of from i to
i\ inches, and in from 3^ inch to "batten" or 7-inch widths.
They

BUILDING CONSTRUCTION.

122

should, under any circumstances, have their edges shot ?>., truly planec
so that they can be " dogged " or " cramped " up tight to each other befor^

being nailed; or they are laid folding in

common

work, as

fig.

314.

In good work the nails should be punched below the general surfac<
of the

floor,

up with

the boards planed off to one level,

putty, before a floor can

Double

floors

"^

be said

may sometimes mean

to

and the

nail-holes stoppe(

be complete.

that the flooring or floor-boar(

cross ton<]ue

Fig.

31

F,g.3ll

I.

on the

Fig. 3/3.

and i incl
and often lai<
diagonally across the joists
while the other either grooved and tonguedj
or of some other special section
is laid on in the ordinary way above th<
sub-floor^ as the bottom one is called.
The various kinds of floors having been explained to the student, it only
are

laid

thickness,

the

joists

in

two thicknesses, generally

bottom thickness being

|,

or J,

straight-jointed,

314-.

remains to say that the principle of wooden beams and girders

bad from
tainty

its

elaborate framings, risks to

of the large-sized members.

It

steel for binders

and

a rigid mass,

comparative impunity from

be taken

its

girders, the latter

to leave a space

is

antiquated,

and the sagging and uncerhas been superseded by iron or


fire,

being considerably superior in forming


fire, etc.,

but care should always

between the floor-boards and top of the iron or

steel joists for gaspipes, etc.

CHAPTER

IX.

PARTITIONS.
Partitions Defined

Framed or Quartered PartitionsTrussed Partitions.

Partitions Defined.

partition*

is

a skeleton

wood

framing, used

one room from another. It is only suitable for


je above the ground-floor, so as to be free from the effects of damp.
'he principal advantages which partitions possess are, that they save
istead of a wall to divide

space,

and being

light in weight,

can be raised upon a floor; whereas

a brick partition wall must either rest on another wall beneath, or be built
Against these advantages
on girders, which entail additional expense.
must be set off" the facts that partitions are inflammable, conductors of
sound, and very apt to prove a harbour for vermin.
There are really two kinds of partitions the ordinary framed or
common quartered partition, and the trussed partition. Before proceed
ing to explain and illustrate each one separately, it will be advisable to

make a few remarks on partitions generally.


The general rule is to build up partitions
is

in itself

bad construction, because

the partition goes with

away from the

it,

resting

upon the

floors,

as soon as the floor sags or

which

moves

causing the plaster cornices to crack and

come

connected to the partition

itself,

ceiling above, unless that

is

instead of underneath the joists of the floor above, which should run from
wall to wall independently of

and

parallel to the partition itself; or the

continual additional weight of the partition on this floor causes the part

immediately underneath the partition to sag more than the other part of
the

floor,

which

results in the cracking of the ceiling below.

is to hang the partition either from the floor above or


These are made purposely stronger than otherwise needed,
in order to carr>' the additional weight, and render the partition tolerably
rigid
but the best and proper way is to build the head and sill of the
partition into the main walls wherever practicable, so that if the one goes
the other goes with it ; and, in addition, to brace them towards the walls

better plan

from the

roof.

Called in the North of England a stoothing.

BUILDING CONSTRUCTION.

124

comes on the head of the

or bearings, so that any weight that

partition

is

thrown, by means of these braces, on the walls.


Partitions

may be

lathed and plastered

they are bricknogged in addition

spaced out to
brickwork

suit the bricks,

i.e.^

on each

side

but sometimes

the spaces between the quarterings are

and being 4^ inches

thick, are filled in with

or otherwise in thinner partitions the bricks are laid


->>?/

on edge.

IL

iSca/e
ftg 315.

In other cases the partitions are temporarily boarded up on each side,


and the interstices filled up with concrete, generally composed of breeze
and cement.
Sometimes, however, the outsides of the partition are

PARTITIONS.

25

The

partition is 4J inches thick, the head and sill 4i x 3 inches, posts


X
4 inches, studs 4| x 2 inches, braces 4I x 3 inches, and nogging or
4I
stemming pieces 3x2 inches.
If a

or as

doorway

required in the partition

is

it is

framed either as

>
^
^'\\

hW.

m-^

2'

,'-<--i

TCJ

Post

The
The

joints

and

simple,

joint at

The tenon
third

used in framed partitions of the ordinary kind are very

head or

sill

with the posts, being an ordinary mortise and tenon,

S S being the shoulders,

4i

F/^ 3/9

as follows

318

as in fig.

V^V

Wtz

Scafe

FJg 318

its

316

fig.

317.

fig.

as, in

fact, all

the tenon, and

tenons should be, as a rule

of the thickness of the

stuff,

so that

it

has no

less

CC
is

the cheeks.

in width one-

than one-third (or

width) on each side of the mortise.

s/ud tenon

is

the

name given

to the joint

between studs and

or head, the tenon only being for the purpose of keeping

land going into the mortise about one inch

The

joint

usually as

The

fig.

(fig.

it

sill

in position,

319).

between studs and brace should be as

fig.

321, but

it

is

320.

junction of the brace, post, and

sill

is

very simple, being as

BUILDING CONSTRUCTION.

126
fig.

is

But where the brace

322.

done

The

as

fig.

joist

is

framed into a doorpost

(as fig.

317)

it-

323.

between doorhead and

post,

where the brace does not spring

Fig 322

Fia 323

hA^

"^W.
Plan
I

from

it,

trimming

as

fig.

324,

is

Scale

similar to the

tusk-tenon

Elevation

between trimmer and

joist.

Where

partitions

have to be built on

floors,

and cannot

rest

on

stouter

PARTITIONS.
joists (as fig. 325),

^as

fig.

they are supported by bearers framed between two joists

326), about 4

feet apart.

Fi<j

Sometimes they
It

127

rest only

325

on the

Sca.le

floor-boards, as

fig.

327.

should be borne in mind that the studs are fixed from 12 to 14 inches

apart, or

from 14 to 16 inches centre to centre, on the same principle as

joists, ceiling joists, rafters,

and other bearing timbers.

Fig 327.

Scale

Trussed "Poxtiiionz. Trussed partitions are


some other work

carry a floor above, or they have

those which

have to

to do, requiring

more

BUILDING CONSTRUCTION.

128

than the ordinary strength of " framed " partitions. They are similar to
roof trusses in construction, but oblong instead of rectangular, and of two

kinds king-post,

as

fig.

328, to suit side doors

where the doorway comes

or queen-post, as

fig.

329,

in the centre.

Fig 328

They

are really framed trusses, filled in afterwards with studding or

quarters.

The

joints

employed other than those used

in the ordinary partition,

members

of the truss, as between

as explained, are those of the principal


principal back,

King and

The

and

intertie,

T, in both trusses, which

principal back, etc., as

queen-post,

etc., joint

fig.

331.

should be as

fig.

332.

is

done as

fig.

330

PARTITIONS.

29

BUILDING CONSTRUCTION.

I30

It is as well to bolt

one or more suitable

Head

the head and

places, as

sill

X,

of the complete truss together in

figs.

328 and 329, when possible,

Straining head

n.

Queen

.-Str^p each
side

^
Door head

Fig 332

in order to

make

different parts.

the partition one complete framing, though

made up

of

PARTITIONS.

131

All braces, where practicable, should incline (or abut) at an angle of

about forty degrees.


Partitions of ordinary span,

and carrying only

their

own

weight, are

generally understood to be 4I inches thick; but, wherever they are of


greater span, they should be, say, i inch thicker for every 10 feet; and,

must be of special
meet the requirements, and, moreover, must be trussed in one
way or other, as the circumstances will allow either between head and sill
The latter is the usual way, owing to the
or between intertie and head.
presence of doors and other openings, which take up so much of the height
of course, where they have to carry floors or roofs, they

thickness to

of a partition.

CHAPTER

X.

ROOFS.

Couple RoofCouple-close RoofFished Joints Scarfs


Queen-post Roofs Wood and Iron King-trusses Wood and Iron

Local Adaptation of Roofs


King-post Roofs
Collar-truss

Queen Flat-truss Mansard Roof Details of Roofs.

Local Adaptation of Roofs.

A roof

is

a framing which covers the

top of the whole building, as a protection against the elements.


different countries, having different climates,

and being subject

In

to different

it is of course necessary that the roofs of buildings should


be designed and constructed so as to meet those variations of climate.

kinds of weather,

For instance, the northern countries of the world have steep-pitched

roofs.

Fig 334
to throw off the

snow and prevent the water from sucking-up between the

laps of the different materials used as a covering

where there
the

flat.

is little,

and

that very

Lead,

tiles

while in hot countries,

rain, the roofs are

constructed on

Therefore the framing of wood-roofs must be suited to the weight

requirements of the covering which

flat

heavy

it

has to carry, according to the climate.

zinc, copper, stone, or asphalte coverings are generally laid

on

on pitches of about 30 degrees from the horizon; and


or wood-shingles on a 45-degrees pitch.

roofs; slates

132

ROOFS.
Before proceeding to deal with each roof separately on
it

may

133
its

own

merits

not be out of place to give the student an idea of the origin of the

different kinds.

The

first

that as

rafters exceeds a certain maximum, the


be pushed out by the extra weight or thrust brought down on

them by the
as a

it

soon as the weight on the

walls will

To

is as fig. 333, from which, supposwere, hinged at A, B, and C, it may be imagined

and simplest form of a roof

ing the rafters are, as

rafters (see

obviate

means of

this,

fig.

334).

the collar

first,

tying in the rafters

and afterwards the " tie," were added


first, by the collar fixed part of the way

BUILDING CONSTRUCTION.

134
between the

wall-plate

and

ridge,

and B,

length of the span and rafters increased,

the feet of them, as

The

fig.

335, by

it

fig. 335 ; and then, as the


was found necessary to tie in

as

means of the tie-beam.

next difficulty encountered, as the spans were increased, and con-

sequently the length of the tie-beams, was that the tie-beam was apt to sag
in the middle from

its

own weight

over such long bearings (see

to counteract which the king-post in shorter spans,

longer spans, were put in to sling up, as


or apex of the rafters in the one case,

did duty for

The

two apexes

last defect to

it

and

fig.

336)

and two queens

in

were, the tie-beam to the ridge


to the straining

in the other, as figs.

beam

which

337 and 338.

be remedied was the sagging of the

rafters

between

the wall-plate and apex ; and this was done by means of struts, S S, so
named because they " strut " up the rafter frj^m the king-post or queen, as

the case

may be

{vide

fig.

339).

ROOFS.

The above

135

description will explain the origin of the different

the ordinary truss

sequent defects

and

and

as spans

trusses increase,

and

arise, so indefinite additional ties

and

members

their con-

struts are

added

to

the frame to counteract them.

tof

Some

rafters

kinds of roof-trusses are a combination of

and

struts generally

either of iron or

wood and

iron, the

being of wood, and the suspenders and

ties

wood, according to circumstances.

Hidge 7li

3or4fx3

rfg 34/
Couple Roof.

The couple roofthe

consists of the following parts

running longitudinally

simplest of the whole series

viz., wall-plates,

and two

rafters, raised

bedded on the

pitch required from the wall-plate line as horizon.

place of these two rafters the ridge

is

fixed,

walls,

and

from each wall-plate to the

At the apex

or meeting-

running longitudinally, and

generally parallel to the wall-plates or walls (vide

figs.

340 and 341).

F/^ 342
This form of roof

is

only suitable for spans under 10 or 11

feet,

the

being spaced 12 inches apart, and usually 3^ inches x 2| inches in


section.
The ridge is generally 7 inches x i| inches, and the wall-plates
rafters

3 inches

deep and either 4^ inches or 9 inches wide, on bed, according to

circumstances.

The joints required in its


made by the use of the saw

construction are very simple, and can


;

that at the ridge being as

at the junction of the foot of the rafter

and

fig.

all

be

342, and that

wall-plate being as

fig.

343 or

BUILDING CONSTRUCTION.

136
fig-

344

tliG

former being used where there

the latter where there


wall-plate

is

is

an outside eaves-gutter, and

a lead gutter between two roofs meeting at the

from opposite directions.

Fig. 345

shows the mode of connect-

ing the rafters and wall-plates for overhanging eaves.

Fig 344

the

Couple-close Roof. The " couple-close roof" is a step higher than


last, and consists of rafters, ridge, and wall-plates, with the addition of

F/g 345
a

tie fixed to

the foot of each rafter, which often does duty for a ceiling

joist (see fig. 346).

Fig 346

These

roofs are suitable for spans

exceed the 10

25 inches.

joint

feet

it is

The

up

to 12 or 14 feet

necessary that the rafters should be

tie is

usually the

between them called a

same

size as

dove-tailed halvings

as

the
fig.

but after they

made 4^

inches

rafter,

and the

347,

half the

ROOFS.
thickness being cut off both rafter

and

137
tie to

a dove-tail pattern, which,

when in position, prevents one pulHng away from the other.


Collar Roof. It must be always borne in mind that rafters must have

a support at intervals of every 8

they will sag

feet, or

Fii^

and

if

the space

347

between ridge and plate exceeds 8 feet, additional support, in the form of
a purlin or collar, must be placed between them {vide fig. 348).
This leads us to the "collar"
feet,

and designed

to

roof, suitable for

meet the requirements

the advantage of giving

more height

spans up to 16 or 17
It has also

just alluded to.

to the ceilings

of the rooms,

etc.,

/ Sca/c

Fig 348a

Fig 3481

S
Fi^ 346^
immediately under the roof, where a
would be too low and in the way.

The

joints

in

itself,

truction, because, there

^^f

the roof

is

as in the " couple-close " roof,

form of roof are precisely similar to those

this

named; but the roof

tie,

as a whole,

being no

apt to cause

them

tie at

is

last

considerably inferior in con-

the foot of the rafters, the weight

to spread, pushing the walls out,

and

BUILDING CONSTRUCTION.

138
4j inches by

2 J inches in section,

inches centre to centre, as in

always used to each


rafter,

and a purlin

rafter,

all

and spaced 12 inches

other framings

one being framed

longitudinal

to every sixth or seventh

beam running

Iron fish plates

apart, or 14 to 15

but these collars are not

parallel

between plate

ROOFS.

139

generally to each side of the beams, and connected together by through


bolts

(fig.

The

349)-

be placed " hit-and-miss

bolts should

and beams are only cut once

" fashion,

so

that

plates

This form

in the length of their fibres.

Fig 352
of joint,
bolts

when

and

timbers,

causes

in tension,

they

all

be thrown on the

the strain to

become loosened by the shrinkage

as these often

then press and crush

the

which

fibres,

of the
in

results

the

yielding of the joints.

1
Fig 353

To

obviate this as

and wood

iron

alike,

much
as

fig.

tabled in both

as possible, the joints are

350; or

keyed, as

fig.

Each

351.

of these

methods, while conferring a benefit, also creates another defect, by decreasing the section and consequent strength of the timbers themselves.

Fig 354

These forms of

joints

are

also suitable for lengthening posts

other upright timbers subject to compression


it

is

better

movement

Scarfs.
^^.,

that

they should be fished on

but,

all

sides,

to resist

slightly

to

prevent any

laterally.

"Scarfs,*' as

tension are,

used in

joints, to

as a rule,

made

lengthen purlins and ridges


as

fig.

352

more intricate; though fig. 354 is still


tightened up by means of the wedges or keys, X.
>s

and

such purposes,

for

or

better,

fig.

as

353, which
it

can be

BUILDING CONSTRUCTION.

140
Still,

this is

tightening to be

not really complete without the fish-plates, to allow the

done properly, as

fig.

may be

355, which

said to be

the best scarf to resist tension.

niq 356
While dealing with "
be

as well to explain,

scarfs "

though

little

out of place

it

may

so that the difference can be noted, those that

are designed to resist compression used

in

perpendiculars, posts,

kv^

etc.,

1^

.VI

v\

hIVv

AAf^
vii
Fiy 357
and

F 10 358

Fig3S9

Fig

that used for bearing timbers subject to cross strain,

fibres are in

The

compression and the bottom in tension, as

principle of scarfs for tension

is

a keyed

deve/,

360

where the top


fig.

356.

while that for

ROOFS.
compression
the weight
Fig.

'

is

all

a keyed butt joint, as square as possible, so as to distribute

over

its

area.

357 represents the simplest form of scarf used in posts, though

may be improved by

this

wedging or keying, as
little tabling, whether

The
binders,
joint,

141

checking,

as

fig.

358; and

359; and, further still, by


wood, as fig. 360.

fig.

still

more by

fish-plates

and a

in iron or

joint to resist cross strain, applicable to breastsummers, girders,,


joists,

X,

and other bearing timbers,

resisting

is

as

fig.

361

the square butt

the compression in the top fibres, while the oblique

Fi^ 362
and

butt

the

fish-plate

and

bolts

resist

the

tension on

the

bottom

fibres.

Before leaving the subject of'joints in longitudinal and other bearing


we must not forget the lapped joint, though it is the least
workmanlike of joints, and rarely used except in rough work. It consists

timbers

Fiq 363
one length of timber over the other, as fig. 362, and secaring
them together either by means of bolts. A, or straps, B.
Wall plates are scarfed, as in fig. 363, though they may be bolted

in lapping

together in addition.

King-post Roofs.
stances, as

it

The

" king-post "

is

the next roof which circum-

were, bring before the carpenter, and to his help into the

bargain, as has

been explained

earlier in the

course of these notes.

BUILDING CONSTRUCTION.

142

This form of roof


are complete

framings

practically the beginning of all " trusses,"

is

in

doing duty for the cross


ridge

and

purlins,

walls,

in that they support, in their turn, the

which require a bearing every 8 or lo

should be no more than 8 or 9


on each wall.

The

which

themselves, spanning from wall to wall, and

feet

apart,

Trusses

feet.

and have a 9-inch bearing

tie-beams of trusses are generally cogged on to

wall-plates,

or

wood-templates about 30 inches long, built in the walls, as fig. 364


or, another method is to dowel them on to stone pads, as fig. 365.

Fig 366
Fig.
rafter,

S the

366

a king-post roof-truss.

inches deep and 4 inches thick

it

T the

Scale
is

tie-beam,

the principal

9X4 inches

4x4

inches ; and the king-post, K, is 5I x 4 inches at X


has to be cut out to give a bearing for the struts and principal

struts,

but, as

represents

comes out of 9 x 4 inch stuff, being 9 inches wide both


"
top and bottom, reduced between to 5I inches, as shown.

rafter, it really

at

very simple

way to familiarity with and recollection of the safe


members of a king-post roof is as follows Divide

sizes of the various

ROOFS.
span by

the

thickness

post a

and

5,

call

the

143

quotient inches, which

little

wider than

its

thickness

the

is

required

and middle of the king-

the struts should be always square,

and the

setting out of the bevels

then give the actual size of the stuff from which

it is to be cut.
Assuming 9 inches and 5 inches as the standard depths for tie-beams
and principal rafters for 20 feet span respectively, add i inch to each

will

for every 5 feet

that

usual to take

it off for slated roofs, which


an angle of from 26 to 30 degrees, or about " one quarter pitch "
to say, the ridge is a quarter of the span in height above the

incline at

Should the dividing process give the

additional span.

answer with a half-inch,

is

it is

flpex

tie-beam

but for

tiled roofs

add

inch for the odd parts, as tiled roofs

have more weight to carry, and they are usually inclined

45 degrees, being what are called " half-pitched

at

an angle of

" roofs.

Flat-pitched roofs are not so strong as those that are pitched higher.

The

nearer to

This

is

is

the perpendicular that

shown by the

wood

is

fixed

the stronger

it

is.

fact that the horizontal thrust of a pair of rafters

proportionate to the length of the oblique line drawn, at right angles

'rom the fbot of the


:e fig.

367, where

the oblique line.

rafters, to
it

will

the perpendicular dropped from the apex.

be seen that the

flatter

the roof

is

the longer

144
.

The

BUILDING CONSTRUCTION.
joints of a king-post truss, in fact, all consist of mortises

and

tenons entering but a short distance into the timbers; and they have
all bevelled shoulders, which ought, wherever possible, to be at right
angles to the incline of the roof.

ROOFS.
Fig.

370

is

an elevation, and

king-post, tie-beam,

The

truss

is

means of the

and

struts,

H5

371 a section, of the joint between

fig.

which should explain

either tightened

up

what

to

stirrup-strap, with the gibs

is

itself.

called a "

and keys or

camber

cotters, as

"

by

shown,

Scale

Fig 371

up through the centre of the tie-beam into the


where a nut is let in through a hole to tighten it up.
The camber is the rise (about \ an inch in every 10 feet) given to the

or by a bolt which goes


king-post,

centre of the tie-beam

so that

when

the roof settles, the tie-beam

Fi^.272

may

Fij 373.

Stay at its level, instead of

dropping below

it

(m'de respectively figs.

372

and 373).

The

joint

between the tie-beam and the foot of the principal rafter is


fig. 374 ; which is completed either by

called a butting joint, being as

a 2^ X 3 inch wrought-iron heel-strap encircling the joint, as shown, or


by a bolt put obliquely through the centre of the tie-beam and rafter.

The mortise and tenon

are similar to

fig.

375.

"
Instead of this " butting

10

BUILDING CONSTRUCTION.

146

show

that

bridle joints are really the converse of the butting joint or a mortise

and

a bridle joint

joint,

is

sometimes used (see

fig.

when applied to other framing.


They are not very often used, though they

376), which will

tenon,

The

are another form of joint.

Scale

be more than one-fifth of the thickness of the


on account of the weakening of the cheeks, which would be very
to be wrenched off if they were not considerably more than the

bridle should never

timber,
liable

bridle in thickness.

Sometimes king-post roof-trusses are constructed with the tie-beam in


two thicknesses, one notched to each side of the foot of the principal
rafters and king-post, as in fig. 377.

The

other joints are the same as in the ordinary truss, with the excep-

tion that the ridge

the

common

is

boxed lower down into the

king, so that the top of

rafters is level with the top of the principal rafters (fig. 378)*

ROOFS.

Fig 376

Fiq378

i Scale

147

BUILDING CONSTRUCTION.

148

This, of course, necessitates the purlins being framed into' the principal
backs, which

is

done by means of a tusk tenon

{^ide ante^

King-post trusses are suitable for spans up to 30

Queen-post Roofs.
feet,

Queen-post

and contain two perpendiculars

fig.

281).

feet.

used for spans over 30


up the tie-beam spanning

trusses are

to brace

the walls.
Fig.

379

is

up

a " queen-post truss " for a 32-feet span.

The same form

42 feet span, and beyond that size princesses-, or


intermediate posts and struts, have to be inserted between the " queens "

is

suitable

to about

and the heels of the

roof, as

shown by dotted

lines

and

it is

sometimes

necessary to frame a small king-post truss (also shown on the figure by

dotted lines) above the straining

beam

support the ridge.

St, to

SS

is

32

Fiq 379.

the Straining

sill,

and

the queens.

Scale

The

other

members

are

known by

the same names as in other trusses.

good

follows

rule to ascertain the thickness

thickness (in inches),


for

heavy-tiled roofs,

of queen-post trusses

is

as

and the quotient will be the required


making up for odd parts by adding another inch
and omitting such fraction for slates, as before

Divide the span by

8,

explained.

Taking the tie-beam for 32-feet span at 11 inches deep, and principal
by adding i inch for every 5 feet additional span, we

rafters at 6 inches,

can arrive

at their

depth for the different

The struts and middle


Coming to the details

roofs.
'

of the queens are usually square.

of the joints,

we

find they are similar to those

for a king-post roof ; except, of course, those at the

head and

foot of the

" queens," which are as

Wood

shown on fig. 380.


and Iron King-trusses. Fig. 381

is

an

illustration of a

wood-

ROOFS.

Fij 380

149

BUILDING CONSTRUCTION.

I50
truss,
figs.

with an iron king-rod, the joints of which are explained in detail on

382 and 383.

From

these

it

will

be seen that a wrought-iron

Fiq 381

fScale

diameter, slings up the tie-beam

king-bolt, | inch in

to the

receives the principal rafters into sockets

Scale

apex, where

on

cast-iron

head

either side of the king-rod

which goes through the hollow cast-iron work, and is bolted up from above
the apex to the bottom of the tie-beam.
The struts are likewise received

ROOFS.
by

cast-iron sockets,

the king-rod

is

screwed on to the top of the tie-beam through which

placed.

Sometimes, to save expense, a plate

beam and

tie

fig.

SI

is

fixed

on the underside of the

bolted through, to secure the shoe-plate for the struts.

Sometimes the struts butt against each other round the king-rod, as
384; from which it will be seen that there is nothing to keep them

Section

Fij 387
in position, laterally,
is

called a s^ru^

except the spikes which

and beam

Another form of

this

fix

them

to the

beam,

This

joint.

kind of roof-trussing, with wood and

iron,

is

as

385 ; which is all iron except the principal backs, wrought-iron being
used for struts, ties, and king-rod, and cast-iron for heel and head sockets.
fig-

The

details of joints

and construction are

BUILDING CONSTRUCTION.

152

386 represents joint


shows the joint

Fig.

Fig. 387

Fig. 388 that at C.


Therefrom the student
for the

Tee

at

A.

at B.

will see

wood

that

thought advisable

irons, if

struts

and the

could be substituted

tie-rod could

be forged

out to a sufficient width to give them a bearing on each side

of the

king-rod.

/ Scale
Joint C.

^^^

t^C ^^

'

Plan looking up

Fig 388

Wood and Iron


of which

it is

Collar Truss. Another form

needless to enlarge upon.

from others of a similar kind already

The

is

as

fig.

student can

389, the joints

make them

out

illustrated in the course of these

riotes.

Queen Flat Truss.


attention should be
straining

beam

The

drawn

next form of roof to which the student's

the queen-post roof, used as a

the only points

rod in the centre, and the

which

is

new

beam and

(fig.

390).

roof over the

under the straining beam


be boarded and covered with lead

strut joints

carries the bearers of the flat to

or zinc

flat

to the student being the suspension-

o
CO

BUILDING CONSTRUCTION.

154

Mansard
that

name

Roof.

The

with a view

roof similar to

fig.

Mansard roof (invented by a Frenchman of

to utilising the roof spaces as

391.

The

joints are all

known

much

as possible)

to the student,

only remains to be said that this form of roof can be very

much

if

a
it

strengthened

by the tie-beam being made the head of a bolted and trussed


below, especially

is

and

partition

queen-trussed with intertie built into the enclosing

walls, or a partition with

no openings

in

it.

Occasionally cases crop up where trusses are necessary, but cannot be

used

for various reasons,

purlins

and the

recourse then has to be

cross-walls are too far apart for ordinary

made

to trussed purlins or ridges, but

them additional strength


and
296
297, Chapter VIII.).

sometimes the ordinary purlins 2x^flitched


{ruide ante,

fig.

295), or trussed (as

Another way

is

to build

figs.

to give

up an ordinary framing,

as

fig.

392, the joints

of which have been already illustrated in different places, or under preceding headings.

Here, the wall posts, P, are called puncheons; and the

ROOFS.
framing
stances

155

may be either of the king or queen-post class, according to circumand the bearings between walls. The dimensions of the timbers

also follow the ordinary rules,

G&ble

Fig 333

Details of Roofs.
of the roof

carried

up

and

its

Hips are the external angles made by the junction

return round the ends, where the end walls are not

to the underside of the rake of roof to

form

gables, as

fig.

393.

BUILDING CONSTRUCTION.

156

Valleys are the converse of hips, Sindjack rafters are the short rafters

which run between the hips or valleys and the wall-plates.


Dormers are gables on a small scale, or vertical windows placed on the
inclined plane of a roof.
Fig.

illustrates

394

a returned roof, with hips and a valley, showing

generally the positions


particularised in the

jack

rafters

dormer

of some of the parts hereinbefore described, as

accompanying reference viz.. A,

D, ridge ; E, eaves

P^ purlins

W,

F,

common

valley

rafters

B, hip

G, gable

C,

H,

wall-plate.

//9 337
Hips, on account of their great length, are sometimes

made

the principal

rafter of half-trusses,

the

main

trusses,

which are bolted with angle irons to the king-posts of


as at X, on fig. 395 ; and they are framed at the external

angles into dragons, D, which are halved over the angle of the two wallplates, W, and " tusk-tenoned " into an angle-brace, A, which stretches

from
Fig.

wall-plate

396

is

to wall-plate,

a plan and

fig.

forming an equilateral triangle with them.

397 a section explaining the foregoing

details.

ROOFS.

157

Valleys are treated in a similar way, but being internal angles, have often
to be covered with lead, which

means boarding

Instead of valley-rafters one roof


valley

board put on

ridge, as

fig.

399.

it,

is

as a foundation, as

fig.

398.

sometimes run through, and

from which the short or jack

rafters spring to the

BUILDING CONSTRUCTION*

158

The

eaves of roofs are at the feet or

the rain-water

from which

is

it is

bottom of the

rafters,

where

taken by cast-iron downpipes to the drains below.

400 represents an overhanging eaves with a fascia, F, fixed


moulded guttering, G
401 shows the same fixed to a wood cornice.

to the

Fig.

feet of the rafters, for carrying the cast-iron


fig.

all

collected into cast-iron gutters, hanging over the walls,

while

ROOFS.

159

Fig. 402 represents a cast-iron half-round gutter, fixed by wrought


hanging irons to the wrought and cut rafter feet ; these irons can also be
fixed on the top of the rafters, but they are awkward if the gutter should

Eaves

til ten

afterwards have to be altered, necessitating taking off a few courses of the


slates or tiles to get at

them.

403 represents the same, but the gutter


brackets, fixed to the walls, which looks clumsy
Fig.

Gutters

i.e.,

is

carried by wrought-iron

in work.

those boarded and lead-lined

are

laid

either behind

BUILDING CONSTRUCTION.

i6o

parapets and chimneys, or between

They should never be

roofs.

narrower than 9 inches at the bottom or starting-point, should rise about


I J inches in no more than 10 feet lengths, at the outside, and between

Fig 404'

each 10

feet,

i Scale

or less length, there should be a 2-inch drip, to give the

water an impetus, and also to allow the plumbers to joint their lead.

It

-V
Fia 405
should be borne in mind, in arranging the drips,

etc.,

of gutters, that the

sun interferes with lead when in long lengths, so that drips should be placed
within the lo-feet limit where practicable.

T,/ter
boa re/
er board

Gutter bearer

Section A.B

F,g 4-06
Fig.

and

fig.

404 represents the plan of a lead gutter between two

roofs,

M,

405 a longitudinal section.


^

Drip or

Reba t e for tea d

drop

Fi^ 407
Fig.

406

is

Section CD.

a cross-section of such a gutter, and

fig.

407 an enlarged

on the

face of the drip,

longitudinal section through a 2-inch drip.


It is

always better to nail a feather-edged

fillet

\.\

i6i

ROOFS.
to

make

the angle the more obtuse for dressing the lead over, as

408.

fig.

Moreover, care should always be taken that the boards carrying the lead
are laid in the direction of the

The

lear-boards

and

tilter

fall,

and not

crosswise.

are also fixed at the top return, X,

fig.

406,

as at the sides.

sunk boxes, placed at the lowest points, to collect the


it, through a pipe fitted to the bottom of the

Cesspools are

water previous to discharging

cesspool, into the rain-water pipe, or, better

the downspout

(fig.

The heads

409).

still,

being open at both ends and accessible, which

is

head connected to
bend to the cesspool

into a

allow of the lead

a great convenience

when

n^ 409. Section of Cesspool

they get stopped up with leaves a very common occurrence. It is more


convenient to have spout troughs through the walls from cesspool to head,

when circumstances

The

will allow of

it.

be regulated, of course, to suit


and the position in which the downpipes can

position of these cesspools has to

the elevations of the building

be placed.

The

angles of cesspools, as well as the bottoms, should be dovetailed

together to

make

a satisfactory

tongued together.

Their

and good

size varies,

the standard being 12 inches square

Lead
falls

Flats.

The

same

job,

though they are often only

of course, according to circumstances,

and 9 or 10 inches deep.

rules apply to lead flats as to gutters, the

of which are regulated by the bearers, which, of course, are stronger

according to the increased bearing.

II

BUILDING CONSTRUCTION.

l62

The

rolls, etc.,

necessitated by the widths of lead or zinc will be dealt

with in Chapter XIV., on Plumbing and Zincwork.


Gutters behind parapet walls or chimneys are under the same rules
with regard to
figs.

falls, etc.,

410 and 411

as last described,

and are constructed

similar to

respectively.

k Scale

Gutters, owing to their rise up between the roofs, etc., increase in width
consequent on the greater distance between the eaves of the roof as they
get higher up (see fig. 412) ; and they must be shown to increase in width

on

all

plans accordingly.
flats, where traffic would gradually wear it
by snow-boards^ which consist of arched

All leadwork in gutters or

away,

should be protected

ROOFS.

163

bearers, across the gutters, supporting laths or lattice-work

no more than

Y^ inch apart, running longitudinally with the fall. The bearers must be
arched when laid across to allow the water to pass, and the spaces between

F/g4l2ifS'caie

the laths should never be more than


^\ inch in width, as snow will get
through wider interstices, freeze, expand, and upset the laths, besides
forcing
the water under the drip or drop, and causing a
backing up, and consequently
letting the

water within the roof

when

the thaw sets in

(m'(/e fig.

413).

CHAPTER XI.
IRON AND STKEL.
Iron-Wrought Iron-RoUed Girders and JoistsTig Iron-Cast Iron-Cast Malleable
Steel.

the subject of iron and steel from


only proposed to deal with
engmeer
not as would be required for an
builder's point of view, and
of which
points
various
the
of
given
ironfounder,abriefr/.^ being

It

^
or

is

the student

is

required to have some knowledge.

Pig Iron -Wrought and


iron, extracted

re

its

ling

made from ptg

steel are all

process which consists


from the natural ore by the smelting
been crushed into smaller
in a furnace, after it has

of heating the ore


dried.
particles, and then roasted or
limestone
furnace
When in the
extract

and

cast iron

impurities,

in the

is

added to the prepared dry ore to

and a hot or cold

molten

blast passed over the aggregate,

metal leaving the lighter

and more

fusible impurities

it is run into long


itself to the bottom, whence
at the top, and sinking
and her pigs,
"sow
the
called
sand
in
channels with branches formed

j
which sives this iron its name.
a
and
is divided into the foundry
This "pig" or unpurified cast-iron
carbon
the
of
by the combination and amount
forge qualities, distinguished
,

proporthe resulting cast-iron having a


each in the first instance contains,
to 2-00
0-15
from
have
while steel should only
tion of from 2 to 6 per cent.,
it.
from
free
practically
should be
per cent., and good wrought-iron
iron and steel
a very important part
such
plays
it
although
Carbon,
the d.fferen
on
h^
it
which
effect
matter, the
is considered a foreign
it is in
When
combination.
its
depending on the nature of

.J.W

metals

combination in cast-iron

it

metal, only
produces a white, hard, and bnttle

uses, such as sash-weights.


mixture, in which particles of carbon
the other hand, a mechanical
a grey appearance produces superior
appear as black specks, giving it
foi
being hard and brittle, and suitable
metals, that of a light grey colour

fit

for the

On

commonest

IRON AND STEEL.


heavy castings,

while the

dark grey

medium

ornamental work ; but a

is

165

weak,

and only used

for light

and

quality in colour gives us a strong

capable of resisting con-

durable metal, of weight-carrying properties,


siderable pressure.

Cast Iron.
foundry

pigs,

White

cast-iron

each of which

is

made from

is

forge

and grey from

remelted and run into the moulds formed in

sand according to requirement.

Good
and

cast-iron

should be of uniform toughness, with an even surface

straight edges, to

quality should be clean

show even shrinkage, while a fracture of the best


and bright, of a bluish-grey colour, and free from

air or sand-holes, the presence of which can


mass by the hollow sound given when the metal

any

All angles of castings should

be gradual, to

easily

be detected in the

hammered.
prevent uneven shrinkage,
is

Sca/efas a thin portion will naturally cool

where these two are adjacent

much

faster

than a thick one

and

must be gradual, so that the


thin part shall not set first and act as a check on the other, and cause
cracks.
This point is of especial importance in castings for girders and
cantilevers, on account of the great difference there is between the power
their junction

of cast-iron to resist compression and tension, the former being 38 tons per

square inch, and the

The

**

safe " load

latter
is

about 8 tons ultimate strength.

about 8 and i| tons per square inch respectively,

or nearly in the proportion of

to 6

flanges of a girder are subject to the

and when it is considered that both


same amount of stress, the top one of

compression and the bottom of tension,


sectional areas, to resist their strains,

it

is

obvious that their respective

must be

in the proportion of

to 6,

otherwise there would be either a waste of metal or lack of strength in

one or the

other.

Therefore the section of a cast iron girder must be as

fig.

414, the

BUILDING CONSTRUCTION.

i66

top one while the web^


must make a gradual junction between the

bottom flange having

six times the area of the

as the vertical portion

is

two

called,

at top and bottom.


" Girders," it will be understood, are bearers having supports at both

ends, while a "cantilever," as

fig.

415, has only one

end fixed; and

consequently the strains on the flanges are the reverse of those of girders
(as will

be explained in Chapter XXIV.), necessitating also the reversal of

the section in cast-iron cantilevers, which should be, therefore, as shown


in

fig.

416.

Cast Malleable Iron. "Cast malleable

iron " results from the ex-

traction of a proportion of the carbon out of cast-iron

the casting in oxide of iron, and reheating

it

in

by means of embedding

an annealing or softening

f^S^^SS

3
Fin ^15
oven.

and

is

This kind of iron combines the qualities of wrought and cast-iron,


for intricate work in wrought-iron specialities, being welded

used

to the wrought-iron plainer portions,

Wrought

Iron.

"Wrought

which cannot be done with cast-iron.


which has now, to a great extent,

iron,"

superseded cast-iron, except for ornamental purposes, is the product of


" Forge Pig," the resulting metal containing not more than 0*15 per cent,
of carbon.

The

excess of carbon,

it

is

obvious, must be extracted from

the iron, the usual processes being as follows

The

pig iron

is

first

puddled or melted clear of any

fuel,

but with

other substances (containing oxygen) to take out the remaining carbon

and when

done the metal is collected and cooled into lumps, which


are then shingled or placed under a heavy hammer, by which the iron is
consolidated, and all other foreign matters are crushed out.
The bloom^ as it is called, resulting from this hammering, is then
rolled, while still hot, into puddled bars, which are the first and lowest
quality of wrought-iron.
As manipulation improves the tenacity and
strength of wrought-iron, these puddled bars are cut up, piled, heated, and
this

is

IRON AND STEEL.


rolled

as

before

wrought-iron

quality

or third

forming

and a

merchant

the

outcome of further repetitions


of giving the iron a more uniform

are the
eifect

Good wrought-iron

second

or

quality

is

varying from

B B

and Best- Best- Best,

B,

each

of

B,

such operation having the

fibrous nature.

of a very tough, fibrous, weldable nature, capable

of elongation, under certain weights, with


of area

bar^

6/

repetition of this process produces the best bar, B,

while Best-Best,

little

proportionate contraction

lo to 20 per cent, according as

has also the power of

it

is

across, or -with

going back
and section, after the weight has been removed though
weight, which is said to
it can be fatigued by a continuance of that
cause a perma?ient set ; meaning that the iron then stops atl the position
to which the load has drawn it, and this is said to be its limit 0/ elasticity,
the fibre of the metal.

to

its

It

elasticity, or

original size

extending to one-half

its

ultimate strength.

It

should be capable of bear-

ing 24 tons per square inch, ultimate tensile strain,

compression and shearing

These two powers of

respectively.

and about 20 tons of

equivalent to safe loads of about 5 and 4 tons

resistance are so

much more

nearly

equal in wrought than in cast-iron, that top and bottom flanges of a girder

may be made

with

alike,

little

waste of material or forfeiture of strength.

Rolled Girders and Joists.


to sections, as

any

iron) to

fig.

417

Therefore

section, or design

size,

The

on account of

cast-iron

because the iron can be welded,

worked

riveted, bent, rolled, or otherwise

done with

girders or joists are rolled

and, in addition, they can be built up (in wrought

its

any form, which cannot be

to

brittleness.

good wrought-iron, under a weight apand gradually, should be stringy in appearance, as if every
little fibre had held out to the last on its own account, some with greater
success than others while the fracture under a sudden shock would be of
a more crystalline nature, its coarseness or fineness indicating its quality
the same deductions being drawn from the fine or coarse strings of a
surface of the fracture of

plied slowly

gradual fracture.

Iron contracts

or

expands

(Fahrenheit) of temperature

x:g-^V?ri7

and

this

^^

^^^

length

for

designing large wrought-iron structures.

Phosphorus

is

said to

make

of being bent and worked, as

of sulphur has the opposite


Steel.

of which,

effect,

rendering

it

i.e.,

not capable

while the presence

hot short.

and the same of compression with shearing at 24 tons


will be noticed, exceeds the power of resistance

it

of wrought-iron, which

it

has superseded

buildings being Siemens-Martin


preferred

wrought-iron cold short

should be, when cold

in

Steel has a tensile strength of 32 tons per square inch, ultimate

or breaking weight,

each

it

every degree

must be taken into consideration

on account of

its

the kinds generally used for

and Bessemer Basic

the former

usually

greater toughness, though the latter rolls into

BUILDING CONSTRUCTION.

l68

more shapely

joists,

This difference

is

and has bye-products valuable

to the manufacturer.

not worth considering in ordinary buildings, and more-

over the Bessemer Basic

is

cheaper.

trifle

Steel contams trom 0-15 to 2 per cent, of carbon, the

amount being

regulated either by addition to wrought or extraction from pig-iron, as


hereinafter explained.

It

has the strengths previously mentioned, with

and combines most of the useful characteristics of both


cast and wrought-iron in addition to which it can be hardened or softened;
which is called tempering, the former being done by reheating and
sudden cooling, and the latter by reheating at a lower temperature and
gradual cooling.
greater elasticity,

The

various kinds of steel are

Tool

Steel, as

the

name

made

implies,

is

as follows

used

including knives, and other cutting tools.

which consists of

tion,"

at a

It is

made by

the process on the face of the

then reheated and rolled, forming Spring Steel] while the

and double shear

single

the product of " cementa-

high temperature, forming Blister Steel

called because of the blisters

iron.

It is

the cutting up of pure wrought-iron bars and

them with charcoal

heating

so

for all kinds of instruments,

steels

are the results of further cementations, after

which the metal is hammered together by a large "tilt " hammer.


Cast Steel includes the following different methods, the resulting materials
being used for cutlery, railway

The

rails,

and wheels, armour,

Bessefuer process includes

boiler plates, etc.

the melting of pig-iron with

produce pure wrought-iron, to which the required carbon


form of " Spiegeleisen."

fluxes,

to

added

in the

The Siemefis process substitutes Mokta ore for the Spiegeleisen


The Siemens-Martin method, wrought scrap iron is added, to

other
is

while in
give the

required carbon.

The

resulting metal

is

then rolled, according to Whitworth's patent, to

compress the mass and get rid of the holes contained in all cast-steel.
These last processes make the steel which is usually rolled into girders,
building purposes.

etc., for

Mild

steel

can be made by the above

o'2 to o*5 per cent, of carbon only,

Wrought-iron and

steel,

by the

and

is

processes, but contains from

superior to wrought-iron.

equality of their diff'erent powers, have

a great advantage over cast-iron, which they entirely supersede for most

work

in

which the structures are subject to both tension and compression,

alternating in the

same

flanges, especially in

continuous girders,

etc.

(as

explained in Chapter XXIV.).

When wrought-iron or steel girders meet from different directions over


columns they must be grouped together by angle plates, bolted to the
webs of each girder, so that they can assist each other to make up for
their small bearings, which should scarcely ever be less than 9 inches

IRON AND STEEL.


for weight-carrying joists, girders, etc.
is

Figs.

418 and 419

169
illustrate

what

required at such junctions over columns.

To
metals

guard against corrosion, which gradually reduces their strength, these


variously treated, by being

may be

1.

Boiled in tar;

2.

Plunged into

oil

when

red-hot, or coated with boiled oil

4/8.

Scale

Section thro' Viebs

down
Fig 419

(lookinq

3.

Galvanized by a covering of zinc

4.

Painted with oxide of iron instead of lead-paint, in order to give

or

them some protection from atmospheric and other influences, which tend
to injure them, and bring about deterioration of strength ; and just lately
it has been found that by adding a small proportion of aluminium to the
steel in the
manufacture the corrosion, to which it is greatly and
prejudicially subject, can

be considerably reduced.

CHAPTER

XII.

RIVETS AND RIVETING.


Riveted

Machine

Work Hand

Riveting

Riveted Work.

Riveting Forms of Rivets


Methods of Riveting.

Riveting

the

is

means by which "

Size of Rivets

first-class "

wrought-

iron and steel framings are connected together, and especially girders built

up of

several

members, the common class of work being connected by


It can be done by hand or by machinery, and

bolts in lieu of rivets.

consists of circular tapered wrought-iron pins, as

it

were, similar to

with heads of various patterns, which are driven

Fit^

concentrically

made

connected together.
wrought-iron, the

in

the

The

two

rivets

Staffordshire

when hot

fig.

420,

into holes

420

pieces of wrought-iron or steel to

should be

made

of the very best (B

be
B)

and Yorkshire qualities being the most


an ultimate shearing strain

suitable, as they are capable of withstanding


(to

which

rivets are subjected) of

about 25 tons per square inch, with a

contraction of area of from 40 to 50 per cent., and elongation of 20 per

cent, before a permanent set takes place.

Good

rivet-iron

should admit of being doubled up, when cold, with-

out showing any signs of fracture

capable of

and the heads, when

withstanding hammering

surface before cracking at the edges,

down

to

hot, should be

almost a flattened thin

and they should allow of a hole

RIVETS

AND

RIVETING.

being punched through them of nearly their

I/I

own diameter without

crack-

ing round the hole.

Inasmuch as the
adaptation to
at

and consequently the

on these rivets which have to transmit unaided a


great and heavy strains from one plate or member

which they are connecting together

it

is

absolutely necessary

that the best rivet-iron should always be used, and fully


tion

successful

series of

to another,

strength,

entire

work, of the structure or girder often depends wholly

points

certain

complete

its

on which the calculations

for the girder or

up

to the specifica-

framing have been based

also necessary that the operation of riveting should

be performed
and most workmanlike manner.
Hand Riveting. The method of proceeding in *' hand riveting " is as
A gang, of two boys and three men, is set on to each job, the
follows

and

it is

in the best, soundest,

boys having to heat the rivets in a portable smith's forge adjoining the
work, and to hand

them up

in buckets,

when

hot, to

stands under the plates to be connected up.

one of the

men who
man

This single-handed

having previously knocked out of the rivet-holes a punch with which he


has tested them for position, so as to see that the holes in the plates
coincide properly and are concentric

pushes up the red-hot

rivet

through

head underneath. On the pin of


the rivet coming through the hole, and when the man underneath has
secured his iron to its head, one of the two men who are at the top of the
plates then hammers the tail of the rivet down, so that it fills the holes
It is to be noted, that it cannot be driven downwards again
completely.
through the plates, because of the man's iron below ; and, as the plates
should previously have been hammered close together, the metal shank
cannot be squeezed between the plates, and so keep them apart afterthe holes, and places his

hammer on

its

wards.

This being done, the second


over the red-hot iron, which has

and the other hammers


other head of the rivet.

man

at the top

then places an iron die

now been compressed

within the holes,

down, so that the die forms the upper end or


The rivet-heads may be of various patterns, as
hereinafter explained.
The whole of this process only lasts a few seconds,
and on the iron cooling it contracts and pulls the plates together by means
of the ends of the pin of the rivet, as the sketches will explain.
Machine Riveting. "Machine riveting," of course, has to be done in
it

the shops at the ironbuilder's yard or works ; so that only certain parts,
though often the majority, can be riveted together, by machines, which

work on

similar lines

to the

process of hand riveting,

but have the

advantage of making both ends of the rivet at the same time, while the
very great pressure, oftentimes from 50 to 60 tons, compresses the iron

and

fills

up the

consequently,

rivet holes so

when

much

better than

when done by hand

',

and

the rivets cool and contract, they have greater power

BUILDING CONSTRUCTION.

172

known where

Indeed, cases have been

to pull the plates together.

the

pins of machine-riveted work have been so tightly fitted in the holes, that

when

the heads have gone, or been removed, the pins have kept the plates

together

and, moreover, the pins have even had to be

*'

required, because they could not otherwise be got out.

seen that machine riveting

by hand

and not only

Hence

it

when

will

be

and better than that clenched


but the work is done so much cheaper by

is

that,

drilled out,"

far superior

machinery.

The employment
as plates,

is

of bolts and nuts, to connect ironwork together, such

not to be compared, in point of strength and efficiency, with

which pull the plates together in themselves, when they cool, after
having been hammered down, whereas bolts can only be screwed up to the
plates, so that the tightness of the connection and the perfection of the

rivets,

work depend solely on the thread of the bolt and nut.


Forms of Rivets. The different classes of rivets are distinguished
by their different-shaped heads, and the different modes of riveting by

the order in which the rivets are placed, and the

Among

them.

number of rows of

the different kinds of rivets the chief are as follows :

n^

Fia 424

^23

Snap rivets, as fig. 421, have hemispherical heads, which are formed
by the die, and are sometimes called button or cupe n ded nwQis.
Hammered, conical, or staff rivets, as fig. 422, are made by the
hammering of the red-hot iron to the required shape, as shown, no die
being used for these.

Pan
424

rivets are similar to fig. 423, and counter-sunk rivets to fig.


these latter being used where the plates must take a truly level

bearing, which would not be possible with heads which project.

holes

for these

rivets are

The

always drilled with a splayed shoulder within

the plates, as the illustration explains.

The

holes in the plates

may be

either

punched

in

or drilled,

the

!|

i|

AND

RIVETS

RIVETING.

173

being the better mode, because, while ensuring much greater accuracy in the setting out of the pitch, they are cleaner, as will be seen
by a comparison of figs. 425 and 426; and they also do not injure

latter

Drilled
the fibres of the plates by the sudden shocks and hammering.
rivet holes also make stronger and better connected work, so that the

need not be so large as for punched work.


Size of Rivets. The rule for proportioning the size of the rivets in
punched holes, as laid down by wSir W. Fairbairn, is For the diameter of
the rivets, double the thickness of the plate under | inch thick, the larger

rivets

plate always being

taken

as

the basis

for

diameters

their

in

plates

above i inch thick the diameter of the holes should be i| times the
thickness of the larger plate.

The

made

holes are

when hot

and

they

larger than

slightly

are

set

out

meant the distance from centre


used

(as 4-pitch)

to

centre

to

the

different

which expand

rivets,

pitches,

of the

holes,

by which is
the numeral

denoting the number of diameters of the

rivet

from

centre to centre.

Fi^ 425
The common

Fiq 426

pitches are 4 or 5 diameters, equivalent to from 4 to

6 inches, according to the

size

of the rivets.

rivet

should be placed nearer than

plate

plate

and punched holes should be


than drilled

Methods of

In the outside row no

own diameter

to the edge of the


away from the edge of the
ones, because they weaken the plate more.
its

Riveting.

farther

Riveting,

as before noted,

is

distinguished

by the order and number of the rows at the joint required to transmit
the whole strain from one plate to the other, through the medium of the
rivets themselves.
Za/> joints require only one set to convey a strain from
plate to plate ; while Jisk joints require two sets, the one to transmit the
strain from one plate to the fish-plate, and the other set to take it from
the fish-plate to the other long plate.
joint

would be called a

Fig.

429

similar in

cfoud/e

illustrates

section to

fig.

row

Thus, two single rows

at

foh

at a lap joint.

quadruple zigzag riveting


427, while

it

would be

on a lapped joint,
"double zigzag

called

joint were fished similar to fig. 430 ; so that single,


and quadruple riveting differs for lap and fish joints,
and others of similar character, and care must always be taken to
describe them properly, according to the nature of the joint.

riveting "

double,

if

the

triple,

BUILDING CONSTRUCTION.

174

Lap

or lapped joints, as

one another,
Fish

to

fig.

427, consist of two plates overlapping

be riveted together.

or fished

joints

are

as

fig.

430

in

section,

explain itself after the previous remarks, and what has


fished joints in

which

should

been said on

carpentry.

Section

Fig 427

Jump joints, in riveting, are for compression when they are employed,
which should be very seldom, as the strength of the connection depends
more on the butting surfaces of the plates than the rivets ; and, whether
these surfaces be planed or not, the very act of riveting the joint has

AND

RIVETS
the "zigzag" being considered

the fibres of the plates.

(fig.

better than

is

For example,

in

taken out of one continuous fibre

428), two holes

fig.
;

the "chain," because

much

being alternate, do not take so

holes,

were,

RIVETING.

75

the

out of the continuity of


429, only one hole, as

whereas

if it

it

were " chain "

would be taken.

Section
Fig. 430.

The
joints,

strength

of a solid plate

being taken at

by way of comparison, may be taken

chain riveting at 85.

at 56,

100 single riveted

double

at 70,

and

CHAPTER

XIII.

IRON ROOFS.
Iron versus

Wood Wood Members Iron


Joints

Iron

how

versus

Wood.

Trusses

and Connections

The

Strains on Truss Members

Dimensions.

student will have noticed (in Chapter XI.)

the use of iron tends to supersede that of

wood

designed and executed in

and

wrought-iron of various forms increased, so


the construction of roofs,
different trusses, for
until

now

it

first

which

in

its

buildings as stations, warehouses, factories,

and where no

wood in
members of the

gradually displaced

it

many ways

has almost completely taken

plain, substantial character,

in roofs originally

taking the parts of various

was

it

wood

as excellence in the production of

the

more

suitable material,

place for the roofs of such

and

similar constructions of a

ceilings are required

whereas,

in trusses for the roofs of domestic buildings, the difficulty of dealing with

manner precludes the exclusive use of iron


must be pointed out that iron is still used for the trusses only
in all buildings, seeing that the purlins must necessarily be of wood to
receive the rafters, which must also be of wood, for the purpose of
securing the roof-boarding or laths which carry the slates or other external
coverings.
These wooden members or, rather, the longitudinal parts of
roofs, such as purlins or ribs, and ridges, to which the covering framing is
secured are supported in their respective positions by angle-irons and
other similar means, which are, in their turn, secured by bolts or rivets to

them

in a simple, practical

though

it

the principal

rafters, etc.,

of the iron trusses.

Before proceeding to deal with the iron trusses themselves

it

will

be

well to fully explain this part of the subject.

Wood Members. The


let into

or

it is

ridge is generally treated as in fig. 431, being


a special casting fitted and secured to the apex of the iron truss

held up between two short pieces of angle-iron, also secured to the

truss, as fig. 432.


Z76

IRON ROOFS.
The purlins, or
when placed closer

ribs,

which support the

177

common

together, the boarding itself

is

or to which,
are secured by

rafters

affixed

Wooc/.

Side Elevation

Fig 431
Front Elevation

coach screws to angle-irons, as


rafter, just as cleats assist

fig.

purlins

433, bolted to the back of the principaJ

on wooden

trusses.

Fi^ 432

Iron Trusses.

Iron trusses have a lighter appearance than wooden


though they can be made much stronger, according to requirements, both wrought and cast-iron being employed in their construction in

trusses,

12

BUILDING CONSTRUCTION.

178
the

first

The

instance.

as rafters

and

struts

cast-iron

is

used

while wrought-iron

for the
is,

members

in compression,

of course, used for ties

and

suspension rods, whether kings^ queens^ or princesses^ as they are called


in

wooden

As

roofs.

sudden shocks,

etc.,

cast-iron was very fragile


and otherwise troublesome

Front Elevation

liable
it

to

was

snap under

in

course of

^^
Side Elevation

time displaced by wrought-iron, which has the advantage of being almost


equally as strong to resist compression as tension

members which

tension, almost touching

are liable to both compression

and

great point in

some

rig 434
each

other,

" Strains

"),

as

it

so that

were

now

(as

will

be explained in Chapter XXIV. on

iron roof trusses, with the exception (and that not

always) of the shoe, connecting the truss to the bearings on the supports,
are completely built

When

up of wrought-iron.
first came into vogue they were made of

iron trusses

similar

IRON ROOFS.
form to wooden

it

434 and 435 which, it will be seen,


and " queen "-post wooden trusses but subse-

trusses, as in figs.

are identical with " king "

quently

179

was found out that these old

lines of principle could

be deviated

Fig 435

from with advantage, causing a saving of labour and material without any
loss of strength whatever.

Among

the various novelties in form then and

afterwards introduced were trusses similar to

were oftentimes made of circular form

i.e.,

figs.

436

to

441

or they

with a circular roof formed by

circular principal rafter, the framing to support it being on lines following


one or other of the triangular-shaped trusses hereinbefore illustrated.
Strains on Truss-members. In the study of iron roofs it helps the

student considerably to have a knowledge, however slight, of the different


strains,
rally

whether of tension or compression, which the members are gene-

subjected to

and with

tliat

end

in view

the writer would suggest

BUILDING CONSTRUCTION.

i8o

that the following simple comparison be

the other

viz., if

may be taken

for granted that that

substitution cannot be

compression.

employed

to distinguish

one from

a rope can be substituted for the piece of iron, then

made

member

is

in tension

whereas,

without detriment to the structure,

This being ascertained, rods must be used

if
it

for tension,

it

such
is

in

and

T's for compression, ;^enerally.

With

this

knowledge the student should be perfectly able

he principle of the fallowing

to apply

illustrated explanations of the ordinary Joints

IRON ROOFS.
to whatever ordinary roof

is

required.

It

would be an endless undertaking

to point out the peculiarities of all joints of the


trusses, so that

many

an exposition of the principles must

Joints

i8i

forms of iron roof-

sufifice

once

for

all.

Side Elevation
,

and Connections.The

foot of the truss

is

collected top;ether

and connected to the supports by means of a cast-iron shoe (as figs. 442 to
445)> which, it will be seen, is a flat-bedded casting, with, as it were, two

BUILDING CONSTRUCTION.

Ig2

and between these cheeks (as they


may be called) is placed the web of the T-shaped rafters the remaining
space, between the web and the two cheeks, being filled up with thin
wrought-iron bars, which extend within the truss, and in their turn, figurajambs, cheeks, or posts rising from

it,

tively speaking, grip the tie-rod.

GibsA cothers

Through these two cheeks, bars, and the web of the rafter, a pin or
is placed and screwed up at the outside, forming a complete connecwhich is
tion and perfect attachment of all the members to the shoe
bolt

itself

pad

secured to the supports by ragged bolts, leaded into a hard stone

built within the wall.

uftti ijm

Sectionxt
E/evatton

Fig 445

nd

Fig 444

Sometimes,

in

Section on A. A. Fig 12
A Elevation of shoe behind

common

roofs,

two angle-irons are bolted on each side

of the wrought-iron bars enclosing the

web

of the

rafter,

being themselves

secured to the pad-stones in the same manner as the cast-iron shoes (see
fig.

446, which

traction

is

a front sectional elevation).

and expansion of the

iron, as affected

In large trusses, the con-

by the temperature, must

be taken into consideration ; wherefore the shoes are made with a sort of
ribbed base, which rests on oiled rollers, working on the bottom side of an
iron box built into the, wall to receive the shoe or chair, as it is sometimes

IRON ROOFS.
called.
is

shown

183

This method, of course, supersedes the use of ragged

and

bolts,

in sectional elevation at fig. 447.

Where
nected, as

the shoe or chair has to be supported on columns,

shown

in

fig.

it is

con-

448, to the abacus or square plate on the top of

the cap of column.

Fi^ 449

F/^ 448
If there
in

happens to be an outlet of an eaves-gutter next

a roof of

inside of the
j

this description,

column

as the

inlet-hole specially cast


*

fig.

449-

the water must be

made

to

to run

a column

down

the

downpipe, the water being conveyed to an

on the column by means of a " swan-neck,"

as

BUILDING CONSTRUCTION.

l84

The rafters at the apex and the suspension rod are connected together
by thin cover plates on each side of the web of the rafters, gripping the
suspension rod below the rafter apex, where there is a space, as fig. 450.

L
Section

E /evation

strut

and suspension rod are connected

to the rafter

by a

joint, illus-

45 1 ; the web of the strut being attached on one side, and


the flattened eye of the rod the other.
The three are connected together
trated

by

fig.

Elevation

Sect/on

F/g
by a
the

bolt,

and the

web of the

flange of the strut

is

4-5

cut off close

up

to the underside of

rafter.

Struts, from their great tendency to bend, when in long lengths, under
heavy weights, have often to be built up of various blocked members,

as

figs.

452 to 455, in

circumstances.

lieu of plain T-iron,

They may be

which

is

used under ordinary

either straight or bulged, the latter being

IRON ROOFS.
preferable, but

more troublesome

{vide figs.

185
453 and 454).

The ends

of

the rods are forged out from the round, to grip the two plates of the strut
enclosing the flattened tie-rod, as shown in the enlarged section (fig. 455).

Front Elevation

Fiq 453

Fi^ 452

Fi^ 467

A
fig-

single strut, of

456

the

web of

ordinary T-iron,

is

connected

to the tie-rod, as in

and the

flange bent over the

the strut being cut off

BUILDING CONSTRUCTION.

86

bulged

suspension rod going through both, and being bolted up

tie-rod, the

If the flange of the strut

underneath.

the strut and the rafter, the


strut

and the

The

tie-rod,

and

web

is

is

cut off at the top joint between

cut off at the bottom joint between the

vice versa.

joint at the foot of the centre suspension rod

iron, is as

fig.

457,

fig.

452 also applying

and

struts,

when

of T-

to this joint, with a little modifi-

when the strut is built up. As it is


they are made in two lengths, and connected

cation,

usual to camber the tie-rods,


at this joint as the illustration

explains.

Louvres and

lanterns^

on iron

supports, secured to the top of the


fig-

roofs,

are

constructed

rafters to carry

by cast-iron

the roof framing, as

458, the wall-plate being fixed by coach screws through holes drilled

on the top of the

casting, as

shown

gijgsMsR

in elevation.

'msm^A^mm^

Fig 459

and other rods have to be jointed in their length, they are


minus459, which illustrates a coupling-screw, X being a
thread i.e., within the circumference, and the other a plus-thread/.^.,
It will be seen that the turning of
projecting beyond the circumference.

When

treated as

tie

fig.

the hexagonal coupler draws each rod inwards or pushes

it

outwards, the

IRON ROOFS.
threads being different at each end

the

187

one a right-handed, the other a

left-handed screw.
Diag07ialy or cross-ties, are used for tying several roof trusses together

and having a tendency to make


one end being fixed to the
Such
runs up to the ridge of Z.

to resist a strong wind, driving at their end,

them

overturn.

foot of

one truss

cross- bracing

460

Fig.

is

at

illustrates their use,

X, from which

requisite for

wood and

it

iron roofs with gable ends alike.

Iron roof trusses are usually placed about 7 feet apart, the same distance

Fi<^

460

generally being between the suspension rods,

and

also

The

between the
rise

in

weight)

iV

^o

TT of

measured along the

of iron roofs (which are generally covered with light materials


is

from 4 to 5 of their span;

its

length.

Dimensions.

The

sizes of the various

following table

members

the

gives

of strut and

tie

cambering from

tie-rod

the

and economical

safe

wrought-iron roof trusses,

of different spans, spaced 6 feet 8 inches centre to centre

span.

tie-rod,

struts to the rafters.

CHAPTER

XIV.

COVERINGS FOR ROOFS.


Lead

WorkLead

Work Zinc

on Roofs Zinc

on Roofs Slates Forms of Slates-

Fix ng of SlatesTiles Fixing of Tiles Special

Lead Work. Lead


extremely flexible

a material of a

is

soft,

of rendering slated

tiled roofs watertight

heavy, highly fusible, and


flat roofs,

nature, used as a covering to

and

Forms of Tiles

and

as a

means

being, on account of

its

angular and similar joints in roofs, where


flexibility,
It has no
slates renders them useless.
and
tiles
of
nature
the brittle
is smelted down to a
strength whatever, and is the product of an ore which
cast-pigs
molten state, and rolled into large sheets, or made into pipes and
highly adapted for

all

which are beyond the province of this chapter.


The sheets may be either cast or milled, the former being heavier in
in thickness
weight, thicker, and harder but, on account of its irregularity
;

and sandholes in the casting, it is of little service to


of exceptional
the plumber, except in very heavy work and the covering
church roofs.
and

liability to flaws

Milled lead

is

rolled out, as the

name

implies, into thinner sheets of a

more uniform thickness and denser nature, and it is in this form that lead
plumber for roof-coverings and similar
is mostly used by the builder or
"
"
Its quality is described
bossed up as required.
work, in which it can be
used being 4, 5, 6, 7,
most
qualities
by its weight per superficial foot, the
and 8

lbs.

idea of

its

per foot in weight


thickness,

it

and, to give the student an approximate


that 7 lbs. milled sheet lead is

may be mentioned

under and 8 lbs. a little over \ inch in thickness.


Except in very exposed positions the following weights are suitable, and
4-lb. for soakers ; 5-lb.
generally used for the nature of work specified
and 7-lb. for gutters, flats, hips, and ridges.
6-lb. for valleys
flashings

little

for

It

power over
should always be borne in mind that the sun has great
i83

COVERINGS FOR ROOFS.


drawing

lead,

it

away, as

it

were, so that leadwork should never be securely

but always free to move.

fixed,

189

Before proceeding to enter fully into the

which lead

details of the various positions in

is

used

it

will

be advantage-

ous to enable the different parts to be identified on a roof plan.

Lead on Roofs.

most of the positions

461 represents a plan of a roof, and will show


which lead is used on a roof, the letters on the

Fig.

in

plan referring to the following


valley

D, a

a parapet

chimney

flat

roof;

and

P,

S,

L, a

roll

in front of a

A, a ridge

M, a

chimney

drip

462,

B,

a hip

C, a

G, gutters behind

N, a gutter behind a
;

V, junction of

flat

and

iron eaves-gutter.

wood-roll 2^

first,

the ridge A, which

is

treated as

inches in diameter being secured by double-

shouldered spikes to the ordinary ridge as shown


fillet

T, a step-flashing on the side of a chimney

W, an

Following this key plan, we have,


fig.

between two roofs

Q, the parapet wall R, the


a gable where the flashings and secret gutter would be

an apron
;

members

F, gutters

H, a cesspool

top of cornice

used

secured to the ordinary ridge, as

fig.

or nailed to a bevelled

463, the object of which

is

to

BUILDING CONSTRUCTION.

I90

enable the plumber to be the better able to dress the lead under the

roll,

form a key, so as to prevent the sun from drawing it off.


In practice, the bottom of the roll should be no less than 2 inches
above the top of the ridge to allow for this key and the wings or sides of
the lead covering should extend 7 inches down the roof over the slates.
in order to

The

lead

is

put on in 7 or 8-feet lengths, with a 6-inch lap at the joints,

Fi^ 462
and fastened down on the top (so that it has freedom to move elsewhere)
by round-headed copper spikes, or by lead tags about ik inches wide,
fixed by copper nails, 2 or 3 feet apart, to the woodwork underneath, as
464.

fig.

B.

Hips are

treated

difficulty at the junctions

dressed

down

first,

in

section

in

similar

way

to

ridges,

the

with the ridge being got over by the hips being

and the ridge lapping over,

as

fig.

465

and the

foot of

s /snide

the hip

is

bossed, as shown at the foot of the same figure, the

roll

itself

stopping several inches off the eaves, and being rounded off for the lead to

be dressed over

as illustrated.

C. Valleys are internal angles, as opposed to hips, which are external.


Fig.

466 represents a section of a valley 5 inches of lead should be


from the edge of the slate to the centre or angle of the valley, to
;

visible

allow a person to walk up them without breaking slates, and the lead should
go 6 inches under the slates^ and be nailed by copper nails, always over
the

tilter,

and

just turned

up the

roof, as

shown.

They

are put on in 7 or

COVERINGS FOR ROOFS.


8-feet lengths, and,

where a

joint occurs, the

6 inches under the upper piece, which

saddle-piece

is

used

at the top,

valley-piece going 6 inches

[to

is

191

bottom piece

is

copper-nailed

dressed over similarly to

fig.

467.

next the ridge, just as for hips, the

under the saddle-piece.

D. Flats^ as the name implies, are roofs with small pitches which have
(or zinc), as slates and tiles are wholly unsuitable

be covered with lead

and

ineffectual.

laid

"with the

across the

fall

The boards on which the lead is to be dressed should be


so that there may be no projections and sharp edges

fall,"

to cause the lead to

F\(j

wear

and

for the

same reason they

466

rig 467

should be also of such thickness

that

there

is

no

possibility of their

warping.

The boards being

laid

according to the above principle, and to a

fall

of ii inches to 2 inches in 10 feet,

and as the lead should never be in


more than lo-feet lengths at the outside, and that only in exceptional cases
7 or 8-feet lengths are the best, and also the most economical, as the

lead sheets are only 7 feet 9 inches wide, sizes

above that length having

to

BUILDING CONSTRUCTION.

192
be cut lengthwise

the

to joint

rolls

it

are fixed at certain distances

apart,

usually 2 feet io| inches from centre to centre, or about 32 inches apart,

so arranged (for economy) that two widths can be cut without waste out of
the width of a sheet 7 feet 9 inches wide ; it is also unadvisable to have
the lead in larger surfaces, in view of the sun's power over it.
These rolls, fixed at the above distances apart, are used as a basis for
the joint, one side of the sheet of lead going over and being secured by
copper nails to one roll as X, on fig. 468 ; and the other side is lapped to

a distance of i| inches on the


the

first side.

This,

it

the lead to expand, as

will
it

flat,

over another sheet already treated as

be seen, makes a complete covering, and allows

will

be noticed that

it is

X, the other being loose and dressed over the

The

only fixed at one side, as

roll

to

keep

it

in position.

and hips, on the flat shown in fig. 461, are treated in exacdy the
same manner ; the mitres being dealt wiih as fig. 469, one sheet lapping
ridge

Fi^ 463
over the complete joint, covering up the other different sheets in a manner
similar to the sections

on

fig.

468.

The ends

of the rolls are bossed

similarly to hips.

The

flat, on to the roof, is worked as fig. 470, the


an apron) being dressed and copper-nailed into a

nose, or eaves, of the

under-piece

(called

rounded rebate worked on the boards across their grain, so that the top
piece of lead may not be tilted up by the under-piece.
E and F. Gutters between roofs and behind parapets, as G, are
subject to similar rules to the last-named with regard to falls and the
lengths of the sheets of lead between drips M, or drips and rolls L;

COVERINGS FOR ROOFS.

193

the widths being regulated by the width of the gutters, which increase in
width in their ascent, as explained in the chapter devoted to " Carpentry."

X^

Fig. 471 represents a section of a gutter between two roofs, where the
width of gutter precludes the lead being used in one width, as fig. 472.

13

BUILDING CONSTRUCTION.

194
It

should be here pointed out that a gutter should always be 9 inches


flat at its lowest point, increasing in width as it rises.

on the

G and

N.

Fig.

473

is

a section of a gutter behind a parapet wall or

chimney, the lead being turned 4 inches up the wall at X, and covered
over by a cover-flashing 5 inches wide, wedged with oak or lead wedges
into a brick joint or stone groove.
It will be noticed that the lead goes

6 inches under the slates

but this should be increased to 9 inches in flat


;
where snow would lodge, as the flatter the pitch the less height there
between the top of the gutter and the top of the lead, as fig. 474, for the

roofs,
is

snow

to lie in.

7-9

on
10

more than
lon^.

f^^
rjct iiuiii M^i^jji^

rig 475
Rolls are used across gutters falling both ways to joint the lead and to
divide

them

Fig.

as a ridge does a pitched roof.

475 gives a longitudinal section of a gutter, starting from a pitched

COVERINGS FOR ROOFS.


downwards through one

roof,

93

which may be treated either as

drip,

figs.

476, 477, or 478.

H.

Cesspools are boxes

Fiij

formed

bottom of

gutters, to collect th

Fiq477

476

water previous to discharging


to the

at the

head or downpipe.

it

through a pipe from a hole in the bottom

The

best

way

to treat

them

is

as

shown

l?y

//y 478

fig.

479, which needs no explanation ; except to say that where the angles,
and bottom of the box cannot be bossed in one piece they must be

sides,

Fiq 473
soldered i.e., copper-nailed and covered with
lead
lead.

and

tin) laid

on while hot

to

solder (a composition of

adhere to and connect the adjoining

BUILDING CONSTRUCTION.

196

and P, a gutter and an apron.

chimney, showing the gutter

480 gives a section through a


and an apron flashing in the front,

Fig.

at the back,

both of which should be not less than 6 inches longer than the width of

the chimney, at each end,

covered by another to

so that they can

make a

be

water-tight joint, as

on one

laid
fig.

slate,

and

481.

Fig 4Mi

fig.

The

elevation of the side of a chimney, showing a step flashings

482

These step flashings are more ornamental than the plain cover
fig. 483 ; and they are either cut out in one piece 5 inches wide

flashing,

to

work

step, as

the

in with the brick joints as


fig.

485

up turns of

as

fig. 484, or each is put on as a separate


and that of other flashings, being to cover
shown by X, on fig. 473 or of soakers^ as

their object,
gutters, as

is

COVERINGS FOR ROOFS.

Fig 485

97

BUILDING CONSTRUCTION.

ipS
fig.

482

a soaker being a small piece of lead the length of the gauge and

lap of a slate or

explained in the next chapter), by 6 or

tile (as

and under the

wide, 3 of which go on

turned up the chimney or the gable, as

slates,

fig.

inches

and the remaining 4 are

486.

Flashings must always lap at the angles round a chimney

i.e.^

the step

must turn round the angle, on to and over the apron and
the cover flashing of the gutter must do the same to the step or side
or side flashing

Fi^ 467

Fiq 456

flashings, as

shown.

Secret gutters are

up gables covered with copings,

A
A

tingle, as fig.

welt, as

488,
489,

fig.

fig.

sometimes used,

487

in lieu of soakers^

in section.

a substitute for wood-rolls, though

is
is

as

little

used.

a folding of lead used to joint lead, where

rolls

S2SS5SSS5Ssssmssssssssr

Fi^ 489

Fi^ 488
are not used,

and

it is

especially suitable for vertical lead-work, the under-

piece being copper-nailed, as shown.

Soldered or lead dots are used for


surfaces,

where neither

rolls, tingles,

procedure being as follows

a hole

is

securing lead on vertical or

nor welts can be used, the

solder, as

fig.

490.

flat

of

scooped out of the boards, the lead

dressed in and screwed down, and the hollow

rounded over with

mode

is

afterwards filled up and

COVERINGS FOR ROOFS.

raglet

and when
the lead

is

is

199

a groove cut in masonry to receive the turn in of lead;

this is

done on the top of blocking course, and over

" burnt in

"

the " turned in "

i.e.^

is

flat

surfaces,

secured by running molten

lead into the groove or raglet.

bottle nosed drop is as fig. 491, from which it will be seen that
the upper board projects sufficiently to protect the turn-up of the lower

and the top

gutter

gutter

dressed over so as to form an apron.

is

This

Fi^ 4^0

mode

has the disadvantage

an objection which

is

of the lead apron being

easily

obviated by treating the drips as in

figs.

turned up,
476, 477

and 478.

Zinc Work.
on a cheaper

Zinc

scale,

is

a very thin, light metal, used for roof-covering

being about one-third of the cost of lead.

for gutters, valleys, soakers,

and

flashings, in

common

It is

used

work, in like manner

but it is chiefly as a cheap covering to flat and iron roofs of


and other large erections that it is valued and mostly used. Zinc
is very fusible and tough, and can be easily bent backwards and forwards
without cracking.
Moist air, when it does not contain acid, forms a
coating over it of oxide, which protects it
but sea and town atmospheres,

to lead

stations
jj

tainted with acid, soon destroy

Zinc

is

sold in sheets,

it.

the qualities of which are distinguished by

BUILDING CONSTRUCTION.

200

The qualities most used for building purposes are from 14


20 gauge; more generally the former, which weighs about 18 ounces per

superficial.

superficial foot.

Zinc on Roofs.
covering

is

The simplest form

in corrugated sheets,

in which zinc is used as a roofabout 30 inches wide and 7 feet long,

The

the ordinary kind having corrugations every 3 or 4 inches.

from purlin to

are laid

purlin,

sheets

placed about 30 inches apart, for the

purpose, lapped on to the corrugations at the longitudinal joints, as well


transverse joints, up the roof; and they are secured to the
woodwork by round-headed screws with washers, the joints being connected
as at the

by very small

The

bolts.

much

Italian corrugated zinc roof has

15 inches apart

and

appearing in section as

fig.

alternately over the rafters,

/'/

^^

namely,

492, from which

it

will

be seen they lap

and are secured by mushroom-headed screws

..

wider corrugations

the sheets are laid over rafters with rounded tops,

1.3

i^

^^

^N

.UncshaeL

to

the

same

rafters.

Fig.

493

is

a representation

of Braby's Italian

pattern.
Flats are

covered by zinc, as illustrated by

expansion and contraction (which

No

for.

is

fig.

494,

in

greater in zinc than in lead)

which the
is

provided

solder nor external fastenings whatever should be used

to ensure the best work, the zinc should

be

laid

and,

by experienced

men

only.

Zinc

is,

of course, laid on boarded roofs with 2|-inch drips, to joint

is treated as figs. 495 and 496, shown in section


and these drips should be at intervals of every 7 feet
Roofs with falls exceeding 12 inches in 8 feet
6 inches, or thereabouts.
need no drips, and the sheets are jointed by folds, as fig. 497. The wood
rolls, not rounded as for lead, are fixed, as in fig. 498, 2 feet io| inches
centre to centre, so that the zinc between them may be in one sheet, the
joints being made in the rolls, as in figs. 499 and 500.
The ends at the bottom and top of capping are treated as figs. 501
and 502, and the flashings against walls are dealt with as in fig. 503.

the zinc lengthwise, which

and elevation

Zinc

may be

treated in a very ornamental manner, as well as used for

ordinary work and

flat roofs.

The embossed work on

the Hotel Metropole,

o
-O

'/A

BUILDING CONSTRUCTION.

202

London, was executed

in

zinc

by Messrs.

Braby

and

pointed out that the system of zinc roofing here explained

that firm,

who

are the English agents for the

and purest zinc


Slates

towns

**

Vieille

is

Of

the two materials

slates

for roof-coverings, slates are the

less

should be

by

Montagne," the best

in the market.

and tiles generally used

in

more common, being cheaper and

better suited to the flatter kind of pitched roofs (of about

which are

it

as advised

expensive than the steep ones.

30 degrees)

Slates are the production

compact that
of an argillaceous or clay-formed rock, so fine-grained and
which are
sizes,
various
of
slabs
thin
it splits readily into extraordinarily

COVERINGS FOR ROOFS.


formed into

slates

for

203

roof-coverings, while the greater thicknesses are

converted into shelving and slabbing for other purposes.

good

slate

should be hard and yet tough, of very fine grain and

- 7

10^

Fi^ 498
uniform colour, thin and very non-absorbent, so much so that a good dry
slate, after standing 24 hours in water halfway up its height, should not
have drawn up and absorbed any moisture above the water-line.

Another

Fig 499
sign of
^orth

good quality

is

to

be able

to breathe

on the

any clayey odour, which would be a sign that

slate
it

will

without bringing
not weather.

FiQ 500

Wales and Westmoreland produce most of the

slates

used

in this

being of a green colour thicker, rougher, and much


eavier than the Welsh.
The latter are mostly of the same good quality.

lountry, the latter

BUILDING CONSTRUCTION.

204

and remarkable for their thinness and smoothness, the best being from

Penrhyn and Port Dinworic, the colours of which are


by their colour.

varieties the chief are distinguished

n^

alike.

Of

Bangor

the
slate

many
is

of

501

may be either blue, purple, or green.


and Whitland Abbey those of a green

a purple colour, while a Penrhyn slate

Portmadoc produces a blue


colour, which are thicker and
Stone

slates are

found

at

slate,

softer than the other kinds.

CoUey Weston and Naunton, while many

of

COVERINGS FOR ROOFS.

205

the Yorkshire stones can be split fine enough for roofing purposes.

stone slate

is

a non-conductor of heat, while the ordinary kind of slate

a good conductor of heat.

Fi^ 503

Forms

of Slates.-

A
is

or laps over the second one beneath


in conjunction with the

of work which

Thus we
to

BUILDING CONSTRUCTION.

206

name

it

(as

fig.

504)

specify that

slates are to

and

though more chiefly on the

and the name

lap

is

used

of the slates, of course, to denote the kind

Duchess or Countess

as laid to such

word

this

required to be done.

is

a 2^ or 2,-tnch " lap.''


Gauge. Sometimes, however, the word gauge

object

and

used

be used, laid

the same
on the lap,
be used. Given the

is

for

such a gauge^ which depends

size or

kind of

slate to

or size of the slates, the gauge can be found by calcula-

i.e., from the length of the slate deduct the lap, and half the remainder (because the slates are in two thicknesses) will be the gauge. In

tion

laying slates to a specification calling for " Countess slates laid to a 2|-inch
lap," for instance, the first thing a practical

man

not

having the gauge

at

I
his fingers' end, as

Thus

From 20

inches

were would

it

inches

(the

and

for the nails,

is

to calculate the " gauge.'*

Countess

slate)

all slates

/>.,

deduct 2|
8| inches.

battens to the rafters, or marks his line for the

fixes his

Good

perfectly horizontal,

work, in slating, should have the

and the

tails

vertical alternate joints ranging in

from eaves to ridge.

straight lines
first

the guide by which the slater " holes " his slates

nailing along the boarding.

The

of a

17^; half of that difference will be the gauge

This last-named figure

of

would be

do,

length

proceeding of a slater

the head being

be done either

left

at the

head or

two nail-holes are pierced


the head, so that the
their position

by

is

to square three sides of the slates,

rough, and then to hole them for the nails, which

tail

When

in the centre.

at a distance of

of the second

2 or 3 inches,

which

is

about

slate,

when

may

nailed at the head, the

inch downwards from


laid

on above

it,

covers

the difference between two gauges

and the length of the slate, less the distance the nail-holes are pierced
from the head of the slate.
Centre-nailed slates do not have their holes exactly in the centre, but
Thus, the
at the distance of the sum of the gauge and lap above the tail.

COVERINGS FOR ROOFS.

207

8| inches (the
holes of Countess slates laid to a 3 -inch lap would be
thereabouts
tail,
or
the
above
inches,
iij
gauge) plus 3 inches (the lap)
:

so that the nails

may

head of the

clear or miss the

Centre-nailed slates resist high winds very

lap

much

below.

better.

5^

ns
Fig.

slate

505 gives a section and plan of Countess slates laid to a 3-inch

and centre-nailed;

Duchess

slates

those of 16

while

X 8 inches

the same particulars of


and top-nailed"; and fig. 507
a 6|-inch gauge and nailed at

506 gives

fig.

"laid to a 2|-inch

lap

Ladies' laid to

head.

From

the above sketches

sized slate at the

bottom

called double eaves^

lap

and gauge, so

and

it

(at
its

will

be noticed that there

is

a different-

the eaves), shown by dotted lines

length

is

little

as to allow for the nail-hold above.

pointed out that, in centre-nailed

this

is

more than the sum of the

slates, this involves

battens together at the bottom for eaves, whence,

it

It

should also be

the placing of two

should be noted,

and is worked or laid in courses upwards.


are bonded by half-bond, as the plans indicate,

all

slating starts,

Slates

tating a half-slate at the gables, etc.

this

necessi-

Ridges have also a double course at the top, as

by

BUILDING CONSTRUCTION.

208

either a plain ridge, as

or ridge-roll

and

crest, as

fig.

509

fig.

slate

ridge

fig.

and

508, surmounted
roll,

as

fig.

508

510.

Fio 507

Torching

is

the pointing of the underside of slates with hair mort

used to stop the driving of snow.

Fi^
Full torching

is

the

filling

510

up of the space between battens with

mortar on the underside.


Shouldering

is

bedding the heads in mortar to tighten the

and prevent the wind

penetrating.

nail

hold

COVERINGS FOR ROOFS.

209

Rendering is the filling up of the space between battens or boarding to


bed the slates down.
Open slating is used for open sheds and inferior work, to save slates,
each slate being from i| to 4 inches apart, instead of butting up to each
other in the courses.

tile

is

Bedding is the setting in mortar of the top of the bed of one slate or
on the back of the one beneath it.
Cement-filleting^ an inferior substitute for lead or zinc soaker flashings,

the

up

up with cement-mortar of the angles on

filling

as to prevent the

damp

Verge-pointi?ig

running down the walls at the edge of the

the pointing

is

where they abut


and other roofs, so

roofs

to vertical parts, such as dormers, gables, chimneys,

up of the

slates.

sides of the slates running

up

gables over which they project.

may be

Slates

cut or laid to patterns, in order to give the roof a

ornamental appearance

more

but such alterations must not interfere with either

lap or bond.

Tiles.

compared with

Tiles, as

slates,

are a

more expensive

roof-

covering material, not only from their composition and manufacture, but

Fi^

511

on account of the extra trouble and battens they require for their
They also require that the roofs be of a steeper pitch, and
smaller size.
no less than 45 degrees rise from the horizon, for the reason that any less
pitch is subject to the liability of making the tiles absorb the rain instead
also

of throwing

Again, the roofs for tile-coverings must be constructed

it off.

of greater dimensions and strength, on account of the greater weight of the


tiles,

compared with

as

slates.

Against these disadvantages of

tiles

must be

set their greater

ornamental

appearance, and their action as non-conductors of heat, and also their


colour

these are

all

they are sometimes,


Tiles are

beaten

when

made

great considerations in their favour, even although

when absorbent,

apt to hold the wet.

of a strong clay which has been specially mellowed,

half dry to prevent warping,

and they

are

all

of one

size,

and
io|

inches long, 6| inches wide, with 2 nibs or projections at the shoulder or

top edge, on the underside or bed, as


battens,

and they should be curyed

fig.

511, to hold

slightly, to

them up over the

make them

fit

over each

other the better.

There are several kinds of


they are

all

made

tiles for

roofing besides the plain

out of the same material.

well burnt, well shaped, non-absorbent, of

good

good

tile

colour,

tiles,

but

should be hard,

and with a glazed


14

BUILDING CONSTRUCTION,

210

or vitrified face to prevent vegetation.


in Wales,

Wood,

in

The best

tiles

are

made

at

Ruabon,

though they are also largely made at Broseley and Madeley


They can be of innumerable colours, from red to
Staffordshire.

blue and yellow.

guage

COVERINGS FOR ROOFS.


made

are

211

double eaves and ridges, to save cutting and " tile and
bond, half-tiles would other-

for

halfs " for gable ends, where, for purposes of

wise have to be used; and these being only 3I inches wide, they would

Section

Fig 5/5

make very

imperfect work, w^hich

half"

Forms of

Special

Tiles.

is

obviated by the use of "tile and

Pantiles

are peculiar-shaped

tiles,

used

Fia 516
in

some

parts of the country for roofs, but

513 is an illustration of one tile.


Corrugated file's are similar to the

now

only for

common

work.

Fig.

gations, as

fig.

but with more hollows or corru-

last,

514.
n&'ils

Fiq 5/9

Fig 518

Wade and
to

the

fig-

5)

Cherry's are a patent

tile

of ornamental appearance, similar

rebated at the head, on the top side, and on the underside at

tail.

Taylor's patent tilings as

and capping
ij

tiles

figs. 516, 517, and 518, consists of channel


of special patterns, which fit over one another in alternate

rows, from eaves to ridge, as shown.

It

should be noted that the same

BUILDING CONSTRUCTION.

212

They
can be used as channel or capping tile by being reversed.
have a very novel and pleasing ornamental appearance.
Italian tiles are illustrated by figs. 519 and 520, which explain them-

tile

and give an idea of their effective appearance in work ; though it


be seen that they are anything but well adapted to our snowy

selves,
will

climate.

'3 521

The

plain tiles are often

banded with ornamental

which break the monotony of a


bands are sometimes

and
and

vice versa

frost,

properties
etc.

but
of

tiles,

plain-tiled roof considerably

as
;

fig.

and

52:

thesj

laid in blue-coloured tiles, while the plain are redj

this is unadvisable,

the

diflferent

on account of the

varieties of

tiles

to

different natui

withstand

wei

CHAPTER XV.
FIREPROOF FLOORS.
Essentials of Fireproof Construction

Brick Arches Concrete Floors Special Systems.

Essentials of Fireproof Construction.


nature of
risk to life

wood

The

highly inflammable

as a material used in the construction of floors,

which

it

entails,

and the

has of late years received particular attention

from the architectural and building world

the object of course being to

design a floor which can be said to be entirely free from inflammable

and proof against the attacks of fire in all its varied forms.
has naturally been shunned except, of course, as a covering,
for the sake of comfort
while stone is known to be a most treacherous
material under the influence of heat, as it will crack and give way without
material,

Wood

warning when least expected.

most unreliable,

in fact, dangerous in the extreme


sudden shocks of any kind, which are especially
present in cases of fire, when the iron, after having been heated by the
flames, is suddenly cooled with cold water from the hose, which makes
it crack immediately, entailing the total collapse of the
whole structure

Cast-iron, too,

inasmuch as

it

is

cannot

resist

generally.

Wrought-iron is certainly not so treacherous ; but still it is dangerous,


on account of its liability to twist and expand under intense heat, thrusting
-he walls out.

Hence

it

is

always advisable to encase iron parts of structures with

some material which

is

itself really fireproof,

be " proof against the

before the work can be said

The

only materials which can


be said to possess these requisite properties are fire-clay in any burnt
to

efi"ects

of

fire."

form, concrete of cement,

and breeze, or other

similar agglomerates, as

well as plaster of various kinds.

Brick Arches are the simplest and most effective fire proof material,
-hough only suitable for small spans, except where the height of the space
which they and their rise occupy is of no consequence.
In large spans,

BUILDING CONSTRUCTION.

214

and where this is a consideration, their success and usefulness are diminished by the insertion of encased structural parts of iron, whether cast, for
columns, or wrought, for girders, whereby the floor-space is cut up into
sections, and filled in by arches springing from the encased wrought-iron
The spandrils of these arches are levelled up to the crown with
girders.
The only
cement-concrete, whereon the ordinary floors are constructed.
objections which can be raised against brick arches, apart from the supplementary ironwork, are that they are heavy and complicated, and take
up too much room, besides being expensive but these are held to be
serious if not fatal objections and they are considerably intensified by the
;

insertion of iron girders, which,

whether cased or uncased, render the

floor

very complicated in construction, and dangerous, unless the girders are


tied together

by

rods, etc., to withstand the thrusts caused

by the arches

themselves.

Fij 522
Concrete Floors. Consequently, recourse has been necessary to]
and more sirnple methods, which will give as much security
Thus, the mode of construction
as possible from the ravages of fire.
that has been settled upon as being most free from complications, and
the cheapest, is that of concrete areas, supported by iron joists embedded
other, lighter,

within the thickness of the concrete


in floors of ordinary spans

and

itself,

which need not be very deep

an important consideration, as the

this is

thicker the floor the higher the building

must be

to give the

same amount

of space.

Where

the span necessitates the employment of binders, or girder, to

support the iron

joists

which uphold the concrete

areas, care should

be

taken that these additional members are enclosed or surrounded by a


casing of fire-clay, concrete, or other non-inflammable material, to protect
the iron.

great advantage of these

floors is that a

new

and other kinds of concrete or

fireproof

building, so far as internal arrangements are concerned,

can be constructed from

floor to floor

without so

much

trouble to secure

the placing of wall over wall, and in similar constructive details

though

FIREPROOF FLOORS.
be made strong enough

of course the floor must

such

in itself to

allow of

liberties.

As before

composed of breeze, slag,


mixed with cement in
and character of the work call for

a concrete

explained,

or other non-inflammable

brick-dust,

such

215

proportions as the situation

floor

materials,

i of cement), is the best form


by fig. 522, the iron joists being
feet apart ; after which a temporary wood platform is built
to support the concrete until it has set hard; and this

(usually in the proportion of 4 or 5 to

of fireproof

It

floor.

fixed about 2

underneath

it,

illustrated

is

below the bottom of the


encircling the iron, as shown.
fixed

is

joists,

so as to allow of the concrete

system
Fig 523

Dennett's

Special Systems. The principles of concrete floors having been


and the various points to be considered and guarded against

explained,

thus brought to the notice of the student,

it

only remains to set forth the

which have been invented and introduced of late years ;


those which conform to the principles already laid down being, of course,
different systems

The

the best.

following

is

list

of the chief British systems in use

Girder

Fox and Barrett's System

FsLv/ce it's System

Fig 52^

Fig S25

DenneWs^ as illustrated by
and concrete arches of

girders
rising

no

than

less

inch

fig,

523, will be seen to consist of iron

various spans, not exceeding 12 feet,

per foot.

The

and

matrix of the concrete

is

gypsum, which has been proved to retain coherence even when burnt
or drenched with water, or both in succession.
Fawcetfs,

consisting

of iron girders, 2

or

feet

apart, the

inter-

spaces being filled in with earthenware pipes of hollow arched section


laid diagonally,
is

laid,

is

on which a 6-inch
by fig. 524.

Fox and

and cement concrete

fig. 525 explains, consists of iron girders, spaced


20 inches, between which wood strips are placed, and

Barrett's, as

at intervals every

the

layer of breeze

illustrated

whole covered with concrete,

rising

above the

girders, as

shown.

BUILDING CONSTRUCTION.

2l6

Hornblowet^s consists of hollow

fire-clay tubes, of

wedge-shaped form,

springing from blocks of similar material encircling wrought-iron girders

bedded

in concrete

about 26 inches apart, as

fig.

526, the

top

being

levelled over the same as shown.

hornbloYters System

fig 526

Homan and

Rogers' patefit, as

between which are placed special


mental on

sofifit

and the top

the other methods.

mi

is

527,

fig.

bricks,
filled

is

made up

of iron girders,

which may be glazed or orna-

up with concrete, the same

as

FIREPROOF FLOORS.
whole

area,

and the top spaces are

levelled for the floor in the ordinary

the underside, which

is

filled

way

217

with the usual concrete and

and

for the

very necessary to render

it

purpose of covering

complete, cast blocks

Lindsay^ System with trough girders

FiQ 523
of breeze or pumice are bolted up to the underside, as

shown on the

illustration.

Measure's patent

is

similar to

Fox and

Barrett's, with the distinction

Northcrofts System

Fi^ 530
that the

and

T-irons, about 9 inches

flange to flange,

and support the usual

girders are spaced 3 or 4 feet apart,

centre to centre, span

them from

concrete.

Whichconds System
Fig 53i

Moreland^s system consists of wrought-iron girders, supporting curved


intermediate girders, at right angles
over with corrugated

up

as before.

iron,

to the main
on which the concrete

girders,
is

laid

and covered
and levelled

BUILDING CONSTRUCTION.

2l8

Northcroff s consists of two layers of

shaped

on

bricks, resting

similar

530, the spaces above

up with concrete.
Whichcord's method

arches, of special

wedge-

skewbacks, supported by wrought-iron

Doulton and
Fi^ 532
joists, as fig.

flat

^K
PeCo's

and between the arches being

consists of solid fire-clay arches springing

filled,

from

!!!Illf|]||UI]jn

Ft a. 532'.4
fire-clay springers,

enclosing the wrought-iron

up with concrete.
Doulton and Petd's variety,

girders

as

fig.

531,

and

filled

r-

as

fig.

532, consists of fireproof hollow

::;>'^--^J^m:^'m^^^>^fm^^^^^P^^^

Hood
'

Hood

Slip

slip

Fiq.53

2?

keyed blocks, which encircle the lower parts of the

girders, as well as

form a strong light floor of simple construction.

The Adamant Company's system


adamant cement placed from joist to

consists
joist,

as

of blocks of concrete and


figs.

53 a and 532B, and

2lSa

FIREPROOF FLOORS.

covered over and levelled with ordinary concrete suited to the locality.
girders can be placed 3 feet apart, and the blocks are cast with a

The

\i/

Fig. 53 2?

wood

Strip

on edge embedded

in

them, in order to be the better able to

resist tension.

Banks's patent,

is

a distinct gain

cation to existing

532c, completely protects the steel work

fig.

which

and there are other advantages, such as its ready applifloors and its ventilating space, which the illustration

sufficiently explains.

The

" Car/is/e" fireproof

an arch between the

joists,

floor, fig.

which have

532D, consists of two tubes forming


to

be bolted together

to resist the

Fiq 53 2-

thrust successfully

they are covered with concrete in the usual way, and

provide in themselves a space for ventilating and other purposes.


I

Potters system

is

somewhat

one piece, requiring no

bolts.

similar,

fig.

532E

but the

lintels are in

BUILDING CONSTRUCTION.

2l8^
Picking's,

fig.

53 2F,

is

almost a combination of the

last two,

as the

illustration explains.

Pease's patent,

532G and 532H, a very ingenious arrangement,

figs.

consists of sheet iron or steel tubes, so constructed that a cup, as

it

were,

formed to carry the concrete as a centre at the same time the whole
bound into a solid mass ; these tubes, which can be used as loner as
is

^
f\^.532

feet, rest

is
1

3x)cMI
FiQ.532!f

on the flanges of the girders, and as a protection


hung up by bolts, as fig. 5320.

to the under-

side slabs can be

There are many other similar floors in use, which are perhaps equally
good as those hereinbefore enumerated ; the general disadvantage of
most of them is their disposition to conduct sound from floor to ceiling,
necessitating the use, very often, of counter-ceilings, with an intermediate
space, which is the best non-conductor.
It will be noticed how most of
them endeavour to attain this end in the floor itself.
as

The
fillets,

crete,

floor-boards above these systems are fixed to dove-tailed

or Wright's patent breeze dove-tailed blocks,

and made

embedded

level as the ordinary joists, similar to

fig.

533

wood

in the con;

while the

wrought-iron members, unprotected underneath, are, or should be, covered


with patent wire-wove material, which keeps

up the concrete

casing,

and

forms a key for the plastering for ceilings and ornamental beams.
Fireproof partitions are constructed with tubes on Pease's principle,
or

by hollow blocks,

as

fig.

532J, which are light,

and made

that they lock

FIREPROOF FLOORS.
together, forming a solid

mass

this

is

2lSc

Picking's arrangement

and Banks

has a patent consisting of steel X-shaped standards, with a double row of


helical lathing,

fig.

532K and

fig.

532L, plastered similarly to the ceilings

in his patent floor.

Wood-blocks are generally used as the covering on fireproof


the

surface of the

concrete

being floated over with

floors,

Portland cement

and sand, and rendered perfectly level.


The blocks may be of any regular thickness from i| inches up

to

Door
3 9'

Flan

Hollow Partition.
Fig. 53 2':

Helical Lathing

Fig.532>'.

2| inches, the ordinary kind being from 9 to 18 inches long and about
3

inches wide

when

and

it

is

absolutely necessary that they be truly square,

Moreover, it is most important


and they should not be brought on to the
building until the cement screed or bed is quite dry, and they are actually
Very often good dry blocks are brought into a building
required for use.
which cannot be really dry and whilst they are waiting to be laid, they
absorb the moisture of the building and surroundings, with the result that
they swell, and in this condition they are laid, and as soon as they and
so that

laid they

fit

together well.

that they are thoroughly dry,

Fig 533
the building get dry they shrink,

and show

large cracks,

and

in

many

cases

they even rise up.

floor can be laid to designs and patterns in any kind


and they are kept down in their positions by a solution containing pitch, resin, and other patented mixtures, which are of a sticky
nature when hot, and on cooling are so cohesive that they keep the blocks
and screeding together.

wood-block

of wood,

There are several patent systems of laying these blocks, the general
this end being attained by a

principle being to form keys or dovetails


triangular sinking or groove

made

in the

edges of the blocks, close

down

i8^

BUILDING CONSTRUCTION.

to the bottom, so that the solution

on the bed can be pressed up

into the

formed
by small iron channels embedded in the cement screeding. Another idea
is to keep down the blocks by dowelling them together, and Stockholm
tar is used to make them adhere to the cement bed.
In hospitals and other similar buildings teak or other hard-wood
ordinary floor boards are secretly nailed directly on to the cement screed
itself without the fillets shown in fig. 533.
grooves formed between the blocks.

This dovetail keying

is

also

CHAPTER

XVI.

JOINTS AND MOULDINGS IN JOINERY.


foinery

Defined

Framed

Joints

Angle Joints Dovetails Scribing Mouldings


Affixing Joinery Work.

Match Boarding

Joinery Defined.
includes

all

^The

term "joinery," applied in a general sense,

the finishings to the carcase of a building, whether they be

external or internal, such as doors, windows, stairs, skirtings, skylights,

End

W
Fig 534
lanterns, dadoes,

and other

everything which

is

panelling,

Plan

in fact,

it

may be

said to include

planed and wrought up to a nice smooth and often

ornamental face, and framed together in such a workmanlike and precise


1;

:!

manner that it is difficult to discern the joints unless helped by the different
grain and colour of the " stuff," as the wood is called.
It is intended to devote most of this chapter to a description of the
various joints, mouldings, and terms which are used in this particular
219

BUILDING CONSTRUCTION.

220
branch of building

be again pointed out

but the principal and most


to the student

kinds of joiner's work which

will

when they

are

common
met with

joints, etc., will

in the different

be dealt with in the course of these lessons.

fi

Fig S3S

Panne I groove

Fig 536

Fig 537

Framed Joints.The
common

of

all

joints

mortise

and

tenon

used in joinery framing.

instance, are tenoned through the styles

is

the
All

and wedged up

chief

rails

and most

of doors, for

tight, as fig. 534j

the tenon usually being one-third of the thickness, and with a haunch

left

JOINTS
on

as at

X, to

This

joint.

is

fill

AND MOULDINGS

IN JOINERY.

up the panel groove on the

styles

221

and strengthen the

the origin of the term hau ?iched tenon^ a sketch of which,

%Vv\yV|

00 r>

ft/V%AVY
rVVAVrt

as
fig-

it

is

on the

534),

is

rail

given

before being

(fig.

wedged up

into the styles (as

535).
15

shown on

BUILDING CONSTRUCTION.

222

On

wide

two parts
thick, or
let into

in

rails,
its

such as lock or middle and bottom

depth, as

fig.

where provision has

and where doors

536 ;
to be made

the centre of the style, at lock

for

rail

rails, this

are

tenon

more than

a mortise lock, which,

height, completely cuts

central single tenon, the tenons are double in thickness,

and

1
cinm"

is

2 inches

when

away a

called double

tenons^ as fig. 537.

A
in

bare-faced tenon

is

a tenon with only one shoulder, S, used chiefly

framed ledged and braced doors, where the

Styles.

each

rails

are not so thick as the

by the thickness of the boarding nailed on the

styles

Fig.

538

illustrates

rails

between the

a bare-faced tenon, one view being given of

side.

Stump tenons are those which have a projection on each side of


them to go into mortises part of the way of the principal mortise. They
were designed to give the tenons on the thinner stuff greater strength, and
Fig. 539 represents a stump
to hold into wider mortises on the wider.
tenon and its mortise.

A housed

tenon

is

a tenon

stuff let into the mortise to the

Angle

Joints.

let into

a mortise with the section of the

depth of half an inch, as

Tongued angles are used

skirtings, grounds, casings, etc., as fig. 541.

fig.

540.

for internal angles of dadoes,

JOINTS

AND MOULDINGS

IN JOINERY.

223

Mttred angles are made by simply cutting half a right angle alternately
two pieces, to be joined by nails at an external angle, as fig. 542.
Mitred atid tongued angles, a combination of the two last, are as

off the

Fig 540

fig-

543 and are only used in best work, at the external angles of dadoes,

pilasters, etc.

Beaded and tongued


ji

joints of

angles, illustrated by fig. 544, are angles or


an ornamental as well as necessary character.

BUILDING CONSTRUCTION.

224

Return-beaded angles are suitable for all external mitres where wear
Fig. 545
and tear would soon fetch the arrises off in soft woods.
shows one on wood framing, casings, etc., and fig. 546 one as fixed to
angles to plastering on wood, brick, or stone walls, to which they are fixed

by

plug, as will be explained hereinafter, this being called a staff bead.

J^^^^i^:rB^-:/<:;[,^

Where

two

the

pieces of framing

to

widths or thicknesses the " mitred angle

Fiij

be

" is

joined

made

are

as

of

different

547.

fig.

547
F/g 548

Another form, of very good construction, is as


but it
Keyed mitred joints are not often used
;

ri<^

of one,

Boused

know what

they are.

X, being hardwood-slips
joints are

cross-framing

is

let

is

as well that the

^550

549

student should

548.

fig.

as

fig.

Fig.

let

549

a view of the angle

into the mitres.

550, by which the whole thickness of the

into the other about half

Glued and blocked

is

Fig 551

an inch.

joints are really butt or lapped joints secured

blocks glued to each piece of

wood

in the internal angle

(fig.

551).

by

JOINTS

AND MOULDINGS

IN JOINERY.

225

Fi^ ^52

Fl^ 552'
t6

BUILDING CONSTRUCTION.

226

Dovetails, the most


used for

cisterns,

and other

of drawers
as

fig.

552;

common

of the intricate and strong joints, are

square casings, or curbs to skylights, and the corners

There are three kinds


the comino7i^
552^; and the secret or mitred^ the most

fittings.

the lap, as

fig.

i^ 552^

troublesome
consist of

of the three, as fig. 55 2<^.


It will be seen that they
wedge-shaped alternate cuttings out of each piece, the pro-

jections of the

one

Cross-tongMtng
tudinally, a loose

is

fitting

the

the holes on the other.

method of

joining two or

tongue being glued and

let

into

more boards longia groove on each

JOINTS
board, as

and

is

fig.

made

This loose' tongue

553.

of

AND MOULDINGS

wood

is

across jthe grain.

IN JOINERY.

sometimes called a

Long

227
slip feather^

(the opposite to cross)

wood in the direction of their length.


method by which the ends of several boards are

tongues have the grain of the

Clamping

is

the:

shown on the left-hand of fig. 554 while the rightsame figure illustrates mi^re-clamping, by which the

fastened together, as

hand

side of

end of the ordinary clamping is obscured.


555) is a means of securing several boards together by
key, let in at the back in lieu of a projecting ledge, where

cross-grain

Keying
a flush

the

(fig.

BUILDING CONSTRUCTION.

228
the

would

latter

required on each

be

inconvenient

This

side.

is

on account of a
often used in

the

level

einff
face being

North

for

wide

door casings.

Keyed

joints are also

used to connect circular with straight or two

pieces of circular wood, such as door frames, etc.


is

out

cut

letter

I)

tighten
Fig-

of each

and a hardwood key

part,

connects the two together, as

up the
557

fig.

556,

shallow mortise

form of the

(in the

XX

being wedges to

joint.

Fox

illustrates

wedging^

a means by which

tenons

are

secured into shallow mortises, where wedges cannot be driven in from


the other side.

Scribing

is

the cutting, out of the face of one moulding, a hole of the

contour of another to form a

joint.

It is chiefly

used in joints of sash-

and really is a moulded


mortise cut into another moulding to receive a moulded tenon of the same
For instance, in fig. 558, it
section as the mortise, but in a converse form.
will be noticed that on A a moulded mortise or notching is cut out, with
the ovolo hollow, as it were ; and on B, which we will call the tenon, the
cutting has the ovolo convex or projecting to fit and fill up the hollow
on A.
A scribed housing is a housing made to the contour of the moulding it

bars, internal angles of

is

going to receive

Other kinds of
illustrated

(fig.

moulded

skirtings, etc.,

559).

joints, principally

and explained

in

used

Chapter VIII.

for flooring, will

be found

fully

JOINTS

AND MOULDINGS

IN JOINERY.

229

Wmtf
Fig 566

tfti

a
9
'''9

Mouldings are
mostly
of

Mouldings.
various forms

parts

a series of sinkings and projections of

circles, ellipses, etc.

worked

on the edges

BUILDING CONSTRUCTION.

230
of the

wood

to

produce

light

and shade by shadows, and give

ornamental and showy appearance.

They

are of two kinds

stuck

it
i

z
7
Fi^ 558
planted^ or laid in

worked on the

the former denoting

that the

solid edges of the stuff, as in

fig.

moulding has been

560; and the

latter that

Fiq 559
it

is

a separate

slip,

brads and glue, as

moulded and attached

fig.

to the side of the framing by]

561.

%
Fig 562

Fig 56/

Fi^.560

The chief parts of moulding are as follows


The bead (fig. 562) is the most useful, being
:

joints,

etc.,

and

as

" rounded nosing."

often utilised for covering

nosing to round off edges,

when

it

is

called a

AND MOULDINGS

JOINTS

The

IN JOINERY.

quirked bead has a sinking lon one side, as

on each side (see


produced by the shadow.

double quirked has one


to give a limit

fig.

564).

term fig.

would soon be knocked

" return

and the

are required
'

565,

is

" being the joiner's term,

used for exposed angles,

^^^^
Fis 567

Fig 566
cocked bead

and ** staff"
where arrises

off.

-^^^^

The

563,

Fi^ 565

return or staff hesid

the carpenter's

fig.

They

{ ^

Fi^ 563

The

231

named

after its projection

from the face

line

is

as

566.

fig.

Cocked bead and fillet

is

as

fig.

567.

^^^\
Fig 565
Where
(fig.

several

beads are placed

together they are

called

reeding

568).

Fig 569

The Torus is
The Ovolo is

a bead with an extra

fillet (fig.

a quarter of a circle with a

569).

fillet

on either

side, as fig. 570.

^r\

BUILDING CONSTRUCTION.

232
It

can also be a part of an

is

formed by a " double ovolo,"

The

Cavetio

is

as

fig.

figure.

Cyma

(fig.

572), hollow in form.

Fi<j

recta " mouldings, are

which touch one another, as

A sash bar

571.

Fi^ 572

Ogee, or the "

Cyma

any other circular

the reverse to the ovolo

Fig 57

circles

ellipse or

fig.

made up

573

of parts of two

5 74.

reversa, or the reverse ogee, as

fig.

573, explains

itself.

Fi^ 575

Fia 674

The

Scotia, a moulding chiefly used for bases, is similar to fig. 575.


Mouldings are often made up of two or more of the above forms
grouped together, when they are known or distinguished by the combined

name.

Thus

fig.

576, consisting of a ^m'rk ovolo (any moulding can be

57e

Fig 577
quirked by the addition of the sinking on one side) and a bead,
called a quirk ovolo and bead moulding.
Bolection mouldings are those which are rebated out at the side,

project above the face of the panelling

it is

intended to ornament

(fig.

is

and

577).

AND MOULDINGS

JOINTS
Chamfering
as

is

IN JOINERY.

the taking off of the arris or sharp edge of any angle,

578, the angular groove formed by the meeting of two chamfered

fig.

angles

579) being called a

(fig.

V joint.

F\^ 580

Mouldings,

II

233

etc.,

F'l

are united at internal angles, as in

fig.

J 581

580, stopped

and returned at extreme angles (fig. 582), when the


contour of the mould is exposed to view.
Match Boarding. This is an arrangement of boards matched and
put together with grooved and tongued joints, and their edges " shot " or
at

ends

(fig.

581),

Fig 583

Fig 562
planed

truly,

so that a fine joint can be made.

called cleadi?ig, is of several kinds, the chief of

Match boarding, otherwise


which are

matched boards (fig. 583).


Beaded-one-side match boarding (fig. 584).
Beaded-both-sides match boarding (fig. 585).
V-jointed match boarding (fig. 586).
Plain

Fig 584

Aflaxing of Joinery
j::rounds,

586

Fig 585

Work.

Joinery work

is

fixed to either J>/ugs,

or backiiigs.

done by means of wood wedge-shaped plugs, which are


and cut off to a level face, to
which the other woodwork is secured by nailing (fig. 587).
Grounds are used in better work, being wrought and splayed to form
Plugging

is

driven into the vertical joints of the bricks,

key

for

the plaster.

They

are nailed to plugs in the cross-joints, as

BUILDING CONSTRUCTION.

234

588; or to wood or breeze bricks, fig. 589 ; or to elm pads,


which the bricklayer builds in the cross-joints for the carpenter to

fig.

The grounds
tongued

are

"framed"

(that

is,

at internal 'angles, in the very best

Fig. 5 87
rScale

dovetailed)

work.

To

at

fig.

590;

fix to.

external,

and

doors and windows

JOINTS

The
at

on

AND MOULDINGS

IN JOINERY.

235

The angles
fig. 591 represents the gauge to fix by.
592 are joined by a bevelled hatmching^ as fig. 593, in the

dotted line on
fig.

elevation,

drawn

to a larger scale.

Backitigs are pieces of

backing and

wood framed
window

fixing for linings,

in

between the grounds to form a

boards, and other wide joinery,

requiring to be fixed against anything, as

fig.

594.

Shaped backings are those which are cut and notched


framing or different members, as skirtings,

For ordinary

skirtings a

fillet

is

etc., in

to receive irregular

best work.

(See

run along the walls, on the

fig.

595.)

floor, to

bottom of the skirting, as X, fig. 590.


work should be fixed to grounds in lieu of plugs, which
are only fit for inferior common work ; and when the grounds are fixed
perfectly true vertically and horizontally, there is no difficulty in affixing
receive the

All first-class

and scribing and moreover the plasterer


work with greater truth in his surfaces, as he has perfectly true

the joinery without fitting, cutting,


finishes his

substantial grounds to straighten from.

1
CHAPTER

XVII.

DOORS THEIR FINISHINGS AND FASTENINGS.


:

Door Frames Ledged Door Ledged and Braced Door Framed and Braced Door
Framed and Ledged Door Fanlights Panelled Doors and Panelling Door Casings

Dadoes Skirtings.
Before

dealing with the doors themselves

it

will

be advisable

to acquire

a thorough understanding of the frames or cases which are designed


contain them.

These frames, being generally

built

up

t<

in reveals formec

Fig.596.
I'Scale

\l}iV'M

in the brickwork as the

wide

work proceeds, have

to

be no

less

than 4| inches]

the width or half the length of an ordinary brickand 3 or 4 inches]

deep, according to requirements and the depths of the jambs.


usually projects about i| inches

opening

The

(fig.

The frame

beyond the face or "sight size" of

the]

596).

made up of two jambs (or legs), as the posts are called,


and a flat or arched head, according to the nature of the opening (fig. 597),
both jambs and head being, of course, of the same size. The jambs are
tenoned into the head and wedged, the head generally being 3 inches
frames are

236

DOORS: THEIR FINISHINGS AND FASTENINGS.


longer beyond each side of the jambs.

and are intended to be

237

These projections are called horns,

built into the walls.

Fig. 598 represents a frame for a square-headed door, the jambs of


which are tenoned into the head.

Tern

Fig. 697.
'/*'

Fig.

Scale

599 shows the head cut out

for a

joints at the top being similar to the last,

deeper piece of

segmental-headed door, the

and the head being cut out of a

stuff.

Wedges

rig.

r,g.598.

r Scale

K
at

5 9 9.

fScBle
AJ\^

Fig. 600 represents a frame for a semi-circular-headed door, the joints


the springing being as shown, and the key being formed on the top of

the jamb,

The

and

let into

joint at the

a mortise in the circular head and

crown

is

made

at the springing, exactly as

similar to

shown

fig.

556,

wedged up tightly.
and sometimes also that

in that figure (vide

Chapter XVI.).

BUILDING CONSTRUCTION.

238

Door frames are secured at the foot of the jambs by dowels let into the
jambs and steps, as in fig. 60 1 ; or in best work, where the bottoms are
apt to rot away from the damp that rises, they are dowelled into projecting
stones worked to the same section as the frame (fig. 602), and painted, so

M
Fig.

it-

600

Wedge/

that the difference cannot

be noticed

at first sight.

These are sometime

called cotch stones.

Another method is to let the bottom of the jambs into cast-iron shoes
of the same section as the frames which are secured to the

also
stone

sills.

.-.-'^

rwV

Fig.

60

F/Q. 60\.

The

frames,

wrought-iron

when

ties,

built as the

two or three

and the other secured

to the

in

work proceeds, are often

tied in with

each height, one end turned into the

back of the frame

(as

fig:

wall,

603).

In sections the frames, of course, vary according to the requirements

and nature of the work

but

all

are rebated for the door.

DOORS
Fig.

604

is

THEIR FINISHINGS AND FASTENINGS.

239

a section of a rebated and chamfered frame.

Fig. 605, that of a rebated

and moulded frame.

Section
Fig. 606, a rebated

The

and beaded frame.

rear faces, abutting against the brick or stone rebates, are often

Fig.

grooved for the plastering or

above

(fig.

n'j,.606.

605

Fig.

linings, in addition to the other labour

60 7

named

607).

I'/zScale

Fiq.608.

Fig. 608 represents the plan of the jamb of a frame with door linings
and finishings in an ordinary 9-inch reveal.

Often, to break the joint in best work, the side of the rebate

and the

BUILDING CONSTRUCTION.

240

door are beaded, as in

V joint,
The

as in

fig.

fig.

609, or the arris of each

section of the

head

is

similar to

elevation of the return of the linings,

In very wide walls, in

Fig.

fig.

be

is

taken off and forms

610.

first-class

fig.

etc.,

611, with the addition of the

as seen

down

the jamb.

houses, the linings are panelled, as

609.

Fig. 610

612, which represents a section through the head.


the same, without the elevation lines shown on.

The jamb would

Students when

drawing plans and sections of moulded and


which returns and is seen in elevation, between or in
front of the parts which are in sectionshould take care to show all

N.B.

panelled work,

Fig. 611.

Scale

I'//

these lines in elevation, that being the correct way, and, in addition, they

embellish their drawings.

This particularly applies to panelled work.

Small scale elevations of the whole height of these jambs are given on

613 and 614, the former being the plan and the latter the panelled
which should always correspond and be in true line with
the panels of the door i.e., a door three panels high should have linings
figs.

linings, the rails of

DOORS

THEIR FINISHINGS AND FASTENINGS.

24I

Plaster

Fig. 612.

SECTfON

rig. 613

fr^

Scale

Fig. 6/4

/i Scale
T7

BUILDING CONSTRUCTION

242

VIrot iron
hitige

Hook stone

Vfrot iror

Hook stone

hinge

Fig

E/eva.tion
615. i'SBSLle

three panels high, each panel being of the

same height as those on the door,

to correspond.

Floor Level

ELEVfiJION

Fig. 616.

rScale

DOORS

THEIR FINISHINGS AND FASTENINGS.

In agricultural buildings door frames are seldom


being hung at top and bottom

by

243
the doors

used,

on

band-hinges,

wrought-iron

to

Fig. 615 is a
hooks which are secured to stones built in the jambs.
small elevation, and fig. 616 enlarged plans and sections, with details of

the hooks, etc.

The

hooks, otherwise called crooks, are usually used in pairs, and

sometimes the top crook

(or

hook)

is

reversed, so that the pin of each

points towards the other, to prevent the door being lifted off them, in

which case the door has


is

be put

to

in position before the

upper band-hinge

attached, or bolted to the framing of the door.

Another method to prevent the door being lifted off its hinges, when
hung externally, is to screw the end of the pin of the crook, and put on
a nut, which should be permanently fixed.

When

to screw the hinge to the lower

a conical pointed projection

go over the pin

which

is

very large doors or gates are a necessity,

and

this

it is

edge of the bottom

rail

very

much

better

of the door with

on the underside, instead of the knuckle to


is made to work in a gun-metal socket,

cone

leaded into a special stone, fixed a small distance above the level

of the threshold or top step immediately under the door, so that the door

may swing

or spin (as

it

were) on this cone.

In this case

advisable to strengthen the band, supporting the door, by


or ears welded

by them.

on

either side, so that the thickness of the door

They should be

always

is

lugs

grasped

high and every eighteen

at least nine inches

minimum

inches along the band-hinge, with a

is

it

means of

of three

pairs.

It

is

needless to say these lugs should be bolted together through the door,

and the face of them should be flush with framing otherwise they will
form a ledge or cup for the wet, and cause the bottom of the door to rot.
;

The knuckle and

pin of the upper hinge must be perfectly perpen-

and easy working


and the hanging style should
have more strength to keep the

dicular over the centre of the cone to render proper

without undue pressure on particular parts

be much wider than usual, so that

it

will

door from sagging towards the closing or meeting


If this

principle

extensively used

of " centre hanging "

we should have

less

especially with regard to the best doors,

styles.

or "

on points

"

were more

sagging of doors to contend with,

and even window shutters

in first-

work, for the principle can be applied to the top and bottom of
framings, similarly to " door springs," to great advantage.
class

Before leaving the subject of door frames mention must be

made

the practice of using straight door frame heads in arched openings,


nailing a thin turning piece or arch piece

of

and

on to the top .of the frame, so as


up the space above to the outline of the arch, as fig. 617.
DoDrs. Doors are wooden framings, hung to frames or doorcases, or
on hooks, in external positions, and to casings or linings, internally.
No

to

fill

244

BUILDING CONSTRUCTION.

door should ever be

less

and i| inches

in height,

Ledged Doors

than 2 feet 9 inches in width, 6 feet o inches

in thickness.

are the

first and simplest form of door, consisting


only of beaded or V-jointed match boarding, nailed to deal ledges, generally three inches in width.
Fig. 617A represents the outside of a ledged

Turning piece

Elevation

Secthn

Fig 917

XXX

door, and fig. 618 the inside,


being the ledges, which are often
chamfered on all arrises, as shown by the doubleline. A plan is given
on fig. 619, and an enlargement of the section at the ledge, fig. 620.
They are hung to the frames by iron hinges, called cross-garnets or

T-hinges (from their shape), fixed at top and bottom to door and frame,

and are fastened by Norfolk thumb

latches,

and locked by cased stock

^
Frai

%^

Fra,

/>^/n

Top ledge

middle ledge

- -I

3" " bottom ledge

Fig. 617 A^
Elevation

Fig.618
Elevation

locks with a hollow box staple, X, fixed on the frame to take the bolt

of the lock, as

N.B.

fig.

If the

621.

In the North these are called Batten doors.

door frame

is

not rebated out to the thickness of the

boarding and ledges, blocks have to be fixed on to the frames to make


the fixing on the frames the same level as the ledges of the door.

The Ledged and Braced Door is a stage higher than the ledged
door, being braced up, as the name implies; the only noticeable difference being at the back, where the braces

whereof the

object

is

to

keep

DOORS

THEIR FINISHINGS AND FASTENINGS.

the door from hanging

down from

its

hinges

are

seen.

245

Fig. 622 gives

an elevation of the back, from which the nature and difference of the door

Lock

Lcdst

Section
Fig.620.i'Scatc

'/*'

Scale _

Fig.
(as

compared with the


N.B.

It

must

ViScale

plain ledged door) can be understood.

ings, etc., are precisely similar to

object,

622

must be borne in mind that these braces, to


upwards from the jamb to which the door

incline

The

fasten-

those used for ledged doors.


effect
is

their

hung.

BUILDING CONSTRUCTION.

246

The Framed and Braced

or

Framed Ledged and Braced

consists of a piece of framing, the size of the

of the door frame, with a middle or lock rail

opening between the rebates

and braces

named) in addition, to strengthen the framing


with match boarding, as fig. 623.

(like

the door

last-

the whole being filled in

ScaJe

^3

Inside BlevBh'on

m:^^
1^.W.^;ca^^^

Dooi^

Outside Elevafioi

j^.vsT>^v^^tg^.-^^^^Ktj?^Sr -'A-4.-^^S^^-^

Plan
623 rscale

rig.

Before going into '^e detail of


impress upon the student that
sfy/es,

all

this

and the cross or horizontal pieces

Fig.

The

rails

are tenoned

rails

it

will

be as well

toi

rai/s.

62^

and wedged into the

previoiisly explained, the top rail

bottom

kind of door

continuous upright framings are calledj

tenon being as

styles in the usual way, as


fig.

624, and the lock and

(being the thickness of the boards less in thickness) have

bare-faced tenons, as

fig.

537, but two tenons in height, on account of their

depth as compared with the top

rail.

DOOES

THEIR FINISHINGS AND FASTENINGS.

All styles are generally 4k inches wide, lock

deep, and the top

rail

only 4k inches

and bottom

H7

rails

9 inches

therefore, in a door 2 inches thick,

rail are 4I inches x 2 inches, but the lock and bottom


which the boarding between the styles and below the top rail is

the styles and top


I

to

rails,

secured, are 9 inches

li

^W",^ rig.

where i-inch boarding

inch, in cases

is

used,

6 25

'Jll

''

brace

boarding
Fig. 621
Sec f ion

Fig. 626

and

1 inch with |-inch boards

up the

the two thicknesses, in each case, making

2 inches of the door.

The
to

detailed section of the top


as

rail,

showing how the boards are secured

fig.

bottom

as

is

fig.

rail is

used, the section

629 explains the joint

Fig.

fig. 626
and the bottom rail,
627; but in cases where a flush

that of the lock rail as

625
where the boards run through, as
it,

Fig.628
Section

629

Fig.

172

is

fig.

628.

at the styles.

Scale

Fig

Plen

The

fastenings used are just the

exception

that

same

630

as for the ledged doors, with the

sometimes " band-hinges

"

are

used instead of " cross

and hung on to plate


hook stones are substituted,

garnets," the hinges being bolted to the door front

hooks, as

fig.

630, screwed to the frames

doing away with the frames

To

(z'tWe fig.

or

616).

impart a lighter appearance to the framing of these doors, the styles,

BUILDING CONSTRUCTION.

248
rails,

and braces are often stop-chamfered on

the joint at the lock

Fraioaed

rail

all

edges, the elevation of

next the hanging style then appearing as

and Ledged Doors

named, with the only exception

are similar in

that, as their

all

name

fig.

631.

respects to the last-

implies, they have

no

braces.

Fanlights.

Some

internal as well as external doors are

made

with

transoms and fanlights over them, to give additional and regular light
as fig. 632, X being the fanlight, which can be either fixed, or hung on
butts or centres.

Transom-

^xtrnal

Door with

Fig.

The

Fanlight

652. p' Scale

fanlight itself consists of a piece of skeleton framing, similar to a

glazed sash, with or without bars.

The

transom, more or less intricate in

head to the door frame, and sill to the fanlight ; being


framed by mortise and tenon joints into the jambs, the head of the
fanlight frame is similar to that for the head of the door, which has now
been superseded by the transom.
section, acts as a

Fig.

633 represents the jamb, head, and sill, with transom, of a fixed
examination of which will show all that is required for

fanlight, a close

the purpose.

The

styles

and head of the

fanlight are generally square,

or 2 inches, as the thickness of the fanlight

They may be

of

i| inches

and rebate on the frame.

any section, ovolo-moulded

(fig.

634);

chamfered

DOORS

THEIR FINISHINGS AND FASTENINGS.

249

(fig. 635); lamb's-tongue moulded (fig. 636); or of any other design;


Where putty is
but the glass must always be put in from the outside.

used

it

always the best, and renders

is

weather

tight as the

it

the more water and wind-

presses the glass against

the

rebate, as

Plan
633

Head

Fig

Scale

fig.

637.

I'/i"

fig 636

Section
rig.633.l'/2 Scale

Fig.637
i'r^z:

Fig.

Fig.

638

Occasionally, however,
in

from the inside, as

certainly look better

so good.

Rever
A

hopper fanlight

ransom is

fig.

when

639.
Plan

I'/i'Scalt

loose beads are used, the glass

638, but never with putty.

is

put

The mouldings

outside in contrast to the putty, but the work

i.e..,

one

illustrated at fig.

to

open inwards, hung on butts

639, which explains

itself.

is

to the

BUiLDING CONSTRUCTION.

50

Fanlights are seldom


apt to help the rain to
fig.

made to open outwards, because they are very


come into the house, as can be imagined from

640.

Section
Fig.

639

door

Section
6^1 Scale l>^

Fig.

Plan of Jamb

ridn or Jamt

et A.A

fanlight

the principles

/mng on

centres

may be

gathered.

is

represented

c9/

by

The jambs have

fig.

BB.

641, from which

a solid bead on the

lower part of their height (something less than the half) inside, and on

DOORS

THEIR FINISHINGS AND FASTENINGS.

the upper part outside

with loose beads planted on the

fanlight, in reverse fashion

mitre-cut to

bead into the corresponding


outside,

when

solid

fit

each other

bead on the jamb

251

style

both

of the

each loose

i.e.^

inside

and

closed.

This is done to allow the swing-fanlight to open outwards at the


bottom and inwards at the top, revolving on pivots which fit into slots
fixed on each jamb.
These are also called pivoted fanlights, from the manner of hanging

them on

pivots, as

642.
of pivoted or " centre-hung " fanlights

fig.

The advantage

that,

being

out of reach, so to speak, they can be easily opened and closed by

means

of cords

and

pulleys.

the centre of

its

have the pivots fixed a

If the fanlight

height

it

is

little

above

will close of itself.

I
FiS.

F/^.

6^2

643

Fi^.eu.

Should the fanlights be divided into small squares, the bars used

XVIII.

are similar to those explained for sashes in Chapter

Hopper

fanlights

fixed to the top rail

(fig.

639) are

secured by

fasteners,

of the fanlight, with a box staple, to receive the

spring bolt, fixed on the head of the frame, as


to pull the bolt

small spring

back when the

fig.

643.

light is required to

The

ring serves

be opened.

Pivoted lights can be secured properly by means of the cords, which

may be

tied over belaying

hooks

(fig.

644) screwed to the frame of the

door, or to the linings.

Panelled Doors.
use,

This kind of door is the most general in ordinary


and consists of a framing, made up of narrow pieces, mortised and

tenoned together, and grooved

in the inside to receive the panels.

645 represents the plan and elevation of the skeleton of a fourpanelled door, fig. 646 those of a five-panelled door, and fig. 647 those of
a six-panelled door.
Fig.

BUILDING CONSTRUCTION.

252
S S are

styles, the one with the butts on being called the


and the other the closing style.
Styles always run
through the whole height, and are really the foundation of the complete

the

hanging

style,

framing,

the other

members being

or

directly

indirectly

connected to

them.

M M

are the muntins or muntings^ which are tenoned, at top

bottom, about 2 inches into the

and

obvious reasons, they cannot

rails, as, for

be wedged.

TR

is

the top

LR

is

the lock

be 3

feet

which

rail,

is

middle

or

tenoned into the


the

rail,

inches above the floor

line,

top

styles.

of which should

always

acknowledged

that being the

height of convenience for the handles of the locks.

B R

bottom rail; and F R, when used, the frieze rail;


the panels, which are sometimes distinguished as " top,"
" bottom," or " middle " panels, according to position ; and F P are the

is

the

represents

frieze panels.

The door, fig. 645, is hung with one pair of butts, which should be
of wrought-iron, either 3 inches or 4 inches in length ; the lock is a
rim-lock, which, though on the same principle, is of a better kind than
the ordinary stock-lock

of the framing, the bolt,


to

the

when

jamb of the frame

The

a projecting lock, screwed on to the face

viz.,

turned, going into a box staple secured

or lining.

and six-panelled doors, figs. 646 and 647, are hung with
on account of their increased size, while they are
secured by a mortise-lock, which is sunk into the style and part of the
lock-rail, as shown by dotted lines.
1

five

1 pairs

of butts,

In addition to the furniture,

commonly

called,

0,2!^^^ finger-plates

as

the

handles

be seen that the

styles are

made

is

with horns,

X, ij inches

workmen

by while framing, and allow of more


withstand the driving home of the wedges at top and

something to knock the


to

are'

put together, the

longer than the size of the door, at top and bottom, to give the

substance

etc.,

will

Fig. 648 will give the student an idea how a door


example being a five-panelled door.
It will

knobs,

or

be noticed that these doors have what are


screwed on to the styles above and below the lock.
it

styles off

bottom.

Where

must
must be
when mortise locks are to be

more in thickness,
and under any circumstances all

the doors are 2 inches or

be double-tenoned

double-tenoned into the closing

style

all

rails, etc.,

lock-rails

used.

Before entering into the details of the various modes by which the
skeleton framing of the door

student that

all

is

ornamented,

it

must be impressed on the

panelled doors can be treated in the same manner with

DOORS
one

class of

instance,

THEIR FINISHINGS AND FASTENINGS.

work on both

a four,

five,

sides, or

^SZ

a different one on each side.

or six-panelled door can

For
be either square-framed

M.
t

0)

5
a.

OCO

<L

-i .C

?,p

loj

r>

*^c

1>

",2r,r

r.

O)

BUILDING CONSTRUCTION.

254

Square-framed consists of the panels being


in fact, left as the skeleton framing.

framed on each

Fig.

left

in

square recesses

649 represents a door square-

side.

Moulded both
round the panels

sides

is

the

term used when mouldings are mitrec

650), whether they be


mouldings, as explained in Chapter XVI.
(fig

" stuck " or " planted

DOORS

THEIR FINISHINGS AND FASTENINGS.

Square-framed a?id moulded


being on each

Bead

butt

is

255

a combination of the last two, one kind

side.

and square

is

as

fig.

Square

&

652, the beads running up beside the

Framed Panels
Plan
49. I'Scale

Fig. 6

Stuck moulding

Plantrng moulding
Plan
Fig. 650. /-Scale

moulded

Pi^ 65 L

Scale

Square

BUILDING CONSTRUCTION.

256

instead of only on two sides, and butting against the

The

rails.

plan

is

same as fig. 652, the difference only being detected on the


and
drawings upon the elevation and vertical section (see fig. 653)
comparing them with fig. 652, it will be noted that the bead is shown on

precisely the

but not in the "bead

the sectional elevation in a "bead-flush" door,


butt."

Elevation
Fig.SSS. r Scale

Sectional
Elevation

The two kinds of doors last named are often made moulded instead of
square on the inside, being " bead butt and moulded," or " bead flush and]
moulded."
for outside,

The beaded work


and having a more

is

inside, being most suitable


and strong appearance, unsuit-j

seldom put

substantial

able for internal effect.

Chamfered and square

is

as

fig.

654,

and requires no

further explana-

Plan

Fi^ S5^
tion,

Scale

except that the chamfers are worked " on the solid

framing

"

i.e.,

of the

itself.

Stop- chamfered

as

is

fig.

of the panels being as

655, the elevation

shown.

Bo lection-moulded
fig-

657

whereon

it

doors are on plan as


will

be noticed that the

the outsides of the moulding, which

moulding

in elevation.

is

fig.

656, and on elevation as

lines of the

the proper

way

framing are within

to

show a bolection

DOORS

THEIR FINISHINGS AND FASTENINGS.

257

Plan

Eleva.tion^

Fi^

655.

Fig.

ScblIc

656

Fig.657./ sca/e

18

BUILDING CONSTRUCTION.

258

Often in addition to these mouldings


of the framing,

more

and

which are connected to the sides

really enclose the panels

the

panels themselves are

methods being the following


658, from which it will be seen that the panels

or less ornamented, the most general

Raised panels, as

fig.

Elevation
Frg. 658,

up from the usual

are thicker in the centre being raised


into the groove of the styles

Raised and sunk

XX on

elevation, as the last

from the face of the panel,


fig.

face which goes

rails.

appear the same, in front

but, before the bevel starts

^th of an inch, as

and

it is first

sunk about

659.

Plan
659 I'/iScsie

Fig.

Moulded,

raised,

and sunk panels

the raised portion being moulded, as

are yet a step higher, the edge of


j

fig.

660, which carries a double line

in elevation.

Linen panels are occasionally used


of the panel being

about

(fig.

661).

moulded and carved

in the

best kind of work, the face'

to represent a roll of linen twisted

DOORS

THEIR FINISHINGS AND FASTENINGS.

Miscellaneous Doors. Some


them prepared

with the top part of


styles are often

doors, called sash doorsy are


for glass panels, in

diminished at the lock or middle

ng.660.

l'/2

Scale

rail,

259

made

which cases the


as at X, fig. 662,

BUILDING CONSTRUCTION.

26o
663

Fig.

of fixing.

is

The

an enlarged plan of the style, showing the glass and


styles of this kind of door are often called guft-stock

from the shape which

<-

3-

results

mode
styles,

from the diminution.

>

mass

Fig. 663.

Dwarf doors

is

name

given to doors of very small area, principally to

and trapdoors.
those which are made

cisterns, cupboards,

Jib doors are

to correspond in appearance with

the walls of a room, having the same finishings, in the shape of skirtings,

dadoes, chair, and picture

rails,

They

and seldom used.

are out of date now,

or cornices, fixed to

them

as to the walls.

Single door
Fig. 6 66

Yi

Scale

Sliding doors (when double) are made in two portions, which run past
each other on wheels when required to open. The wheels, which may
either be fixed to the top or bottom of the doors (figs. 668 and 669), have

a hollow margin in the centre, which grips an iron or hard wood guide

DOORS

THEIR FINISHINGS AND FASTENINGS.

261

664) running past the openings, the whole width of the doors, to keep

(fig.

them

in position.

This class of door

where there

is

not

To overcome

is

suitable for

room

for a

goods sheds,

door to open on

fittings,
its

door

this difficulty the sliding

and other

hinges, as
is

fig.

used either double or

according to the width of the framing and spaces at

single,

situations

665.

its

sides

666).

(fig.

Fig.

667 shows an opening with narrow

sides,

which necessitates the

door being in two halves.


Figs. 668 and 669 show, respectively, sliding doors, with wheels on a
runner overhead, and on a runner underneath, with guides to suit the

alternate methods.
Foldifig doors are those which, being too

are divided into two parts, each

ing

wide to be hung to one jamb,

to a jamb, right

and

left,

and meet-

Each of the half-doors is hung with butts


fig. 670.
and one "leaf" or "fold" is fastened by bolts at top and
sockets fixed to the head of the frame or linings, and to the

the centre, as

to the jamb,

bottom, into
floor.

hung

The

other leaf

is

secured with either a rim or mortise lock (as

before described), but the latter has to be rebated to suit the section of
the closing style of the door.

They

are

made

they are called) at

in the

same way

as other doors, the

being rebated, as

fig.

671, to

meeting

styles (as

form a joint; and

in best work this is more or less checked to prevent the ingress of draughts
and damp, as fig. 672.
The jambs of these and other kinds of doors and frames are also often
checked out for the same reasons (fig. 673), but it is better to leave a
hollow on the frame, as fig. 674, and have no projection on the style of
the door, which has been proved to suck or draw in the rain in wmdy

weather.

in

Double-margined doors are imitation folding doors.


The door is hung
one width, with a bead worked on the middle from top to bottom, to

make

it appear as if it were made in two parts.


Internal doors have " linings " or casings, which can be either plain or

BUILDING CONSTRUCTION.

262

panelled, according to the thickness of the walls they are in for their
cases.

GO

Qa

Plain casings are used for doors in 4|-inch, 9-inch, and sometimes in
14-inch brick or corresponding

stone walls.

rebate on the casing, |

DOORS: THEIR FINISHINGS AND FASTENINGS.


an inch

in depth,

around the three sides of the door, regulates the

-/

size

of

Guide

Runner

ttj*"

263

-f
Elevation

i Scale

Section
/
.--"

\
\

\/

Plan
Fi^.610

'h'Scale

Fig. 61 f.

Hook rebate
Fig. 67 2.
the casing.

must be

Thus

2 feet

for a

door

2 feet

9 inches

x 6

feet 9 inches, the casings

9 inches between the rebates in width, and 6 feet 9 inches

BUILDING CONSTRUCTION.

264
between

and rebate

floor

in

height.

Their width

thickness of the walls plus the plastering,

if

is

regulated

on each

any,

side.

by the

casing

a 4|-inch wall should be \\ inches, plus two | inches for plastering


i.e.^ 6 inches wide ; and for a 9-inch wall it should be io| inches wide.
for

Hanging

Style

Fig. 673.

Wedges for

Fig

i-egulating^T the width

&.

perpendiculai*

Plan
Fig. 675.

674^

Section
Fig. 676. /'Scale

Fi^

Scale

677

Plain casings are generally 2 inches thick, and either single or double-

rebated

the

one being necessary

for the

door and the other according to

fancy and uniformity.


Fig. 675 represents the plan of one jamb of the casing for a 2-inch
door in a 4|-inch wall, single-rebated.

DOORS

THEIR FINISHINGS AND FASTENINGS.

265

at the head showing the architraves on each


and section.
Fig. 677 shows a front view of part of a door lining or casing, with
lintel and relieving arch, and rebate for doors, whereof fig. 678 is an

676 gives the section

Fig.

side in elevation

enlarged view.

2
Rebate for door-

riff.676

rScait

u^

Plan
Fig 6 80

Section
Pig 679

Plan

Fig 681

IScait

Double-rebated casings have a rebate on the other edge, corresponding


to that for the
fig.

679, which

jamb

The
the

casing

i.e.^

for a 4|-inch wall

a section through the head.

It is

being

as

needless to give the

the student should be quite able to follow that out himself.


'*

last,

Fig,

door; a 6-inch
is

single

and double-rebated

" casings for 9-inch walls are similar to

but of course wider.

680 represents the plan of a

rebated casing for a 9-inch wall.

single,

and

fig.

681 that of a double-

BUILDING CONSTRUCTION.

266
Those

made out of two widths of


Fig.

must, of course, be cross-tongued, having to be

for 14-inch walls

682

is

stuff,

1 1

inches being the widest procurable.

a plan of a cross-tongued double-rebated casing.

Occasionally, this

cross-tonguing

rebates on each side, as

fig.

is

superseded by framing on loose

683, which has the advantage of not showing

Plan.

Scalo

Fi^ 682
any crack
as

fig.

the jbint gives, as would be seen with the cross-tonguinj

if

682.

a good plan to key them across their back with hardwoc


keep them from twisting ; the keys being dovetailed in, as it wei
684), and driven home from the thick to the thin end.

It is also

keys, to
(see

fig.

Va/7

Sca.le

FJj 683

This

difficulty

is

often

obviated

by using

should be noted that these can be, and


widths.

They have

The

for

but

it

any other
for

i|-inch thickness, which the rebate

all too little and weak for hanging a


whereas, with the skeleton casing and " loose " stop, we have

of a 2-inch casing or lining, was

large door to

casings

used

the advantage of giving a firmer and better fixing

the hanging style of the door.


left

skeletoti

are, often

DOORS: THEIR FINISHINGS AND FASTENINGS.

267

2 inches to hang to, and without waste of stuff and extra cost, such
would be entailed if there had been 2-inch rebates, on plain linings.
Fig. 685 represents an enlarged plan, and fig. 686 a small elevation,
of the jamb, before the rebate, or rather stop piece, is planted on its face to
form the rebates.
Panelled casings, as the name implies, are more ornamental than any
Still they cannot be used for narrow casings
1 1 inch even
last.
the
of

always
as

Key

Back

Section

n^ 684

Plan

Scale

Sectional Elevation

FiQ
685
'S

make
etc.,

the panels rather

cramped

it

The

panels must range in height,

and those on the head according to the number of panels at the


It is always as well to show the top or " soffit " panelling,
is termed, by dotted lines on the plan, as fig. 687, which gives a
etc., of panelled linings or casings for an 18-inch wall, and fig. 688

top of the door.

plan,

up.

with the doors, those on the jambs by the panels of the door in

height,

as

Fij 686

smaller-scaled elevation.

BUILDING CONSTRUCTION.

268

From

figs.

687 and

688 the student will gather that the door is


and 2 wide a 5 and frieze-panelled door would
panel on the soffit where 2 are shown by dotted lines

6-panelled, 3 in height

have had only

on the

plan.

Elevation
Fig'.eea.

Oftentimes the rebates are what are called


are sometimes

From

beaded

in addition, as

the various illustrations,

fig.

etc.,

loose

rebates,

'/2Scaie

and they

689.

given of linings or casings, the

student will have noticed how important it is that the framed grounds
round the doorway should be fixed to the gauge shown on fig. 591

DOORS
perfectly

THEIR FINISHINGS AND FASTENINGS.

plumb on the

face

and

sides

though the

latter

269

can sometimes

be corrected by the wedges used to regulate and secure the proper line
of the door casings.

Dadoes
as an

are

wooden framings

ornament or

fixed to the walls

They

for protection.

around a room, either

are usually about ij inches

Scale
Fig.

689

1/3 In Chen

^^ection

Elley/ation

Fig. 690.
in thickness,

and can be

of the various kinds

^/i

made

Scale

of plain, cross-tongued, or any other

of match-boarding;

or,

in

better work,

they are

and can be square-framed, moulded, chamfered, bolectionmoulded, bead flush, or with raised or other ornamental panels, as
explained and illustrated for doors.
They are square at the back and fixed to grounds and backings
panelled,

BUILDING CONSTRUCTION.

270

plugged to the brick walls ; but, to prevent damp, they should be painted
back before being permanently fixed.

at the

Fig.

with

its

style,

690 represents a section and part elevation of a panelled dado


belongings, X showing what is called a leg, being the end

which runs down to the

between these legs the dado only


There is no regulated height
the number of panels in
according
to
taste
and
vary
they
floor;

goes just below the top of the skirting.


for

dadoes

Ground
^Backing
every Sfeet
action

Elevation
.691.

height.

Of

course,

in

match-boarded

Scale
dadoes,

the

boards

are

fixed

and generally run down to the floor.


All internal angles of dadoes are tongued and grooved, and the
external angles mitred and tongued, or formed with any other suitable
joint, explained in Chapter XVI., to which please refer.
perpendicularly,

Fig. 692.

Skirtings are plain or moulded longitudinal boards, of various heights,


In best
fixed on grounds and backings to the walls at the floor line.

work they are tongued into the


moulded skirting with its fixings.

as

fig.

691, which represents a

angles are tongued with the mouldings scribed over each


and the external angles are mitred only.
double skirting consists of two or more members, as fig. 692, and

Internal
other,

floor,

DOORS

THEIR FINISHINGS AND FASTENINGS.

271

generally necessitates the backings being cut to the shape of the back

of the complete skirtings, as

Chair rail

is

the

name

fig.

692.

given to the longitudinal mouldings which

Fig.

693.

are fixed at the height of the tops of the backs of chairs, as a capping
to dadoes, as in

The
"plinth

chair

"or

693

or to grounds

rail is often called the


" base " of a dado.

on

plaster walls, as

"surbase," and the

fig.

694.

skirting

the

and dadoes are often made of plaster or cement, instead of


but these will be explained in Chapter XXI. on " Plastering," etc.

Skirtings

wood

fig.

CHAPTER

XVIII.

WINDOWS AND WINDOW


Sash, or Cased

FINISHINGS.

Frames Solid Frames and Casements Borrowed


Window Finishings Shutters.

Lights

Windows and Frames. Window


classes of joiner's framing

cased

openings are

frames

filled

frames with casements.


Sash Frames. Cased frames are of two

filled

in with

in

with tw(

sashes, or solid

parts, as stated above, con-

one or more squares, with or without bars, suspended


over pulleys by lines with regulated weights tied on at the other end, in
boxings framed together as jambs. These jamb boxings are connected by
sisting of sashes, in

Fiq.695.

a head at the top and

sill

\'Sea!e.

at the bottom,

forming a four-sided frame,

within which the two sashes are enclosed.


Fig. 695 represents, to a small scale, the plan of a cased frame with

its

696 is a section of the same.


Figs. 697 and 698 are enlargements of the same, at the points marked
A, B, C, and D, respectively ; and the detailed parts are lettered^ as
sashes

follows

P
style

fig.

S, pulley style
;

S C, sash cord

P, pocket piece

W,

weights

P H,

I L,

pulley

inside

head /.^., head

lining

L,

of

outside

372

WINDOWS AND WINDOW


lining

inside or

sill

rail

sashes

S B, sash

From

S,

of sashes;

bottom'
;

L, back lining
stop bead

B, parting

M R,

bead

B, blockings

meeting

FINISHINGS.

S,

L, parting lath

styles

of sashes;

rails

'^7^

of sashes

R, top

B,

R,

rail

of

bar.

the enlarged illustrations the student will have noticed that the

thickness of the sashes, whether

it

the thickness of the whole boxing.

be

i|, ij, ij, 2, or

2\ inches, regulates

All the other usual sizes are figured, so

that he should be able to apply the above to any thickness of sash.

LiiiM

Fig. 6 97

Scd^lc.

Sc&le

^4

full size.

On fig. 697, the plan of the jamb, both sash styles are shown, though
only the inner or bottom sash is really seen in its place when the section
is

taken below the meeting

only observed
It will also

when a

rail

section

is

C, and that of the top or outside sash

made above

the meeting

be noticed that the two weights are shown

This sash-frame

is

supposed to be

double-hiingryi.e.^

is

rails.

in the boxings.

both sashes are

suspended by the cords over the pulleys, and weighted, so that they can be
regulated when neither open nor shut.
If the sashes were single-hung
only one weight should be shown in each jamb on the same side of the

19

BUILDING CONSTRUCTION.

Fi^. 699.

fiq.698.

parting lath,

Scale

L, inside the boxing

the parting bead outside.


to provide against

undue

''kfull

size.

the same side

e'ScAle.
as the

hung sash

is

of

This parting bead should be of oak or teak.

swelling

and

sticking of the sashes.

WINDOWS AND WINDOW

FINISHINGS.

275

699 is an elevation of the pulley style, without the sashes in ; and


700 a section, showing the working details of the axle pulleys, weights,
cords, and pocket pieces, the latter of which are for putting in and getting
Fig.

fig.

ElevAUon.
Fig 701.

I
ri^ 700.

2"Sca/e.
out the weights,

only

is

(See

fig.

when hanging

or

Fi^.703.

regulating the sashes.

One

pulley

shown on each pulley style when the sash is single-hung.'


The pulley styles are housed and wedged into the oak sills, as shows
on fig. 701, and housed into the head which runs across at the top
'

702.)

BUILDING CONSTRUCTION.

276

The

linings are united at the top angles, as

notched out

for

them

The meeting

rails

at the

bottom, as

fig.

fig.

703

fill

up the space of the parting bead, which

a space where the top and bottom sashes meet, as shown in

10

WMM
PlAn
Fl(^.

F04.

sill is

are always about | inch thicker than the styles, or

thickness of the sash, to

EievAUon

and the

704.

fig.

creates

705.

WINDOWS AND WINDOW


The

cord

is

connected to the sash

the side of the sash style running

being

made

fig.

on

moulded;

fig.

is

a view of

a space for the cord

an enlarged

elevation.

moulded on the edge

in

712.

sashes themselves are

chamfered;

being

style

outside linings of the frames are often

better work, as

The

which

style, as fig. 711,

up the pulley

277

in the thickness of the style, as the plan shows, with

place for the knot, as

The

FINISHINGS.

fig.

714,

moulded

to a variety of designs;

ovolo-moulded

fig.

and hollow-moulded;

716, astragal

715,

717, moulded.

fig.

All rebates for the glass in the sashes should be

fig. 713
lamb's-tongue

no

less

than inch

deep, and about | inch wide.

Fi(j

m.

17I5

Ficf.

7\7

Sash bars are of width varying from | inch to 1 1 inch, by the thickness
but the thinner they are the better, as they do not block up so
;

of the sash

much

light.

itself,

an ovolo-moulded sash being as

They

moulded on each

moulding of the sash


718; and they are connected
together, as fig. 719, by a scribing and mortise and tenon; T being the
tenon,
the mortise, and S^ the scribing.

are

side to the

fig.

BUILDING CONSTRUCTION.

2/8
Those

in the direction of the jars or

made

blows are

ithe

" through

The other joints between styles and


and tenoned together, and wedged up.
sashes are not hung they are said to be /"a:^^ sashes.

bars, with the

mortises.

rails

ar

scribed, mortised

When

W\
Cross bar

\^J

Cross 6r

'Ipnqhl

60

FiQ 719

Venetian sashes are 3-light windows, the centre light

the sidelights, as

fig.

when
is

all

sashes are
;

fig.

721,

iVScale

720.

not the case

larger than

7'

..v-^

Fig.

bemg

720; the boxed mullion between being as

hung

and

fig.

722

illustrates the

the mullions taking up far less

room

treatment
;

when

this

and the weights of

iP

"'^M
ifMlkF\
I
Fig.

n^722.

723.

the centre sash (the only one hung) are enclosed in the jambs, the cords

being worked by pulleys over the sidelights, as

two

lights

being shown to

with the usual way

illustrate

fig.

723

will explain, the

the difference of working as compared

WINDOWS AND WINDOW


Marginal
around the
margin, as
Single

sashes have a narrow margin

lights,

FINISHINGS.

79

formed by a sash bar up or


and the style being the

the space between the bar

724.

fig.

and double-hung sashes have been explained

in

the general

description.

Circular-headed sashes have the underside of their top

rails

and the

Inside

head of the outside linings cut to the outline of the arch, while the inside
is kept square and flat (figs. 725 and 726).
Circular-headed sash frames have their boxings, as well as their sashes,
ramed circularly inside and outside. But the- only difference noticeable in

section

is,

must be placed below the springing

that the pulleys

line.

The

plans are the same, and the elevation of course different, showing exactly what

the work
fig.

is.

The

is cut to a thin veneer, and blocked out, as


and meeting at the crown, where they are joined.
secured by means of sash fasteners, consisting of a lever

pulley style

727, the two bending over

Sashes are

on a

plate screwed to the

upper side of the meeting

rail

of the top sash,

BUILDING CONSTRUCTION.

28o

which turns under a catch, screwed by a plate to the upper side of the
meeting rail of the bottom sash, as fig. 728.
When large heavy sashes are used they are lifted up, when to be
opened, by projecting or flush lifts fixed to the bottom rail of the bottom

and the top sash is pulled down by a ring fastened to its top rail.
Solid Frames are made of solid heads, sills, and jambs, similar to

sash,

Plan.
Fi(^.

730.

door-frames, and filled in with casements exactly the


hung by " butts " to the sides of the solid framing.

as

There is very
compared with

no meeting

little

difference to

be noted on the external elevation

that of a sash or cased frame, except that there are

rails to

be seen

the real difference being in the working of

them, as shown by plans, sections, and of course the


Figs. 729, 730,

as sashes, but

same

and 731 represent the

details.

elevation, plan,

and

section of

WINDOWS AND WINDOW

FINISHINGS.

281

a solid-framed, single-light window, with a casement hung to a jamb


to

open inwards.

so wide

2 inches

cased frame
of

jamb

It will

be noticed that the brick jambs need not be


compared with 4^ inches for a

quite sufficient as

is

and, moreover, a solid frame does not require so

for its thickness,

much depth

4^ inches again being ample, whereas

much

sashes or cased frames require as

as 6^

according to the thickness of the sashes, linings,

some

inches; but this varies

etc.
y///,///////Mm/.,

F\(j.733.

fz Scale.

Frame-'

Frat

^Styh

_^.(yie

Shut
ri^.732.

Fig.

732

is

/^2

Scale

Open.

ri^.734.

an enlargement of the plan of a jamb or section of the


and fig. 733 is a section of the sill of chamfered

head, both being alike

casements and frames to open inwards.

The casements
and secured

h)y

are

hung

to the

jamb by a

pair of 2 1 or 3-inch butts,

a casement fastener, the principle of

different kinds being a

all

the very

numerous

handle with a pin, which turns on a brass plate

screwed to the casement, and enters into a mortise or staple on a plate


screwed to the solid frame

(fig.

734).

BUILDING CONSTRUCTION.

282

head, and fig. 736 a section


735 represents plan and section of
outwards.
open
to
casement
moulded
a
of
of the
These are hung and fastened in the same manner as the last-named,
Fig.

sill,

riQ.735.

liScAie.

Fiane

nq

73a

lis c ale.

and the opening arrangement


able joint fixed to the bottom

with a suitable

l^iScalc.

number

is

regulated by

rail

means of a

of the casement.

of holes, which

fit

on

stay with a

The arm

to a pin, screwed

is

mov-

pierced

by a

plate

WINDOWS AND WINDOW


to the
in

sill,

283

whereby the opening may be regulated and the casement fixed

any position required

Hopper casements are

hung

FINISHINGS.

to the

sill,

as

fig.

(fig.

737).

similar to

738,

fig.

hopper fanlights and

fall

inwards, being

739 being a section of jamb and head with

lamb's-tongue moulded casements.

They

are secured by the spring fastenings illustrated in the last chapter.

Pivoted case7nents, or those hung on centres, are explained by

fig.

740,

1
ria./4l.

741 and 742 being sections of the jamb above and below the pivots.
any further explanation is required, the student must refer to the same

figs.

If
j

kind of thing in fanlights, where their principle


Sliding casements^ as the

name

is

described in detail.

implies, are those

which are made

in

two

BUILDING CONSTRUCTION.

284
one to

sections, the
filled in

slide past the other.

Fig. 743

with two sliding casements, of which

LL

is

a plan of a frame,

are locking styles, each

fit the other ; and figs. 744 and


745 give sections of
and head.
It will be gathered from the drawings that these last casements have
the advantages of sashes, in that they neither open inwards nor outwards,
which may be said to be disadvantages in casements and solid frames,

being rebated out to


the

sill

let in the wind and wet as hanging


on the other hand, they require more space in thickness,

and, moreover, they are not so liable to

casements

but,

and often cause trouble with narrow jambs.


Sometimes the casements are kept in their place by iron studs, let
and the writer thinks that to be the better way,
into the sill, as fig. 746
;

as

it is

not so intricate and, consequently, not so liable to defects.

French casements are folding casements and windows, which answer


the purpose of doors as well, being continued

'g.74^.

down

to the floor-line.

---,

Fiq. 745.

Fic,.

746.

Fig. 747 is an elevation, and fig. 748 a section of one.


The details of
jambs, meeting styles, heads, and sills, are similar to those of ordinary folding

casements
is

more

like

but these have to be thicker, 2 J inches, and each casement


a sash-door with diminished or gunstock styles ; and where

the glass^panel

is

very long, a low panel, like that of a door,

the bottom, to lessen

it,

as

fig.

is

framed

at

747.

Hit and miss csLSQments are those used

for

farm buildings,

etc., as figs.

749 to 752, the top part being glazed between moulded bars, stumped
into head and transom; and the lower part consisting of upright slats,
with alternate spaces framed into transom and

sill

outside, with slatted

WINDOWS AND WINDOW

T/^ 7A7

FINISHINGS.

285

'iScAle.
/^'5

748

% Scale

m^^&
M:
h.

riQ.

749

F,^ 750

BUILDING CONSTRUCTION.

286

moved

framing within, which, being

aside two or three inches, either opens

or closes the alternate spaces between the single slats outside.

shows the

slatted

other plan shows

One

plan

frame moved aside, so that the holes are open, and the

them

shut.

Two-light solid frames are those which have a solid muUion, which

?m

is

'iScAle

751.

-^^

fe

^^i

rf
m=^^M.

Plan
Fi^

752

VScd/a

^i ^m

m^

'aim
Ficj.

753.
Fij.

Fiq 755

Fi^.

75^.

756

fig. 753 ; but they may also be made


above and one below it, as fig. 754 ; the
transom being in section similar to fig. 755, which is for both casements
made to open outwards.

treated like a double jamb, as at A,

two-light

by a transom, one

It will

llight

be understood that the section of the transom

varies in every

WINDOWS AND WINDOW


where the top and bottom Hghts

case,

From

shutting.

differ

FINISHINGS.

287

with regard to their opening and

the various illustrations given in these notes the student

ought to be able to draw them to suit any requirements.


Four-light casements and frames are generally made by a muUion and
transom, which divide the opening into four spaces, as

Sometimes the casements are hung folding in


cases the section of the meeting or locking styles
or

is

it

It

occasionally treated as

has been proved that

it

is

fig.

fig.

756.

solid frame, in
is

made

as

fig.

which
757

;.

758.

a great advantage to

f/^r.

make

the rebates

on

762

the solid frames and the side of the hanging style of tne'casements, as
fig.

759

i.e.,

on the splay

the contention being that the joint

fits

better

knock the edges off the styles when the


casement opens, as shown by the comparison of figs. 760 and 761. The
outer edge of the style gets away quicker in the one case than in the other.
Borrowed Lights, of which the object is to give light from one room

and

tighter,

without any

liability to

to another

which has no external

and

fixed

into a plain lining, of the

The

lining goes all

walls, consist of a plain sash, rebated

thickness required by the walls.

round the opening, as

fig.

762, but a

little

wider at

BUILDING CONSTRUCTION.

288

the bottom, to form a window-board, which takes the place of the nrchi^*
archi-

on the jambs and head.


Wa^er bars, of iron or brass, of different sections, are often fixed to
the bottom or end of casements, as fig. 763, which is only one of the many
equally efficacious patented methods for keeping out driving rain.
Weather boards are another means of throwing the water off the
bottom of casements. They are of wood, and similar in seciion to fig. 764,
being tongued into the bottom rail, or housed.
Window Finishings. The finishings to cased and solid frames
being alike, the student must understand that the various framings,
trave

mouldings,

etc.,

explained in this chapter equally apply to both kinds

of windows, although each kind of work will be shown in connection

with a cased frame.

no. 763

rici.764.

common

In

Ficf.

765

work, where the back of the window frame finishes flush

with the face of the plastering, the only finishings required are a window-

board

at

Fig.

sill

765

line

and an architrave up the jambs and across the head.


a jamb, and fig. 766 the head and sill of a

represents

window, treated as above.


It

being

will

be noticed that the architrave

seldom used

to

ordinary

" plugs," grounds

is

fixed to

and the window-board

windows

grooved into the oak sill.


Window-boards have rounded nosings,

as

moulded with a bed-mould underneath them,

fig.

as

766
fig.

or

767,

they
in

is

are

better

work.

may be single or double, the single being as shown on


and
and the double-faced {the proper term) are as fig. 768,
766;
765
consisting of two separate moulded members.
When the sash frame does not take up the whole depth of the jamb
Architraves

figs.

WINDOWS AND WINDOW FINISHINGS.


linings

have to be employed to make a

plastered wall,

finish

and the window-boards have

to

up

to

289

the

face of

the

as figs.

769

be widened,

and 770.

F 10.766.

The window jamb


frames,

and

fixed

linings are grooved into the inside linings of the

to backings,

B, which are

secured to

plugs

in

the

wall.

The window-board, being

of increased width, also requires backing

underneath, as shown*.

All

backings should be no more than 3 feet apart.


in these wider walls, the brick or stonework

Sometimes,
I'

is

left

I'

out

between the jambs, beyond the back of the frame, from the window
sill to
the floor line, as fig. 771, in which case the jamb linings of
the windows last described are continued down to the floor, and called
20

elbow linings below


with the

BUILDING CONSTRUCTION.

290

wide

level

sill

and

being again brought into requisition

we have wood
board to the

this

finishing of

window-board, the narrow nosing

panelling, called

floor-line

or styles, which run

and beneath

it,

765

and 766)

instead of plaster,

window

the skirting, as

down

course dispenses

(figs.

backs, from beneath the window


around the room, covering the le^

as explained in

fig.

774

(for

dadoes).

WINDOWS AND WINDOW

FINISHINGS.

291

I
772 represents a plan,

Fig.

treated

and finished

From

and

fig.

774 a section of a window

off in this way.

the front elevation,

773, the

fig.

window back

will

be seen

Q. oa

to consist of a panelled framing


I

back and fixed to grounds, as


panelled framing

may be

and the usual method

is

to

about ij

on

section,

inch
fig.

thick,

774.

flush

The

at

the

front of the

chamfered, or moulded to any design,


show the window backs by dotted lines on

plain,

II

BUILDING CONSTRUCTION.

292
the plans, as

fig.

772.

The jamb and elbow

linings

riq.776.

combined are

fixed

Scale.

Seed onr,g

774.,

on the

rScaJe
splay, as

fig.

775,

of course remaining y?^/.

when they

are called splayed lining, the head

WINDOWS AND WINDOW


Linings

are

tongued

at

their

FINISHINGS.

top angles, just

293

as door linings

or

casings, to join the horizontal to the vertical portions.

Plinth blocks or bases,

P B

(fig.

773), are

often put at the bottom

Seclion.

n^
of architraves, as shown,

for

777

the

skirting

to

run

up

as

against,

well

as for appearance.

Linings, in the best work, are often panelled, whether square or on


splay,
\

the

and 777

soffits

will

also

being treated in the same manner.

fully explain

all

Figs.

matters in connection therewith

776
though

294
it

BUILDING CONSTRUCTION.

may be

should be
the

(fig-

well to remark that that part of the lining called the elbow

made

window

to range with the panels

nosing returned round

777)) because the

architrave

it

in

of the window backs, with


the shape

of a

flush-bead

would not allow of the board

itself

being returned.
In designing window finishings the

blinds should always be borne

WINDOWS AND WINDOW

FINISHINGS.

295

left on each side the window and above the head


them ; and it will be noticed that provision has been made for
them in every case hereinafter illustrated and explained.

in

mind, and spaces

for

Shutters, as applied to the internal finishings of a house, are of


boxing shutters, and lifting or sliding shutters, their object

two kinds

being to give greater security and warmth at night.

Boxing
the

shutters are also caWed /o/ding shutters, because they fold back,
leaves, into the " boxings "

one or two

into

jamb

The
for the

To

are hung.

the drawings), and to

all

the

left

of the

boxing, blocked out from


;

for

them where

first thing to be done, according to fig. 778, is to leave a space


" blinds " all the way round the .window by " blocking-out " (as

shown by B S on

fillet

which are made

linings are usually fixed.

and

into this

blind

the wall

and

when

the

because

visible

is

it

The

member

this

we

the shutters

get a plain side of the

the face of the

blind space or

tongued the back lining of the boxing, which

is

generally panelled, moulded,

windows.

to

fillet

fixed to backings like a

shutters

are

other end of this back lining

jamb

is

lining,

unfolded to cover the


is

tongued into a wide

moulded ground, which is securely plugged to the brickwork, and in


addition to its own work forms a rebate for the front shutter and part
of the double-faced architrave (as Z), on which the other member of
the architrave

fixed.

is

Having completed the boxing according


are usually
shutter

is

to plan, the shutters (which

^ of an inch thick) only have to be put in, and the front


panelled, moulded on the face exposed in the daytime, to the
1

1 or

window backs, soffits, elbow linings, and other work


and the hinder side of it is generally made " bead butt," as
is also the same part of the back flap or other shutters, which are exposed
by night when the shutters are unfolded. The other part of the back

same design

as the

in connection,

flap is

left

square-framed.

The edges

of the styles of

all

shutters

and back

out alternately, so that

when they

are unfolded they

ibrm one

no spaces

at the joints,

surface, with

flaps
fit

as they

are rebated

together and

would

if

they

were square-jointed.

The

is exactly the same as the jamb linings


window backs, and elbow linings are made
the ordinary way ; in fact, a window with shutters is not

elevation of the shutters

of a window, and the

and used

in

soffits,

complete without them.


It is

unnecessary to explain and

illustrate these

matters again.

student must look back to the part of this chapter concerning

he

still

if

requires any information.

may be as well, however, to give a section through the head,


and bottom of the boxing, and also to show the sill and the mode

It

top,

The

them

296

BUILDING CONSTRUCTION.

of dealing with the

bottom of the shutters

when

allow of the space for blinds


779, 780,

and

at

window-board

the shutters are

in

781).

Lintel
jj/i/iJii//i//..'/:."i

TR.

Shutter

in

BoKini

BACkflAp
Sftck Lining

Pari Sectional

ri(j779

Llet^ation

rsca/e

level,

use {^ide

T.R.

to

figs.

WINDOWS AND WINDOW


that

when

of the

they are

297

unfolded their tops do not touch

the underside

The bottom

soffit.

shutters

FINISHINGS.

is

treated in a similar way, to prevent the

from scratching the window-board.


Shutter

Part Secnon&i

when

in

use

Elevation

Showing Elbow Lining.etc


Fi^78l.

ria.782.

I'Sc&te

Scale.

The section of the sill (fig. 781) will explain how the shutter
bottoms are treated there, to allow of stopping in front for blind space.
In very thick walls
angles

to

the

the shutters

windows

in

lieu

are

of

made

often

on the splay

square
^

as

fig.

/.^.,

right

at

778,

which

f^^
t

the

common way

method, and

it

to those already

is

in

ordinary walls.

Fig.

Scale

782 gives a plan of such

needless to give any other details, as they are similar

given.

In thinner walls, where there

is

no room

for shutters of ordinary

and

BUILDING CONSTRUCTION.

298

reasonable widths, the boxings have to be blocked out beyond the face
the plastered walls, as

fig.

783

for

splayed shutters, and

fig.

784

for square

shutters.

FiQ 785.

l'SC3L\e

FiQ.786

Another method, as fig. 785, is to throw a wide flap back on the face
of the wall, the joint between the small and large parts, at X, being called
a rule

joint,

on account of

its

they are treated as muUions, as

similarity to the joint of a 2-foot rule


fig.

786, where they

and

do not want projecting

WINDOWS AND WINDOW

FINISHINGS.

299

It will be seen on fig. 786 that


figs. 778, 783, and 784).
the mullion must be wide, so that the shutter and back flap, which are hung

boxings (as in

be got into a small boxing blocked out on the righthand side by a moulded upright to which the ft-ont boxing flap is hung
and when the shutters are out and in use a small blocking, A, hinged to
to the blind space, can

the

left

blind space (smaller than the right),

is

brought out to receive the

back of the boxing flap, and make a complete ornamental boxed mullion,
as if the shutters were not in use and formed it.
Folding or boxing shutters are sometimes
joint being at the

meeting

rail level

made

of the sashes

in

two heights, the

and where they are

in

Ll-L

one height a flush bead

a.

7 87

I'ScAie

worked on them at that level, as X, on


bead or a beaded joint.
From the preceding illustrations and explanation the student will have
noticed that the back flap is narrower than the shutter, and only one
back flap has been shown on this illustration but more may be added,
according to the size of the window, to be covered by shutters from two
boxings, one set on each jamb.
Still, it is always better, where possible,
to have wider shutters and back flaps, and less of them in number, as the
more there are the more likely they are to get out of order.
At best they
are often very awkward and troublesome.
In setting out this kind of shutter great care must be taken that the
rebates are in pairs, one to fit the other
not forgetting the meeting styles
fig.

787, which

may

is

often

either represent a flush

of the sets from each jamb.


j

It

is

always of advantage to leave as

space as possible between the shutter and back

flaps,

when

much

in the boxing,

BUILDING CONSTRUCTION,

300
to

make room

for the shutter bar, etc.,

which

is

secured to the back of the

shutter.

hung by small special butts, called l^ack flaps^ fixed about


up the styles, the complete set of shutters (when unfolded)

Shutters are
3 feet apart

<2

<<

by the shutter bar, which stretches


from behind the back of the back flap of each jamb, as fig. 788, and is
secured to one shutter by a loose joint, to fall down, when not required,
at A ; and let into the other, at B, when in use.
being held together in position

The

other kind of shutters,

for

internal

windows, though not so

Top Shutter

B.R.

R.

BoUom

Shutter

Nosing

Pain
'^0.

Elcvadon
I

Section,

Scale
n^.79l.

t' Scale.

BUILDING CONSTRUCTION.

302

commonly used

as the " boxing " shutters,

the lifting or sliditig shutters,

is

which are framings the whole width of the window, enclosed and hung

When

in cased frames similar to sashes.


slide

down

not in use, they are

the casings into a well, formed for

of the window back and the wall, as shown on

then just below the window-board, which

The

cased boxings are

neath the

and

made up

is

fig.

made

to

them between the back


791, the toprails being

fitted

so as to act as a

flap.

the jambs of the windows from under-

the bottom of the well below the window-board,

soffit-lining to

often below the floor, as shown.

789 is a plan of this kind of shutter, fig. 790 an elevation, and


791 a section.
On account of the heavy weights of the shutters (which are about

Fig.
fig.

J or i^ inches thick), lead weights are used instead of the iron weights

and cords are fixed to work them.


and fastenings required for these shutters are the rings

The

generally used in sash frames,

only

fittings

top of the
together,

toprails, to

lift

them

where they meet

up,

in the

SC6lIC.

and a screw to connect the two

in position, as

791.

fig.

leaves

The window-boar(

flap, is hung with small butts, and lifted up by a flush ring.


Sometimes internal shutters are made to slide laterally, though they ai
seldom met with now. They are worked on the same principle as sliding
doors and casements, to which the student must refer, the only diff'erence beinj

used as a

the lightness of the framing for shutters as compared with that for doors.

External
lete

but

it

shutters^

may be

whether

for

houses or shops, are now almost obsc

as well to say that

house shutters are folding framings^

the same height as the windows, each fold being secured by parliamet
hinges to the outside lining of the sash frames, and thrown by
side the brick reveal, as

Shop

fig.

them

out-^

792.

numerous narrow panelled framings, aboul


same height as the window and they can be removed
and put in position one by one at pleasure. They are secured by mortises
in the bottom of the shutters, which go on to small dowels fixed on the
window sill.
shutters consist of

15 inches wide, the

CHAPTER

WOODEN
Stairs

and Staircases

XIX.

STAIRS.

Definition of Terms and Rules Kinds

Construction of Stairs and Details

and Staircases. Stairs are the means by which ascent or


made from one level (or floor) to another. They can be made
iron, concrete, or wood; but it is only intended to deal with

Stairs
descent

is

of stone,

of Stairs

Handrails.

wooden stairs in this chapter.


The stairs themselves are built up

of a continuous range of light boards,

grooved and tongued together, and arranged in horizontal steps rising one
above the other in a raking line drawn from the bottom, or starting-point,
to the top or place

The ends

where

it is

required to land.

of these boards or steps are connected to stouter boards,

pitching from the bottom to the top to the raking line just alluded to

and they

are often supported in the middle, as will be explained

more

fully hereinafter.

This structure of boards,


together,

floors

built

is

etc.,

called stairs, connecting the different

enclosed in a staircase, which

is

either a

chamber, or a space or part of a larger apartment

specially

set aside for the

purpose.

When the

latter is the

only provision

made

for containing the stairs, the

and ceilings have to be trimmed, as fig. 793, in order to provide


headway, and allow of communication between the stairs and the higher
floor levels, with which the stairs themselves are the means of communicafloors

tion.
It is

differing

needless to say that there are numerous kinds of

from each other in principle and

in form,

wooden

stairs,

but alike in general

although the mouldings and mode of treatment may differ a little


However, before entering into these details, or going into an explanation

detail,

of the different kinds,

meaning of the

it

will

be as well to acquaint the student with the

different terms

and

rules applied to stairs in general.


303

BUILDING CONSTRUCTION.

304
Definition of

Terms with Rules.The

surface of the step on which the foot

is

tread

is

the

flat

horizontal

placed (distinguished by

on the

illustration, fig. 794).

The

riser

is

the vertical face of the step, or the upright, R, which con-

nects the back of the lower tread with the front of the upper one.

The

nosing

is

the edge of the tread, which projects beyond the face of

tf^g^lagJ^^-^^
and sometimes, by means of a small hollow
(as shown in fig. 794).
Newels (N) are the vertical posts, either square, moulded, or turned,
which connect the handrails and strings of different flights together. The
riser of the top or bottom steps is always housed into the centre of the
the riser

it is

usually rounded,

planted underneath,

fillet

newel

it is

made moulded

at their various heights.

stair

generally starts with a newel where there

the ends of strings, handrails,

etc.,

whether

it

be

is

no

wall to receive

at the top or

bottom,

each of which cases the newels are a convenience and an ornament.


The strings (S T) are the " walls " of the treads and risers of the

Each

housed into the


from newel to newel, or from

and

step

is

strings at

both

its

in

stairs.

ends, the string running

floor to floor at the inclination of the stairs,

parallel to the line of nosings

and the

handrail.

WOODEN
The handrail (H)

is

a rounded or

STAIRS.

moulded

305
rail,

fixed

above and

parallel

to the string along the walls, or from newel to newel, for the convenience

and aid of persons using the stairs. It should be of such a section that it
can be easily and comfortably grasped by the person ascending or descending the

stairs.

Balusters (B) are the light upright posts or bars supporting the hand-

between the newels, from the treads of the steps or string, and they
can be square, moulded, or turned.
A flight is the series of continuous treads or risers, or steps, inclining

rails

from one landing to another, or connecting the different

there are

floors, if

no landings.

A landing is the flat space or floor at the top of the stairs.


A half-space landing is a similar flat resting space between

two

flights,

i
=0
Quarter
Spa.ce

Oc

Landina

^''y^-y-m^M^
Plan

797

FiCj

one of which returns upwards in a direction opposite to the other, which


goes down, as

figs.

quarter-space

It is generally the width of the two flights.


795, 796.
a landing half the size of the last-named, and extend-

is

ing across one flight only, the riser of the


to that of the

The go
" rise "

is

downward one

(fig.

or going of a stair

that

from tread to

The going of a
landings, or

" flight "

is

upward

flight

being at right angles

797).
riser,

and the

to last riser,

between

the distance from riser to

tread.

is

the distance from

between the bottom and top of the

first

stair.

21

BUILDING CONSTRUCTION.

3o6

rectangular in tread or plane

Fliers are the ordinary steps,

which are employed

winders are those of triangular form,

in

while

turning

corners or curves.

Curtail steps are those generally at the bottom of a flight or stair,


which have one circular end to tread and riser ; and in the centre of the
tread the newel is placed, as fig. 797A, the other end of the step being

housed to the wall

string in the ordinary way.

Fig, 797?

ng.isj.^
Bull-nosed steps are similar to the
is

latter in

form and use, but the end

only about a quarter of a circle in contrast to a

*'

curtail" {vide

fig.

797B).
It will

be readily understood that the success of a stair depends on the


/>.,
it can be ascended or descended

convenience and ease with which

the go and rise of the step must be of suitable dimensions,

Top

and the

Bonom

Plan

nq

798

of no more than a dozen steps) between a landing, half


on
which to rest if necessary.
or quarter space,
Various rules have been drawn up to regulate the width of the tread or
flights short

(i.e.,

" go," in proportion to the rise of the risers

but the writer considers that

the following scale of proportion gives the most comfort and ease to the

user of the ordinary

stair,

while

it is

also a simple

one

for the student to

remember.

Take
riser, as

9 inches wide for the tread, and 7 inches high for the rise of the
the standard or basis

and accordingly

as the tread increases or

WOODEN

STAIRS.

307

decreases in width per inch, deduct or add \ inch in rise respectively,


therefore

5-inch tread should have a 9-inch

riser.

(standard).

BUILDING CONSTRUCTION.

3o8

the tread in proportion to the rise should be

put his feet

when he

the stair; that

is,

Kinds of

is

about i8 inches from the centre of the handrail, or

Stairs.

figs.

798, 799,

and 800,

straight stair

in

stair,

though

up

there

is

half the width.

It is

This

elevation.

is

a very

801

takes a considerable length of space in

it

proportion to the height to be attained


takes

and

Plan.

of

that

is

plan, section,

Fi^.

common form

string.

on which the person


the same forward direction from bottom to top,

ascending moves up in
as

placed where a person would

grasping the handrail in ascending or descending

and on the other hand, it only


and inconvenient stair when

a very tiring

a considerable distance to ascend.


^

I
I
Sectional

Clevatioh

Front Llevauon

Fi(j&02.

Fig

603

and 803 represent the same class of stair with winders


bottom, which create a saving in the length of the staircase, and,

Figs. 801, 802,


at the

when

at either

bottom or

top, necessitate

being almost at right angles to the


Winders, though of

stair,

common

the starting place or landing

stair itself.

occurrence, are an inconvenient defect

and should always be avoided

as

much

as possible.

in

Straight stairs

WOODEN

309

a landing in their length, to break the

may have
place

STAIRS.

but

it

Dog-legged

flight,

and

as a resting

seriously increases the length of the staircase.


stairs are

the

first

improvement on the

latter,

inasmuch as

W^

Secdonal

Elevadon

Fid 805.

OS.L

Q.SL

Ufi

Uf,

'4'////y/A:<^'////y////////////.

From Lievanon
Fia 606

Plan
Fij.d07

i
I
Sectional Elevation
Fig 808.

jl

Front Elevation
Fig. 80.9.

by them the distance to be ascended is divided into two flights with a halfspace, or two quarters connected by one riser, between each flight, as
^s. 804, 805, 806, 807, 8o8,*and 809. It will be seen that the length

BUILDING CONSTRUCTION.

3J0
of the staircase

is

considerably reduced, while

its

width

increased

is

also

that the outer string, carrying the outer ends of the steps of

one

exactly above that of the other flight, leaving

well hole, as

it is

called,

ased,

its

between them.
flight,

no opening or

kind of

object here being to receive the top

of the one

rail

It is in this

stair that

end of the

and the bottom ends of the

flight, is

the newel
string

is first

and hand-

The

other, or top flight.

newels are generally square pieces of wood, but sometimes turned or otherwise ornamented.
Figs. 8io and 8ii represent the common square

newel (used in

figs. 807, 808, and 809), which receives the strings of both
one over the other, on the first side, the risers of the bottom and
top step of the alternate flights on the second and fourth sides, and the
riser (X, fig. 811) on the third side, when there are two quarter-spaces in

flights,

Up
Landinq

String

iancJing.

Landina
Down

Flan
Fi<^.8ll.

lieu

of the half-space landing.

floor

below to a

the top

little

it

receives

reaches in length from the

and supports the handrail

of

flight.

Sometimes,
pletely taken

serious defect

Tke open
between the
lieu of the

in dog-legged stairs, the quarter

up by winders
and danger.

but

neivel stair difl"ers


strings of the

one

two

at the junction

but this

is

this

and half-spaces are com-

should always be shunned as a most

from the foregoing,


flights,
;

between the two quarter-spaces,


This is a convenient form of
the last

The newel

above, where

in that

while

it

has a well hole

allows of one tread

as in figs. 812, 813,


stair,

it

necessitating the use of two newels in

though

it

and two

risers

and 814.

takes a wider staircase than

more than counterbalanced by

its

utility,

for

which

most generally used in decent work. Still, its principles can


be misused by the addition of winders in the quarter-spaces, as in the last,
A geometrical or wreathed stair is one which has no newels. It requires

reason

it is

WOODEN

STAIRS.

31

"
about the same length of staircase as a " dog-legged " or " open newel
latter.
The principle of the
stair, but is perhaps a little wider than the
stair is

the continuous string, stretching, or inclining, as

bottom

to top,

it

around a well hole, with a half-round corner

wmmmmmm

does,
(still

from

on the

w//m.

^y;^^?^^^b%:fe^^^^^^'
PIAn

incline),

Sectional DevAtion
Fl^ G13,

where the newels of the open newel

stair

have been dispensed

with.
It has no landings or quarter-spaces, but is one continuous, convenient,
and comfortable ascent, the winders converging to points inside the well

Fronr Elevacion
Ficj.ai^^.

and thus giving a wide tread, at a very short distance from the
wreathed string and handrail. Figs. 815, 816, and 817 give plan, section,
and elevation of such a stair.
hole,

:,

Having explained the


explain the details which

different kinds of stairs,

may be

it

now

only remains to

said to be applicable to all the foregoing

BUILDING CONSTRUCTION.

312

kinds, although there are extra

members, and

more elaborate kind of


Construction of Stairs. Fig. 8i8 is a

of them, peculiar to the

risers of a

common narrow

SecnonaJ /e/a(on.
on Line A B.Fig.8l5
Fi<j.

816

stair

different

forms and details

stair.

section of the treads

between two

walls.

The

and

treads have

Front Elevation
FiCf.

Sir

rounded nosings, and are grooved and tongued to the risers, glued together,
strings, and wedged up finally.
Winders are similar in detail, but their section depends of course upon
where it is taken, and which wide or narrow part of the tread it cuts through,
as A B or CD, fig. 819, the latter of which cuts the risers when close together.

blocked and housed into the

WOODEN

STAIRS.

313

Both of the strings, in this case, being wall strings, their sections will
be similar to fig. 820, which is a section on line AB in fig. 818. The
string is housed out for each end of a step, with its wedges to riser and
tread, as

fig.

821, in elevation.

Skirting

of Landing \

^^'here strings

meet

together, or dovetailed
'T

at right angles they are either


;

and where there

grooved and tongued

are winders, at

junctions of raking with straight, they are eased

and 823, which are called ramps.

off,

either corners,

as X,

figs.

822

BUILDING CONSTRUCTION.

314

stairs, the section of treads and risers is as fig. 824, from


be gathered that the strings are deep, being 1 1 inches in lieu
of 9 inches, and the nosings moulded, the small hollow fillet being housed
into the underside of the tread, and dispensing with the tongue on the top

In better

which

it

of the

riser.

to

will

strings,

And in addition to the gluing, blocking, housing, and wedging


where the steps are wide, they have an extra support in the

form of a rough bearer called a carriage^ which inclines from bearing

to

ross Section

Fig. 821.

Fig.82e.

bearing, parallel to the string supporting the under-side junction of treads

and

risers in the centre of

the

stair,

as

figs.

825 and 826.

This also

entails

additional depth of string, as X, the top dotted line representing where the

underside of the string would have been without the carriage.

Oftentimes a further addition to the " glued, blocked, housed, wedged,


fir carriages," is made by screwing shaped brackets on

and supported by

to the side of the carriage to support the treads of the steps, as

carriage only being a help to the risers


section,

fig.

828.)

and the

stair,

827, the

fig.

as a body.

(See also

WOODEN
When

each

flight

of

stair

315

has not a wall on each side of

other string, which

strings, the

STAIRS.

is

not against a wall,

is

it

for wall

called an outer

-Car/'iagc

Section

Fig.d29.

Fig. 8 28

String.

elevation,

it

must be

on the outside, as

and more ornamental and taking


shows handrail, etc., in
831 being a plan of the same. The string is as fig. 829

Consequently,

to the eye

fig.

stouter,

fig.

830, which

BUILDING CONSTRUCTION.

3i6
in section, or

capping,

it

and

may be more
fascia,

as

elaborate

fig.

still,

and

tongued, or dovetailed, at

832.

Strings should always be tongued at headings,


angles,

all

consist of string,

housed

and

either grooved

into the centre of

all

and

newels,

Plan
Elevation

Fig. 83 J.

and pinned

332.

in, as in fig.

scribed for the

If they are

833.

mouldings to

fit

moulded

the housing has to be

in as well.

Handrails are also scribed, housed, and pinned to

all

newels, and should

Newel*

^
^
Fig. 834-.

F/g.833.

above each tread, measured in a line from the face


On landings and fiat places they should be 3 fee
Fig. 835 presents a rounded or mopstick handrail in section
I inch high.
fig. 836, a moulded handrail; and fig. 837, a toadsback moulded handrail,

be

fixed 2 feet 8 inches

of the

riser, as fig.

834.

so called because of

its flat

curved top.

WOODEN
The
above

housed into the

balusters are

but sometimes,

839, and

the core, in

of the handrail, as

turn,

and

handrail,

they are

iron,

as

let into

and screwed

to the underside

Ffg-83

Fig.

1.

83 8

handrail should always have a curved top face and no arrises,

of such a size that

it

shown

connected

secured on to the top of them, as

is
is

of

317

840.

Fl(^.d36.

Fig.e36

fig.

its

strings

when

especially

together by an iron core, which


fig.

STAIRS.

can be easily grasped.

Fig.

838

is

and be

a section of one

suitable for a winding geometrical or wreathed stair.

Neivels are generally cut out of square

moulded, or turned.
link

between the

They

flights,

stuff,

and

either left square,

are the mainstay of the stair

as every string

and the connecting


should be framed and pinned into

Trimmer

Trim/ner

F,Q.639.

them, and the

Fiq.

risers

8^0

shown.

newels are not framed at both ends, from floor to

have either rounded or turned tops, when their foot


as at the

bottoms and tops of

landings or flights,
etc.,

stairs

and are not framed

or turned top,

and the bottom

is

floor,

they

framed and secured

and where they occur between


at either of their

but to the trimmers sideways, as

moulded

Fig 642

of the steps next to them ought always to be housed

into their centre, as previously

When

FJg.Q4l

is

ends into

floors,

and 842, they have a


turned and ornamented as well,

figs.

841

BUILDING CONSTRUCTION.

318

and called a pendant or drop, as fig. 843, which is a representation of the


newels at a half-space landing on an open-newel stair.
Landings, whether half or quarter-space, are made of flooring boards

Handrail

Section oF

String

fig 84-3

carried

on ordinary joists framed into the trimmers, to which one flight


and from which the other starts, as fig. 844, which represents a

inclines,

half-space landing.

In best work these boards are not nailed down, but are glued together

and secured by hardwood buttons underneath, each button being screwed


to the underside of the

groove on the
joists,

joist of

board, and the tongue on

them turned

into a

the landing, so that the buttons are secured to the

to the buttons, as figs. 845 and 846.


edges of the landing are treated as the top of a tread of a

and the boards

The

step,

WOODEN
when they
riser,

and

the stairs

act as such.

Fig.

STAIRS.

319

847 represents the edge of a landing above a

848 the edge of a top landing, surrounding the well hole of


A, the part which covers the face of the trimmer, being called

fig.
;

F,g

Fi^.a^l

846

Ft^.8 48.

Section on line. A. B.

Fi^.849
an apron.
1

Where

tinuous trimmer

is

there are quarter-spaces,

it

is

obvious that one con-

neither suitable nor useful, as explained by

the right of the figure representing the

rough

quarter-space in an
j

open newel

stair,

with two risers

fig.

849

and trimmers of a
between the quarter-

joists

BUILDING CONSTRUCTION.

320

spaces, while the left side

necessary, with winders.

shows how

The

to place the bearers,

the bearers, and should give the student an idea of what

such cases.

(See

fig.

etc.,

when

section will explain the different height of


is

required in

849.)

Handrail sctws

F'3 .a so.

The

bearers for the winders in a wreathed or geometrical stair are

treated in a similar manner.

Wreathed

stairs (geometrical),

with their continuous winding strings, of

course are very intricate at the returns

handrail are constructed on a drum, that

so

much

and

so, that the strings

more accuracy may be obtained,

nosing

Ftg

853

Fig .852.

as the string

back of the

is

both circular on plan, and

string at the return

is

rises at the

same

time.

The

cut away to a very thin veneer, which

blocked up with wedge-shaped backings from behind and the joint


between the two parts of the string is secured by handrail screws. (See

is

fig.

851.)

It

goes round.

mind

must be borne

in

(See

Carriages and bearers support the steps.

fig.

852.)

that

it

rises at the

same time

as

it

WOODEN

STAIRS.

321

Bull-nosed or airtaikd steps are treated in the same manner.


853, which

fig.

is

a plan of one of the latter at the bottom of a

See
stair,

showing the veneering and blocking to the curve.

Fig. 864.

and mitred., which is


same time, gives a clue

Occasionally, in best work, the strings are cut

another

name

for

the open string; and, at the

to the class of treatment to

which the

string

is

subject.

Fi^ 855

The
(fig.

string (that

is,

the outer string)

is

cut out to the shape of the steps

854), the ends of the treads are rounded,

returned, as

fig.

and the small moulding

is

855, oftentimes with a small thin cut bracket underneath

as a finish.

22

BUILDING CONSTRUCTION.

3-22

The
with the

mitring part, as the term "cut and mitred" implies,


risers,

which are mitred to the

This kind of string

Sometimes,
used, being

Tread

in

is

used chiefly

wooden

comes

in

string, as fig. 856.

in

open-newel and geometrical

stairs.

stairs as well as stone, solid spandril steps are

housed into the

strings as usual, but dispensing with gluings,

fiisen

String

Fi<j 857

Bracket

Fi^ 856
and other framings underneath. The tread is a loose thin
on to the top of the solid step, as fig. 857.

blockings,

slab

of hardwood, nailed

In ordinary
1

1 inches

stairs

the treads are from

strings, i^

and

newels, 4 or 5 inches square

according to the circumstances,

to i| inches thick; risers, g to

and
and the other dimensions, of course, vary

inches

etc.

balusters, i^ to 2 inches square;

CHAPTER XX.
SKYLIGHTS AND LANTERNS.
Skylights

Both

Lanterns on Roofs and Flats Louvres Ceiling Lights.

of these classes of framing are used for the purpose of light, either

fixed in the roofs,

object

is

to

give

flats,

light

etc.,

or forming a

from above, where,

roof in themselves.

Their

from various causes and

circumstances, the enclosing walls cannot be used to supply that want.

A skylight is the smaller of the two, and is generally flat


and inclined with the pitch of the roof whereas a lantern has
or only slightly inclined sides, which are often framed with case-

Skylights.
in form,
vertical

ments made to open, in order to give ventilation


whole being covered by a slated,
Fig.

tiled,

858 represents a skylight in section,


3*3

in addition to light, the

or glass roof
fig.

859 the elevation

in

BUILDING CONSTRUCTION.

324

slated roof; but only the

notice being taken of

woodwork

tiling, slating,

will

be dealt with

or leadwork.

The

in this chapter, no]


student ought to be|

been explained in previous chapters.


all trimmed to suit the size of the
framed together and wedged up within

well acquainted therewith, as they have

The

roof rafters,

The

are

and a curb

skylight required,
that space.

etc.,

first
is

of

angles of the curb are either grooved and tongued, or

dovetailed together

and, in a slated roof, the curb should be 9 inches


it at the top part, as in fig. 858.

deep, to allow of a gutter behind

In a tiled

roof,

however, the curb should be 11

inches deep, the

increased depth being necessitated by the extra thickness of

pared with

slates.

The

tiles at

tiles as

the eaves of the gutter, which

of the skylight, with a 9-inch curb and ordinary rafters,

etc.,

is

com-

at the top

would almost

touch the bottom of the toprail of the skylight, and would not allow
a sufficiently large gutter, especially for snow, hence the necessity

ofl

for

II inches.

The
rafters,

9 and ii-inch curbs are measured from the underside of the

and

rafters, the

if these are of more than the ordinary depth of common


depth of the curb has to be increased accordingly, but the

above are the usual


wide.

sizes

t.e.y

9 and 11 inches deep by i| or 2 inches

SKYLIGHTS AND LANTERNS.


The

top of the curb

of the skylight, which

running
bottom rail, as

glass,

is
is

tongued, to

fit

a groove around the underside

a framing of styles and

in the direction of the roof,


will

be gathered from

fig.

325

rails,

and framed

859.

with bars for the

into the top

and

BUILDING CONSTRUCTION.

526

860 is an enlarged detail of the top and bottom of fig. 858, from which
be seen that the bottom rail is not as thick as the top one, being | of
an inch, or the depth of the rebate, less. This is done in order to allow
the glass to run down over it and project over the bottom edge of the
Fig.

it will

bottom rail, so as to throw the rain-water off. Otherwise, if the bottom


were to be made of the same thickness as the toprail, a gutter would
be formed, and the rain would soak through the putty and drop inside
rail

F,^

and in snowy weather


shown on fig. 861.

it

662

would form an excellent lodgment

for the

snow,

as

The
wedged

The

styles are as

into

bars

them
(fig.

Fig

of course, of the

The

862 in section, and the

863), which are fixed about 12 to

rails

are tenoned and.

15

inches apart, are,

863
same moulding

depth as the styles and


into the top

fig.

at the angles.

toprails,

and bottom

as the styles

and

rail,

and of the same

but i| inch wide, and framed at each end

rails.

may be moulded

and
to any section, chamfered, or square
work they are checked out a second time, and grooved underneath
the glass, as fig. 864, to allow the condensation which collects on the
underside of the glass to run down the bars and out.
Skylights can be either fixed or hung and in the latter case they are
bars

in best

SKYLIGHTS AND LANTERNS.


hinged by butts at the top, and opened
lifting

apparatus

The

(fig.

at the

3^7

bottom upwards by a patent

865).

glass of the skylight

is

kept in position by light narrow copper

FJg.666

^/^ 66 7

^;lips

screwed to the

lx)ttom as in

The

fig.

rails,

underneath the

glass,

which they clasp

at

the

is

not

866.

glass ought,

if

possible, to

be in one length

but when that

BUILDING CONSTRUCTION.

328

possible, these clips, with another

bend

in

them, are also used to keep

the top pane (which laps over the others) in position, as

In

common and

are used

fig.

867.

very large fixed skylights, over sheds,

etc.,

but a head and

sill

no curbs

to the required section are fixed to the

of rafters longitudinally, the styles being framed into

them

ends

at the ends,

and the bars stumped into the head at the top, and notched into the sill
at the bottom, as fig. 868, which illustrates such a skylight in any position
intermediate between the ridge and the eaves.
Fig. 869 shows a similar skylight, placed close up to the ridge itself,
which also may be differently treated, as shown in the enlarged section
(fig.

870).

i
Lanterns.
fig.

as

Lanterns

871, or on a
fig.

flat,

as

are generally
fig.

873, or being hipped, as

The

formed at the apex


872; their roofs having either gable ends,
fig.

875.

top or roof part of the lantern

similar to

an ordinary

framed together

of a roof, as

(figs.

871 and 872)

skylight, consisting of bars, styles,

sills,

is

precisely

and heads

the heads of the two sides meeting at the apex, against

SKYLIGHTS AND LANTERNS.

Section
Fiq.871.

329

BUILDING CONSTRUCTION

330
ridge pieces, as
also

fig.

873A, the section at the

sill

shows the upright framing of a lantern on a

being as

fig.

874, which

roof.

'

XtV,
Elevabicw.
Fig. 876.

Section ti Scale.

The hipped
afters,

roof

(fig.

875)

framed into the head

is

built

up of bar rafters, hip and jack bar


and at the sill they are treated

at the ridge,

SKYLIGHTS AND LANTERNS.


as
fig.

fig.

331

875 A, which otherwise represents a lantern on a

flat

i^ide also

872).

The
sill,

side framing consists of four angle posts,

framed into head and


for, and filled in

with intermediate mullions, the whole rebated out

Section

with
"le

moulded casements, either fixed or hung, according to requirements,


casements being sometimes hung on centres, or pivoted, as herein-

before explained.

rnuUions,

It

is

and casements.

needless to give details of

The

student

will

these angle posts,

be able to form

his

own

details

BUILDING CONSTRUCTION.

332
from the

given in the chapter on solid frames

illustrations, etc., already

and casements.

Elevation
Fig. 87 6.

Fig.

In lanterns for

common shed

77.

roofs the side framing

often

is

with louvres instead of casements, to give egress to the hot


as

shown

in

fig.

Ft g.

The ends
fig.

air

filled

in

or steam

876.

878

F,j.ai9

880.

of the louvres are housed into the posts or mullions, as

877.^

Ceiling Lights are often used,

in

bring the light into the rooms, and


rafters are

trimmed, and a curb

for the casement,

The

bars

which

is

is

connection with fixed skylights,

still

wedged

have a
inside

flat ceiling.
it,

figs.

879, 880.

to

ceiling

rebated out at the top

of the ordinary section and class {vide

may sometimes be constructed and arranged

or ornamental designs, as

The

to

fig.

878).

some geometrical

CHAPTER

XXI.

PLASTERING, PAINTING, AND GLAZING.


Work

Plaster

Materials

Plaster Work Processes External Work Ornamental Work


Glass and Glazing

Plaster

Work

smooth surface

Materials.
rough

all

Patent Glazing.

Plastering

consists in covering with a

walls, ceilings, partitions,

etc.,

in the superior

where a more finished, better-looking, and


more sanitary effect is required. This result is obtained by the use of
various materials, including several patents, as will be pointed out in the
following remarks on the materials themselves and their application.
The lime used by the plasterer is the pure lime, containing only
apartments of dwellings,

carbonate of lime, and


great

power of

etc.,

sometimes called a fat lime.

is

setting nor ultimate strength,

is

It

has neither

of a white colour,

and

and immediately the water is poured on it a great


volume of steam will arise, and the lime will begin to crack very loudly,
slakes very freely

if it is

of the best kind for plastering.

Such lime

is

found

at Crich,

Buxton, and Dorking, being the product

of burning either marble, white chalk, or the Bath and Portland oolites of
I

By

various places.
three times

its

the slaking process pure lime will increase in bulk to

When

original cubical contents.

the slaking

is

completed

the lime and water are run through sieves, to collect and screen out the

hard unslaked lumps or residue, which would be a source of danger in the


finished work.
fruity,

and

-pt for

The creamy mixture

in this state, to

a period of one or two

The sand used


impurities.

Pit sand

is far

called

is

and washed,

if

free

necessary, to eliminate

from
all

all

these

preferable to that taken from large river beds,

continually kept in motion by the currents, so that the

is

particles or grains are

Plaster-of-Paris

and water

months before being used.


must be clean and sharp,

for plastering

arthy or vegetable matter,

where the sand

of slaked lime

ensure perfect slaking, some limes should be

rounded, which takes away their sharpness.

used

for

gauged
333

stuff,

is

calcined gypsum,

which>

BUILDING CONSTRUCTION.

334

after being mixed with water to a paste, sets quickly and with a smooth
Hardened white surface.
Portland cement^ which will be dealt with more fully in Chapter XXIIL,
is chiefly used for outside work, the lighter (in weight) and quicker-setting

most

qualities being the

Keene's cement

used

suitable for this purpose.

and

Plaster-of- Paris, saturated with alum^

is

for angles, pilasters,

and the more ornamental

chiefly

is

parts of plastering, for

internal use only.

Parian cement

is

a finer-working substance, used for large surfaces of a

better class in internal plastering, the walls generally being

or rendered over with Portland


Parian, which

is

cement and sand,

really Plaster-of-Paris recalcined, with

Martin's cement

so

backed up

borax added.

similar to the last in preparation, pearl ash being

is

used instead of borax, which produces a "


Keene's) a better "

first

in preparation for the

fatter "

cement, forming

(like

arris."

There are several other kinds of cement of these classes, but they are
seldom used in ordinary work that it is unnecessary to describe

them.

The
about
or oak

laths

used

for

plaster

work

(fig.

88 1) are thin

strips

of wood,

inch broad and up to 4 feet long, rent or sawn out of good

and the

thicknesses are classified as below

diff'erent

are about

Single lath

Lath-and-half

^ of an inch
i

fir

thick.

Double lath

Plaster Work Processes. Brick and stone walls are as it is


termed covered by "two" or "three" coat work, consisting of a
rendering or pricking up coat, a floating and a setting coat.

The

first

specified,

consists in covering the walls roughly with the patent materials

or with the

common and

coarse stuff (otherwise called

" hair mortar ") in

ordinary work, consisting of the properly slaked

fat lime,

mixed wet with about three parts of good, clean, sharp, washed sand, and a
This mixture is then applied to
proportion of good well-beaten cow-hair.
the walls, to the thickness of about \ an inch, or as may be required to
make the wall surface perfectly plumb and level. So soon as the coat
scored over or scratched to give the next or floating

begins to dry

it

coat a key or

means of attachment.

When

is

this first

rendering or pricking-up coat

has

become

dry,

the

second or floating coat is applied on it to a certain thickness, of from


g to 5 of an inch. This coat consists of a better and stronger mixture of
the

same materials

as the

surface of this coat

is

first,

made

but with less

truly

by means of perfectly plumb,

even

vertical,

walls to the required thicknesses,

hair, called " fine stuff."

in every

way following on the

and horizontal

screeds^ laid

and about 6 inches wide,

The
last

on the

at the angles,

PLASTERING, PAINTING, AND GLAZING.


ceiling,

and

skirting,

and intermediately,

335

as the straight edges, with which

the spaces between are regulated, require.

This second coat


called;

and when

it

is

rough from the

left

becomes dry the

floaty

as the tool used

third or setting coat

is

applied,

is

consisting of a very thin film of fine stuff, i.e,^ " putty," or slaked lime,

with a very small admixture of sand,

made

about the consistency of

to

good cream. This is applied and worked up to a perfectly smooth and


after which it is left to dry, and the
level fare, which sets quite hard
;

work

is

complete.

When

a wall

is

intended to be painted

it

is

finished with a trowelled

face (for which purpose various other special plasters are sometimes used,
to give it a better hardened face), the workman using a steel " trowel " for
this

purpose, instead of the

wooden one,

called a " float."

681.

Two-coat work consists of an amalgamation of the

two

first

coats,

finished off with the setting coat.

Walls are sometimes battened', that


to plugs, vertically

to receive the lath-work

'

up the

free circulation of air

inasmuch

as,

88 1), as

" is

to say, thin battens are fixed

is

about i6 inches, centre to centre,


will

used for

be explained

damp

behind the plastering,

it

besides being subject to decay,

walls

for partitions

but, while

brings with
it

it

it

and

gives a

a greater

evil,

forms a harbour for

all

and rooms with battened walls are made quite lively by


noise of mice and other such creatures.
For the same reasons walls

kinds of vermin

Ae

(fig.

This " battening

ceilings.

walls at

behind
battens

skirtings, etc.,

should be rendered up.

looks exactly like lathwork

on

In elevation, lathwork on

partitions

or ceilings

the only

appearing in the plans or sections, which in this instance are


represented by fig. 883.
iifference

Counter-lathing or brandering

and consists of
on wood hntels, etc., to throw out
le laths so as to allow of a key for the plaster work laid on them, over
'>ors and windows and other openings spanned by wood, to which
is

similar to the above,

rdinary laths laid about 16 inches apart

ordinary plastering will not adhere.

BUILDING CONSTRUCTION.

336

fig.

Ceilings

and

88i,

882 being a plan of the partition; and the work

fig.

partitions^

work as
work as

for two-coat
for three-coat

battenings

lath, plaster,

and

and

lath, plaster, float,

counterlathi?tg are treated

or lath, float,

set,

and

and

set,

consisting of the

set,

and
same

proceedings in laying on the material as for walls, with the " addition
the " lathwork," which

means the covering of the

as

specified,

is

"

of

surfaces with laths of

various thickness (as previously described) nailed to the framing at about

16 inches from centre


and about of an inch

to centre

the laths being parallel to one another,

apart, to allow of a

coat of the plastering, which

is

key to the pricking-up or

first

pressed on to the lath and through the

Fig. 882.

crevices to form a key.


suit the spaces of the

The laths are in various lengths up


wood framing; and where a joint is

to 4 feet to

necessary

it

should not be perfectly vertical up the wall on the same piece of wood,
but they should break joint every half-dozen laths, and so on, as fig. 881.
**

Lath and half" are the best to use

for ordinary work.

This lathing being done, the plastering

on the

walls,

but

it

is

laid

on exactly the same

should be pointed out that the

first

coat takes

as

much

longer to dry, having no absorption to assist the drying process on laths,


as

is

the case on walls.

f1^.86 3
All external angles should be roughed up either in Portland or Keene's
cement, to make a good hard finish, as ordinary " hair-mortar " and
" putty " have no strength for such positions ; or " wood angle-beads "

should be fixed to plugs in the


quirked up to

When

it,

as explained

joint,

requisite, the plastering

above, can be

made

up the

angle,

and the

plastering

under "Joinery" (Chapter XVI.).

to dry quicker

to walls,

ceilings,

partitions,

etc.,

as

by the addition of a proportion (about

one-fifth) of " plaster-of- Paris " to the ordinary mixtures for the various

coats

and

this

is

plastering,

and

gauged work.

called

regulates the time of setting


certainly not

but

it

is

The

proportion

by " gauging," which

is

the whole surface to crack, almost like a spider's web.


4

of

plaster

unadvisable to hurry the work of


apt in time to cause

AND

PLASTERING, PAINTING,

GLAZING.

337

Selenetic litne is a mixture of hydraulic lime and plaster-of-Paris, often


used for ordinary plastering; its advantages being that it is quicker in
setting between the coats, and will take more sand, which renders the
mixture cheaper ; but it should be mixed according to special instructions

from the manufacturers.


Robinson's Patent Paragon Cement (made near Whitehaven), Adamant,
and Adamantine are all patent mixtures for plastering, invented and
introduced for the purpose of saving time in the drying of ordinary
and with other advantages, such as a better and harder-finished

plaster,

surface,

and the properties of being

unavoidable

fireproof,

and so adhesive and

co-

cracked ceilings and the like objectionable but


They are said to be as cheap as the ordinary

obviate

hesive as to

results.

has to be proved, as a general thing instead of an


exception ; but the advantages conferred should be worth the extra cost.
A very superior and economical covering to internal walls is to float them

though

plastering,

this

cement and sand, and

in Portland

finish

white with

*'

Albino," the best

quality of Adamantine.

External Work.

External walls

are coated in a similar

manner

to

the internal walls, as already explained, with the exception that Portland

cement
weather

used instead of "fat" lime, which

is

and they may be finished

will

off in different

not withstand the

manners, the chief of

which are here given.


Rough-cast has a rough face,

made by

the last coat consisting of coarse

grit.

Ashlar

the lining up of walls, so as to divide the face into rectangles,

is

similar to ashlar or other stone facing.

Stucco

a general term, used for the rough mixtures, whether with

is

cement or

lime,

" stuccoed "

cement -covered external walls being often said to be


while " trowelled stucco " for internal work is a smooth
face, worked with fine stuff without hair, in ordinary plaster ; and " bastard
stucco " contains hair.

Depeter has a more roughened face than rough-cast in external cement


plastering
in while

the effect being obtained by small pebbles, which are pressed

it is

setting.

Depreter

is

a finish to the same cementing,

made

to imitate tooled

stone.

Scagliola

is

an imitation of marble,

Ornamental Work.

in pilasters, etc.

and other ornamental mouldings, used


to break the angles of apartments, etc., are " run " in plaster by means of
" horsed mouldings," running on a wood ground fixed on the wall, truly
Cornices^

horizontal, the required depth of the cornice.


Ordinary cornices are
backed or roughed up with a stronger mixture of coarse stuff, to make
it

set

quicker

and when

this

has been worked to the right contour

it

is

BUILDING CONSTRUCTION.

338

which gives it a hardened white face,


where required. When moulded cornices are too big
to allow of this backing up being well and properly done in rough stuff,
they are scotch-bracketed, as fig. 884, which consists of laths cut to lengths
finished

off with plaster-of-Paris,

with good

arrises,

and fixed from wall to ceiling, to take off the triangular space shown, and
fill up the angle to save material.
As the cornices increase in size beyond this, it becomes necessary to
use wood bracketing, which consists of wood brackets, roughly cut to the
^^^//////y^.m'.'

Fig.ee 6,

required shape, and fixed, 16 inches apart, to the ceiling joists and wall,
and on these the laths are nailed longitudinally for the plastering, as

though sometimes the brackets are so large that they


have to be built up in parts and framed together, as fig. 886.

shown

in

fig.

885

PLASTERING, PAINTING,
Enrichments

in plaster are cast in

AND GLAZING.

moulds made

339
modelled

in beeswax,

to the required design.

Papier Mache or Carton pierre, as the name implies,


formed into the required moulds and ornaments.

a paper com-

is

position

Fibrous plaster

is

now

a patent,

very

much

used, consisting of slabs of

and covered over with

various sizes, fixed with zinc nails to the woodwork,

Of this appliance, " Hitchin's,"


a setting coat about \ of an inch thick.
" Jackson's," and " Wilkinson's " are the best-known qualities.
work is often painted, or treated by the following processes
White7vashing or liniewhiting consists of two coats of " fat " lime slaked

Plaster

and applied with a

to a white liquid,

common

large brush

only used in

is

it

work, and for sanitary purposes.

is a mixture of size and whitening, applied in two coats to


work only, such as ceilings and walls ; and when any colouring
matter is added it is called "distempering," the surface being first
clearcoled or daircolled />., covered with a solution of glue and alum,
which fastens the colour, as it were.
Colourings applied to both external and internal work, consists of
" Duresco "
ordinary whitewash, mixed with different colouring matters.

Wkitenifig

internal

is

a patent washable covering of this class.


Painting. Painting is the covering of wood, iron, plaster, or other

materials, either for the

The

ingredients

purpose of protecting them or

employed

in the various mixtures

for ornament.
used for the different

kinds and coats of painting include the following materials


White leads called a " base " in painting work, is a carbonate of lead
:

formed by combining carbonate fumes with the pure

lead,

by the process

of corrosion with acetic acid, the resulting residue being a white powder,

which

is

either sold in that condition, or,

more

generally,

when ground

in

linseed oil to a pasty consistency.

Red lead is made from


in oil, like white lead.
first

coat, called

White lead

oxide of lead, and can be either procured dry or

It is

used as a

drier, for painting iron, or for

the

"priming," on woodwork.
is

more used than red

into various colours

while

it is

lead, being

more

easily

converted

very dense, an-d forms a strong permanent

covering or protection, being of a good

"body

" as

it is

called.

Oil and turpentine are called " vehicles " in paint, because they (figuratively speaking) " convey " the lead on to the surfaces to be covered.

Linseed
paints,

it

oil,

of a drying kind,

is

used very greatly

having the property of being ductile, while

in the
it

mixing up of
dry well

will also

and form a good coating.


Turpentine

make

paint

a dull

effect, in

is

really

work more

an

oil

easily,

extracted from the pine tree,

and

and used

for flatting coats internally,

comparison with the linseed

oil.

it

to

having

BUILDING CONSTRUCTION.

340
Driers,

whether in the form of Litharge, commonly called oxide of


used to make the oil set all the quicker in

lead, or " patent driers," are

forming a coating.

The colouring of paint is done by the addition of various ochres and


vegetable matters of different colours called " pigments."
The

proportions in which these bases, vehicles,

etc.,

are

mixed may

vary according to circumstances, and the coats applied, being


First coat or priming
oil

14

white lead,

lbs.

(raw for inside, boiled for outside), \

14

Second and third coats


turpentine, |

lbs.

i lb.

white lead, 3 or 4 pints

oil,

3 pints

14

lbs.

white lead, 2 pints

oil,

4 or 5 pints turpentine,

driers.

lb.

Woodwork, intended to be
smoothed and

generally, ready

knot

it

i.e.,

painted,
clean,

to cover the knots

comes from the

so that the

over with

size,

the turpentine in them, and so prevent

kill

red lead, 6 pints linseed

lb. driers.

lb. driers.

Fourth coat
\

generally

about the following ratios:

in

work.
satisfies

The whole

surface

is

joiner's

proceeding

shop,
is

to

or patent knotting, to

them

spoiling the finished

then primed with red lead paint, which

the absorption of the wood.

stone, all holes are filled

first

up with

then rubbed down with pumice


and any unevenness obviated, in

It is

putty,

preparation for the second, third, and fourth coats, each coat containing

and more turpentine than its predecessor. Good work should be


rubbed down between each coat, which gradually approximates to the
finished colour as described, and the final coat very often, from its tint,
less oil

allows of

little

lead or

body being used.

For ordinary new work the words of the specification are

" Knot,

and paint three oils or coats in best white lead paint " ; the
only difference between inside and outside work being that " boiled oil ^

stop, prime,

should be used for

all

parts that are exposed to the sun.

Old work should be

well " cleaned,

rubbed down, and stopped

" before

the coats are applied in the ordinary way.

Varnishing

is

the process of coating plain or painted work with

colourless material called " copal varnish," a mixture of resin

and oil or'


and durable coating.
Graining is an additional coat of paint applied on the ordinary fourcoat work, and marked or scratched over to imitate the grain of oak and
turpentine, which forms a very hard, glossy,

other woods.

Ironwork should be painted with oxide of iron paint, as the lead in the
is said to cause an injurious galvanic action between the

ordinary mixture

two metals.

Glass and Glazing.


light

Glass

is

a transparent material, used for giving

through openings, while excluding the elements.

It is

a mixture of

AND GLAZING.

PLASTERING, PAINTING,

341

white sand, soda, and chalk, in various proportions, melted together at

a very high temperature, and then formed into the various kinds required.
" crown," " sheet,"

These include

and

" plate " glass.

Sheet glass, the most useful variety,


glass into cylinders,

which have

their

made by blowing

is

ends cut

so that the glass can be flattened out in a kiln,

applied to open

out, after

it

which

it

is

the heated

and periphery split down,


under the action of heat,

off

The

allowed gradually to cool.

various kinds of sheet glass are distinguished by their weight per foot,

16

super., as

21

oz.,

Plate glass

26

oz.,

and 32

oz.,

oz.

of course, a superior kind,

is,

made

from J inch to i inch, by which thicknesses


In the process of its manufacture the
guished.
is

it

of thicknesses varying
described and distin-

is

glass,

when

placed on a table and rolled to the required thickness

polished over or
are that

while

it

left as

much

is

rough-cast.

Its

advantages

enemy of

at a

after

white heat,

which

it is

over "sheet glass"

stronger and less affected by atmospheric influences,

cannot be cut noiselessly with the diamond

it

which

renders

it

an

burglars.

887.

'9.

the

Rough-cast

Ftq 866

resulting material without the polishing

wavy appearance, but

is

has

a rather

otherwise as strong and advantageous as the

polished plate.
British polished plate glass

is

grinding the surfaces

down

it

is

on a patent ribbed

rolled

is

superiority being the result of

its

truly before polishing.

Hartley's rough rolled plate

but

even superior to the ordinary " polished

though of the same material

plate,"

of similar composition to the " plate,"


table,

which gives

it

the advantage of

admitting light without scorching, glare, or diminished transparency.

There are numerous other varieties of glass, chiefly made out of the
manufactured products above explained, and rendered different
by the labour and colouring matters expended on them and used theredifferent

with.

Glass

is

cut into squares or panes of the required

means of putty
or iron

rebates,

puttied, as at

wood

(a

fillets

stiff,

as

or

fig.
it

size,

pasty substance of whiting and

is

or beads, as

887, which shows

the

secured and bedded in


fig.

888.

and secured by

oil) into

the

wood

and backwashleather, by means of


glass

puttied

BUILDING CONSTRUCTION.

342

As

made

the putty used in glazing cannot be

material, but

is

I
of a suitable lasting

perishable, the necessity has arisen of late years of employing

other means of securing the glass to the framing, especially in skylights and
other exposed

flat

or sloping surfaces.

A simple method of attaining this


into the

woodwork

at the

Fig

in addition to which,

if

object

to secure

is

bottom of the sheet and

the glass

is

it

by sprigs driven

at the sides, as

fig.

889,

889

cut circularly on the bottom edge,

all

water will be collected, and will run down the centre of the light clear of the
putty and bars, as shown by dotted lines.

Patent Glazing. Among the many patented methods of accomplishing this result, now in vogue, may be mentioned the following
:

fig. 890.

ig.89l

The

Company's Patent, consisting of steel bars


by fig. 890, from which it will be seen that no
water can enter and drop through their system, as any water penetrating
between the bars and the lead is collected in the groove of the bar.
Messrs. Braby's Patent, consisting of wooden bars of any size and;
British Patent Glazing

and sheet

design,

lead, as illustrated

and

zinc, etc., is illustrated in section

Messrs. Grover's Simplex

is

shown

by

in figs.

fig.

891.

892 and 893, from which

it^

343
will

be seen that

fixed to

wood

method consists of a patent lead strip,


and turned down on the glass, as fig. 893.

their

bars

as

fig.

892,

11

F 1^.832.

Fig.

Fig 633.

89^

Fi^:895.

fig 696.

Fig.897

The Pennycook Patent


which

it

will

metal bars.

be seen that

is

illustrated

this

by

figs.

894, 895,

system can be adapted to

and 896,
iron,

fi-om

wood, or

BUILDING CONSTRUCTION.

344

Helli well's Patent consists of metal bars

Rendell's of similar materials, as

fig.

898

and capping,

as

fig.

897,

and

in section.

There are many other similar patents, including that of Messrs. Mellowes
which is extensively used throughout the country, though
those above illustrated are quite as good and effective.

(of Sheffield),

Fi^ 698
Duroline

be broken.

is

It

a substitute for glass in positions where glass would soon


consists

of thin wire-woven work, covered over by a

transparent thin substance of different tints.


nails,

and lapped

at the joints.

It is fixed

on

rafters

by zinc

CHAPTER XXIL
CENTRING, FOUNDATIONS, SHORING, SCAFFOLDING,
SEWERS.

FoundationsDifferent Soils Sewers Shoring and Strutting Scaffolding


Hoisting Tackle Underpinning.

Centring

Centring.

Centres

are

framed structures

for

temporary purposes,

They have

used in throwing arches over apertures,

etc.

to the required curve of the arch, are

made

their top

shaped

specially for the dimensions

of the opening, and act as a support to the constituent parts of the arch

during construction, and until each

and the whole has become one

member

has taken

its

proper bearing,

solid mass.

n
633.

For

small

turning-piece

wide

is

is

arches,

used

4I

strong

deep

inches

on

soffit,

wood about

of

piece

wood
inches

and fixed just below the


by means of bricks held up by nails driven into the

cut to the required curve of the arch,

pringing, generally
J

and only
i.e.,

oints of the reveals, as fig. 899.

For openings of a larger


ieces,

cut to

curve,

size the centres are

and with small pieces

right angles to their faces across

the top, as
345

fig.

formed of two outside

called

laggings

nailed at

900, while the bottom

is

BUILDING CONSTRUCTION.

346

secured in a similar manner, the whole being frequently fixed by bricks in

same manner as last explained, though when of larger sizes


zcj> by upright supports strutting up, as it were, from the
or other flat horizontal surfaces below, as shown on the illustration.

precisely the

they are horsed


5ills

f/g. 300.

The centre itself is raised into its exact position by means of two
wedges driven together and placed on the horizontal piece across the
support, or on the supports themselves, or bricks at each springing, as at
XX on fig. 901. For rough arches these laggings, of about | inch x

Section on

/ine

A B

Fig 90[.

J inch in size, are spaced at about their own width apart ; while centres
for faced work, and especially for rubbed and gauged arches, must be

up to each other and the arrises


unbroken curve.
When the opening is so wide and the rise so high that the curved ribs
(to which the laggings are nailed) cannot be cut out of ordinary-sized stuff,
the centres have to be built up by lapping and nailing two thicknesses

close-lagged ix.^ their lagging must butt

eased

off,

to give the line a true

together to

make

the one

rib,

as

fig.

901.

CENTRING, FOUNDATIONS, SHORING, SCAFFOLDING, SEWERS. 347


Fig.

902 shows the centre for a

still

larger arch, built

up and framed,
and to the

the radii and cross pieces being halved or dovetailed together,


ribs, as

shown.

J
F,g.902.
Fig.

above

903

is

a sketch of a framed centre, as seen from a point of view

it.

Foundations.

Foundations,

_.neral surface of the

ground

as a rule,

i.e.^

should be 3 feet below the

the trench excavated to receive the

bottom of the concrete, or brick footing, should be 3 feet deep, especially

clayey ground, which

is

rmer in particular causing


f

course

it

will

liable to
it

be affected by both heat and

rain, the

to crack to a depth even exceeding 3 feet.

be understood that the nature of the ground varies enor-

iously in different parts of the country,

sometimes in

different parts of the

BUILDING CONSTRUCTION.

348
same town, and even,
soils differing in

A good
it

in

some

cases, in different streets or gardens,

nature often being closely adjacent.

foundation should be in solid as opposed to made-up ground

should be incompressible, and of the same nature throughout, the strata

being at right angles to the weight they have to carry

When punned

instead of dipping or sloping.

with a

horizontal

i.e.^

rammer

it

should

sound "solid," a hollow sound indicating an inferior nature below;


and it should resist the pick or crossbar well when driven in, without
disintegration of the surrounding mass.

All foundations, of whatever

made

should be

kind,

perfectly level

(except where they are stepped) before they receive the concrete or footings,

ground of a stony or rocky nature being levelled with the pick, and the
The solid ground should always be reached
softer kinds well rammed.

and

if

places,

there are great variations,

when

at a great depth,

etc.,

arches should be thrown over weak

from piers built on the

stratum be reached, with an inferior one below,

any deeper,

if

that solid stratum

is

is

it

If a solid

solid.

unadvisable to go

sufficiently strong to carry the weight

required.

Where
on

it

strength,

is

built

the nature of the ground will not allow of the building being

with safety, concrete, of specified and adequate depth and

employed

tributing the weight.

Different Soils.

in the trench to

In

assist

dealing with the

the natural ground by dis-

following different

kinds of

must be understood that the remarks are made in a general


sense, and are not intended to lay down any hard-and-fast rule, as in all
ground,

it

cases personal inspection of the site

on any points with regard

is

absolutely necessary before deciding

to foundation work.

when

Solid rock in foundations cannot be bettered


alike all over, so that

would be ridiculous

it

to take

it

it

is

sound and

out merely to replace

by an inferior article such as concrete. However, the bottom should


be made truly level; or, if it is uneven by nature, the loose inferior
portions should be taken out, and those places arched over to and from
the solid, or concrete should be put in, lapping at the joints.
Gravel is the next best and most suitable soil for a sound foundation
and where it is sound it cannot be improved upon, though when it is
loose and coarse it should be grouted with lias lime or cement-mortar
it

of required strength, according to circumstances, or otherwise a thin bed


of concrete

may be

put in the trench on the top of the gravel.

Foundations of loose

gravel,

however, are apt to

slip,

and consequently

the sides must be shored by one or other of the following methods


tolerably

good ground

polifig boards, in size

inches, are placed at intervals, in pairs,


strutted

apart by stout

about

9X2 inches or 9

on each side of the

members, small pieces of

In
3

trench, and

scaffold poles, from

CENTRING, FOUNDATIONS, SHORING, SCAFFOLDING, SEWERS. 349


4

to 6 inches in diameter (as

purpose.

fig.

But where the ground

904), being generally sufficient for the


is

looser the poling boards

must be

placed close together, perpendicularly, with walings, which are placed

3.

horizontally inside them,

of every 2 to 4 feet, as

and
fig.

strutted

905

30^.

from one to the other,

at intervals

the poling boards, in this case, varying

from li to 3 inches thick, and the walings being usually

11x3

inches.

Fig. 90 5

In running sand
I

sufficient

piscd

it will be obvious that it is impossible to wait until


depth has been dug out to allow of vertical poling boards being

without the sides previously slipping in

wherefore sheetings as shown

BUILDING CONSTRUCTION.

350
in

fig.

906,

is

used, laid longitudinally,

and secured by poling boards and

strutted, as in the first instance (fig. 904).

Reverting to the consideration of the various natural grounds, the next

Fiq 906.

good hard, sound clay^ which should


is apt to slip downwards and cause
clay should be well drained, so that the

in order as a substantial formation is a


lie

in horizontal strata, as a dipping clay

settlements.

It is

necessary that

/ffK

Front Elevation
FJg 907

rain shall not

have time to

affect

it

so

much

as to cause any considerable

and the bottom of the concrete, or top of the clay, should be


at such a depth as to be beyond the influence of heat, as it is well known
that the sun is very apt to cause deep and frequent cracks in clayey ground.
alteration

CENTRING, FOUNDATIONS, SHORING, SCAFFOLDING, SEWERS. 35


Excavations in hard

do not always require

clays

shoring,

though

it

is

advisable to adopt that precaution in the case of the weaker kinds of


clay.

Chalky from

its

nature,

harder and better qualities


softer kinds

is

a very uncertain foundation; though the

may sometimes be

always very bad, and

are

as

liable to

good as rock, while the


be greatly affected by

wet.

Sand^ in whatever form, and especially quicksand,

is

a most treacherous

soil for

foundations, having no power to keep itself together, as

so that

it

remove

it

it

were,

must not be taken into any account. The best course is to


by excavation, if practicable, and replace it with a layer of con-

^
Plan

Fiq.909

Cfte.

Where such sand and

other boggy and soft soils are present and

bottom thereof cannot be reached


and expense, for their removal, as ought to be
done, platforms of wood or fascines are adopted and made to carry the
whole building, floating, as it were, on the top of the sand while, in the
of considerable depth, so that the

without too

!j

much

trouble

better qualities of this loose ground, piles of square timber of considerable

length are driven

down

to a solid foundation.

by means of heavy weights, called monkeys or ramSy


jibeing directed on to their top by guides held up by framing, as shown in
8figs. 907, 908, and 909, the weights being elevated by hand or by suitable
^machinery to a certain adequate height, and then allowed to fall on the
;

This

is

effected

fhead of the pile, which

is

encircled by a wrought iron ring to prevent

it

BUILDING CONSTRUCTION.

352

under the force of the impact ; while the bottom or point


shod with an iron-pointed shoe, as fig. 910.
These piles are from 9 to 12 inches square, and spaced at from

from

splitting

of the pile

to 3 or

is

4 feet apart in each direction, as shown in

fig.

911, being driven

firmly into the solid ground, while their heads are connected by bearers

of timber of various sizes into which they are tenoned, and on these

D D
n

Di

nan
Plan

F,q

Fij.910.

FiQ.912

9/1.

planks. or stone slabbing on which the founda912; the spaces for a short depth, below and
between the piles, being occasionally dug out and filled with concrete to
make one solid mass at the top.

bearers are laid the

wooden

tions are built, as in

fig.

Fig 913

The use of inverted arches for the distribution of the weight in variable
foundations has been dealt with in Chapter III., to which the student is
referred.

Sewers. Sewers are large drains, which are of a size beyond the limit
of the use of glazed or other piping for the purpose, built of brick, and
circular, oval, or

egg-shaped in section.

It

should be pointed out that

CENTRING, FOUNDATIONS, SHORING, SCAFFOLDING, SEWERS. 353


glazed stoneware pipes are

now made

in sizes

up

to 3 feet in diameter,

would not be built


so that brick sewers, on account of their awkwardness,
of any sizes below this limit, to supersede piping.
Therefore, the first kind of brick sewer in general
called a advert drain, the straight sides
brickwork, either 4^ or 9 inches thick,

use is what is
and circular bottom being built of
and covered over with stone slabs,

913; or the sewer is built quite circular with special bricks, as fig.
method of the two.
914 ; though this is the more awkward
lines, are of such large dimensions
above
the
Where sewers, built on
room, and render them nearly
much
too
up
take
that true circles would

as

fig.

flat

where a good curve to the invert

sewage, they are built egg-shaped, as


I

that the sewage,

whether

its

is

fig.

required for the quick flow of

915

from which

volume be great or

most equal chance of the necessary quick flow

in

this

II
'

*'n

>r

the circular kind this cannot be the case.


invert

blocks,

smaller the better,

it

will

be seen

small, has the best

As a

rule,

the bottoms,

be of more than 9 inches radius (the


within reason), and of glazed stoneware.
The general

should not

and heights is that the diameter of the top circle


double that of the bottom or invert, and the internal height from bottom

proportion for the widths


;

and

form, whereas

24

BUILDING CONSTRUCTION.

354

to top three times that diameter, the remaining space


at the side walls being lined in with arcs tangential to

Shoring and Strutting.

Shoring,

between the

both

circles

circles.

as applied to excavations, has

been dealt with previously; and it is now proposed to give the student
an idea of shoring to buildings which require additional support, when the
adjoining or part of their own property has been pulled down.

opening
-Required-

Efcv&tlon:

916

Fig.

Section:

Fig. 3/7.

In cases where large openings are to be cut into main walls

it

is

necessary that the part above must be shored while the girders to carry
it

are being put

This

in.

is

done by means of

struts, posts, or legs, raised

perpendicularly from the balk-sills on the solid ground


solid,

or floor

made

and supporting needles going through holes cut above the height

of the opening reauired, as

figs.

916 and 917, the whole being tightened

F/g 9(8

up by wedges,

The

at the feet of the posts, as

shown on the

opening to be cut in the wall


the shoring, which

is

after the weight

side elevation. {

and the,
above has been secured by

dotted lines show the proposed position of the

girders

generally constructed of balk-timber 10 or 12 inches

square, as required.

The

joints, as in all strutting or shoring, are either

secured by wrought iron dogs, as

fig.

918, driven

home

bolted together 01
into each memberv.

CENTRING, FOUNDATIONS, SHORING, SCAFFOLDING, SEWERS. 355

When
the

one house between two others has been pulled down (which

is

more usual occurrence) a temporary timber framing, consisting of

several trusses,

is

built

between the two from wall

to wall, to allow

each

These forms of course vary infinitely, and


are of varying strengths, according to the spans and distances apart, if the
depth of the opening requires more than one set of framing. A long
plank is placed vertically up the walls of each house, and the framing is
or where one house
built in and wedged tight between them, as fig, 919
to

prop the other, as

it

were.

F,g 919

Fig.

3 20.

is taller than the other, and the width requires a truss similar to king or
queen posts in roofs, they are treated as in fig. 920, though the work can
be done in various other manners, and different men have different ideas

ion the subject.

Angles of buildings which require to be strutted, and end houses which


fcannot be strutted from another building, are dealt with

mying

shores, as fig. 921, with

(timbers secured

|w)op iron.

The

long timbers, or as in

by boards nailed on each

side,

fig.

by means

of

922, with short

and bound together with

butting pieces in the ground, backed up by the vertical

I
BUILDING CONSTRUCTION.

356

should incline at right angles to the


post solidly driven into the ground,
Each of the shores is secured at
pressure of the chief shore or strut.
being cut into the upright plank and wall,
the top, as in fig. 923, a hole
This pin is assisted by a cleat
is driven.
into which the pin or needle
up and wedged against it, as
butted
is
nailed above it, and the shore

shown.

Scaffolding. 5^/^M^^,

as

familiar

to

everybody,

'

is

series

r.f
of

increases in height, to allow


temporary platforms, raised up, as the building
various stages, and store their materials
the men to work from them at
cordsThey consist of poles, ledgers, putlogs, boards,
for immediate use.
'i

Fiq.922,

321.

circular members, secured in


and wedges, the poles being the upright
The ledgers, B
figs. 923 and 924.
the ground about 9 feet apart, as A, on

running longitudinally

at every different rise of

4 or 5

feet, are

secured

the two and wedged up.


by the cords 18 feet long, bound tightly round
is about 5 feet away)
(which
From the ledgers to and into holes in the wall
D, which form
boards
the
receive
the putlogs C are laid every few feet to
as shown by^
braced,
is
it
height
any
of
framing is

When the
the cords, and wedged like the
the ordinary scaffold poles, secured by
the platform.

ledgers.

Masonry

,,

requires

stronger

scaffolding,

which

is,

therefore,

usually}

3-inch battens, instead of 15


strengthened for the purpose by the use of
putlogs
also it will not allow of
inch planks, to form the platform; and

Braces

Elevation
Fic^

923

Section

Fi^ 924

BUILDING CONSTRUCTION.

358

going into the walls, in which case they are strutted up from one platform,
or height, or putlog, to the other, by planks placed against the wall.

In Scotland the work is built from the inside, the working platforms
being raised from floor to floor as the work proceeds.
Gabers scaffolds are
ticulars

made by
to the

little

used, so

it

is

unnecessary to enter into par-

about them, more than to say that the standards, putlogs,


bolting deals together, the whole being cross-braced,

etc.,

are

and bolted

standards and to one another, presenting an appearance like a

quarry floor laid diagonally.

P
Fig S25.

Hoisting Tackle. Stones are lifted and set into position in the work
by means of ropes and pulleys supported by shear-legs (as fig. 925), which
are scaftbld poles let into or bedded in the ground securely; or the pulleys
are secured to the apex of two poles held in position by guy ropes, as
fig. 926; and when the work gets beyond the use of these methods, above
the ground, derrick cranes are employed to hoist up

bed

all

materials and

though they are often used on the ground floor in place


of shear legs or guy ropes and poles.
They consist of two legs, from

%o

stones,

platforms

or

beds, fixed

on the various

floors

sufficiently

w^eighted to

prevent any slipping out, inclining up to an apex to which an upright


raised from another platform immediately under the apex,

on which

is

also

CENTRING, FOUNDATIONS, SHORING, SCAFFOLDING, SEWERS. 359

fi^. 32$.

F,q.92l.

BUILDING CONSTRUCTION.

36o

Stands the apparatus for winding up the chain, which goes up to the

apex and thence to the end of the derrick or gib, which is hinged at the
bottom of the foot of the post beside the winding apparatus, as shown
in

fig.

927.

This derrick or gib

through a pulley at

its

is

raised

top, the chain to

up and down as required, and.

lift

the stones

worked from the

winding apparatus.

When the stones are too heavy for ordinary derrick cranes travellers
have to be constructed, consisting of strong platforms made of balk-timber
raised on each side of the wall up to a height so that a trussed beam from
one

to the other

can work or travel along above the required height of

CENTRING, FOUNDATIONS, SHORING, SCAFFOLDING, SEWERS.

side

fixed

side,

the wall.
rails

These trussed beams for they are in pairs run on wheels on


on the upper face of the top beams of the framing on each

and they support the jenny or crab which runs


on wheels guided by rails on the trussed beams.

The jenny

is

used

which

in

across,

fig.

929

and

also

any

fig.

928).

methods are grasped by


with a round ,block, as fig. 930, on one

stones lifted by either of the above

nippers, as

to

themselves can be worked

along the side framing, as the sketch will indicate (see

The

from side to

and can be moved

for hoisting the stones,

position along the traveller beams,

36]

BUILDING CONSTRUCTION.

362
side,

whenever the face might be injured by the nippers tightening when

the weight hangs on them.

Another method
insert a Lewis^ as

is

fig.

bed of the

to cut a mortise in the top

931, which,

it

will

be seen,

is

stone,

dovetailed

in,

and
nd

secured to the chain or rope.

r?^

Underpinning

is

the building of walls underneath an existing wall,

or structure, such as cellar-walls below a building where there has been

no

cellar previously.

These works require

great care, so that settlements

or the collapse of the building are guarded against

and with

this

view

all

underpinning should be done in cement-mortar, and in very short lengths,


2 or 3 lineal feet only of excavation being taken out at a time, and the
work built up and wedged tighdy and completely to the existing wall
above before any more earth is taken out from under the wall further on.

CHAPTER

XXIII.

MISCELLANEOUS MATERIALS.
Asphalte Granite Limes and Cements Mortar Concrete Marble Terra-cotta
Artificial Stones.

It is proposed in this chapter to deal with certain building materials


^hich have not been treated of in (as it were) their proper places, in
reference to their application

Asphalte.

Asphalte

is

and

use.

a limestone saturated with naphtha, found

iti

on the Continent at places enumerated below. It can also


"je made artificially by a combination of bitumen (in the form oi pitch)
The natural asphalte is generally ground and run
.vith other solid matter.
into moulds, with sand and a little pitch (when it is called mastic), and
old in small blocks containing a little more than a cubic foot.
It is made
lit for use by being melted in a furnace and applied on the walls while
hot; and as it has the qualities of being frost-proof, damp-proof, and
re-proof (up to a certain degree), it can be used for damp courses, for
ijrotecting damp walls, covering roofs, and for baths, skirtings, and street
paving.
It should be laid by experienced workmen, in layers from | to
inch thick, and rubbed to a smooth surface, on a suitable bed of concrete,
natural state

:1

also floated to a

Of
chief

smooth

level top, as a foundation for the work.

the various kinds of asphalte in the market the following are the

Limmer, found near Hanover

in a natural state,

and used

for general

purposes in the usual way.


Seysselj or Claridge's asphalte, as

it is

called,

is

found in the Jura moun-

tains,

near Pyrmont-Seyssel, on the eastern frontier of France, in a rocky

state,

containing about 90 per cent, of carbonate of lime and 10 per cent.

of bitumen.
coarse-gritted

There are three

used

qualities of

Val-de-Travers asphalte

is

the fine, fine-gritted, and


work previously enumerated.

it

for the different kinds of

found near Neufchatel,

in Switzerland, in a

rock containing from 12 to 20 per cent, of bitumen, which renders


first-class

asphalte,

and

suitable for the best work.


363

it

BUILDING CONSTRUCTION.

jg^
Asphalte

damp

courses are often

made by mixtures

containing coal-tar

bitumen the material


the original natural form of
m .ts pure
rock asphaltic, and which is found

and real pitch, in


.hich makes the limestone

pitch

state in Palestine, near the

Gra.nite.~Granite

is

Dead

Sea,

an igneous

also in the island of Trinidad


and
rock, containing quartz, feldspar,

and

of about
mica, usually in the proportions

5, 4,

and

Found

respectively

and in Kirkand Aberdeen, in Aberdeenshire


in Scotland at Peterhead
found at Mount Sorrel, in Leicestercudbrightshire ; while in England it is
shire,

and

several places in

Devon and Cornwall.

, ,

hardness
depends on the quartz, both for
effect
great
a
has
and
it its colour,
and durability, while the feldspar gives
the
of
disintegration
the
feldspar causing
on its weathering properties, bad
and
weakness,
of
source
a
is
quantity,
mass. The mica, though in small
,

quality of the granite

The

must not be taken


Granite

is

when

there

is

it

is

when

so hard

degree of polish.

too

much

of

it.

dressed in the
it is capable of
it loses its sap. and
purposes
ornaniental
used chiefly for

quarried by blasting and wedging;

quarry, because

taking a high

into account, except

it

is

It is

-dbas^s to large
principally for shafts or columns
in the building frade,
the Devon and
colour
;
The Leicestershire granite is of a pink
buildings.
either red or
kinds
Scotch
and the
Cornwall varieties are chiefly grey;
-ntaming
Egypt,
in
(found
granite
grey; while Syenite, or Syenitic
to the
addition
and,
instance,
hornblende instead of mica in the first
to the hornblende,
owing
colour
in
darker
quartz, feldspar and mica), is

-d

and tougher than the

British varieties.

Lime and Cements

are

the

products of limestones of various

calcination, as it is called.
composition, burnt in kilns by
settmg nor ultimate
Le.-Vure lime, in itself, has neither power of
burnt that it .s of
and
clay
combined with
strength, and it is only when
to a certain perup
day,
of
The presence
value as a building material.
POwer, a pur
setting
and
strength
of its
centage, regulates the value
containing little
explained and used for plastering)
rTch or /./lime (as
with a loud crackhng noise
which allows it to slake at once
or
other sanitary
only fit for plastering and
Ind considerable stea. It is
including the
limestones,
of most pure
purposes, and can be made out
,

tci,

and chalk.
Bath and Portland varieties, marble,
cent
containing from 80 to 90 per
degree,
next
the
is
Hn,e
Poor
qualities which give it
other
and
sand,
of
carbonate of lime, with a residue
under damp conditions an
its power of setting
as
properties,
hydauUc
no
as compared with
It,may be termed a useless variety
,n water is called.
w^d.
imperfectly,
slakes sluggishly and
he lers, considering that it
fat
than
worse
is
it
while for mortar
valueless for plastering;
so
because it will neither increase

makes

Ume

it

much by

slaking, nor take such

neither one thing nor the other.


a quLnt ty of sand, being

Rich and poor

MISCELLANEOUS MATERIALS.

365

may harden

limes never set hard, though sometimes they

a Httle on the

exterior only.

The

first

and strong lime,

best, as a good, quick-setting,

is

called a

feebly hydraulic lime, containing 80 to 90 per cent, of carbonate of lime

and 8 or 10 per

amount

small

which

wanted, though

its

present in this kind

is

it

slaking

The
much as is
The clay is

which are the required ingredients.

cent, of clay,

in

may be

is

not as

considerably reduced.

and alumina will take up in


and aluminates of lime, the
former being formed at an early stage of the burning, and the latter after
subjection to a considerable degree of heat and it is this fact which
makes it necessary that the stronger limes and cements should be the
required to such an extent that

silica

its

combination most of the lime, forming

silicates

more

burnt.

This combination reaches

and then

explained),

presence of too

much

its

of perfection

state

declines in

it

efficiency

and

(as

value,

about
owing

to

be

to

the

clay.

Hydraulic limes, the fourth

contain from 15 to 20 per cent, of

class,

which takes some time before it begins to slake, and then only in a
It sets in about a week, and is fairly strong.
small degree.
It is the
product of grey chalk, found in Sussex and Surrey.
clay,

An
is

eminently hydraulic lime contains from 20 to 30 per cent, of clay,

of a greenish-yellow colour, found in the

on-Soar, in Leicestershire
in Yorkshire

Lyme

When

the clay
in the

is

is

very

lias

lime formations at Barrow-

Stockton, in Warwickshire

Regis, in Dorset

hard and quickly, and

artificially

Rugby and

and Holywell,

in

Whitby,

Wales.

It sets

difficult to slake.

mixed with the lime in a natural state, or otherwise


i and 2, the resulting combination of

proportion of

chemicals obtained at a great heat

is

called a cement, the Portland variety

being the best, of which there are two different kinds, slow and quick
setting

the former being heavy and the


Generally speaking, cement

Cement.

latter light in weight.

made from cement-stones

is

or

pebbles, containing from 30 to 35 per cent, of clay, which proportion


is the best for the complete combination of the different constituents, as
previously pointed out.

This natural cement

is

Warwickshire, and in Kent

made
while

chiefly

parts of the country (principally in the

chalk and unburnt clay, in


calcined at a very

high

the

at

Rugby and Stockton, in


are made in different

artificial varieties

south) from a mixture of white

proportion

of about

to

i,

which

is

temperature to produce a heavy, slow-setting

cement.

Good cement should be of a very fine powder, leaving no more than


when sifted through a sieve of 2,500 meshes per square
inch.
It should be clean and cool to the arm when thrust into it, and
10 per cent, residue

BUILDING CONSTRUCTION.

366
it

may be

either quick or slow-setting the

ultimately becomes, weighing

up

slower

it

is

the stronger

to 120 lbs. per striked bushel

quick-setting quality weighs from 95 lbs. to 112 lbs. per bushel.


capable of bearing a tensile strain of 350 lbs. per inch superficial,

of a greenish-grey colour
excess of lime.

It

a brown tint indicating excess of clay,

it

while the
It is

and is
and blue

should be stored on wooden floors in dry sheds.

Roman cement contains too much clay (from 30 to 45 per cent.),


producing a brown quick-setting material, weighing no more than 75 lbs.
per striked bushel, and of
useful,

It

is

as

sea-walls,

between

little

ultimate strength

compared with Portland.

however, in work which has to be done quickly, such


etc., requiring that the work should set in the interval

tides.

is a patent artificial cement, made from


lias lime, by the
admixture of plaster-of-Paris or a sulphate of lime, which stops all slaking,

Selenitic

and makes the cement

set quicker, with

a greater proportion of sand,

without apparent loss of strength.

Pure and poor limes are sold in lumps by the ton ; lias limes in lumps
when ground for concrete purposes; while cements are sold

or in bags,

either in bags or casks.

Burning Lime, of whatever quality of the stone or lias kinds, is


burnt in clamps or kilns of both Tunnel and Flare varieties, on both the
intermittent and continuous systems ; while cements are burnt in conically^
shaped, brick-lined kilns, as they require

Clamps

are very

little

much more

used, as they are a poor

heat.

and expensive way of

working the lime and fuel being placed in the clamps in alternate layers,
and covered over with some material to keep in the heat.
Tunnel kilns are of different sections, on the continuous principle ; the
lime and coal being added from time to time through an orifice at the top,
heated gradually, and abstracted, as it gets down in parts, from a hole at
the bottom and away from the fire while flare kilns are on the inter;

mittent system, the usual cylindrical brick-lined spaces being

lime and

fuel,

Mortar
tions,

and burnt

is

filled

with

and then refilled.


a mixture of sand with lime or cement in various proporall

together, emptied,

according to requirements, to bind together the solid materials used

in a building.

Limes should be

first

thoroughly slaked, and then mixed in a mortar

mill with certain proportions of sand, ashes, brick, or stone dust, etc., being

thoroughly ground and amalgamated together.

When mixed

by hand care

should be taken that the lime and sand are screened, in order to separate
large lumps, etc., before the water is added to make it into the creamy
mass required, no more being mixed under any circumstances than is

all

required for the day's consumption.

Cement

is

generally mixed, by hand, with very clean, sharp sand-

BUILDING CONSTRUCTION.

368

come from

able quantities

work

ternal

much

softer in

its

used

chiefly

and

it

it

belongs to the igneous rock formation, partaking

of the nature of a granite or porphyry, and

When

is

found near the Lizard, on

from white streaks

free

it

is

suitable

ornament, though better adapted for internal work.

Trap or Whinstone
of a crystalline nature,

is

is

a hard mixture of feldspar and hornblende,

very tough,

paving, road-metal,

setts,

Northumberland
Terra-cotta.
buildings,

like.

of various colours, in streaky forms, from which

It is

the south coast of England.

used for

and the

in-

compact, and capable of receiving a

nature, though

its

name

for external

ornamental purposes, in

for

a similar kind of material, used for similar purposes, but

is

first-class polish.

derives

is

only, such as columns, staircases, chimneypieces,

Serpentine

As

the continent of Europe, and elsewhere.

a building material marble

at

Penmaenmawr,

Terra-cotta,

arid

in

of a green

The

etc.

Wales ; and

substitute

or black colour,

best quality

stone,

for

is

found in

in Scotland.
for dressings

to

the product of a rich clay found in several parts of the country,

especially at

Ruabon, Rowley Regis, and Tamworth.

It

is

made by

mixing several kinds of clays with ground glass or pottery to prevent


The mass is ground to a powder, mixed in water, finely
shrinkage.

and then

strained, kneaded,

then dried and baked in

cast into

domed

moulds of the required

kilns,

patterns, etc.,

high temperature, and

at a very

gradually cooled.
It

may be

either of a rich red, pink, or buff colour, according to the

presence of iron, the light varieties indicating insufficient burning, and a

green

tint

a bad material, which will be very absorbent.

made

The

blocks in

and filled
in with fine concrete before being set in position in a similar manner to
Terra-cotta has the advantages of great durability and hardstonework.
ness, combined with cheapness and light weight
but against these must
be set the fact that the unequal shrinkage, caused in the burning by the
which

terra-cotta

is

are cast hollow, soaked in water,

nature of the mixture,


carrying

good

apt to prevent the work, especially mouldings,

made, generally speaking, of finely ground stone,


and sand, mixed with Portland cement or other setting materials.

Artificial
ballast,

is

lines.

Stones

are

and Portland cement,


and immersed in a silicate of an

Victoria or silicated stone consists of granite dust

mixed

to a paste, cast into moulds, dried

alkali

to

give

it

a hard, durable,

and stronger weathering

face.

It

is

principally used for pavings, as a substitute for the Yorkshire stones, for
sills,

copings, landings, steps, etc., because

it is

a cheaper article.

Apoenite and Ransome^s Patent Stone are similar materials

the former

being made, in the first instance, from a mixture of sand, silicate, and Portland
cement, while " Ransome's " variety is made from sand, silicate, and chalk,

mixed

to a paste, cast into moulds,

and immersed

in chloride of calcium.

MISCELLANEOUS MATERIALS.
Both kinds are greatly used

for

steps,

landings, pavings,

purposes where natural stones are used.


being cheap, requiring

little

369

They have

and

all

other

the advantages of

labour, are non-absorbent, of great tensile

and

compressive strength, and light weight.


Peters' Patent Artificial Sandstone

grain according to the sand used in

any

district,

and not necessarily

can be made of any colour and of

its

at

preparation.

the

It

can be

made

in

manufactory, the quality and

strength of the stone as at present ascertained being everything that can

be desired.

Pozzuolana
found in
to

Italy, in

is

a substitute for sand, of a clayey and ashy nature,

the neighbourhood of volcanoes, and

make mortars and water

cements.

is

mixed with lime

CHAPTER

XXIV.

STRESSES.
Definitions

fr

is

Loads Stresses Reactions

proposed,

only

in

XXV., where

Ghapter

this

the

chapter

subject

Discernment of Strains.

(which

more

is

discussed),

with the above subject as far as the syllabus of the


requires the student to go in that stage

an explanation
structures,

demands

Different

kinds

producing different

shall

to

deal

to

advanced course

and, as a necessary preliminary,

be given of the general terms

will first

Definitions.

preliminary

is

fully

of loads

in use.

cause different stresses

on

which the principle of equilibrium

strains,

be met by reactions of corresponding power,

to resist those

The stress is the power of the load.


Thus, one man may push another against a wall with such

actions successfully.

(equivalent to a load) as to cause a compressive stress, acting in a


likely to crush him, unless
resist the strain

and

which that

to prevent his being

Or^ a team of

over the
(9r,

material

call

forth a reaction

stress or action of

crushed against the

in a tug of war,

his

own

part to

wall.

by pulling, cause a

tensile stress,

strain

line.

again, the blades

of a pair of scissors meeting, with a piece of

between them, cause a shearing

shear or cut that material in two, unless


St in a reaction, tending to resist or
it

on

pushing puts on his strength,

on the other team, who must have the power to


imposed on them by such stress, or else they will be drawn

which produces a
resist the strain

men

he can

force

manner

by such action or

it

stress,

or action tending to

has the nature or power to

counterbalance the strain put upon

stress.

Having shown the student the application of the general


explanation of each one individually, with the various forms it
be given in

Loads.

terms, an
takes, will

detail.

load

is

the weight or power of the external forces acting on

a certain structure, together with the

weight of the structure

itself;

and

STRESSES.

may be

it

whole of which is either


any number of points on the
distributed equally over the whole, or any part, of

either a live or a

dead

concentrated at any one point,


or

structure,

is

it

371

load, the

or

at

the same.

A live load is a moving force applied suddenly and intermittently,


such as a train going over a
accompanied by shocks and vibrations
bridge, a sudden gust of wind on a roof, or a weight falling suddenly on
;

beam

or floor

while

dead load consists of a force or weight of a continuous nature,


applied gradually and remaining ; such as solid independent and unsupporting walls on breastsummers, materials stored on warehouse floors, etc.
It

has been proved that live loads produce twice as great strains as

dead loads of equal weight or force


as

much dead

therefore structures will carry twice

load as live load.

which

is so great as to produce fracture to


working load is that which a structure will
and without any apparent risk. A safe or working load,

breaking load

that

is

the structure, while a safe or


carry with safety

causing a
ratio

stress, is

generally one-fifth of that of the breaking load.

between the two,

one and

as

five

in

this instance,

is

The

called the

Factor of safety.

Stresses are the actions or forces which cause the


kinds, including

six diff"erent

strain,

and

are of

" Compressive," '* tensile," " shearing," " transverse," " bearing," and
" torsional " stresses, the latter of which will not be dealt with, as it is not

met with

in buildings.

Compressive stress

that which crushes a thing,

is

causing a strain of

compression, especially present in columns and posts of buildings, while


the struts in roof trusses are generally subject to
Tensile stress has a
is

met with

in all ties

structures.

tensile stresses
flexible nature,

simple
is

and suspenders,

method

to consider

to

the

whether a piece of string or rope, of a

could be substituted for the

would answer the same purpose,

member

is

in tension

and

in ordinary roof-structures, the

Shearing

is

that stress

and other framed


between compressive and

in roof trusses,

distinguish

the structure, neglecting, of course, the


string

it.

tendency to pull out or tear a material asunder, and

if

not,

member

member

without detriment to

amount of the
it
it

is

If rope or

stress.

may be regarded as certain that


may be taken for granted that,
in compression.

which shears or cuts the body, and

is

especially

where one plate slips along the other, cutting,


or shearing in two the rivets which connect them.
The web of ordinary
girders is subject to shearing, inasmuch as the top flange being in compression and the bottom in tension, or vice versa, the two stresses have

applicable to riveted joints,


I

>.
,

a tendency to draw together like the two blades of a pair of scissors

BUILDING CONSTRUCTION.

372

Transverse stresses are met with in the bearing members of a structure,


such as lintels, joists, rafters, and breastsummers, on which the stress has
a tendency to bend the

power

member and break

in itself to resist the strain put

upon

it

it

across,

if it

has not sufficient

by the action or

stress

caused

by the load.

may be said to be the opposite of shearing, as the action


caused by the successful resistance of the rivets to being cut
stretching
in two, results in the rivets cutting into the plates compressing or
Bearing

on the

stress

plates,

them (when of
Shearing

insufficient strength), so that the rivet holes are enlarged.

The

plates, in riveted joints.

and bearing the

affects rivets,

demands, for the sake of


impose upon structures and
and
their different members shall be met by a resistance in the nature
Their
strains.
those
withstanding
of
capable
materials
the
of
strength

Reactions.

principle of equilibrium

stability, that the strains

which these

Tom

//

Girder

stresses

weighirtcf

Ton

Reaction
of 6 Tons

RcAC'n
of 6

01

rij.932

actions

must be met by corresponding

reactions,

which are located, as

it

were, at the points of support.

For instance, a
is

girder,

weighing

supported by two columns, which,

strength to be able to keep

up or

ton,
it

is

resist

and carrying a load of

1 1

tons,;

obvious, must be of sufficient

between them the 12 tons

ol

pressure or strain which the stress or action of the load imposes upor
them ; or, reverting to the " tug of war," the competing teams must hi

evenly balanced to keep in equilibrium, thus making

must be met by reactions of equal


latter

may succeed

When
is

a girder

is

uniformly loaded, or carries

two reactions required

together

clear that actions


th(

or hold their own.

obvious that each support

the

it

or greater strength in order that

will

to

carry

its

load in the centre,

an equal proportion

therefort

meet the strain on the supports mus


and of equal (or greater) power

be equivalent to the load,

STRESSES.
Thus, a
centre,

girder,

as

fig.

weighing

ton,

932, or uniformly

373

and carrying

it

tons,

either

at

its

whole length, as
being 12 tons), brings about

distributed over

its

fig. 933 (the total load, or external force,


an action of 6 tons at each support, and each of these has to be met

by a reaction of an upward tendency, equivalent


to prevent the

When

(at

least)

to

tons,

columns being crushed down by those loads.

these loads, however, are placed in different positions at unequal

distances from the supports,

unequally on the supports

it is

plain that the stress from the loads acts

that nearest the load, of course, taking the

lion's share.

In such cases the principle employed in ascertaining the amount of

imposed on each support is that of " proportion," as regulated by


which the girder is divided by the load. Thus a

strain

the different lengths into

RcAction
of 6 Tons

girder 20 feet long, with a load of 10 tons 5 feet

and 15

feet

from the other, would transmit

its

from one of the supports

load to the supports in the

the one nearest to the' load, of course, taking


parts /.d., three-quarters (as fig. 934). The rule for calculating
" Multiply the load by its distance
the reactions required is therefore
from the o//ier support, and divide by the span," to give the reaction.

proportion of 5 and 15,


the 15

Thus

tons feet

Reaction at

Reaction at

'

The sum
the load.

10 X 5

A
B

50
20

20

10/

15

150

.0

2I tons

10 tons.

7J

of the two reactions, as calculated, should be exactly the

same

as

BUILDING CONSTRUCTION.

374

When

two or more loads are placed on one girder, each load must be
dealt with separately, as shown below in reference to fig. 935, which

suoj

5 J'

-^-

0>k

k
suoj

illustrates

a girder 20 feet long, loaded with 6 tons at a point

and 8 tons in the


be carried by the two supports

5 feet

from A;

4 tons 4 feet from B,

centre, making, in

18 tons to

in the proportions ascertained.

all,

a load

ol

STRESSES.

375

Reaction A.
tons. feet.

Necessary
'

6 tons

_
-

8^

"

_
-

80
20

_
~

"*

"

_
~

4^ _~

16

"

20

_
~

for load of

"

**

20
10

20

=
= 20

20

4I tons

9xT7 tons.

"

"^

"

Reaction B.

Necessary

to

^ ^ 5 _
_
""20

complete load \
of 6 tons/

3p
20

"

80
20

X 10

-''^

20

4x16

64
20

20

6 tons + 4 tons + 8 tons .=

S^V

tons.

3i

total of 18 tons

(VrrrrrrfryxrxTTTT)
r/a. 9J6.

With regard to cantilevers, which have only one support, the reaction
is the same as the load to be carried by the cantilever, together

required
with

its

It

own

will

weight.

have been noticed that the principle of " leverage

" plays

conspicuous part in the proportioning of the loads to the supports and


their necessary reactions

and

it is

this

same

which gives us the undoubted and undisputed

principle, in a different form,


fact that

concentrated loads

cause doudie the stress and strain of the same load uniformly distributed:;

each part of the

latter load,

outer neighbour, as

it

were

nearer the support, assisting to balance


just as a

man would

water in two buckets, one on each side,


it if it

were

all in

more

its

carry a given quantity of

easily than

one large bucket, and carried on one

he would carry

side.

For method and convenience of calculation, these distributed loads


were, and reckoned as one load at

are

grouped together, as

i.e.,

the centre of the distribution, as

it

fig.

ail

centre

936.

The Discemment of Strains. Common


judgment are

its

sense, consideration,

and

required in distinguishing what parts of girders and the

BUILDING CONSTRUCTION.

37'

and what members of trusses and other framed


compression, and what parts in tension.
like,

With regard
after given

to the first-named

should clearly impress

i.e.,

girders

the

this distinction

structures, are in

illustrations herein-

on the student's mind,

the forms, of course, being exaggerated for the purpose.


Fig. 937 represents a girder supported only at each end,

Ficj

from which

937

will be seen that the whole of the top flange is in compression, and the
bottom flange is entirely in tension.
showing part
Fig. 938 represents the same girder fixed at both ends
it

and part in tension the top flange being in


compression in the centre, " under the load," and in tension over the ends
and at the supports, while the bottom one is exactly the reverse.
Fig. 939 is a combination of figs. 937 and 938
i.e., a girder having
one end fixed and the other supported, showing the different results
of each flange in compression

a continuous girder, having several supports, over


which the top flanges, as will be seen, are in tension and the bottom ones
in compression, the central portions being as usual, and as previously
while

fig.

940

illustrates

shown.

The

best practical illustration of the above

is

a piece of indiarubber of

sufficient length, subjected to similar conditions, etc.,

when

it

will easily

be

compression and which in tension.


Cantilevers, of course, must be fixed to hold themselves up, much

seen which part

is

in

'm

BUILDING CONSTRUCTION.

378

more under a load

in addition

similar to half a girder, as

941,

fig.

and when they are a simple projection,


it will be seen that they are subjected

'''^:

O
Fi(^94l.

to the strains of

compression and tension, resulting from loads

at their end,

as indicated.

When

they are framed

it

all

depends on their form.

Here

the

principle of considering the possibility of the substitution of rope solves


all difficulties

the

member

as in

fig.

A, which

942,
is

it

will

be apparent that a rope would do

therefore in tension

consequently in compression.

On

referring to

but not for B, which

fig.

943,

it

will

be

at

for
is

once

STRESSES.
seen that exactly the opposite

is

the case,

379

being in compression and

the dotted hnes showing the effect of an excessive load.


Turning to the consideration of roof trusses, we find the application of
the rope principle more useful than ever ; but it should first be pointed
out
that the weights on roofs are, as it were, collected together and
located
in tension,

at various points, proportionately, as fig.

the eaves joint


joints B,

take, part

on each

944, from which

side, while the

it

will

ridge C,

be seen

and purlin

each take | or | of the load.


2PArts

To

members

in compression and tension, we


would certainly not act as an efficient
substitute for the rafters or struts, as shown by thick lines, but that it
might be used for the tie and suspension rods shown by thin lines (see
fig 944).
Therefore the latter are in tension, and the former in compres
find,

discriminate between the

on

reflection,

that a rope

sion or transverse strain.


Figs.

945 and 946 are further illustrations of trusses, the

the ordinary

wooden king post

principle often

the thin line

employed

fig.

latter

being

947 represents a trussed beam, a


boards to carry flower pots,

to strengthen thin

members being

usually of string.

Having ascertained which member or part is in tension, and which in


compression, we know that wrought iron has the greatest power to resist
strains tending to elongate it or tear it asunder ; therefore we can do no

BUILDING CONSTRUCTION.

38o
better than use

it

members

for

in tension, and, generally speaking,

convenient in round or bar form, though


struts

and

of

great

its

were

it

rafters.

power

not for

it is

most

can be rolled into J's for


As regards parts in compression, cast iron, on account

to resist compression,

its

fragile,

for

would be the strongest and

best,

unweldable, and inconvenient nature, for the

putting together of the joints.

superseded cast iron

it

rafters

As a consequence, wrought
struts which are made of

and

iron

has

shape,

the form most suitable for long lengths, where bars or rods would bend,
unless built up to

make them

the

more

rigid, as

hereinbefore shown.

n^947.
Joists, rafters, lintels, etc., subject to transverse strain

have been taken above as


tension), are strongest

(though

rafters

in

compression, but only in contra-distinction to

when

of rectangular form and of a good depth, the

strength lying in the depth,

and no^

in the breadth.

CHAPTER XXV.
CALCULATION OP STRAINS.
Computation of Strains on Cantilevers, Girders, and Trusses variously loaded.

Computing

Strains.

The

strains

which the various

stresses produce,

as hereinbefore enumerated, can generally be calculated arithmetically and


graphically, to check each other ; and it is intended in this short chapter
to briefly

and concisely put before the student a few of the methods

in

vogue for that purpose.

Cantilevers

Load

Concentrated.

Assuming

that he thoroughly un-

4tonQ

derstands

everything

plain cantilevers

in

the

previous

chapter,

of rectangular forms.

we

will

first

deal

with

948 represents a cantilever


12 inches deep and 3 feet projection, loaded at its end by a given weight
of 4 tons.
The formula by which the greatest strain is calculated is
wl
-~.i w representing
the weight, / the projection or length, and d
381

Fig.

BUILDING CONSTRUCTION.

382
the depth.

Therefore we have

tW _ 4
I

tons X 3 feet
X 12 inches

which can be graphically proved as


"

Draw

^ I2 feet _
I

^^ ^^^^ ^^^^^^^

foot

illustrated in

fig.

949 and the following.

the cantilever to scale as the figure, join

AB

diagonally across

CALCULATION OF STRAINS.
member, and

the

4 tons

draw

set

up from C,

at right angles to

ton or foot being of the same scale)

(i

DE

parallel to

amount of

strain

A B,

which,

cutting

CB

produced

in

383
B,

D, equivalent to

then from the point

CE

E, and

when reduced according

to

will

scale,

give the

will

equal

12 tons."

As

well

is

it

and diminishes

known

that the strain

greatest at the point of support,

is

under the weight, the

to nothing immediately

graduate between

strains at

two external points of


such
strains at the different
load,
that
of
the
so
application
and
support
intermediate points can be ascertained according to fig. 950, the perpendiculars representing the strains at the points from which they are raised.
intermediate

On

fig.

dicular as

FC

points will

950 the

F,

strain line

CE

on

fig.

and the points F and B

the

949

is

raised

up

to the perpen-

are joined, forming a triangle, as

B, which represents the form of the whole strains

the intermediate perpendiculars indicate what

is

on the

cantilever,

and

required.

Having ascertained these strains, we can calculate the sectional area


them by dividing the amount of strain by the " power
of resistance " of the material to be employed ; always remembering that
the top flange, or part, has to resist the amount of one strain (tension) and
the bottom part the same amount of the contrary strain (compression), to

required to resist

one or the other of which every part

is

subjected, according to circum-

stances, as hereinbefore explained.

Wrought

iron will resist safely 4

Cast iron

tons compression per superficial inch.

tension

Theoretically the cantilever might be constructed as

but

BUILDING CONSTRUCTION.

384

this is

not done in practice, as a

Load

distributed.

Coming

fig.

95

orfig.

rule.

uniform loads on cantilevers,

to

952;
it

is

usual to take the collected load, or total weight, as located in the centre of
fig. 953, from which it will be seen that it is in this
case practically halfway along the cantilever, and the formula resolves

the loaded area, as

wl

itself into

^,
2.d

twice the depth being taken to give the

compared with a concentrated load


double

7('

uniform load.

the strain of a
/

_ 4 tons X 3

2d

2x1

for

we know

half" result as

that the latter causes

Therefore

feet

6 tons

strain.

foot

Q
Mvation

Elevation

Plan

rig 952

Graphically this is ascertained by a similar process to fig. 950, the


diagonal being raised from a point halfway along the bottom flange, as
fig 953> while the graduation of the strains at intermediate points takes
tne form of a concave parabolic curve, as shown on fig. 954, which should
need no further explanation.

The
fig.

theoretical form of the cantilever

956.

Two
is

fig.

955 or

fig. 957, of which the small


A
constructed, to give the lines of inclination to the figure.

while graphically they should be treated as

diagram

either as

If two distinct loads are placed on a cantilever


be calculated separately, and the results added together;

distinct loads.

their strains should

would be

CALCULATION OF STRAINS.
perpendicular

is

dropped from any point

as Z,

385

and on

it

are

marked off
Z Y

consecutively from the point the weights or reactions of the loads,


representing to scale

ton,

and

plays such a conspicuous part,


Z,

asW and

from

A we

then

draw

is

YX

tons.

marked

depth, which always

off at right angles to

W Y and W X are joined.


parallel to W Y until

AB

The

it

Reverting to the

main

from

figure,

meets a perpendicular raised


26

BUILDING CONSTRUCTION.

386
from the other load

W X.

after

Thus the diagram

required.
similarly to

is

If the cantilever
fig.

954

which

AB

is

continued to C, but parallel to

formed, and the strains can be scaled off as

were uniformly loaded,

it

would be treated

in principle.

3 tons

Q
-/?

r/Q S58

Shearing

Strain,

concentrated load,

is

The

" shearing " strain

on a

cantilever,

equal to the amount of the reaction

with

along the

all

cantilever from the point of support to that of application of the load,


as

fig.

958; while, on uniformly loaded cantilevers,

it

gradually diminishes

2 tons
^"^

*"^

A-/

to nothing at the point of application from the


at the support, as
it

fig.

959, one part of the load

OOOOOQ

9 $61

amount of

the reaction

assisting the other,

as

were.

Two

points

uniform load
will

be as

fig.

is

its

cantilever differently loaded at two or more


" shearing " strain shown, as fig. 960
and if a

distinct Loads.

would have

fixed at a distance

and

clear space

from the support,

961, taking the form of a concentrated load from

it

to B.

CALCULATION OF STRAINS.
Girders.
strains

Girders are

treated in a similar

3B7

manner

being ascertained by the following formulae

to cantilevers, their

for concentrated loads.


TV I

uniform loads.

for

"8l?

Fi^ $63

So

that a girder of 8 feet span

load of 2 tons, would have

its

and 9 inches deep, supporting a uniform

strain calculated thus

2 tons X 8 feet

8./

8x9

which would be doubled

if

inches

ijp^ =
6

25 tons strain,

feet

concentrated.

Graphically, a girder, with concentrated load centrally,

would be dealt

BUILDING CONSTRUCTION.

388
with as

fig.

962,

and

as

fig.

963

if

intermediately loaded

while

fo;

Fig 964

O
Elevation

Plan

Fig 366

uniform loads

it

would be

as figs.

964 and 965 respectively

one half of

the load (or either of the reactions) being set up as the height,
reactions are equal

and,

when they

vary,

one or the other

will

when

the

answer the

CALCULATION OF STRAINS.
purpose, so long as

care

389

taken that the same side of the load

is

is

Elevation

Plan
367

Fie/

utilised

for

the

diagonal

particularly illustrated

on

and
fig.

parallel

line

to

ascertain

the

strain,

as

If correct, figures will always com-

963.

plete themselves.

P 0000

000

teva.tion

riy 968

The

theoretical outlines for

concentrated oads, and

figs.

beams or girders are as


968 and 969 for uniform

figs.

966 and 967

loads.

BUILDING CONSTRUCTION.

390

Under several

distinct Loads.

fig.

957)

When

a girder

loaded with several*

fig,

970

(similarly to

and, arithmetically, they are proved by working each load out

separately and adding the results together.

On

fig.

970

it

will

the small diagram, the perpendicular line of loads

in

that,

is

found graphically, as

different loads the strains are

be noticed
divided

is

proportionately to the reactions, and the depth line thrown out at right
angles
fig-

from that point.

The

other working

is

precisely the

same

as

957-

Graphic diagrams in
signer, in that they help

of work are also of service to the de-

this class

him

to

economise judiciously by riveting

plates

on, intermediately, along the flanges, to withstand irregular strains without

increasing the general sectional area.


fig.

For instance, the diagram of

strains,

971, clearly points out that an additional plate of sectional area, to

resist the strain indicated

be judiciously added
amounting to G H.

by

B,

and of a length equivalent

to the length of girder

Sometimes we have,

to

D, car

F, designed to resist a

in practice, to find out,

by calculation or

straii

stres

diagrams, the strains caused by certain loads at various intermediate points

and this is done mathematically by multiplying the reactioi


by the distance from the support, and dividing the result by the depth
while it is graphically treated (alternatively to figs. 962 to 964, where the
perpendiculars are scaled) as fig. 972, which represents a girder of 12 i^QX

along a girder

span,

feet

deep, loaded centrally with

applicable to any weight and position),

caused by the load

at

every 2

feet.

and

10
it is

tons (though this rule

required to find the

is

straii

)|

CALCULATION OF STRAINS.
The
lent

girder

is

drawn

to a scale

by which

and, perpendicularly upwards from

point of support, a line

AB

is

measured

Fiq

feet

391

and tons are made equiva-

on the bottom

flange, at the

to represent the reaction at that

971

across, parallel to the


and, from the top point B, a line is drawn
The points at which it is required to find
girder, and of indefinite length.
a line is drawn
the
off along the top flange ; and from

support

strain are

marked

392

BUILDING CONSTRUCTION.

through each one to the indefinite

line

from B, and the distance from B,

cut off by that intersecting Hne from A, gives the required answer

when

y////fhMWW/h'MSi

'^.^-i<^'>:^i^::~<:^^:^^^M^^^^mi

reduced to weight according to


are

worked out conversely

scale.

The

to the above, as

strains on the bottom flange


shown on the lower part of the

CALCULATION OF STRAINS.
figure

though

this is

amount, only

alike in

Proof of

this

is

not necessary, as the strains on both flanges are

different in character.

obtained by calculation on lines just laid

5 tons reaction X 2 feet from support

depth of 2

lo

down

^^^^ ^^^^^ ^ ^^^^

feet

4 feet from support


depth of 2 feet

5 tons rea ction x

If

393

_ 20

10 tons strain 4 feet away.

the load be placed at any intermediate point between the supports

the reactions of course are unequal, but

when

the load from each point of support, the

multiplied by the distance of

same

result

should be given.

3 tons

n.
Uons

Fig 973

Fi^ 974

For, supposing this girder

were loaded 3 feet from one support, the reacwould then be in the proportion of 3 and 9 (to make up the 1 2 feet)
ie., they would be respectively 7^ tons and 2| tons, which give the same
result when multiplied by the distances away as
7I tons x 3 feet, and
2| tons X 9 feet, each equal 22I tons strain under the load; and the
tions

strains,

any intermediate points between load and supports, can be


manner by multiplying the reaction by the distance the
which it is required to find the strain) is away from that support.

at

ascertained in like
point (at

973 represents the form of the strains on the girder in fig. 972.
Thts/iean'ni^'on girders is equal to the reaction at each support
from the centre or load to that support when it is a concentrated load

^'8*

while a uniform load causes a gradual shearing from nothing immediately

under

it

to the

amount of the

reaction at the support, as

figs.

974, 975,

BUILDING CONSTRUCTION.

394

So that, in the latter case, the "shearing


976, and 977, will explain.
any point is equivalent to the amount of load distributed between that

at

point and the centre.

Framed Structures. Coming to framed structures, the

student must
" the forces

thoroughly understand, and never lose sight of the

fact, that

acting at any point, to be in equilibrium (which

the foundation of the

is

3 tons
^
r
00000000

n^
structure),

977

must complete and form a

parallel to the directions of the forces,

polygon whose sides are


and therefore are equivalent to their

triangle or

magnitudes."

Triangle or Polygon of Forces. This theorem is the foundation of


and diagrams, as will hereinafter be illustrated {vide figs. 979
to 984), though these reciprocals (as they are sometimes called) will, of
course, be pointed out, as the diagrams are constructed, in the usual
all

calculations

way.

Roof Trusses.

It is

only proposed here to deal with roof trusses, as

other framings do not, strictly speaking, belong to building construction.

The

first

procedure

is

to locate the

weight at various points, and then

ascertain the reactions (as should always


class of work), the

polygon of forces

the necessary reactions.

both slopes of the

roof,

But when

be the

first

thought

in

whatever

990) being used to determine


the loading is vertical and equal on

each reaction

(as fig.

will

be equal to one half the

total

\\

CALCULATION OF STRAINS.
load,

becomes a

so that the polygon of forces

further trouble, which,

it

will hereinafter

395

straight line,

be noticed,

is

obviating

present in unequal

loading.

Khig Post Truss. Taking a " king post

proceed as follows

" truss as

our

first

form,

we

^kNT

ki

at

Set

up any

line vertically in

any position as a

the truss carries 4 tons weight,

n diagram 978

so that

we

shall

it

have

will

line of loads,

be divided as

to support

and assuming
and

-,

8
4 4 4 S
ton of it at each purlin

BUILDING CONSTRUCTION.

396
and the

ridge, with ^ ton at

Therefore the reactions

will

42315
W
TV

TV

each of the eaves to equally divide the 8 tons.

be

cwt.

cwt.

TV

TV

4-^4''4''8+8 '_

20-^20 + 20 4-10+10

^ 80 ^

8444*^

A B = ?^'; B C =
in G,

from

Starting

we have

on

the

of

line

C D = !?f'; D E =

'^';

A G

and

loads,

'^*;

^^,^

we

EF = '^';

^^^j^

set

off

to

and, bisecting

equivalent to R^ and

R^ />.,

scale

A F

40 cwt.

each, measured from each end.

f/y 980

From B we then draw B H, and from G G H, parallel to Z Y and


giving us A B H G A as the reciprocal of the forces at
the joint Y, while B H and H G give us (according to scale) the strains

on

R, respectively

YV

YR

and

respectively.

Next, taking the joint V,

V Z,

giving us

B C

equivalent to the strains on

Following with

GHK

R and
J and J C parallel to
the reciprocal of V, with
J and J C

we draw
as

VR

and

V Z.

R, we draw

joint

HG

the strains are equal on the other

and

all

that

now remains

to

half,

be done

is

K parallel to R Z, making
K equivalent to R Z, which

reciprocal to R, with J
J
gives us the strains on half the members ;

and since the loading is equal,


is completed on the diagram
scale off the strains and calculate

which
to

the material required to resist them in the usual way.


Figs.

979 to 984 give the polygons of forces

equilibrium

at the various joints in

the arrows indicating the directions, for

one way round the polygon, beginning

must continue

until they close to

be

at

all

forces

any one point

in equiHbrium.

must go

though they
.^

CALCULATION OF STRAINS.
Each

figure

corresponding

is

a "reciprocal" of the joint of which

letters,

acting at the joint as

and each

AB

on the lower part of the


the

(fig.

397
it

carries the

forming the figure represents a force

line

that
979) represents that at the eaves, B
that on part of the tie-rod, and A B

rafter,

HG

upward reaction of the support.


This subject

will require careful

study and reasoning, for

it

must be

BUILDING CONSTRUCTION.

398

A larger
from which
that of B,

truss,
it

be gathered that

dcegd

sent

with more framing,

will

and F

of C,/eg/ij'/of

depicted in

is

fig.

986, with diagram,

the reciprocal of A, b

while y'/^ k Ij and

dgkhgd

cefb

repre-

<y

respectively.

to save confusion

is

abed a

it is

The

other part has been

left

out intentionally,

practically a repetition of the other half.

987 represents a similar truss, with a cambered tie rod, the diagram
which will illustrate what a difference it makes compared with the

Fig.
for

CALCULATION OF STRAINS.

5fe!<o-|

^^m

^kkj

^|to-^|^<-

399

400

BUILDING CONSTRUCTION.

N
CO

CALCULATION OF STRAINS.
Straight rod.

The

cals " for himself.

The
truss in

student must work out, or rather " identify the reciproIt is precisely similar to fig.

986.

next form of roof truss treated will be as

common

4OI

fig.

988

and

as this

is

use, the writer will take this opportunity of dealing with

unequal loading, hereinafter using

this truss.

Having located our weights, and ascertained the reactions in the usual
way, as hereinbefore explained, we draw the diagram as shown in fig. 988,
from the vertical load line, and parallel to the members of the truss ; the
a cgoa-=- A
reciprocals formed thereby representing the joints as follows
cghdc-=-'^; dhtled-=-(Z'jOthgo-=.Y\otlko=-Qi\ elkfe = D; and
bfk ob = '.] all of them closing together as required. The strains can
be found by scaling off the corresponding members in the diagram in the
:

ordinary way.

Hitherto no distinction has been

and those in
are shown in

made between

tension, because the distinction

lines in

compression

was too apparent

but they

988 and 989 by thick and thin lines respectively.


Special loading.
It will be seen that in fig. 989 two loads of 20 cwt.
are hung from points F and G of the truss in addition to the previous

figs.

loading, which, of course, alters the diagram considerably as shown,

increases the reactions which remain equal

with 40 cwt. on

On

fig.

i.e.,

and

60 cwt. each, as compared

988.

mark off the loads on the truss, neglecting


and from each end of the line set up and down the
reactions to scale, making av and by, which cross each other, as will be
noticed.
This done, we proceed in the usual manner, drawing eg from C
parallel to A B, and from V (the reaction point) drawing v g parallel to A F,
making acgva the reciprocal of A; while further parallels will give us
cghdcior^, dklle d {oiC,Sind oy ghto for F, as compared with othgo
on fig. 988, the latter containing four forces, while this contains five. The
other joints at D E and G are similar to A B and F, while the line t ovs,
common to both halves of the truss and the joints F and G.
Unsy77irnetrical loading.
When we come to unequal and unsymme'trical loading we meet with a difficulty at the very beginning; inasmuch
as we have hitherto used no means, except calculations, to ascertain the
reactions and this is done by means of z. funicular and polygon of forces.
A line is set up, just as a "load" Hne viz., as Z Y (see fig. 990) and
on it are marked off the loads, as zo, op, a.ndpy, equivalent to W^, W^,
and W^, on the truss ; after which " any " point X is taken, somewhere
level with the centre of the load line ZY, but no less than its length
away, and we join Xo, Xp, Xy, which are called vectors
then drop perpendiculars from the points of loading and reaction on the truss, after
which we draw 1.2, 2.3, and 3.4, parallel to Xpy Xo, Xz, on the funicular
to connect these perpendiculars; and by joining 1.4 we complete the
the usual line of loads

the suspended loads,

'j

27

BUILDING CONSTRUCTION.

402
polygon of forces

from

and

parallel to the latter

we draw

X R on the funicular

the
to the load line, the intersection determining

magnitude of the

R^ and R^.
from which
reactions are then tiansferred to the ordinary load line,
abeoa,
diagram is drawn in the usual way ; the resulting reciprocals

reactions

The
the

the forces at A, B, C,
befcb, cftkdc, oefto, otko, dkod, representing
on E G, and that
strain
D, E, and F. The diagram shows that there is no
the strains on C G and G F are alike.
Having mastered these few examples, the student ought to be able to
deal with all ordinary strains on building structures.

sSS

<-

CHAPTER

XXVI.

SANITATION.
A

'

Air and Ventilation Draughts External Ventilators as Inlets


Drainage TrapsDrain Pipes and Testing Inspection Openings
and Ventilation Inlets Ventilation Outlets Flushing Cesspools Sewage
gationWater Closets and Soil Pipes Baths Water Supply.

Model Dwelling

Ventilating Fans

Irri-

i
J-

T,

V
!

This

is

one of the vexed subjects of the age

stood that the great differences

of opinion

though

it

must be under-

only take place as to the

means and methods by which it is attempted to get rid of evils, which,


one and all agree, exist in a greater or less degree, in connection with
the dwellings which belong to the present decade.
Rapid strides have of late years been made in the various details of
sanitation, which have required great and wholesale improvement; and
still there is ample room for further advancement in all its branches.
Many defects have *been got rid of by sure and proved remedies,
but there remain many more, which have not been dealt with in such
a manner that the world can say we have reached a point of success
more or less short of perfection ; and it is on these varied and contradictory theories that there is this great amount of disagreement among
authorities on sanitation; for the patents and so-called remedies put
forth are too numerous to mention.
Therefore it is only the wish of
the writer to put before the students those things which, we all know,
require alteration for the better, so that any suggested methods hereinafter given must not be taken " as recommended " ; they are only
advanced to give the student an idea how such results might be attained.
The various circumstances, and his own well-considered practical
opinion, ought to decide him as to whose patent and what remedy are
to be used for particular difficulties.
It would be invidious of the
author to advertise any one or another person's special patented ideas.
Tlie Model Dwelling. A ''model dwelling," to be up to the
requirements of the age and of a healthy life, should be one containing
ufficient cubic contents, area, and light for the purposes
required
with a plentiful supply and constant circulation of pure air, cooled in
summer and warmed in winter, without any approach to draughts of

BUILDING CONSTRUCTION.

404

any kind, which would

the health and comfort of

affect prejudicially

the inmates.

should also be provided with a plentiful supply of good pure]

It

water; and the sanitary conveniences, of whatever kind, should be so

arranged that no bad smells or offensive odours can possibly be emitted,


except, as

of humanity.

were, out of the reach

it

All

and water-tight, well and securely trapped,


gradients, and provided with adequate ventilation, so
be

air-tight

pure

air,

so that

figuratively

all

places that

may be

foul air
is

it

speaking,

harmless to

a body of]

driven out, from point to point, at suchj

that reason invariably floats, as

we know where

that

prevail within the appliances, andi

life.

must be understood that

It

may

should

drains

laid with proper

air,

and

for

were, on the top of the pure

air,

so

foul air
it

is

lighter than

pure

and therefore have to remove it from'


Pure air is
the upper part of any apartment, where it accumulates.
fouled or polluted by carbonic acid, which either comes, by the breath,]
that

from the lungs, or

Pure

air

is

it

collects,

emitted from the skin of

is

also

vitiated

human

beings or animals.

by sewer gas and

combustion, whether caused by

gas,

fires,

bad smells, and b]


or other means of lighting

and warming.

On

the other hand, leaves of trees and other forms of vegetation]

absorb the carbonic acid out of the foul


of purifier and

filter

air,

and generally

act as a sort]

to the atmosphere.

For the sake of convenience it will be as well


under two heads, as follows
1. Air and Ventilation.

of sanitation

to subdivide the subject]

2. Drainage and its Connections.


Air and. Ventilation. Human

on an average, require, per]


them in a healthy state
and for this purpose they must be supplied with that amount of cubi(
space of pure fresh air, refilled and circulated by the natural pressure oi
beings,

nead, 300 cubic feet of fresh air per hour to keep

the ingress of the wind, or artificially by fans, from behind, as


drive

out the foul

attained

pure

air

air,

and replace

by extracting the foul


from below.

air

it

were,

t<

by pure air; or that object


from the top and drawing in the
it

Assuming that each person requires 300 cubic feet of air per hour,!
room 10 feet x 10 feet and 10 feet high, would require to
be changed three times in ten hours for one person ; so that rooms
of various cubic contents require the air they contain to be changed
according to the amount of air available for each occupant.
There is no law laying down the superficial area or cubic contents
the air in a

which each

private

should have per inhabitant ; as such


would be unreasonable and impracticable, though

dwelling

restriction or regulation

SANITATION.
it is

generally laid

down by

405

local authorities that

rooms of

less

area than

by 9 feet high, should have special ventilation


beyond that which an unused fireplace with window and door would
Nevertheless the Local Government Board require that, though
give.
100 feet

superficial,

300 cubic

may

feet

for

suffice

each individual in public dormitories,

yet in practice such cubic space should never be less than

persons
cubic

and, indeed,

some

and more, per

feet,

hospitals have as

patient.

The

much

850

for sick

as from 1,000 to 1,200

Educational Department require

130 cubic feet per scholar, while lodging-houses should have 30 feet
superficial, or (assuming 8 feet high) about 240 feet cube per person.

These figures will give the student an idea of what is required, and also
show him how much really depends on the circulation of fresh air.
Draughts. The various methods for promoting circulation hereinbefore mentioned, having their inlets and outlets by means of flues or
it
is
ventilators, are apt to cause draughts of various kinds, which

object

view,

in

and, with

that

feed

be obviated as

as

possible

which require, under ordinary circumstances, 150 feet cube of


Unless that supply is made from a special source, it

the

fires,

air

per minute.

will

much

a separate supply of air should be provided to

necessary should

be drawn to the

between the
inlet of air

inlet

fire

and

from the door or window, causing a draught

outlet

contiguous to

it,

fire should have an


back or sides of the fireplace

and, consequently, a

either at the

opening, having an area nearly equal to the outlet, flue, or opening at


the chimney-pot.

Down

draughts are equally as troublesome, though not so regular,

as the fire causes

an up draught.

Moreover they are not perceptible,


means of ventilation, such as flues and ventilators,

unless

we have

which

at times are converted,

of this

artificial

defect; and this

all

by circumstances, temporarily into sources


good patents and remedies should render

impossible.

Draughts sometimes are driven down outlet flues;

and

this

can be

remedied, or reduced to a minimum, by the use of flap ventilators

made

which can be moved or opened by an


up or outlet draught, and closed by a down draught. At other times
they are caused by the air rushing through the inlet, which strikes
of mica or other light material,

and comes down on people's heads


it down.
The heat of a fire or hot-water pipes will draw from windows and
skylights in very cold weather, and create serious draughts ; hence in the
best hot-water work provision is made for running the pipes around

against anything such as a ceiling,

or the stagnation of the foul air at the top will press

the skylights

or intermediately, so that the

cold air

has to pass

the

heated pipes.

Common

sense gives us the remedies for these

either

by increasing

BUILDING CONSTRUCTION.

406
the outlet for foul

or by regulating the supply

air,

though

this latter is

not to be recommended.
It

should be understood that a larger inlet than outlet increases the

velocity with

which the

air circulates,

and drives out the

foul air all the

sooner.

Ingress of pure air can be, or rather should be, of two kinds
for winter,

and cold

summer.

for

It

warm

can be brought in by the following

methods, among others


External Ventilators as Inlets.
:

by

flues to the inside,

where valves,

External

flaps,

and

ventilators,

connected

shutters should be utilised

and regulate the supply at pleasure. A common place to


little above skirting level, especially in window backs and
recesses ; and they should be supplied with sliding shutters, of hit-andmiss form, so that, by a slight movement of the shutter, the ingress of
to shut
fix

these

cold

ofl*

is

may be regulated, or shut off* when not wanted. This position for
may be said to obviate the evils at its origin, inasmuch as it
the air from the bottom of the room upwards ; though it is apt to

air

ventilators
clears

cause undercurrents and unpleasant draughts, to remedy which ventilators


are used of the Tobin class, which are fixed generally half or part of the

way up the

external

connected by

flues either to

walls.

They
wooden

consist
shafts

of external open gratings,

such

as pilasters, etc.,

more

or less ornamentally treated, which are often placed within the rooms

or

where the shafts would be inconvenient and out of place,


made by an ornamental bracket, projecting into the room, and

at other times,

the inlet
this is

is

connected by a shaft or

grating.

The

flue,

fresh air enters the

with a valve to open and shut),

upwards, so that no draught

is

within the walls, to the external air

room at the top of the bracket (fitted


and the force of the air is expended

caused.

Ventilators are also fixed at or a

little

below ceiling

level,

and they are

constructed of an external open-air grating, connected by a short flue to


the inside ventilator, which

is

constructed on the hopper principle, with

closed sides, so that the current of air has a tendency to go upwards.

These precautions, however, do not successfully combat down draught,


inasmuch as, while they remedy one defect, they cause the air to come in
with considerable velocity on to the heads of persons below, which is a
Hence, of the three places in which air can be brought
great defect.
into a room, the best place is midway, as the above will explain.
Fresh air can also be supplied to a room by means of the window, and
The stop-bead on the sill is made
this, too, without causing draught.
2 or 3 inches deeper, so that, by raising the bottom sash, the air is admitted
through the space

made

Ventilating Fans.

at the.

meeting

Another

promoting a circulation of

air, is

rails

of the sashes thus opened.

means of

ventilating apartments,

and

by the use of fans propelled by mechanical

SANITATION.
means, which drive the collected fresh

air

407

through flues into the rooms,

the inlets to the rooms, of course, being fixed at such a distance above the
floor that all

feeling of draught

drawn down a

shaft into the basement,

connected to a

series of large flues,

The

obviated.

is

and

into various independent smaller flues,

cold

taken or

air is

and passes through a

fan,

these, in their turn, are

which

which run up the chimney-stacks

or upcast shafts, and have inlets opening into the numerous rooms
difl"erent floors

is

extended

on the

above.

drawn out by mechanical means, at


connected to shafts, having exits in
egress creates such a vacuum that fresh aii

At other times the


about the skirting

foul air

is

level, into flues

and this
drawn in through other flues, having inlets into the rooms, 7 or 8
feet above the floor, connected to air inlet shafts collecting the fresh
roofs, towers, etc.

is

air

from the open.

The

supply of fresh

which

is

only in

its

rooms

air to

the warming and cooling of

it

in

is

a small matter in comparison with

summer and

infancy as yet

and this is a matter


method in vogue at the

winter,

the only

present time consists purely of passing the air over or through coils of
air, or over boxes of ice and steammeans is only applicable (i) to the " fan " process,
which explains itself, and (2) in cases where coils can be fixed between
the inlet ventilators and the space to be ventilated, so that all fresh
air must pass over or be acted upon in a more or less degree by the

pipes, etc., containing hot or cold

heated pipes

and

this

hot or cold appliances.

washed on a screen

Where

which

is

fans are used, the fresh air can also

In arranging systems of ventilation great care should be


the water closet and sanitary apartments

of kitchens, dwelling-rooms,

The

egress of foul air

be

very desirable.

are

ventilated

taken that

independently

etc.

can also be provided for by the fresh

driving in through top ventilators, or

allows of various forms, including

by

extraction.

The

air

former method

1. Independent ventilating flues, constructed in the chimney-stacks,


and carried up to the top and out into the open. These are the most

commonly used remedies, and their only disadvantage is their liability


to down draught; but this can be obviated by the use of the mica
flap ventilators previously mentioned, which will only act one way as
extractors, a contrary action closing them, as in the case of a down
draught.
2.

Outlet ventilators

may

also

be constructed

in ceilings,

flue

of

zinc connecting the outlet to a flue into the stack or outlet vent in the

mentioned ; and these have the advantage that they can


be ornamentally treated, in that we can use perforated centre flowers

roof, as just

and cornices

as

outlets

the

former being very efficacious,

when

the

BUILDING CONSTRUCTION.

408
warmth of the gas
it

will

help to draw the foul

and drive

air to the outlet

away.

Warmth

in outlet flues will always increase the velocity of the outcast,

whether burning

jets

be inserted

at the

bottom of the

themselves be warmed or surrounded by

flues or the flues

warm smoke

flues,

care being

taken that smoke flues are not utilised as ventilators, unless great care

can be exercised and very superior and

The

extraction of foul

appliances,

called air

air is

tight flaps

be used.
by means of patent

usually attained

pumps^ which are generally

self-acting.

These

patents mostly take the form of cowls, which are fixed on the top of

the special shafts or on roofs, the various small pipes

being brought

together in a main shaft, at the top of which the extractor


this

draws out

all foul air,

or rather

it

is

increases the velocity,

fixed, and
and causes

an " upcast " ; but the efficacy depends on the movement of the external
very much.
It should be noted that the various small flues must not be let loose
into the main stack, inasmuch as the different currents would clash,
and form an injurious whirl, as it were, which would cause an obstruction.
They must be kept independent of each other, or be gathered together
one by one as they get near the extractor.
Drainage. Coming to drainage, we will start from the outfall into
the main or public sewer, and deal with the drains, water closets, baths,
lavatories, sinks, and other apparatus in connection therewith, calling
air

to those points requiring special study, whether the system


be in connection with a common sewer cesspool, or scheme of irrigation.
It may be stated at the outset that, wherever practicable, it is always

attention

advisable to intercept, or disconnect, that portion of a dwelling in which

the sanitary conveniences are placed, from the main block of the house,

by a lobby having a cross current of air constantly circulating through it.


It is generally acknowledged by most
sanitarians that the house
sewer should be disconnected from the public sewer or cesspool by
some properly devised trap placed as near the end of the house system
as possible, as house sewers not so disconnected allow the free admission
of any fever germs which may have found their way into the public sewer
from some contaminated source.
Otherwise householders would have
to rely entirely upon the internal fittings of the house for their protection
and in such cases as (i) the temporary removal of a water closet for
repairs, without sealing the pipe

the water to run out

end ;

(2)

an accident

to a trap, causing

or (3) the unsealing of a gully during cleaning

operations or the evaporation of water during a dry season

may occur

in the average

the risk of these germs

dwelling), the inmates

gaining admission to the

serious to be contemplated or permitted.

(all

of which

would be exposed
house

risk

to

too

SANITATION.
Traps.

The various kinds of traps


and entrance

to prevent the rising

water which

it

409
being an appliance devised
house of sewer gases by the

(a trap

into the

contains) in use for this purpose

too numerous to mention, the

of disconnection

main point being

constructed so as to have a dip at the


to allow the standing water in the trap to

that

are

they should

be

shown at A, fig. 991,


be more forcibly acted upon

outlet,

by the discharges down the house sewer, so that the water may be

Fig
properly changed.

The body

331

of the trap

should also be reduced

to allow of a better seal being obtained (of, say, 2 or 3 inches), without

having too large a body of water to

the flush

resist

through

it,

and

of course such reduction must be kept within reasonable limits, or the


trap

would be

and

it

liable to

choke by

solid matter passing

down

very desirable that there should be an inspection

is

the sewers

arm on the

392
as

ip,

fig.

992, to allow of any obstruction in the drain below bemg^

removed.

These

traps should

that the trap

itself

be placed below a brick-built chamber, as fig. 999,


can be easily and conveniently cleansed, when

Required; while the open cover can be utilised as an inlet to ventilate


le

house drain above, as shown,

jing

obviated by the trap

all

possibility

and when there

ihould be securely fixed, that the joint

may be

is

of sewer gas

arising

an inspection arm,

absolutely air-tight.

it

BUILDING CONSTRUCTION.

410

Drain Pipes and Testing. The

next point for consideration

the

is

house sewer and

its

various

required to receive the soHd and liquid matter from

positions

the house appliances

branch pipes from

this

disconnecting trap to the

and it may be mentioned at once that too much


upon the laying of these conduits, as leakages

care cannot be bestowed

from

faulty joints or

a great

imperfect pipes will percolate through the

and may eventually

distance,

soil

and the

locate themselves,

to

evils

arising therefrom, beneath the dwelling, to the detriment of the health

of the inhabitants.

These drain pipes are generally of glazed stoneware, about


but of late years many schemes have been carried out
;

length

cast iron, having

its

surface coated with glass enamel, or with Dr.

Smith's solution of hot coal

tar,

oil

and

feet in

in strong

Angus

or other non-corrosive

resin,

material, the advantage claimed being a better connection, that will stand

a high pressure, powerful flushing, and a reduced number of joints, on

ooat Covtr

fig. 993

account

of the iron

Fig.

being in 9-feet lengths,

pipes

stoneware pipes.

2-feet lengths in

strong point in their favour


substance, which iron

is

not

994.

^that

compared with

as

Stoneware pipes, however, have


they are

made

of an

this

imperishable

and, moreover, iron pipes, properly treated,

cost nearly double the price of stoneware pipes,

bedded

in

concrete as

an additional precaution. These pipes should be egg-shaped, so that


a greater hydraulic depth can be obtained for small flushes, to enable
them the better to allow the water to carry any solid matter with them,
scouring out the drain completely, and also to increase the velocity of

the flow.

This reduction of the width of the channel, with


crease of depth,

is

its

attained by the use of pipes similar to

corresponding
figs.

in-

993 and 994,

which on account of its loose lapped cover reduces to a


the risk of obstruction formed by the squeezing up of the

the latter of

minimum

cement used

in

bedding the bottom

joint.

advantage, in that they do not require so

They should be

laid

perfectly

Both these pipes have another

much

straight,

water to flush them.

on a

solid

foundation of

SANITATION.
and

concrete,

10

feet),

the

fall

call

it

to a gradual

from point to point

fall

to multiply

inches in

for calculating

the diameter by 10 and

the result being the length of pipe that should have

feet,

fall^^.^.,

and sewers being

say,

(of,

a simple method

according to the size of the pipe

of drains

411

= 40

4 inches x 10

feet,

or

the required

foot in 40,

i-foot
fall

for

4-inch pipes.

should be borne in mind that this

It
is

advisable and likely to answer

is

the

minimum

rate of

purpose, and a greater

its

fall

fall

that

should be

the aim of the sanitarian.


If the fall is not sufficient, the contents are likely to

the drain

while

if

too

quickly away from

choke up the

much

fall

is

silt

up and choke

given, the liquid matter will run too

the solid, which would thus

accumulate, and also

pipes.

The inside circumference of the pipes should be in perfect alignment


when fixed together, and all joints should be made thoroughly sound
those in stoneware where patent joints are not employed being made
of tarred spun yarn and cement, the cement being mixed with clean sand,

Fig.

in the proportion of
is

about

995.

and i (otherwise the expansion in setting


and care should be taken that no cement

liable to crack the sockets),

or

the

projection

case

is

left

on the
pipes

of cast-iron

joint

in

the inside of the pipe; while in

the joints

are

made by

lead

being well

caulked into the sockets, so that the pipe joints are strong enough to
stand

the

smoke, peppermint,

the best, consisting of blocking


water,

which

in close

will

be retained

or water-pressure tests, the latter being

up the drain

at the outfall

at a regular level if all

is

and

secure.

proximity to dwelling-houses should stand the water

filling

with

All drains
test, other-

up at any time, would


force the joints, and cause leakages that may never be discovered.
The other tests are applied by forcing fumes of smoke or peppermint
into the pipes
and these fumes, if the system is secure and a good job,
should not escape at any place (so that the odour should be perceptible)

wise a stoppage in the pipes, causing them to

fill

except at the top of the

Of
the

the

most

consists of

soil

or vent pipes.

patent systems of jointing stoneware socketed pipes one of

important

is

Doulton's

self-adjusting joint,

fig.

995,

which

concave and convex rims made of hard, imperishable material,

28

BUILDING CONSTRUCTION.

412

and which are attached to and incorporated with the material of thespigot and faucet ends of the pipes, the spigot end fitting into the socket
or faucet, both having previously been smeared over with an oily mixture,
so that a turn of the pipe will cause a close-fitting joint

to

be made

between the hard, true surfaces of the rims. Another form of oint is the
Albion " Paragon," similar to fig. 996, which explains itself, the clay or
cement being forced by the insertion of the spigot to make a water-tight
A still later and more improved kind is known as Sykes " patent
joint.
joint, as fig. 997, from which it will be gathered that, being a screwed thread,
''

Joint read^ for screwing

Joint as made

horrtS

Fig 997.
.

so to speak, to be twisted into position,

it

can be

made by

the ordinary,

workman, the jointing material being said to be water-tight and imperishable,

as

and

it is

yet flexible

the

impracticable to

quality

make

which has been a long while sought,

a perfectly rigid joint water-tight, owing to

settlements in the ground.

Fig.

998

Another similar joint is illustrated by fig. 998, which also allows of flexiconnection a point which, together with the fact that perfect
alignment is rendered the more certain, gives a great deal of preference to
patent -jointed pipes over the ordinary rigid cement and yarn; this latter
bility in the

being

most

uncertain,

owing

to

unequal settlements of the

ground.

SANITATION.

413

mere filling-in of the soil in deep drains often breaks the


no matter how carefully the ramming is done, and moreover, it requires most close supervision and inspection to be sure that no cement
has been squeezed up at the bottom of the joints to cause obstructions in
Further, the

joint,

the channe;.

Inspection Openings and Ventilating Inlets.

Where

these pipes

take a different angle (forming an elbow), or have a junction one with the

chambers should be provided, having

other, inspection
in

air-tight covers if

a situation where open grates would be objectionable

manhole or inspection chambers, where required and


be utihsed to get the necessary passage of pure

air

though these

practicable, should

through the pipes, as

999, the lower part of course being properly trapped and securely
ventilated from above, as shown ; for the mere fact of carrying a soil pipe
fig.

up

full

an

air inlet is also

bore above the eaves of the roof

provided

lower

at a

will

not cause circulation, unless

level.

Boundary

{parapet
wall

^=^\^^^==^'^^c.^e,.

Great care should be taken to provide the fresh-air inlet of an area


equal to or slightly larger than that of the outlets, which
item, very frequently neglected

admit fresh

air separately to

and

it

each branch

is

best,

where

at that point

an important

is

practicable,

where

it

to

joins the

main house sewer and, if this is not practicable, the main inlet at the
chamber next the sewer should be large enough to supply the various
branches which it has to receive and where fresh air cannot be supplied
by these chambers, it should be let in by means of shafts (sometimes in
;

a wall) provided with mica flap ventilators, to prevent the back pressure
of foul

air.

Ventilating Outlets.
let

Cowls are sometimes fixed

at the

top of the out-

of the ventilating pipes, with the object of increasing the

but this

is

tected from birds'-nests, etc


sanitarians

up current

attended with such variable results that an open pipe end, pro-

and

in winter, slits

if

by a copper wire cage,

in a position

where snow

is

is

preferred by most

likely to block

up the top

should be cut longitudinally in the top of the pipe to give

the necessary outlet.

BUILDING CONSTRUCTION.

414

In cases where these ventilating pipes are fixed to

trees,

they should be

constantly examined, or provided with expansion joints, as the growth or

movement of

the tree might disturb the jointing.

All ventilation pipes should be coated with non-corrosive substance

and with molten lead

joints.

It

has been discovered that uncoated pipes

very soon rust and crumble, the scales of rust falling to the bottom of the
pipe, where* it is connected to the drain, and here it accumulates^, until a
heap is formed which entirely blocks the egress of foul air (see fig. looo).
Flushing. To ensure thorough cleanliness in sewers, it is necessary
and this can be done
that a means of regular flushing should be adopted
either by collecting the rain water in an automatic
in several ways,

flushing tank connected to the sewer (in such a

manner

that foul gas

cannot get out) at the head of the system, or by providing a constant


supply of water to a flushing tank

fig.

discharge
require

that

frequent in

at

will

to

WOO.

a certain quantity of water,

more

can be regulated

automatically,

warm weather than

advisable to have too large a discharge, as

it

is

in cold

as

circumstances

though

it

is

not

apt to disturb the seals of

the various traps on the branch sections, from 20 to 30 gallons being

a sufficient quantity for flushing an average house sewer system.

Oftentimes drainage systems can be properly flushed by the frequent


use of the bath when placed at the head of the system, and the smaller the
drain pipe the greater the chance of sending

the

full

and

bore of the pipe, which

is

down

a volume of water

absolutely necessary to give confidence

security.

Where

no public sewer for the proper disposal of sewage, as


mansions and country houses, the sewage has to be
dealt with by cesspools, or by surface or sub-irrigation, the latter method
being the most preferable.
Cesspools. When cesspools are used, they should be situated as far
there

is

in the case of isolated

as possible from the building

and

clear of

any storage tanks or source of

SANITATION.

415

domestic water supply, their walls and bottoms being perfectly water-tight,

and the tank


other extreme

enough

large
is

to obviate frequent clearing out

They should be

just as bad.

though the

well ventilated by pipes

terminating at the most favourable position that the surrounding circumstances will allow

harm

and the overflow should be so constructed

occur from

that as

though cesspools are bad


and injurious, even when necessary, constructions; and in all cases the
house sewer should be disconnected from them, as hereinbefore referred to.
little

as possible

Sewage

is

Irrigation.

namely,
1.

likely to

it,

There are two methods of disposal by

irrigation

Surface irrigation, which consists in distributing the sewage matter

over the surface of properly prepared land, the liquid being drained off at
a depth which will ensure
flow into a stream or river

its

being deodorised before being allowed to

and,

by which solid matter is collected in tanks, conand subdivided, so that the liquid part is forced through beds of
sand and charcoal into other compartments (as fig. looi), from which it
should be automatically flushed out and distributed below the ground, at
a depth of, say, 2 feet, by means of ordinary field drains laid a certain
Sub-irrigation^

2.

structed

distance apart in dry rubble.


It is

necessary that the distribution should be large and intermittent to

prevent the trickling of small discharges, which

make

the

soil

round the

tanks boggy and unpleasant, because the liquid never gets beyond the

two or three pipes

and

it is

in duplicate, to allow of

desirable to have

one

all irrigation

first

tanks constructed

set being cleaned out while the other

is

in

operation, without interfering with the regular working of the scheme.

needless to add that sewage irrigation depends very

It is

nature of the ground through which the pipes are run

any other through which the liquid

or

much on

the

gravelly soil,

will percolate quickly,

being the

desideratum of a sanitary engineer.


Before leaving house sewers, and passing on to the consideration of
soil

pipes

and water

closets in connection

therewith, the writer

would

impress upon the student the necessity of careful thought in dealing with
drainage schemes, as errors have, frequently, most serious results.

Water Closets and

Soil Pipes.

whether

whatever principle,

Every

the following properties, to secure safety


1.

Simplicity in

2.

A
A

working

(many have but

sufficient

on

parts.

proper trap in connection with

i| inches
3.

its

water-closet apparatus,

wash-down^ or wash-out^ should have

valve^

it

having a seal of not

less

than

half this).

depth of water in the basin to cover the excreta, and so

suppress bad smells.


4.

Such means of connection

to a soil pipe as will ensure a perfect,

4i6

permanent, and secure joint

horn of the
5.

CONSTRUCTION.

3HJILDI.NG

a point which

also applies to the ventilation

trap.

flushing arrangement that will allow of a flush of from 2 J to 3


body of water contained in the

gallons of water, to completely change the

Fig. 7007.

v,:rr/k.r'::..4

sang
charcoal
.BMSL

'

':

iih.

Section
basin and trap, and carry the excreta and paper to the farthest possible
distance.
6.

It

should have no dry surface exposed to contamination.

All closets having these qualities


that will

meet

below by a
latter

all

soil

may be

considered to be appliances

usual requirements, and they are connected to the drain

pipe of glass-enamelled or coated cast iron, or lead (the

being the most lasting substance when properly fixed); and such

SANITATION.
pipes should, in

all cases,

417

be always fixed outside, and carried up

to the ridge of the roof, terminating at a position remote from

and away from any projection

or openings into the house,

a back draught in the pipe.


There is a diversity of opinion as
requiring

sanitarians

windows

likely to

to the size of these soil pipes,

each

diameter for

inches

bore

full

all

cause

some

while others

closet,

are satisfied with a 2 1 -inch pipe for a stack of three closets ; the writer's
if the pipe be large enough to carry away the solid

opinion being that

matter deposited in the basin, the smaller size undoubtedly offers the
greater certainty of being kept clean.

Where

the branch piece between

outside

the stack

is

of any

when each

stack,

carried

up

to

higher than

branched into the main vent pipe

necessary to prevent syphonic action

which ignorance of

this

apparatus and

should be

trap

closets are fixed

on

upper apparatus, and then

the

precautions

which are absolutely

unsealing the traps by removing

the pressure at one side of the water seal


in

the

should be separately ventilated by a pipe

trap

position

length,

where more

ventilated separately, as also in cases

one

outlet of the

the

considerable

and many cases have occurred

important matter has been the cause of an

escape of sewer gas into a dwelling.

Where

lead soil pipes are connected to

ferrule should

made

joint being

and

be wiped on

water-tight,

and

all soil

pipe joints should be

which

besides

iron or stoneware,

it

made

perfectly air-

sometimes advisable

is

to treat

soil

and disconnect them from the house drain or sewer by a

pipes locally,

trap at the foot, ventilated separately, as

fig.

1002, which reduces the risk

of sewer gas, in case of any defects to internal


is

a brass

the end, to allow of a properly caulked

to

done, of course a separate ventilating pipe

is

fittings

and where

this

required for the drains,

irrespective of the soil pipes.

Baths, etc.
sinks,
will

The

is

next question

is

that of the baths, lavatories,

and

necessary should be constructed in such a manner as

and their surroundings being kept thoroughly


and wholesome, provision being made to allow of regular inspection

cleansing

though
they

it

allow of themselves

clean
for

which

it

is

should

purposes,

much

to

be fixed

when

these fittings are enclosed in

woodwork

be preferred, from a sanitary point of view, that


without

should also be clear of

all

enclosures,

angles

especially

and ledges where

and they

sinks,
filth

is

likely to

accumulate.

The outlet fittings to these appliances should be of the description


known as full-way fittings, having an area of space through the holes of
their grates equal to or slightly larger than the

fixed to them, so as to ensure

and scoured

l^y

bore of the waste pipes

such waste pipes being thoroughly flushed


each flush sent down them, bath and sink waste pipes

BUILDING CONSTRUCTION.

41
being not
with

less

traps

than 2 inches in diameter, and those of lavatories i| incn,

fixed immediately

and properly

underneath the appliances,

ventilated to prevent syphonage.

Although the legitimate use of a bath


its

is

to cleanse the

human

body,

discharge of from 30 to 50 gallons of water can be utilised with great

advantage as a flushing force for cleansing the drains, as hereinbefore


explained, and for this reason the bathroom should be situated as near

where the discharges therefrom will act on the


whole drainage system, the benefit of which is obvious to all ; and to
as possible to the point

utilise this force properly,

absolutely necessary that full-way fittings

is

it

and pipes be used, and the waste made


a proper disconnecting trap similar to

open air on to
no inlet the
same form of gully

to deliver in the

waste water discharging on to the grating

1002, but with

fig.
;

and

this

should be used to secure lavatory or sink discharges, excepting the case


of the latter having large discharges of grease likely to choke the drains,

when a proper

grease trap should be fixed in a position far enough away,

or sealed in such a

manner

as not to be offensive

Fig.

but,

where there

is

1002.

not sediment enough to require such an appliance,

it

should be flushed

clean through the above trap and into the sewer.

The

ordinary yard gully

is

an appliance

totally unfitted for the

of receiving discharges from baths, lavatories, and sinks, as

a filth-collecting

and

retaining

appliance,

it is

purpose

more of

which throws off injurious


it contains; and, more-

emanations from the decomposed matter which


over,

when

fixed outside, they are usually in such close proximity to the

house as to allow these noxious gases gaining admission thereto, and


then they become, practically speaking, small cesspools about a house.
Anti-bell or adjustable traps (as

used, the latter, as the


to circumstances of

name

figs.

1003 and 1004) should always be

implies, being capable of regulation according

fall, etc.

In dry seasons and hot weather

it is

essential that the gullies,

whether

from waste or rain pipes, should be frequently supplied with water to maintain the proper seal, which is easily dried up, and becomes a great source
of danger.

sanitarian's

aim

in arranging

sewerage work should be to

avoid stagnation and the consequent accumulation of foul gases by so

SANITATION.

419

arranging the pipes that a constant current of fresh air can be maintained
in

every pipe and drain, including wastes, overflows,

the principle of diffusion


care that in

no case

shall

and

fullest extension,

its

giving

soil pipes, etc.,

same time taking

at the

any waste or other such pipe act as an

inlet

ventilator to the building.

Water Supply.
of

.velfare

human
that

odies, so
'

it

is

most

naturally

it is

essential

for the

supplied by private or public

and
on constant

storage

its
is

which obviously does not necessitate any storage capacity to

Tanks

when

the water

is

turned

off.

and made of wood lined with lead,


the water is hard and heavy; but where the

are used for this purpose,

of galvanised iron,

water

pure water

and, as a rule,

only necessary here to deal with

is

lard against a dearth

or

Sometimes, though very seldom, the water

istribution.
,Tvice,

-,

Good

beings

is soft,

if

either vitrified stoneware or slate

is

preferable, as the soft

Fig. 1003.

Fig 1004.
ater acts

upon the

lead,

rendering

injurious

it

and

unfit for drinking

arposes.

Care should be taken to place these cisterns in a position clear of


chance of contamination from sleeping chambers, dust, or foul
they should be covered with a dust-tight

The
clear of

lid, easily

removable

air,

all

and

for cleaning.

overflow pipes from cisterns should terminate in a position quite

any waste pipes or other

rea of the

and be

fittings,

in

diameter twice the

inlet or feed pipe; while stop taps should be placed in a

convenient position to control the supply both to and from the cistern,
all

supply pipes being properly fixed to

wood grounds, kept away from

exposed places, where they would be liable to be affected by

frost.

an important matter, and one which oftentimes saves


considerable anxiety and not a little inconvenience and expense, to so
It

arrange

also

is

the

water supply that

minimum, and
^

arranging

this

may be

the supplies.

the

effected

First of

risk

of

freezing

by care and a

all,

all

is

little

external pipes

reduced to a
attention

when

should be not

BUILDING CONSTRUCTION.

420

less than 30 inches below the surface of the ground ; and where they are
not in the ground, they should be wrapped in thick hair felt enclosed

in

wood

On

pipe casings.

entering

placed below a bib tap, so that

all

the

house a stop tap should be

the water in the house can be

drawn

rvi^~\2^^i^
Fig.

off after the stop tap

is

closed

1005.

and from thence the pipe should be run

on internal walls within wooden pipe casings

to

the cistern, the supply

to boiler from thence being fixed in casings grooved to allow of the hot

same
more or

pipes going in the


as

fig.

1005

casing,
less

and yet not contagious

to the cold supply,

ornamental cover being screwed on to hide

the pipes.

APPENDIX.
Syllabus of the Subjects in which Examinations in Building
Construction are held by the Department of Science
AND Art.
[Note.

The Department annoioice that a larger number of

qiiestio7is

will be set

Examination Papers for the Elementary and Advanced Stages than the
candidate will be allowed to atteynpt, so that he will, to a certain extent, be
able to show his knowledge in such branches as he may, from circu?7tstajtces,
have paid special attention to."]

in the

First Stage, or
It

is

assumed

ing drawing

Elementary Course.

that the student has already mastered the use of the follow-

instruments

rulers,

ordinary and parallel

pen

ruling

Compasses, with pen and pencil bow-sweeps, as well as the construction

and use of simple

scales,

such as

i,

2, 3,

or

more

feet to the inch,

showing

as |, ^, J, f f, |, or other fraction of full size, or of any


; or such
given scale or drawing ; also the meaning of such terms as Plan, Elevation

inches

(front,

He

back, or side), Section, Sectional Elevation.

should understand the object of bond in brickwork

i.e.,

bond, Flemish bond, or English bond with Flemish facing, and


is

attained in walls

up

English

how

to three bricks thick in the following instances

it

viz.,

and internal
window and door openings with reveals and square jambs, external
gauged arches (camber, segmental, and semi-circular), internal discharging
arches over lintels, and inverted arches.
He should know where to put wood bricks, or plugging, and their use
the construction and uses of brick corbelling, and the construction of
|Hmmer arches in fireplaces.
He should be able to give sections and elevations to scale of the following kinds of mason's work
viz., uncoursed and coursed rubble, block in
course, and ashlar, with their bond, and the proper dimensions of the
footings with offsets, angles of buildings, connection of external

trails,

APPENDIX.

422
Stones, as to height,

dressings

width of bed, and length

window

viz.,

sills,

and of the following

window and door jambs,

plain

window and

common

door heads, door steps, string courses, quoins, copings,

cornices,

and of the following methods of connecting stones viz.,


by cramps, dowels, joggles, and lead plugs.
He should be able to show how to join timbers by halving, lapping,
notching, cogging, scarfing, fishing, and mortise and tenon as applied to
wall plates, roof timbers, floors, ceilings, and partitions.
He should be able to draw, from given dimensions, couple, collar, and
king-post roofs, showing the details of the framing and of the ironwork.
blocking courses

He

should be able to draw, from given dimensions, single, double, and

framed

with or without ceilings beneath them

floors,

showing modes of

supporting, stiffening, and framing the timbers, trimming round hearths

and wells of stairs also floor coverings of boards or battens, rebated and
filleted, ploughed and tongued, and laid folding, with straight or broken
;

joints, bevelled or

He

door openings.

partition with

He

square heading joints.

should be able to draw in elevation, from given dimensions, a framed

should be able to draw in elevation, and give vertical and horizontal:

sections of solid door frames

He

and window frames.

should be able to describe, by drawings, headings of different kinds,

dovetailing, cross-grooving, rebating, plough-grooving, chamfering,

nosing,

He

and housing.
should be able

sections

of,

to

braced, panelled, and the

and

draw

the following doors,

furniture

mode

viz.,

of putting

viz.,

vertical

and

horizontal,

them

together, position of hinges

by drawing, the following terms

square and

on one or both sides.


should be able to draw

moulded,

and give

ledged, ledged and braced, framed and;

as well as to describe,

applied to panelled door

He

in elevation,

rounded,

flat,

bead

butt,

bead

as

flush,
^

all

elevation, and to give vertical and


window sashes and frames viz., single
or double-hung sashes with square bevelled, or moulded bars, and cased
frames ; casement sashes hung to solid frames, with method of hanging and,
in

horizontal sections of the following

securing in each case.

He

should be able to show, in elevation and section, the lead-work

connected with chimneys, ridges, hips,

He

valleys, gutters,

and

lead-flats.

should be able to give an elevation and section of the slating of a

roof laid with duchess or countess slates on boards or battens.

He
beams

should be acquainted with the proper cross-section for cast iron


for use in floor girders or

able to draw such a section in

its

bresummers, or as cantilevers; and be

right proportions

from given dimensions

of flanges.

He

should be able to draw in elevation, from given dimensions and

APPENDIX.
skeleton

diagrams,

423

iron roofs up to 40-feet span, showing the


and methods of connecting them.

ordinary

sections of different parts,

Second Stage, or Advanced Course.


In addition to the subjects enumerated

for the

Elementary Course

in

more complicated nature may be set, combining


work done by the different trades the knowledge of the students will be
all

of which questions of a

under the following heads, viz.


I St. Freehand sketches explanatory of any

tested

details of construction,

such

and wooden structures, and other parts requiring


These sketches may be roughly drawn,
illustration on an enlarged scale.
provided they are clear and capable of being readily understood.
2nd. The nature of the stresses to which the different parts of simple
as the joints of iron

structures are subjected, as follows

In the case of beams either fixed at one or both ends, or supported or

know which

the student should

continuous,

beam

of the

parts

are

in

compression, and which in tension.

He

should be acquainted with the best forms for

such as floor

He

joists,

should

given load at

exposed to transverse

know

its

struts, ties,

and beams,

stress.

the difference in the strength of a girder carrying a

centre, or uniformly distributed.

In the ordinary kinds of wooden or iron roof trusses, and framed

he should be able to distinguish members

structures of a similar description,


in

compression from those in tension.

He

should be able, in the case of a concentrated or uniform load or a

part of a

beam supported

at

both ends, to ascertain the proportion of the

load transmitted to each point of support.

The

3rd.

nature, application,

and

characteristic peculiarities

following materials in ordinary use for building purposes, viz.

Bricks of different kinds in

common

Bath stones (or stones of a similar


hydraulic lime, Portland
asphalte,

use,

of the

York, Portland, Caen, and

description),

granite,

pure lime,

Roman cement, mortars, concretes, grout,


kinds in common use, cast and wrought iron,

and

timber of different

lead.

4th. Constructive details, as follows

The

ordinary methods of timbering excavations, such as for foundations

to walls, or for

laying

down sewers

the erection

of bricklayer's

and

mason's scaffolding; the construction of travellers; the use of piles in

hoop-iron bond

foundations,
courses

in

ditto,

objections to

He

in

brickwork,

diagonal and herring-bone

damp-proof courses, bond timber

in

walls,

and the

window

or door

it.

should

know how

bricks are laid in hollow walls,

APPENDIX.

424
openings with splayed jambs,

about 2o-feet span


usually allowed to

being

flues,

chimneys, fireplaces, and arches up ta

how mortar joints are finished off, and the thickness,


them why bricks and stones ought to be wetted before
;

laid.

He

should be acquainted with the construction of brick ashlar walls,

rubber ashlar

walls, stone stairs,

wooden

stairs

(both dog-legged and open

newel), skylights, fire-proof floors (such as brick arches supported on rolled

Fox and
and egg-shaped

or cast-iron girders,
floors), circular

to 60 feet

the fixing of architraves,

to windows, lath, plaster,


zinc, slate ridges

and

and Dennett's patent concrete


wood, for spans up
linings, and skirtings to walls, shutters

Barrett's,

drains, roofs of iron or

and battening

to walls, roof coverings of tiles

and

hips.

Examination for Honours.


Written answers

The

will

be required

to

some of

the questions.

candidate will have to furnish a design for a building, or part of a

building, in accordance with given

conditions, which design he will bei

own home.
upon to answer

allowed to draw out at his

He

be called

by sketches
on all the subjects
previously enumerated for the elementar}' and advanced Courses.
He must possess a more complete knowledge of building materials, their
application, strength, and how to judge of their quahty ; and in the case of'
will

either freehand or to

scale,

in writing

illustrated

as directed questions

"

and the points


and good riveting.

iron, of the processes of manufacture,

order to insure sound castings,

He

must be able

and to determine
to dead loads.

to

be attended

to in

to solve simple problems in the theory of construction,

the safe dimensions of iron or

wooden beams subjected

In ordinary roof trusses and framed structures of a similar description, he


to trace the stresses, brought into action by the loads, from

must be able

the points of application to the points of support, as well as to determine

the nature and amount of the stresses on the

diff'erent

members

of the truss,

and, consequently, the quantity of material required in each part.

In ordinary walls and retaining walls he must be able to ascertain the


conditions necessary to

stability,'

neglecting the strength of the mortar.

INDEX,

Angles

beaded and tongued, 223


intersecting brick, 27

A BUTMENTS, 32
Adamantine

irregular brick,

Adamant

mitred, 223

plaster, 337
Adamantine, 337
Advantages and disadvantages

of

methods

to

prevent

mitred and tongued, 223


staflf-beaded,

damp,

etc.

of various floors, 100


of slates and

209

tiles,

Agglomerate, 367
Aggregate, 367

224

tongued, 222

Angus-Smith's coating, 410


Annealing, 166

Annular or annual
Apex, 80

rings,

cooling

of,

407

Apron lining, 3T9


Aprons in lead, 195
Arch bricks, 9
bond of, 40

heating

of,

407

Arches

required,

circulation of,

>

52,

Apoenite, 368

Airamount

2426

key-mitred, 224

clinkers, 7

404

405

pumps, 408

terms

requirements of authorities, 405


supply of fresh, 406

axed, 38

supply to

common, 38

fires,

405

Alkalies in bricks, 2

of,

32

cambered, 34
discharging, 36

Mum, 334

Dutch, 37

.:umina, 2, 365

elliptical,

American

34

equilateral, 35

oak, 97

flat,

pine, 95

four-centred, 35

walnut, 98

French, 37
Gothic, 35

Anderson

fibrous asphalte, 57

Angle braces, 156


Angle buildings, to shore, 355
ties, 156
Angles in bricks, 20 26
plaster,

336

stone, 79,

80

34

groined, 36
inverted, 38
relieving,

36

rough, 38
rubber-brick,

scheme, 34

3S

8S

426
Arches {continued) ^^

INDEX.

INDEX.

427

Birdsmouth angles, 8

Borrowed

Birdsmouth quoins, 80

Bossing lead, 188

Black bricks, 7

Bottle-nosed drips, 199

Blind-space, 294, 295

Bottom

lights,

252

rails,

Blister steel, 168

287

of skylights, 325

Blocks for invert, 353


Blocks for hoisting, 360

Boucherie's patent, 94

Block in course, 69

Boxings, 272, 295

Box ground

stone, 63

Blocking, coarse, 78

Boxing

Blockings, to stain, 314

Braby's glazing bar, 342

Blocked

struts,

shutters, 295, etc.

Italian roofing,

185

200

Braces

Bloom, 166
Blue sap, 88

angle, 156

Blue bricks, 7

in partitions, 125, 131

damp

courses,

facing,

57

54

Boards for lead, 161


lear, 160,

poling,

161

348

scaffolding,

356

snow, 162

for scaffolding,

to stairs,

314
wood, 338
Bramley Fall stone, 61
Brandering, 335

Breaking load, 371


Breeze bricks, 7

valley, 157

Boasted work, 69

Brick earths, 3

Boiling timber, 92

Bricks

Boiled

adamantine, 7

340

oil,

2026

Bolection mouldings, 232

angle,

moulded doors, 256


Bolsover stone, 64
Bolts-

arch, 9

birdsmouth, 8
black, 7

king, 150

blue, 7

ragged, 182

breeze, 7

Bolts versus rivets, 172

buUnose, 8

Bonders, 65

burrs, 5

Bond of arches, 40
bricks
see Brick Angles
:

chimney,

17,

50

camber, 10
Candy's, 10
Cant's, 8

double Flemish, 17

Chuff^s, 5

English, 17, 30

circular,

garden wall, 18
Flemish double, 17, 31

concrete, 7

single, 17

Flemish garden wall, 18


flues,

50

9
compass, 9
Dinas, 6
dressed, 8
dust, 7

heading, 16

Dutch

raking, 18

elliptical,

clinker, 7

10

diagonal, 18

Fareham, 7

herring-bone, 18

firebricks,

single Flemish, 17

Gannista, 6

stretching, 17

gault,

Bond of

slates,

Borax, 334

356

Bracketing, Scotch, 338

207

glazed,

good,

29

INDEX.

428
Bricks [continued)

INDEX.
314320

Carnages,

Carton Pierre, 339


Casehay, 112

Cased frames, 272


parts

of,

272

mullions, 278
Casements and frames
one-light, 280
two-light, 286
four-light,

287

Cefn stone, 62
Ceilings

beams, 136
joists, 113, 116,

lights,

136

332

ventilation,

407

Cement
Keene's, 334
Martin's, 334
Parian, 334

fasteners, 281

Portland, 338, 365

French, 284

Roman, 366

hung

open

to

inwards, 280

outwards, 282

on

283
as hoppers, 282
centres,

folding, 287
hit

and miss, 284

pivoted, 283

283

sliding,

in lanterns, 331

Casings
to doors, 261

double rebated, 265


keyed, 260
loose rebated, 266, 268
panelled, 267
plain,

264

single rebated, 265

skeleton, 266

Cast

429

iron, 165

lead, 188
steel,

168

Cast iron
annealing, 166
chairs,

81

366

selenitic,

damp

courses, 55

209

fillets,

Cementing

walls, 55

Centring, 345
Centre-nailed slating, 207

Cesspools
drains,

408

lead, 195

wood, 161
Chain riveting, 174
Chair rail, 271

Chalk

in foundations, 351, 365

Chambers

for inspections,

413

as inlets, 413
as air outlets,

413

Chamfer, 233

Chamfered doors, 256


stop chamfered, 256
Characteristics of

good

cast iron, 165

common

bricks, 6

cements, 365
firebricks, 6
limes, 365

characteristics, 165

limestones, 62

columns, 169
good, 165

rivet iron,

170

grey, 165

rubber bricks, 7
sandstone, 61

guttering, 158

slates,

malleable, 166

steel, 167,

manufacture, 166

tiles,

202
168

209

in roofs, 178

timber, 89

softening, 166

wrought

iron, 166,

167

strength, 165

Charring timber, 93

white, 165
Cavetto moulding, 232
Cavity walls, 53

Chase mortice, 113


Check throat, 58
Cheeks, 125

Cedar

Chemical mixture of carbon, 164

felt.

106

INDEX.

430
Chilmark-stone, 64

Concentrated loads, 371, 381,

Chimney

Concentrated and distributed, 375


Concrete bricks, 7

bars,

46

bond, 17
Chiselled work, 69

floors,

Chopped

mixing, 367

facing,

69

214

Christiana deals, 95

proportions, 367

Chuffs, 5
Circular bricks, 9

pumice, 216

Condensation bars, 326

Circular sewers, 352

Conical

rivets,

172

stairs,

Consoles, 158

sash frames, 279

Contraction of iron, 167, 171

85
Circular-headed sashes, 279

Constant water supply, 419

Clamping, 227

preparation

mitre, 227

Clamps,

168

steel,

Claridge's asphalte, 363

Cooling fresh

Clay, 360, 364

Coombe Down

foul,

183

for,

Cooling iron, 168

366

5,

407

air,

stone,

63

Copings, 58, 80

Copper

limy, 3
loamy, 3

Corbelling, 51

marly, 3

Cord

mild, 3

clips,

327

for sashes, 272,

scaffolding,

277

356

Core brick, 28

plastic, 3
pure, 3
sandy, 3

Coring

strong, 3

Corngrit stone, 63

handrail, 85
flues,

50

Cleats, 144, 178

Cornices, 78, 337


Corrosion of iron, 169

Clips for glass, 327

Corrugated

Cleansed

70

face,

200

zinc,

zinc,

tiles,

211

199

Close covers, 413

Corsham

Close lagging, 346

Cotch-stones, 238

stone,

63

Cottars, 145, 182

Closers, 15

king, 15

Countersunk

queen, 15

Counter lathing, 335


Countess slates, 205, 207
Couple roofs, 135

Closets, water,

416

Cluster-fruited oak,

Coach

96

screws, 177, 186

Coarse

stuff,

Cold short

72

Cover

Cocked head, 231


joints, 109,

rivets,

close roofs, 137


Coupling screws, 186

334

flashings, 194
Covers to manholes,

Cogging, 107

Cogged

etc.

close,

413

open, 413

142

Covering to

iron, 167

roof, 188, etc.

Collar roofs, 137, 152

Covering to stone for protection, 70

Colouring, 339

Cowls

Combed

Craigleith stone, 61

face,

Combination

69
roofs,

150

Common

rafters,

Compact
Compass

limestones, 62
bricks,

152

Cramps, 81
Cranes, 360

135

Creasing "tile," 58

Compression, joints

for soil pipes, 41 \

for, 140,

180

Creosoting, 93
Crich lime, 333

INDEX.
Distempering, 339

Cross
garnets,

Distributed loads, 371, 384, etc.

244

Hogging, 105

Distributed and concentrated loads, 375

tonguing, 120, 226

Doatiness, 90

tongued headings, I2i

Dogs, 354
Dog-legged

ties,

Crown

187

braced, 244

double-margined, 261

shakes, 89

Curbs to skylights in
in tiles,

slates,

dwarf, 260

324

framed, ledged, and braced, 246

324

Curtail steps, 306, 321

folding, 261

Cut pointing, 42

jib,

strings,

321

260

ledged, 243

and mitred

Cyma
Cyma

309

Doors

172

rivets,

stairs,

Dolomites, 64

of arches, 32

Culverts, 353

Cup
Cup

431

strings,

321

panelled

recta mouldings, 232

see

PANELLED DoORS

250
sliding, 260

sash,

reversa do., 232

Door casings
Door frames

see

Casings to Doors

segmental-headed, 237
semi-circular, 237

square or

"TVADOES, 269
-*-^
Damp and its
Damp-proof

prevention,

etc.,

237

Dormers, 156

courses, 57

Double

Dantzic timber, 95

Dead

52

flat,

Door irons, 239


Door jambs, 236

-eaves courses, 207

loads, 371

Deal-

-faced architraves, 288

Norwegian, 95
Red, 94

-faced skirtings,

270
Flemish bond, 17
floors, 106, no, 122

Russian, 95

Swedish, 95
White, 94

lath,

Yellow, 94

rebated casings, 265

Deals, size

of,

334
margined doors, 161

riveting, 173

94

sunk

Defects in timber, 89, 90

Dennet's fire-proof

floor,

sills,

&

Depetor, 337
Derbyshire stone, 6

Doulton

Derricks, 360
Diagonal bond, 18

Dovetailing

common, 226
lap,

226

mitre, 226

186

Dinas bricks, 6
Dinging, 42
Disadvantages

Peto's fire-proof floor, 21S

Dovetails in lead, 81

boarding, 122
ties,

276

tenons, 222, 252

215

secret,

226

Dovetailed halving, 136


:

see

Advantages

Discharging arches, 36
Distance of lead under

notch, 107

of drips for lead, 195

Dowels, 82, 142


Dowels and mortices, 238
Dowelled flooring, 120

of wells for lead, 192

Drafted and broached

slates,

194

face,

70

Drafted and broached diamond picked

face,

Eaves course, 78
double, 207

70

Dragged

face,

69

156

tilter,

Egg-shaped sewers, 353

Dragons, 156
Drainage

proportions

Elasticity of

house, 408
sewer, 408

steel,

various systems

Elbow

sub-irrigation,

wrought

416

surface irrigation,

414
glass-lined, 410
flushing,

168

linings, 290,

Elliptical arches,

416

34

bricks, 10

palettes, 51

410

glazed, socketed,

Elongation of iron, 167, 170

jointing, 411

Encallowing, 3
Enclosures to sanitary

shape of pipes, 410

Engert

tests for

English bond, 17

gradients, 41

&

smoke, 411

compared with Flemish bond, 17


English oak and

413

96

in plastering,

405

Equilibrium in

Expansion of

Dressed bricks, 8

how

strains,

372

iron, 167

to prepare for, 183

Extractors for ventilation, 407

340

Drilled rivet holes, 173

Drips, 160, 195

gas

407

as,

warmth

as, 407
Extrados of arches, 32
,

bottle-nosed, 199

area walls, 52
dip, 6

rot, 93
Drying bricks, 4
Duchess slates, 206, 2C 7

Duraline, 344

TJ^

Duramen, 88
Dust bricks, 7
Dutch arches, 37
Dutch clinkers, 7

ACE

of arch, 32

Factor of

safety.

371

Factors of safety, 383


Falls of drains, 41
gutters, 160

Dwarf doors, 260

for lead

Dwelling, a model, 403

and zinc 191

False headers, 18, 22

Fans

to circulate air,

406

Fanlights, 248

hoppers, 249

hung on

AVES,

339

Equilateral arch, 35

up, 405

properties and uses,

stalk-fruited oak,

Enrichments

down, 405

Driers,

its

English cluster-fruited oak, 96

timber, 95

Draughts
of,

417

English garden wall bond, 18

water, 411

prevention

fittings,

Rolfe's asphalte, 57

peppermint, 411

Dram

353

Elm and its properties, g5


Elm pads, 51

Drain pipes

ventilation,

of,

iron, 167

294
Elland edge stone, 61

cesspools, 415

Dry
Dry

INDEX.

432

158; 159, i6o

boarding. 158

centres,

pivoted, 251

Fareham

bricks, 7

250

96

INDEX.
Farleigh

Down

stone,

43J

Flare kilns, 366

63

Flashings

Fascia, 158

Fascines, 351
Fat lime, 333, 339. 364

cover, 194

Fatigue of iron, 167


Fawcett's fire-proof

196

step,

Flats, 161, 191


floors, 2

Feather-edged coping, 81
Feldspar, 364

Flat arches, 34
Flatting,

339
Flemish bond

Felt in oak, 88

double, 17

Fender

garden wall, i3

28

walls,

Fibrous plaster, 339


Figure in oak, 88

Fliers,

Fillistered flooring, 121

Flights, 305

FinestuflT,

Flitches, 117, 154

single, 17

335

Finger-plates, 252

Finishings to doors, 361

windows, 290,

etc.

Fire, air required for,

405

Fire-bricks, 6

306

Flitch girders, 177


Floating coat, 344
Flooring

dowelled,

20

121

fillistered,

Dinas, 6

folding, 122

Lees Moor, 6

grooved and tongued, iiS

Canister, 6

iron-tongued, 118

Guismuyda, 6

ploughed and tongued, 121

Fireplaces, etc., 46

rebated, 119

Fire- proof floors, 213

and

Adamant Company's, 218


Banks's, 218a

2iSa

Carlisle,

filleted,

straight joint,

common, 214

120

grooved and tongued, 119


secret, 120
1

18

Floors

concrete for, 215

advantages and disadvantages, 100

Dennett's, 215

double,

Doulton

&

218

Peto's,

Fawcett's, 215

Fox &

Barrett's,

Homan &

no

framed, 114
joints, 107, etc.

215

Rodgers", 216

Hornblower's, 216

naked, 99
single,

99

sub, 122

Lindsay's, 216

Fluate, 63

Measure's, 217

Flues, 50

Moreland's, 217

Flushing drains, 411

Northcroft's, 217

amount

Pease's, 2i8(J

automatic, 414

414

of,

necessity for,

Picking's, 2i8<5

414

Potter's, 2 1 8a

Fluxes in bricks, 2

stone

Flying shores, 355


Folding doors, 201

for,

213

^Vhichcord's, 218

Fire-proof partitions, 218c

flooring, 122

Fished joints in iron and wood, 138


Five-panel doors, 251

Footings to walls, 19
Forces, polygon of, 394, 4c I

Fixed sashes, 278


Flanges of girders, 165

Forest of

strains on,

triangle

383

Forge pig

of,

Dean

394

stone, 6i

iron, 164.

166

INDEX.

434
Forms of resistance, 379
Foul

air,

Foul

clay, 3

English, 18

404

Flemish, 18
Garnets, cross, 244

Foundations, 347

Gas jets as extractors, 407


Gauge for joiners, 235

chalk, 351
clay,

Garden wall bond, 18

350

of

fascines, 351

205

slates,

zinc,

good, 348

199

gravel, 348

Gauged-work

how

Gault bricks, 6

to test, 348

nature

of,

piling,

351

points

to

against,

in plaster,

Gefle timber, 97

348

Geometrical

stairs,

be observed and guarded

Gibs, 145, 182

348

Girders

310

rock, 348

continuous, 376

sand, 349, 351

fixed,

shoring, 349
Foundry pig iron, 164

376
and supported, 377

flitched, 117

in iron, 165, 167

Four-centred arch, 35
light casements, 287

in wood, 114, 116


iron, 116, 117

panelled doors, 251

Fox and

protection from

Barrett's floors, 215

on

Fox-wedging, 228

strains

Foxiness, 90

supported, 376

Glass-

sudden, 167

British polished plate, 34I

crown, 341

centres, 345

plate, polished, 341

doors, 346

rough, 341

floors,

1 14
ledged and braced doors, 246

partitions, 123,

polished plate, 341

rough

124

structures, strains on, 394, etc.

French

arch, 37

rail,

252

in bricks,

341

sheet, 341

weight and kinds, 341


Glass-lined pipes, 410

Glazed bricks, manufacture

stone, 78

Frog

cast,

plate, 341

casements, 284
Frieze

218

wood, 114

wrought iron
gradual, 167

Framed

fire,

Calculations

see

trussed, 117

Fractures in cast iron, 165


in

336

of,

socketed piping, 410

Full-torching, 208

Glazing, 341

Funicular, 401

Glazing patents

Furniture, 252

Braby's, 342
British,

342

Grover's, 342
Helliwell's, 344
Pennycook, 343

r^ABER'Sscaff-olds, 358

Vjr

Gables, 155, 157

Galls, rind,

90

Rendle's, 344
Glued and blocked

Gallic acid, 97

steps,

Go "

Galvanising iron, 169

'

Ganlster bricks, 6

Good

of

stairs,

bricks, 5

joints, 224.

312
305

INDEX.
Good

Half-space landing, 305

cast iron, 165

Halving in

cement, 365
firebricks, 6

435

lime, 365

rivet iron,

Hammer-dressed, 79

Hammered rivets, 172


Handmade bricks, 4

170

sand stone, 61

202

tiles,

Handrails, 305
height of, 316

168

steel,

moulded, 316, 317


mopstick, 310

209

timber, 89

wrought

toad's back, 316

iron, 167

Hangers

Gothic arches, 35
Gradient of drains, 410

Grain of oak

silver,

for spouting,

88

Hartley's rough-rolled glass, 341

Haunch of arch, 32
Haunched tenon, 221

Granular limestones, 62

Haunchirg, 235

Graphic calculations, 381

Head-

Gravel, 348

cast iron, for trusses, 140

traps,

of partitions, 125

415

Greenheart, 97

of slates, 205

Grey cast iron, 164


Grey stone lime, 365

stone, 74

Header

Grizzles, 5
Groined arches,

36
Grooved and tongued

Ground

floors,

flooring,

iiS

100

false,

18

cross-tongued, 121
joints, 121

Grouting, 41

rebated and tongued, 12

Grover's patent glazing, 342

Growth of trees, 88
Guismuyda bricks, 6
Gullies, 418
Gunstock styles, 260

Guttering, cast iron, 158, 159


Gutters
lead, 100

198

tongued, 121

Heart shakes, 90
Heel joints, 146
straps,

to lay boards for lead in, 161

ropes, 358

146

Helli well's glazing, 344


Herring-bone band, 18
strutting, 105

Hinges, band, 243


Parliament, 302

trough, 161

Guy

snap or

bevelled, 121

splayed, 233

how

bricks, 14

Heading bond, 16
Heading

Grounds, framed, 234

secret,

159

Hardwoods, 87

Graining, 340
Granite, 364

Grease

dovetailed, 136

limestones, 62

slates,

joints

bevelled, 107

tee,

Hip
Hips

244

rafters,

155

in lead, 190

Hit-and-miss casements, 284

Hoisting stone tackle, 35


HoUington stone, 62

Hollow

walls, 52, 55

Homan &

JJACKS,

Hair mortar, 334


Half-round coping, 58

Rodgers' flooring, 216

Honduras mahogany, 97

Honeycomb walls, 28
Hoods in stone, 77

INDEX.

43<5

Hoop-iron bond, 51
tongued floors, 118

Hopper casements, 282


fanlights,

Iron (continued^-'
girders, 167

hot short, 167


in bricks, 2

249

Hopton-wood stone, 64
Homblower's flooring, 216
Horsing up centres, 346

malleable, 166

Hot short iron, 167


House drains, 408

protection from

Housed

puddling, 167

tenons, 222

Housing, 224

Howley Park

Hung

to

Hung

stone, 6r

centres,

250

open inwards, 2S0

to

rivet,

170

roofs,

169,

fire,

214

176

rolling, 167

open outwards, 282

softening, 166
straps, 129, 130, 144

strength of cast, 165

wrought, 167

Hydraulic lime, 365

Hygean

165, 165

of,

Pig Iron

see

shingling, 166

folding, 287

on

pig

puddled bars, 166

224

joints,

manufacture

wrought

rock, 54

see

Wrought Iron

416

tank?,

tongued

flooring, 18

roofs, cast iron in, 151

details of,

77, etc.

wrought iron
Iron and

TGNEOUS

rock,

slates,

Imperial

364
205

wood

200

zinc,

Italian tiles for roofing,

as inlets, 413
position,

200

Italian roofing, Braby's,

Inside linings, 272

Inspection chambers, 413

416

416

surface,

406

212

walnut, 98

413

Intersecting brick angles, 27


Interties, 128,

154

Intrados of arches, 33
Invert arches, 38

JACK rafters,

Invert blocks, 353

Jamb

Iron

155

bricks, 9

annealing, 166

splayed, 29

bars: 167

to door frames,
linings,

binders, 116, 117, 122


cast: see

Janus water bar, 288

cold short, 167

Jenny, 361

columns, 169, 1S3

Jib doors, 260

contraction of, 167, 171


elasticity of,

elongation

expansion

167

of,

of,

fatigue of, 167

167, 171

167

236

289

stones, 75

Cast Iron.

castings for roof, 151

177

Irregular angles in bricks, 24, 25. 26


Irrigation, sub-,

Inbonds, 76
Inlet ventilators,

in,

compared, 122

floors

Joggles, 82

Joinery defined, 86, 219


Joints

at angles

see

bevelled, 137

Angles

i:ndex.
Joints {continued)

437

Lead

distance under slates, 194


dots, 198

falls for,

Linen panels, 258

191

flashings, 194, 196


flats,

Limmer asphalte, 363


Limy clay, 3
Lindsay's fire-proof flooring, 216

drips, 19s

INDEX.

433

Linings

272

inside,

191

jamb, 289

gutters, 192

outside, 272

hips, 190

lined tanks,

419

panelled, 293

289

plugs, 198

plain,

raglets for, 198

sofiite,

red, 339

splayed, 293
to back,

ridges, 189

193

rolls, 192,

saddle pieces, 190


secret gutters, 198
skylights, 325

to doors

step flashings, 196

198
188

to windows, 289, etc.


Linseed-oil, boiled, 339,

breaking, 371

distributed, 372

white, 339
Leaf for doors, 261

live,

woods, 87

safe,

371

uniform, 372
unsymmetrical, 40

working, 371

doors, 243

Loamy

Ledgers, 356
bricks,

and concentrated, 375

371

location of, 375

Lear boards, 156, 160, 161


Ledged and braced doors, 244

Lees Moor

clay, 3

Lockrail, 252

Lewises, 362

height

of,

252

Lias lime, 365

Long

Lifting shutters, 302

Loose beads, 249, 341


ground, 348

Lime
Buxton, 333

tongues, 227

'

rebates to casing, 266, 268

LouvreS; 186, 332

Crich, 333
fat,

340

Loads

distributed

welts, 198

for

Casings

concentrated, 371, 375, 381


dead, 371

valleys, 190
of,

see

raw, 339, 340

specification for, 188

weight

273
:

to elbow, 290, 294

soakers, 196

tingles,

292

333. 339' 364

hydraulic, 365
in bricks, 2
lias,

365

jV/f ACHINE-MADE bricks, 4


^^'' McNeill's asphalte,

poor, 364
pure, 333

57

Magnesia in bricks, 2
Magnesian limestones, 64
Mahogany, Honduras, 97

Limestones
compact, 62
granular, 62

Spanish, 98

magnesian, 64
shelly,

Malleable iron, 166

64

Malm,

Limewhite, 339
Limit of

elasticity,

167

Malms, 6

INDEX.
Manganese in bricks, 2
Manholes for inspection, 413
Mansard roofs, 154

Mortise, chase, 113


Mortises, 237

Moulded both sides, doors, 255


Moulded bricks, ii
Moulded handrail, 316

Mansfield stone, red, 61


,

white, 61

Mouldings

Manufacture of bricks, 3
of cast iron, 165

beads

of

tiles,

chamfer, 233
cjnna recta, 232

168

209

cyma

of wrought iron, 167

Marble, 367
Marchioness

Beads

Cavetto, 232

of lime, 365
steel,

see

Bolection, 232

of cement, 365

of

439

reversa,

232

laid-in,
slates,

330
ogee, 232

205

Margin of slates on

tiles,

ovolo, 231

205

Marginal sashes, 279

planted, 230

Marly

quirk ovolo, 232

clay, 3

Martin's cement, 334

Scotia,

Match-boarding, 269

stuck,

torus, 231

beaded, 233
both sides, 233
plain,

232

230

Mullions, cased, 278


stone, 76

233

Muntins, 252

V-jointed, 233

Matlock-bridge stone, 61
Matrix, 367

Measure's fire-proof

floor,

217

Mechanical mixture of carbon,

64

Medullary rays, 88

ATAKED floors, 99

Meeting

styles,

261

Memel, 94
Merchant bar, 167

Natural bed for stone, 59


seasoning timber, 90

Neckings, 78

Mica, 364

Needles, 356

Mica-flap ventilators, 407

New

Middle

rail,

252

Mild clay, 3
steel, 168
Milled lead, 188

work for paint, 340


Newels, 304, 317
New Zealand pine, 96
Nippers for stone, 361

Minus threads, 186

Nogging- piece, 125


Norfolk latches, 244

Mitre clamping, 227

Northcroft's fire-proof floors, 217

Mitred angles, 223

Norwegian

dovetails,

226

and tongued angles, 223

Mitres, 233

Model dwelling, 403

deal, 95
Nosings, 230, 304

Notching, 107
dovetailed, 107

Nuneaton blue

bricks, 7

Monkeys, 352
lonk's Park stone, 63
Mopstick handrail, 316
Morland's fire-proof floor, 217
Mortar-hair, 334
Mortars, 366
proportions, 366

O AK

American, 97
96

cluster,

INDEX.

440
Oak

Panelled doors {contintied)

{continKecf)

raised

96

stalk,

Stettin,

six-panelled, 251

97

square-framed, 254
stop-chamfered, 256

wainscot, 97
Offsets, 19

Ogee moulding, 232


Oil in paint

shutters

see

Shutters

see

window

Linseed, 339
paint, 340

lining

Papier mache, 339

Open

Parapet walls, 78

covers to chambers, 413

newel

stairs,

pine,

96

Origin of members in roof trusses, 133


Outlet ventilators, 407

flues,

50

Parliament hinges, 302


Parting bead, 273

Outside linings, 272

bricknogged, 124

Oversailing courses, 5 1
Ovolo moulding, 231

framed, 123, 124


quartered, 123, 124
sizes for, loi

quirked, 232
paint,

Window

slip, 273
Partitions

Outbonds, 76

Oxide

see

Parian cement, 334


Parkspring stone, 61

209
321

string,

Oregon

Pargetting

310

Linings

Oldwork for
Onega deals,^5

slating,

and sunk panels, 258


sash doors, 259

English, 96

studded, 123, 124

340

trussed, 123, 127, 154

Patent glazing

see

Glazing

Pearlash, 334
Peastones, 63

Pendants, 318

p)ADS
-*

Penmaenmaur

or palettes, 51

Painting, 339
iron

Pan
Pan

and

rivets,
tiles,

Panels

Panelled

steel,

Permanent

267
door lining

see

Castings

iron,

167

Pig iron, 164


butt,

forge,

255

164

foundry, 164

255
bolection, 256
chamfered, 256

Piles, 351,

double-margined, 261

Pile drivers, 351

origin of term

folding, 21

Piling, 351

four-panelled, 251

Pine

linen-panelled, 258

and manufacture, 164

352

shoes, 352

five-panelled, 251

94

Piers in bricks, 27

flush,

167

Petersburg deal, 95

Phosphorus in

casirvgs,

-Panelled doors

set,

Peter's carbolineum, 71,

Panelled Doors

bead

368

Perching timber, 90, 91

169

172

21

see

stone,

Pennycook glazing, 343


Penrhyn slates, 204

Padstones 142

see

Deal

American, 95
Kawrie, 96

moulded and square, 255


moulded both sides, 255
moulded, raised, and sunk, 25S

New

raised panels, 258

pitch,

Zealand, 96

Oregon, 96

96

INDEX.
Pine {contlmu'f)^

Polished face, 70

Quebec, 96
St. John's,

4|i

plate glass,

34

Polled-face, 70

96

Pins in shoring, 356

Polygon of forces, 394


Poor lime, 364

Pipes

Portland cement

yellow, 95

Angus-Smith coated, 410


411

falls for,

glass-lined,

coolness

410

storage

63

strength

Pitch of rivets, 173

366

of,

366

of,

basebed, 64

209

132,

365

Portland stone

of slates, 132
tiles,

of,

366

of,

weight

of roofs, 132, 143


of

365

natural, 365

416

Pisolites,

365
of,

manufacture

glazed socketed, 410


soil,

artificial,

bastard roach, 64

roach bed, 64
white bed, 64

Pitch-pine, 96

Pivoted casements, 283

Portmadoc

fanlights, 251

slates,

204

Place bricks, 5

Posts in partitions, 125

Plain-cut quoins, 79

Preservation of timber, 92

Plain linings to doors, 264.


to windoves,

Planks, size

of,

289

94

Planted mouldings, 230


Plaster-of- Paris, 333,

366

Pressed bricks, 8

Pricking up coat, 334


Priming, 339
Princesses, 148

Princess slates, 205

Plaster work, 333

Principal rafters, 142, 144, 146, 148

Plastering,

Principals

333

see

Trusses

Plastic clay, 3

Process of slating, 206, 207

Plate glass, 341

Proportions

Plinth blocks, 273


bricks, 9

of

ingredients

340
concrete, 367

Plinths in stone, 72

mortar, 366

Ploughed and tongued, 121

Protection of iron and steel, 169

Plugs and plugging, 233

Puddled

Plumbings, 15
Plus threads, 186

Puddling, 166

Pocket pieces, 275


Pointed faces, 70

Pulley styles, 272

Pointing

Pumice concrete, 216


Pumice stone for painting, 340
Punched rivet-holes, 172
Punched work, 69

bead

joint,

Pugging

44

broad, 42
cut,

42

floors,

Puncheons, 154
Pure clay, 3

struck joint,

Pure lime, 333

tuck,

43

42
42

44

105

273

straight joint,

rule,

Purlins, 138, 144, 154

V-jointed, 43

Putlogs, 356

weather, 42

Putty, 344
Putty lime, 333, 335

Poles for scaffolding, 356


Poling boards, 348

Pulleys,

bars, 166

Puzzolana, 369

in

pain

INDEX.

442

Rails of middle, 252

QUADRUPLE riveting,

173

Quarry bed, 59
Quartered partitions, 123, 124

top, 252
Raised and sunk panels, 258

panels, 258

Raking bond, 18

Quarter-space landings, 305

diagonal, 18

Quartz, 364

herring-bone, 28

Ramps, 313
Rams, 351

Quebec pine, 96
Queen closers, 15
trusses,

Random

rubble, 66
Ransome's patent stone, 36S

148
152

flat,

joints of, 149

Raw

rule for, 148

Rays, medullary, 88

strains on, 154

Reaction, 372

linseed

oil,

Reactions, various loads, 372

Queens, 148

on
on

Queen-trussed partitions, 128


Quirks, 336

375

girders, 373, etc.


trusses, 394,

Rebated and tongued

ovolo, 232

Quoin bricks,
Quoins

cantilevers,

on roof

Quirk bead, 231

and

401

flooring, 119

filleted flooring,

120

headings, 121

160

birdsmouth, 80

drips,

chiselled,

flooring,

79

and broached, 79
and diamond picked, 79
panelled, 80

rusticated,

Reciprocals, 396, 397


deal,
fir,

rock-faced, 79

82

Rebates, 238

Red

plain-cut, 79

119

joints in stone,

drafted

94

94

lead, 339
Reeding, 231

79

scuntion, 80
squint,

340

Relieving arch, 36

80

Render,

tooled, 79

float- and-set,

334

Rendering boat, 334


slates, 209

vermiculated, 79

Rendle's glazing, 344


Requirements of authorities for

Return bead, 224, 231

Revealed mullions, 76

"p AFTERS,

Reveals, 29, 30, 31

13s

common, 135
hip, 15s
'

jack, 156
principal, 142, 144, 146, 148

bolts,

132

189

slate,

208

wood, 135

Rings, annual, 88

Raglets, 198

Rails of doors, etc., 246, 252

bottom, 252
frieze,

lock,

lead,

Riga timber, 95
Rind galls, 90

valley, 156, 157

Ragged

Ridges, 135

lead

252

flats,

161

slated roofs, 132, 143

252
height

Rise of arches, 33
iron roofs, 187

of,

252

steps, 306,

307

air,

404

INDEX.
Rise of tiled roofs, 132, 143

443

INDEX.

444
Rules for roofs {contintud)

queen, 148

Scagliola, 337

Rules for slating and

and

for stairs

Scaffolding, ordinary, 356

tiling,

steps,

for stone ashlar,

206

307

68

Scappled

face,

69

Scarfs for compression, 14a


for tension, 139

Runcorn stone, 62
Running sand, 351

Schemearch, 24

Russian deals, 95

Scintling,

Rusticated quoins, 79

Scotch bracketing, 338


Scotgate ashstone, 61

for transverse,

140

Scotia moulding, 232

O ADDLEBACK
*^

joints,

Screeds, 334
Screws, coach, 177, 186

coping, 38

Scribed housing. 228

coupling, 186

83

Scribing, 228, 278

Saddlepiece in lead, 190

Scuntion quoins, 80

Safe load, 371

Scutched

Safety factor, 371


factors,

383

Sandy clay, 3
Sandy foundations, 349, 35
Sap, 88

Sash232

cords, 272, 277

92

92
Secret dovetails, 226
,

gutters, 198

Secret-nailed flooring, 120

Segmental arches, 33
sashes, 279
and frames, 279
Selenetic cement, 337, 366

doors, 259

Semicircular arches, 34
Septa, transverse, 88

fasteners,

Serpentine, 368

rails,

279

Set-permanent, 167

273

273
weights, 272
styles,

Sash frames

Setting-coat, 334

Sewers
circular,

352

circular-headed, 279

culverts,

parts of, 272, 273

drains,

segment-headed, 279

egg-shaped, 353

square, 279

Venetian, 278

circular,

279

double-hung, 273
fixed,

408

Seyssel asphalte, 363

parts of, 272, 273

single-hung, 273, 275


face,

Scaffolding,

in cup,

69

Shape of drains, 410


Shaped backings, 325
Shear l^s, 358
Shear steel "double." 168
"single," 168

356

gabers, 358

89
90
90

in heart,

in star,

278

marginal, 279

Scabbled

traps,

353
410

Shakes in timber, 89

Sashes

water

Sand-moulded bricks, 4
Sandstones, 60

natural process, 90

steaming

Samels, 5
Sand, 333

bars,

face, 70
Seasoning timber

Shearing

strain,

371

INDEX.
Shearing strain on

rivets,

170

445

Skylights {continued)

and

varieties

Sheet-glass, 341

Slaked lime, 333, 335, 365


200

Sheeting, 349
Shelly limestones, 64

Slates,

Shingling iron, 166

back

Shoes

Bangor, 204

205

of,

cast iron in roof, 151

bed

for piles,

characteristics,

352

Shoring

205

of,

202

countess, 205

angle buildings, 354

damp

buildings, 354, 355

duchess, 206

foundations, 349
flying shores, 355

good, 202

head

"hot," 167

Shouldering

slating,

courses, 57

gauge

Short iron, "cold," 167

lap

Shutters

of,

ridge,

sizes of,

folding,

stone,

302

sliding,

Portmadoc, 204
208
205
204

tail of,

205

416
Welsh, 204
Westmoreland, 203
Whitland Abbey, 204

tanks,

302
168

steel,

Siemens-Martin
Silicated stone,
Silicia, 2,

205

132

of,

external, 302

lifting,

of,

- Penrhyn, 204
pitch

shop, 302

205

205, 206

of,

boxing, 295
details of various kinds, 295

295

206

of,

margin

208

Shoulders of tenons. 125

Siemens

their details, 321, etc.

steel,

168

368

varieties of,

205

Slating

365

bedding, 209

SUls, 73, 125

double-sunk, 276

bond

stone, 73

centre-nailed, 207

straining

sill,

148

of,

207

countess, 207

Silvered grain in oak, 88

duchess, 207

Single Flemish bond, 17

open, 209

floors,

99

rules for, 109


lath,

334
rebated door casings, 264
riveting, 173, 175

"Shear," 168
Sinks,

415

Six-panelled doors, 253


Size of rivets, 173

process of, 206, 207


rendered, 209
shouldered, 208
topnailed, 207

torched, 208

Sleeper walls, 28
Sliding casements, 283
doors, 261
shutters,

302

Size of slates, 205

Slip feather, 227

Skeleton casings, 266

Slop-moulded bricks, 4

Skewbacks, 33
Skirtings, 270

Smelting, 164, 188

double-moulded, 270
Skylights
bottom-rails, 323

Snap headers, 18, 22


Snap rivets, 172
Snccked rubble, coursed, 68
incoursed, 67

INDEX.

446
Snecked rubble, up to courses, 67

Snow

boards, 162

Stairs [continued)

solid steps, 83,

322

Soakers, 196

spandril steps, 83, 322

Soap bricks, il
Soderham timber, 95

straight,

stone steps, 83, 85

33
of boarding, 158

^ of casings,

Stalk-fruited oak.

267

293
Softening iron, 166

Steaming timber, 92
Steel-

Soil pipes

Bessemer, 168

'/

lead, 417

417

cast,

stem, 105
steps,

169

of,

double shear, 168

Casements

see

168

corrosion

Solder, 195
Soldered dots, 198

Solid frames

168

blister,

ventilators,

96

Star shakes, 90

lining,

glass-lined, 41

308

terms in use, 304


wreathed, 310

Soffite of arch,

elasticity of,

168

manufacture

of,

168

mild, 168

83

Sound boarding, 105

protection

169

of,

qualities of, 168

bricks, 5

Span of arch, 33

shear, 168

double, 168

Spandril steps, 83

Siemens, 168

Spandrils or arches, 33

Spanish mahogany, 97

Siemens-Martin, 168

Specification for lead, 188

single,

for

new

painting,

for old painting,

'

340
340

168

spring, 168

strength

of,

167

Spink well stone, 61

tempering, 168

Splayed jambs, 29

tool,

linings,

Stemming,

reveals, 29. etc.

Split bricks,

168

Whit worth's, 168

292

pieces, 125

105

solid,

Spouting, 158, 159


Spring steel, 168

Step flashing, 196

Springers, 33, 80

Stettin oak,

Springing

Stirrup straps, 114, 145

line,

Steps

33

Squared rubble

see

Snecked

Square-framed doors, 254


and moulded, 255
Squint angles in brick, 8

Staff

see

Stairs
97

Stock bricks, 6

Stone
limestones, various, 62
rubble,

65, 72

quoins, 80

sandstones,

beaded angle, 224, 231

walling, 65

work and

Staff rivets, 172


Staircases,

Stone

303
322

dog-legged, 309
geometrical, 310

open-newelled, 310
rules for, 307

details generally, 72,

204

Stoolings, 73

Stairs
details 01, 312,

slates,

60

Stop-chamfered doors, 256

Stop lead, 273


Stopping for paint, 340
Storage of cement, 366
of water, 419

85

INDEX.
Straight arches, 34

447

INDEX.

448

Tongued

Three-coat work, 334

Three-quarter bonders, 65
Throating, 73

angles, 222, 293

118

flooring,

headings, 121

Through bonders, 65

Tooled face, 70
Tool steel, 168

Ties-

Top-nailed slating, 207

angle, 156
beams, 133, 142

Top
Top

cross, 187

252

rails,

ventilation, 411

diagonal, 186

Torching, 208

dragon, 156

Torus moulded

rods, 180

skirting,

23

moulding, 231

Tiles-

Transom, 76

advantages and disadvantages

of,

209

Transverse, scarfs

corrugated, 211
creasing, 58

good

stress,

characteristics of,

209

212

Italian,

372

Trap, 368

Traps

pan, 211

requirements

pitch of, 132, 209

uses

of,

409

409
Travellers, 360

209

qualities of,

209

size of,

140

for,

88

septa,

of,

Treads, 304

Taylor's, 211

Trees, ventilation up, 414

Wade

Triangle of forces, 394


Trimmed joists, 104

and Cherry's, 211

Tile and half, 211


Tiling,

Trimmer

209
160

Tilter, 156,

Timberbalk,

arches, 45

joists, 104, 317,

Trimming,
94
and steaming

joists,

319

103, 104, 317, 319

104

92
characteristics of good, 89

Triple riveting, 173

Dantzic, 95

Trowelled stucco, 335


Trussed girders, or beams,

boiling

defects,

of,

89

good timber, 89
growth of, 88
Memel, 94
perching

of,

91

preservation

of,

sap

in,

strength

1 1 7,

purlins, 154
see Roofs
Tuck pointing, 44
Tudor arch, 55

Trusses

92

Tunnel kilns, 366


Turning piece, 243, 345
Turpentine, 339

93
89

seasoning

gutters, 161

partitions, 127

Riga, 95
rot in,

Trough

Turret steps, 85

90

of,

Tusk tenon,

of,

95
unevenness of colour
varieties of,

87

of,

90

109, 126, 148, 156

Two-coafplasteiing, 334
Two-light windows, 286

Tingles, 198

Tisbury stone, 64

Toads-back handrail, 316


Tobin ventilators, 406

Tongue

^^

TLEABURG

timber, 95

cross,

226

Underpinning, 362
Undersetting, 362

long,

276

Unsymmetrical loading, 401

118, 15

449

INDEX.
Wall

Upcasts, 407

Up

plates, I35

draughts, 405

Walnut, American, 98
98

Italian,

Warmth

in ventilation,

Wash-down

V JOINTS,

pointing, 43

Val-de-travers asphalte, 363


Valleys, lead, 190

419

cisterns,

overflow pipes, 420

156, 157

Valve W.C. apparatus, 416

storage,

Varnish, 339

risk of freezing,

420

416
wash-down, 416

valve,

Vehicles, 339

407
Venetian sashes, 278
air,

wash-out, 416

Weather boards, 288


Weather pointing, 42

Ventilation of

413

drains,

419

Waterclosets

Vectors, 401

Velocity of

407

413

closets,

Wash-out
413
Water bars, 288
Water seasoning, 92
Water supply, 419

233

V-joint boundary, 233

wood,

etc

Walls, hollow, 55

rooms, 406

Weatherings, 76, 78, 81

soil pipes,

Webs

413

Ventilation by fans, 406

Ventilation
1

advantages and disadvantages, 405


at ceiling level,

406

of lead, 188

at intermediate levels,

at skirting

extractors,
flues,

406

of timber, 95, 96
Weights of sashes, 272
Welsh slates, 204

406

407

Welts for lead, 198


Westmoreland slates, 203

407

inlets,

407

outlets,

of girders, 165

Wedges, 194, 237, 3^3


Wedging, fox, 228
Weight of glass, 341

Westwood

407

stone,

pipes,

407
up trees, 414

Wet

warmth

Whinstone, 368

93
Whichcord's fireproof flooring, 218

in, 407
window, 276, 406

Whitbed, 64

Ventilators
external,

63

rot,

White
406

cast iron,

deal,

mica-flap, 407

164

94

Verge pointing, 209

lead, 339
Whitening, 339
Whitewashing, 339

Vermiculated quoins, 79

Whitland Abbey

Victoria stone, 369

Width

Tobin, 406

Voussoir of arches, 33

slates,

204

of stairs, 307

of treads, 306, 307

Windledges, 46

Window

W
"^ITADE
^^

fastenings, 279, 281

and Cherry
Wainscot oak, 97

Walings, 349

backs, 32, 289, 290

boards, 288

tiles,

211

finishings, 290, etc.


linings, 289, etc.

Window

shuttersj

295

INDEX.
Window

shutters {continued)

ventilation through,

Wrought

iron {continued)-

strength

276

of,

167

welding, 167

Winders in stairs, 306, 308, 312, 319


Winsley ground stone, 63
Withes, 50

Wood

bracketing, 338

bricks, 51
floors,

99

'VT'ARD

roofs, 132, etc.

Wood

and iron

floors

94

Yorkshire stone, 61

Working load, 371


Wreathed stairs, 310, 320
Wrought iron
:

418

deal,

pine, 95

Woodville bricks, 7

bars

gullies,

Yellow

compared, 122

see

characteristics of, 167


elasticity of, 167,

elongation

of,

7IGZAG
^

170

riveting,

fatigue of, 167

Braby's, 200

fractures in, 167

clips, 2CX)

hangers and straps, 129, 130, 144


manufacture of, 166

gauge, 199

protection

Italian roofing,

of,

corrugated, 199

169

ridges,

puddling, 166
rolling,

200

200

rolls, 2CX)

167

roofs in, 176

roofs,

shingling, 166

sheets,

Printed by Hazell, Watson,

174

Zinc, 199

167, 170

&

199

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THE MECHANICS OF ARCHITECTURE: A

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II. Moments of
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Strength of Pillars.VII. Roofs, Trusses.

VIII. Arches. IX. Domes, Spires. X.


Buttresses, Shoring, Retaining Walls,
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"
It really contains sufficient
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of building problems, including such subjects as domes, spires, vaulting, and hammer-beam
Mr. Tarn has added oy this volume to the debt of gratitude which is owing to him by
roofs. . .
architectural students for the many valuable works which he has produced for their use."
Ihe Builder.
"Mr. Tarn's latest volume is an addition ot solid worth to the ever-increasing list of works
bearing on the technical side of the architect's profession. The mechanics in the volume are
really mechanics, and are harmoniously wrought in with the distinctive professional matter
proper to the subject. The diagrams and type are comTnendably zX&zx" Schoolmaster.
to enable a careful
.

THE SCIENCE OF BUILDING

An

Elementary Treatise on the

Principles of Construction, especially Adapted to the Requirements of Architectural


Tarn,*M.A., Architect. Third Edition, Revised and
By E.
Students.
Enlarged, with 59 Engravings. Fcap. 8vo, 3^. 6</., cloth.

Wyndham

Summary of Contents.

VII. Fluids at Rest and in Motion.


Chap. I. Mechanical Principles. II. ReAppendix,
VIII. Lightning Conductors,
taining Walls. III. Arch es,Cupolas,Spires.
Tables of Strength of Materials, etc.
I V.Building Stones V.Timber. VI. Iron.
"A very valuable book, which we strongly recommend to all students." Sm/W^a-.
" No architectural student should be without this handbook of constructional knowledge."

Architect.

"A valuable handbook to the student who is desirous of qualifying himself for the architectural
examinations. As a repertoire of the scientific principles of construction in which the architect is
concerned, Mr. Tarn's book is unsurpassed." J5M7c/a/^A'^zvs.

PRACTICAL GEOMETRY,

for

the

Engineer,

Architect,

and

Giving Rules for the Delineation and Application of various Geometrical


By E. Wyndham Tarn, M.A., Architect, Author of
Lines, Figures, and Curves.
"The Science of Building," etc. Second Edition. With 172 Illustrations. Demy

Mechanic.

8vo, 9c, cloth.


"

No book with the same object in view has ever been published in which the clearness
rules laid down and the illustrative diagrams have been so satisfactory." Sco/swa.

of the

OF
THE STUDENT'S GUIDE TO THE PRACTICE
E. Dob^gn.
MEASURING AND VALUING ARTIFICERS' WORKS.

Re-written and Enlarged by E. Wyndham Tarn, M.A.


Crown Svo, "js. 6d., cloth.
8 Plates and 63 Woodcuts.

By

Sixth Edition.

With

" Well fulfils the promise of its title-page, and we can thoroughly recommend it to the class for
it has been compiled.
Mr. Tarn's additions and revisions have much increased the
usefulness of the work, and have especially augmented its value to students." "w^/wfr/^.
"This edition will be found the most complete treatise on the principles of measuring and
valuing artificer's work that has yet been ^uhMshtd." Building News.

whose use

OF WOOD AND
THE CONSTRUCTION OF ROOFSTredgold,
and Humber. By E.
I

RON

Deduced chiefly from the works of Robison,


Tarn, M.A., Architect. Second Edition, Revised. i2mo,

Wyndham

is.

6d., cloth.

is so thoroughly master of his subject, that although the treatise is founded on the
works of others, he has given it a distinct value of his own. It will be found valuable by all
students." Builder.
*'

Mr. Tarn

LIGHT: An

Designed for the


Introduction to the Science of Optics.
Use of Students of Architecture, Engineering, and other Applied Sciences. By E.
Wyndham Tarn, M.A., Author of "The Science of Building," etc. i2mo,
1^. 6d.,

cloth.

" The principal facts of the subject are clearly set forth in this useful volume, and students with
will find little difficulty in mastering all that appear

good knowledge of elementary mathematics


in this book."
Glasgow Herald.
a

London

CROSBY LOCKWOOD & SON,

7, Stationers'

Hall Court, E.C.

7,

Stationers' Hall Court, London, E.G.

CATALOGUE OF BOOKS
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ENGINEERING: CIVIL, MECHANICAL AND MARINE;


ELECTRICITY AND ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING;
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AUCTIONEERING, VALUING AND ESTATE AGENCY;
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PUBLISHED BY

CROSBY LOCKWOOD & SON.


MECHANICAL ENGINEERING,
D. K. Clark's Pochet-Booh

THE

MECHANICAL

for Mechanical Engineers.

POCKET-BOOK of
Book of Reference for Daily Use
By D. Kinnear Clark, M. Inst. C.E., Author of
ENGINEER'S

Tables, Formulae, Rules, and Data


in Engineering

Practice.

"Railway Machinery,"
700 pages,

6s.

bound

etc.

'*

A Handy

Tramways," &c.

in flexible leather cover,

Third Edition, Revised.


rounded corners.

Small 8vo,

Summary of Contents.
Mathematical Tables. Measurement of Surfaces and Solids. English Weights and

Measures. French Metric Weights and Measures. Foreign Weights and Measures.
Moneys. Specific Gravity, Weight and Volume. Manufactured Metals. Steel Pipes.^
Bolts and Nuts. Sundry Articles in Wrought and Cast Iron, Copper, Brass, Lead, Tin,
Zinc. Strength of Materials. Strength of Timber. Strength of Cast Iron. Strength
OP Wrought Iron. Strength of Steel.Tensile Strength of Copper, Lead, etc. Resistance of Stones and other Building Materials. Riveted Joints in Boiler Plates. Boilhr
Shells. Wire Ropes and Hemp Ropes. Chains and Chain Cables. Framing. Hardness of
Metals, Alloys and Stones. Labour of Animals. Mechanical Principles. Gravity and Fall
OF Bodies. Accelerating and Retarding Forces. Mill Gearing, Shafting, &c. Transmission
ok Motive Power. Heat. Combustion: Fuels. Warming, Ventilation, Cooking Stoves.
Steam. Steam Engines and Boilers. Railways. Tramways. Steam Ships. Pumping Steam
Engines and Pumps. Coal Gas, Gas Engines, &c. Air in Motion. Compressed Air. Hot Air
Engines. Water Power. Speed of Cutting Tools. Colours. Electrical Engineering.
*^* Opinions of

the

Press.

"Mr. Clark manifests what

is an innate perception of what is likely to be useful in a pocketbook, and he is really unrivalled in the art of condensation. Very requently we find the information
on a given subject is supplied by giving a summary description of an experiment, and a statement of
the results obtained. There is a very excellent steam table, occupying five-and-a-half pages; and there
are rules given for several calculations, which rules cannot be found in other pocket-books, as, for
example, that on page 497, for getting at the quantity of water in the shape of priming in any known
weight of steam. It is very difficuh to hit upon any mechanical engineering subject concerning
which this work supplies no information, and the excellent index at the end adds to its utility. In
one word, it is an exceedingly handy and efficient tool, possessed of which the engineer will be
saved many a wearisome calculation, or yet more wearisome hunt through various text-books and
treatises, and, as such, we can heartily recommend it to our readers, who must not run away with
the idea that Mr. Clark's Pocket-book is only Molesworth in another form. On the contrary, each
contains what is not to be found in the other; and Mr. Clark takes more room and deais at more
length with many subjects than Molesworth possibly could." The Engineer.
'*
It would be found difficult to compress more matter within a similar compass, or produce a book of
Will be appre650 pai;es which should be more compact or convenient for pocket reference.
ciated by mechanical engineers of all c^sl'as.g?,." Practical Engineer.
" Just the kind of work that practical men require to have near to them."
English Mechanic,
.

CROSBY LOCKWOOD

&>

SON'S CATALOGUE.

MR. HUTTON'S PRACTICAL HANDBOOKS.


Handbook for Works' Managers.

THE WORKS' MANAGER'S HANDBOOK

of

Modem

Rules,

Tables, and Data.


For Engineers, Millwrights, and Boiler Makers ; Tool Makers,
Machinists, and Metal Workers ; Iron and Brass Founders, &c. By W. S. Hutton,
Civil and Mechanical Engineer, Author of "The Practical Engineer's Handbook.*'
Fifth Edition, carefully Revised, with Additions.
In One handsome Volume,
medium 8vo, price 15J. strongly bound.

IS^ The Author having compiled Rules and Data for his own use in a great variety
of modern engineering work, and having fozind his notes extremely useful, decided to
publish them revised to date believing that a practical work, stated to the DAILY RE-

QUiREMENTS OF MODERN ENGINEERS,

xvould be favotcrably received.

*^* Opinions of

"Of

the Press.

we may

repeat the appreciative remarks we made upon the first and third. Since
the appearance of the latter very considerable modifications have been made, although the total number
of pages remains almost the same. It is a very useful collection of rules, tables, and workshop and
drawing office data." The Engineer, May 10, 1895.
*
The author treats every subject from the point of view of one who has collected workshop notes for
application in workshop practice, rather than from the theoretical or literary aspect. The volume contains
a great deal of that kind of information wliich is gained only by practical experience, and is seldom written
The Engineer, June 5, 1885.
in books."
" The volume is an exceedingly useful one, brimful with engineers' notes, memoranda, and rules, and
well worthy of being on every mechanical engineer's bookshelf." Mechanical World.
" The information is precisely that likely to be required in practice.
The work forms a de.
sirable addition to the library not only of the works' manager, but of anyone connected with general
engineering." Mining Journal.
" Brimful of useful information, stated in a concise form, Mr. Hutton's books have met a pressing
want among engineers. The book must prove extremely useful to every practical man possessing a
copy." Practical Engineer.
this edition

New Manual for

Practical Engineers.

THE PRACTICAL ENGINEER'S HANDBOOK,

Comprising a

Treatise on Modem Engines and Boilers, Marine, Locomotive, and Stationary.


And containing a large collection of Rules and Practical Data relating to recent
Practice in Designing and Constructing all kinds of Engines, Boilers, and other
Engineering work.
The whole constituting a comprehensive Key to the Board of
Trade and other Examinations for Certificates of Competency in Modern Mechanical
Engineering. By Walter S. Hutton, Civil and Mechanical Engineer, Author of
"The Works' Manager's Handbook for Engineers," &c. With upwards of 370
Illustrations.
Medium 8vo, nearly 500
Fifth Edition, Revised, with Additions.
{jfust published.
pp., price I 8j-. strongly bound.

%^

designed as a companion to the Author'' s '* Works' Manager's


ana original features, and contains, like its predecessor^ a quantity of matter not originally intended for publication, but collected by the
Author for his own use in the construction of a great variety of Modern Engineering

This work

Handbook."

is

It possesses tfiany neiv

Work.
The information is given in a condensed and concise form, and is illustrated by upwards of 370 Woodcuts; and comprises a quantity of tabulated matter of great value to all
engaged in designing, constructing, or estimating for Engines, Boilers, and other

Engineering Work.
*J^ Opinions of
"

We have kept it at hand

the

for several weeks, referring to

Press.

as occasion arose,
single occasion consulted its pages without finding the information of which
it

and we have not on a


we were in quest.''

Athenaeum.
" A thoroughly good practical handbook, which no engineer can go through without learning something that will be of service to him." ilfarzw^ Engineer.
" An excellent book of reference for engineers, and a valuable text-book for students of engineering."

Scotsman.

" This valuable manual embodies the results and experience of the leading authorities on mechanical
engineering." Building News.
"The author has collected together a surprising quantity of rules and practical data, and has shown
There is no doubt that this book is one of the
much judgment in the selections he has made. . .
most useful of its kind published, and will be a very popular compendium." Engineer.
massof information, set down in simple language, and in such a form that it can be easily referred
"The matter is uniformly good and well chosen, and is greatly elucidated by the
to at any time.
"The book will find its way on to most engineers' shelves, where it will rank as one of the
illustrations.
most useful books of reference." Practical Engineer.
'
Full of useful information, and should be found on the office shelf of all practical engineers."
.

"A

English Mechanic.

MECHANICAL ENGINEERING,

MR. HUTTON'S PRACTICAL

&-.

HANDBOOKSco;^^jwe^.

Practioal Treatise on Modern Steam-Boilers.

STEAM BOILER CONSTRUCTION. A

Practical Handbook tor


Containing a large Collection of
Rales and Data relating to Recent Practice in the Design, Construction, and Working of all Kinds of Stationary, Locomotive, and Marine Steam-Boilers. By Walter
S. HuTTON, Civil and Mechanical Engineer, Author of " The Works' Manager's
Handbook," " The Practical Engineer's Handbook," &c. With upwards of 300
Engineers, Boiler- Makers, and

Illustrations.

Ij;^"
the

Steam Users.

Second Edition, medium 8vo,

i8j. cloth.

Work is issued in continuation of the Series


viz: "The Works' Manager's Handbook"

This

Author,

Engineer's Handbook," which are

of Handbooks written by

and

"The

Practical

highly appreciated by Engineers for the practical


nature of their information ; and is consequently written in the same style as those works.
The Author believes that the concentration, in a convenient forj?i for easy reference,
of such a large amount of thoroughly practical information on Steajn-Boilers, 7vill be of
considerable service to those for whom it is intended, and he trusts the book may be deemed
ivorthy of as favourable a reception as has been accorded to its predecessors.
so

*^* Opinions of

"Every

the Press.

both in boiler design and management, is clearly laid before the reader. The volume
shows that boiler construction has been reduced to the condition of one of the most exact sciences ; and
such a book is of the utmost value to the Jin de sidcle Engineer and Works' Manager." Marine
Engineer.
" There has long been room for a modern handbook on steam boilers; there is not that room now,
'ecause Mr. Hutton has filled it. It is a thoroughly practical book for those who are occupied in the
construction, design, selection, or use of boilers." Engineer,
" The book is of so important and comprehensive a character that it must find its way into the
libraries of every one interested in boiler using or boiler manufacture if they wish to be thoroughly informed. We strongly recommend the book for the intrinsic value of its contents." Machinery Market.
" The value of this book can hardly be over-estimated.
The author's rules, formulae, &c., are all
very fresh, and it is impossible to turn to the work and not find what you want. No practical engineer
should be without it." Colliery Guardian.
detail,

Hutton's " fVlodernised Templeton."

THE PRACTICAL MECHANICS' WORKSHOP COMPANION.


Comprising a great variety of the most useful Rules and Formulae in Mechanical
Science, with numerous Tables of Practical Data and Calculated Results for
By William Templeton, Author of
Facilitating Mechanical Operations.
Seventeenth Edition, Revised,
"The Engineer's Practical Assistant," &c. &c.
Modernised, and considerably Enlarged by Walter S. Hutton, C.E., Author of
"The Works' Manager's Handbook,'' "The Practical Engineer's Handbook,"
P'cap. 8vo, nearly 500 pp., with 8 Plates and upwards of 250 Illustrative
&c.
Diagrams, 6s. strongly bound for workshop or pocket wear and tear.
*^* Opinions of

the Press.

"In

its modernised form Hutton's * Templeton ' should have a wide sale, for it contains much
valuable information which the mechanic will often find of use, and not a few tables and notes which he
cnight look for in vain in other works. This modernised edition will be appreciated by all who have learned
to value the original editions of 'Templeton.'" English Mechanic.
"It has met with great success in the engineering workshop, as we can testify; and there are a
great many men who, in a great measure, owe their rise in life to this little book." Building News.
" This familiar text-book well known to all mechanics and engineers is of essential service to the
every-d ay requirements of engineers, millwrights, and the various trades connected with engineering
and building. The new modernised edition is worth its weight in gold." Building News. (Second
Notice.)
'*
This well-known and largely-used book contains information, brought up to date, of the sort so
So much fresh information has been introduced as to constiuieful to the foreman and draughtsman.
It will be largely used in the office and workshop."
Mechanical IVorld.
tute it ptactically anew book.
" The publishers wisely entrusted the task of revision of this popular, valuable, and useful book to
Mr. Hutton than whom a more competent man they could not have found." Iron,

Templeton' s Engineer's and Machinist's Assistant.

THE ENGINEER'S, MILLWRIGHT'S, AND MACHINIST'S


Practical A.ssistant.

Templeton.
Any

collection of Useful Tables, Rules,

Seventh Edition, with Additions.

iSmo,

and Data.

By William

2s. 6d. cloth.

" Occupies a foremost place among books of this kind. A more suitable present to an apprentice to
of the mechanical trades could not possibly be made."
Building New%.
A deservedly popular work. It should be in the 'drawer of every mechanic." English Mechanic.

"

'

CROSBY LOCKWOOD

&-

SON'S CATALOGUE.

Booh for Mechanical Engineers,

Foley's Office Reference

THE MECHANICAL ENGINEER'S REFERENCE BOOK,

for

Machine and Boiler Construction. In Two Parts. Part I, General Engineering Data.
Part II. Boiler Construction.
With 51 Plates and numerous
By Nelson Foley, M.I.N. A. Second Edition, Revised throughIllustrations.
out and

much Enlarged.

Folio, t, 3j. net, half-bound.

Summary of Contents.
PART L

Measures. Circumferences and Areas, &c., Squares, Cubes, Fourth Powers. Square
AND Cube Roots Surface of Tubes. Reciprocals. Logarithms. Mensuration. Specific
Gravities and Weights. Work and Power. Heat. Combustion. Expansion and Contraction. Expansion OF Gases. Steam. Static Forcfs, Gravitation and Attraction.
Motion and Computation of Resulting Forces. Accumulated Work. Centre and Radius.
OF Gyration. Moment of Inertia. Centre of Oscillation. Electricity. Strength of
Materials. Elasticity. Test Sheets of Metals. Friction.Transmission of Power.
Flow of Liquids. Flow of Gases. Air Pumps, Surface Condensers, &c. Speed of Steamships. Propellers. Cutting Tools. Flanges. Copper Sheets and
Tubes. Screws,.
Nuts, Bolt Heads, &c. Various Recipes and Miscellaneous Matter With DIAGRAMS
for Valve-Gear, Belting and Ropes, Discharge and Suction Pipes, Screw Propellers,.
AND Copper Pipes.

PART

II.

Treating of Power of Boilers. Useful Ratios. Notes on Construction. Cylin


Boiler Shells. Circular Furnaces. Flat Plates. Stays. Girders. Screws.
Hydraulic Tests. Riveting. Boiler Setting, Chimneys, and Mountings. Fuels, &c.
Examples of Boilers and Speeds of Steamships. Nominal and Normal Horse Power.
With DIAGRAMS for all Boiler Calculations and Drawings of many Varieties of Boilers
drical

*^*

Opinions of the Press.

The book is one which every mechanical

"

engineer may, with advantage to himself, add to his

Mhraxy." Industries.

The diagrams are a great feature of the


Mr. Foley is well fitted to compile such a work. . ,
work.
Regarding the whole work, it may be very fairly stated that Mr. Foley has produced a
volume which will undoubtedly lulfil the desire of the author and become indispensable lo all mechanical
engineers." Marine ^ng-ineer.
" We have carefully examined this work, and pronounce it a most excellent reference book for the
use of marine engineers." Journal of American Society of Naval Engineers.
"A veritable monument of industry on the part of Mr. Foley, who has succeeded in producing whaS
*'

is

simply invaluable to the engineering profession."

SUamship,

Goal and Speed Tables.

A POCKET BOOK OF COAL AND SPEED TABLES,


Engineers and Steam-users.
Engineer's Reference Book."

By Nelson Foley, Author

of

"The

for
Mechanical

Pocket-size, 3J. 6d. cloth.

" These

tables are designed to meet the requirements of every-day use ; they are of sufficient scope
Iron.
for most practical purposes, and may be commended to engineers and users of steam."
" This pocket-book well merits ihe attention of the practical engineer. Mr. Foley has compiled a
very useful set of tables, the information contained in which is frequently required by engineers, coat
consumers, and users of steam." Iron and Coal Trades Review.

Steam Engine.

TEXT-BOOK ON THE STEAM ENGINE.


on Gas Engines, and Part

II.

With a Supplement
By T. M. Goodeve, M.A.,
Royal College of Science, London

on Heat Engines.

Barrister-at-Law, Professor of Mechanics at the


"The Principles of Mechanics," "The Elements of Mechanism,""
Crown 8vo, 6s. cloth.
Thirteenth Edition.
&c.
"Professor Goodeve has given us a treatise on the steam engine, which will bear comparison with
anything written by Huxley or Maxwell, and we can award it no higher praise." Engineer.
" Mr. Goodeve's text-book is a work of which every young engineer should possess himself."
fl fining Journal
;,

Author of

Gas Engines.

ON GAS ENGINES.

With Appendix describing a Recent Engine

with Tube Igniter. By T. M. Goodeve, M. A. Crown 8vo, 2j. 6^. cloth.


" Like all Mr. Goodeve's writings, the present is no exception in point of general excellence.
a valuable

Steam

Jittle

volume."

It is

Mecfianical World.

Boilers.

A TREATISE ON STEAM BOILERS


struction,

and Economical Working.

Their Strength, Con:


By R. Wilson, C.E. Fifth Edition. i2mo,

6s. cloth.
best treatise that has ever been published on steam boilers."

"The

Engineer.

" The author shows himself perfect master of his subject, and we heartily recommend
steam power to possess themselves of the work." Ry land's Iron Trade Circular.

all

employing

MECHANICAL ENGINEERING,

^c.

Steam Engine Design.

A HANDBOOK ON THE STEAM ENGINE,

with especial Refer-

ence to Small and Medium-sized Engines. For the Use of Engine Makers, Mechanical
Draughtsmen, Engineering Students, and Users of Steam Power. By Herman
Header, C.E. Translated from the German with considerable Additions and
Alterations, by H. H. P. Powles, A.M.I.C.E., M.l.M.E.
Second Edition,
Revised.
With nearly i.ioo Illustrations. Crown 8vo, gs. cloth.
"
perfect encyclopaedia of the steam engine and its details, and one which must take a permanent
place in English drawing-offices and workshops." A Foreman Pattern-maker.
.A.

" This

is an excellent book, and should be in the hands of all who are interested in the construction
and design of medium-sized stationary engines.
A careful study of its contents and the arrangement of the sections leads to the conclusion that there is probably no other book like it in this country.
The volume aims at showing the results of practical experience, and it certainly may claim a complete
achievement of this idea." Nature.
" There can be no question as to its value. We cordially commend it to all concerned in the
design and construction of the steam engine." Mechanical World.

...

Boiler Chimneys.

BOILER AND FACTORY CHIMNEYS:

Their Draught-Power

With a Chapter on Lightning Conductors, By Robert Wilson,


A.I.C.E., Author of ** A Treatise on Steam Boilers," &c. Crown 8vo, y. 6d. cloth.

and

Stability.

"A valuable

contribution to the literature of scientific building.''

The Builder.

Boiler Making.

BOILER-MAKER'S READY RECKONER AND ASSISTANT.


With Examples

of Practical

Smiths, and Riveters.

Geometry and Templating,

for the

Use of

Platers,

By John Courtney, Edited by D. K. Clark, M.I. C.E.

Third Edition, 480 pp., with 140 Illustrations. Fcap. 8vo, 7^. half-bound.
No workman or apprentice should be without tkis book." Iron Trade Circular.

"

Refrigerating Machinery.

REFRIGERATING AND ICE-MAKING MACHINERY:

Descriptive Treatise for the Use of Persons Employing Refrigerating and Ice-Making
Installations, and others.
By A. J. Wallis-Tayler, C.E., Assoc. Member Inst.
[yust published.
C.E. With Illustrations. Crown Svo, ^s. 6d. cloth.
" Practical, explicit and profusely illustrated." Glasgow Herald.
" We recommend the book, which gives the cost ot various systems and illustrations showing
details of parts of machinery and general arrangements of complete installations."
Builder.
" May be recommended as a useful description of the machinery, the processes, and of the
facts, figures, and tabulated physics of refrigerating.
It i^i one of the best compilations on the
subject."

Engineer.

Hydraulic Machinery.

HYDRAULIC MACHINERY Employed


Transmission of Power.
New Edition, Enlarged.

in the Concentration and


By G. Croydon Marks, A.M.I.C.E., A. M.l.M.E.
\_In the press.
Crown Svo.

Locomotive Engine Development.

THE LOCOMOTIVE ENGINE AND

ITS

DEVELOPMENT. A

Popular Treatise on the Gradual Improvements made in Railway Engines between


1803 and 1896. By Clement E. Stretton, C.E. Fifth Edition, Revised and
Enlarged.
With 120 Illustrations. Crown Svo, 3x. 6^. cloth.
[Just published.
"Students of railway history and all who are interested in the evoiution of the modern locomotive
will find much to attract and entertain in this volume." y^^ Times.
"The author of this work is well known to the railway world, and no one, probably, has abetter
knowledge of the history and development of the locomotive. The volume before us should be of
value to

ail

connected with the railway system of

this country."

Nature.

Estimating for Engineering Work, &c.

ENGINEERING ESTIMATES, COSTS, AND ACCOUNTS: A


Guide to Commercial Engineering. With numerous Examples of Estimates and
Costs of Millwright Work, Miscellaneous Productions, Steam Engines and Steam
By
General
Boilers
and a Section on the Preparation of Costs Accounts.
Manager. Second Edition. Demy Svo, 12^-. cloth.
[Just published.
" This is an excellent and very useful book, covering subject-matter in constant requisition in
every factory and workshop
The book is invaluable, not only to the young engineer, but
also to the estimate department of every vforks." Builder.
" We accord the work unqualified praise. The information is given in a plain, straightforward
manner, and bears throughout evidence of the intimate practical acquaintance of the author with
every phrase of commercial engineering." Jl/ec/tac^ World,
;

CROSBY LOCKWOOD

6-

SON'S CATALOGUE,

Boiler Mahing.

PLATING AND BOILER MAKING

Practical

Handbook

for

By Joseph G. Horner, A.M.I.M.E. (''Foreman


Workshop Operations.
Pattern Maker " ), Author of " Pattern Making," &c.
380 pages, with 338 Illustrations.
Crown Svo, "js. 6d. cloth.
\Just published.
" The latest production from the pen of this writer is characterised by that evidence of close
acquaintance with workshop methods which will render the book exceedingly acceptable to the
practical hand. We have no hesitation in commending the work as a serviceable and practical
handbook on a subject which has not hitherto received much attention from those qualified to
deal with it in a satisfactory manner." Mechanical World.

Engineering Construction.

PATTERN-MAKING: A

Practical Treatise, embracing the Main


Types of Engineering Construction and including Gearing, both Hand and Machinemade, Engine Work, Sheaves and Pulleys, Pipes and Columns, Screws, Machine
Parts, Pumps and Cocks, the Moulding of Patterns in Loam and Greensand, &c..
together with the methods of Estimating the weight of Castings
to which is added
an Appendix of Tables for Workshop Reference.
By Joseph G. Horner,
A.M.I.M.E. ('* Foreinan Pattern Maker"). Second Edition, thoroughly Revised
and much Enlarged. With 450 Illustrations. Crown 8vo, 7s. 6d. cloth.
" A well-wntten technical guide, evident y written by a man who understands and has practised
;

what he has written about


We cordially recommend it to engineering students, >oung
journeymen, and others desirous of being initiated into the mysteries of pattern-making." Builder.
" More than 400 illustrations help to explain the text, which is, however, always clear and explicit,
thus rendering the work an excellent vade mecum for the apprentice who desires to become master of his
\.nA^.'^English Mechanic.

Dictionary of Meciianical Engineering

Terms.

MECHANICAL ENGINEERING TERMS

(Lockwood's

Dic-

Embracing those current in the Drawing Office, Pattern Shop, Foundry,


Fitting, Turning, Smiths', and Boiler Shops, &c. &c.
Comprising upwards of 6,000.
Definitions.
Edited by Joseph G. Horner, A.M.I.M.E. ( "Foreman Pattern
Maker "), Author of "Pattern Making," &c.
Second Edition, Revised, with
tionary of).

Additions.
Crown 8vo, Ts. 6d. cloth.
" Just the sort of handy dictionary required by the various trades engaged in mechanical engineering.
The practical engineering pupil will find the book of great value in his studies, and every foreman
engineer and mechanic should have a copy." Building News.
" Not merely a dictionary, but, to a certain extent, also a most valuable guide. It strikes us as a
happy idea to combine with a definition of the phrase useful information on the subject of which it
treats." Machinery Market.

Mill Gearing.

TOOTHED GEARING: A Practical Handbook for Offices and Workshops.


By Joseph Horner, A.M.I.M.E. ( "Foreman Pattern Maker"), Author
of "Pattern Making," &c.
With 184 Illustrations. Crown Svo, 6s. cloth.
'We must give the book our unqualified praise for its thoroughness of treatment and we caa
he=irtily recommend it to all interested as the most practical book on the subject yet written."
Mechanical World..

Fire Engineering.

FIRES, FIRE-ENGINES,

AND FIRE-BRIGADES.

With a

History of Fire-Engines, their Construction, Use, and Management; Remarks oiv


Fire-Proof Buildings, and the Preservation of Life from Fire ; Statistics of the Fire
Appliances in English Towns ; Foreign Fire Systems ; Hints on Fire-Brigades, &c.
&c.
By Charles F. T. Young, C.E. With Illustrations, 544 pp., demy Svo,

\
"To

\s. cloth.

such of our readers as are interested in the subject of fires and fire apparatus, we can most
commend this book. It is really the only English work we now have upon the subject."
Engineering.
heartily

Motor- Cars, &c.

MOTOR CARS OR POWER CARRIAGES FOR COMMON


ROADS.

By A. J. Wallis-Tayler, Assoc. Memb. Inst. C.E., Author of "Modern


Cycles," &c.
Including Early and Recent Examples of Steam Road Carriages,
Internal Combustion or Explosive Engine Carriages, Electric Motor Carriages,
Miscellaneous Motor Cars, Auto-Car Bill, Rules and Regulations, &c.
With
numerous Illustrations. Crown Svo, 4^. 6d. cloth.
[Just published.

MECHANICAL ENGINEERING,

^c.

Stone-working Machinery.

STONE- WORKING MACHINERY, and the Rapid and Economical


With Hints on the Arrangement and Management of Stone
Conversion of Stone.
Works. By M. Powis Bale, M.I.M.E. With Illustrations. CrownSvo, 9^.
"The book should be in the hands of every mason or student of stonework." Colliery Guardian.
" A capital handbook for all who manipulate stone for building or ornamental purposes."
Machinery Market.

Pump

Construction

and Management.
Handbook

PUMPS AND PUMPING A

:
for Pump Users.
Being
Notes on Selection, Construction, and Management.
By M. Powis Bale,
M.I.M.E. Third Edition, Revised. Crown 8vo, 2s. 6d. cloth.
[ytist published.
"The matter is set forth as concisely as possible. In fact, condensation rather than difluseness

has been the author's aim throughout yet he does not seem to have omitted anything
use." Journal of Gas Lighting.
" Thoroughly practical and simply and clearly written." Glasgow Herald.
;

likely to

be of

Milling Machinery, &c.

MILLING MACHINES AND PROCESSES: A Practical Treatise


on Shaping Metals by Rotary Cutters. Including Information on Making and
Grinding the Cutters.
By Paul N. Hasluck, Author of * Lathe-Work."
With upwards of 300 Engravings. Large crown 8vo, 352 pages, 12s. 6d. cloth.
"A new departure in engineering literature.
We can recommend this work to all interested
.

In milling machines ; it is what it professes to be a practical treatise." Engineer.


" capital and reliable book which will no doubt be of considerable service both to those who are
already acquainted with the process as well as to those who contemplate its a.doption." Industries.

Turning.

LATHE -WORK
it,

A Practical Treatise on the

Tools, Appliances, and

Processes employed in the Art of Turning.


By Paul N. Hasluck. Fifth
Edition.
Crown 8vo, 5^. cloth.
" Written by a man who knows not only how work ought to be done, but who also knows how to do
and how to convey his knowledge to others. To all turners this book would be valuable." Engineering.
" We can safely recommend the work to young engineers. To the amateur it will simply be invalu-

able.

To

the student

it

will

convey a great deal of useful information."

Engineer.

Screw-Cutting.

SCREW THREADS:

And Methods of Producing Them. With


numerous Tables and complete Directions for using Screw-Cutting Lathes. By
Paul N. Hasluck, Author of "Lathe- Work," &c. With Seventy-four Illustrations.
Fourth Edition, Re-written and Enlarged.
Waistcoat-pocket size, is. 6d.
" Full of useful information, hints and practical criticism. Taps, dies, and screwing tools generally
are illustrated and their action described." Mechanical World.
" It is a complete compendium of all the details of tke screw-cutting lathe in fact a mulium-in'
Parvo on all the subjects it treats upon." Carpenter and Builder,
:

Smith's Tables for Mechanics, &c.

TABLES & MEMORANDA FOR MECHANICS, ENGINEERS,


Sixth
Architects, Builders, &c.
Selected and Arranged by Francis Smith.
Edition, Revised, including Electrical Tables, FoRMULi^, and Memoranda.
Waistcoat-pocket size, \s. 6d. limp leather.
\Just published.
" It would, perhaps, be as difficult to make a small pocket-book selection of notes and formulae to
but Mr. Smith's waistcoat-pocket colsuit ALL engineers as it would be to make a universal medicine
Engineer.
lection may be looked upon as a successful attempt."
"The best example we have ever seen of 270 pages of useful matter packed into the dimensions of a
"A veritable pocket treasury of knowledge." Iron.
card-case." Building News.
;

French-English Glossary for Engineers, &c.

POCKET GLOSSARY OF TECHNICAL TERMS:

English-

French, French-English ; with Tables suitable for the Architectural, Engineering,


By John James Fletcher, Engineer
Manufacturing, and Nautical Professions.
and Surveyor. Second Edition, Revised and Enlarged, 200 pp. Waistcoat-pocket
size, IS. 6d. limp leather.
" It is a very great advantage for readers and correspondents in France and England to have so
large a number of the words relating to engineering and manufacturers collected in a liliputian volume.
The little book will be useful both to students and txAwcWcrs." A) chitect.
" The glossary of terms is very complete, and many of the Tables are new and well arranged.
We cordially commend the book." Mecharical World.

CROSBY LOCKWOOD

o'

SON'S CATALOGUE.

Year-Book of Engineering Formulce, &c.

THE ENGINEER'S YEAR=BOOK FOR

Comprising

1897.

Tables, Data and Memoranda in Civil, Mechanical, Electrical,


Marine and Mine Engineering.
By H. R. Kempe, A.M.lnst.CE., M.I.E.E.,
Technical Officer of the Engineer-in- Chief's Office, General Post Office, London,
Author of
Handbook of Electrical Testing," "The Electrical Engineer's
Pocket-Book, " &c. With about 850 Illustrations, specially Engraved for the work.
Crown 8vo, 670 pages, 2>s. leather.
\jftist published.
"Represents an enormous quantity of work, and forms a desirable book of reference." TA*

Formulae, Rules,

"A

Engineer.

"The volume isdistinctly in advance of most similar publications in this country. "n;'t>ifmw|'.
"This valuable and well-designed book of reference meets the demands of all descriptions of engiSaturday Review.
" Teems with up-to-date information in every branch of engineering and construction." Building
News.
" The needs of the engineering profession could hardly be supplied in a more admirable, complete
and convenient form. To say that it more than sustains all comparisons is praise of the highest sort,
neers."

and that may justly be said of it." I^Iining Journal.


"There is certainly room for the new comer, which supplies explanations and directions, as well
as formulae and tables.
It deserves to become one of the most successful of the technical annuals."

A rchitect.

" Brings together with great skill all the technical information which an engineer has to use day
It is in every way admirably equipped, and is sure to prove successful."
Scotsman.
up-to-dateness of Mr. Kempe's compilation is a quality that will not be lost on the busy
people for whom the work is intended.'' Glasgozv Herald.

by day.

"The

Portable Engines.

THE PORTABLE ENGINE:

Its Construction and Management:


Owners and Users of Steam Engines generally.
By
William Dyson Wansbrough. Crown 8vo, ^s. 6d. cloth.

Practical

Manual

for

a work of value to those who use steam machinery. . .


Should be read by every one
engine, on a farm or elsewhere." Mark Lane Express.
cordially commend this work to buyers and owners of steam engines, and to those who have to
do with their construction or use." Timber Trades Journal,
"Such a general knowledge of the steam-engine as Mr. Wansbrough furnishes to the reader should
be acquired by all intelligent owners and others who use the steam engine." Building News.
" An excellent text-book of this useful form of engine. The * Hints to Purchasers contain a good
deal of common-sense and practical wisdom." English Mechanic,

"This

is

who has a steam

We

"

'

and Steel.
'*IRON AND STEEL'':

Iron

Work for the Forge, Foundry, Factory,


Containing ready, useful, and trustworthy Information for Ironntiasters
their Stock-takers ; Managers of Bar, Rail, Plate, and Sheet Rolling Mills
Iron and Metal Founders ; Iron Ship and Bridge Builders Mechanical, Mining,
and Consulting Engineers ; Architects, Contractors, Builders, &c. By Charles
HoARE, Author of "The Slide Rule," &c. Ninth Edition. 32mo, 6s. leather.
" For comprehensiveness the book has not its equal." Iron,
" One of the best of the pocket books." Efiglish Mechanic.
and
and

Office.

Elementary Mechanics.

CONDENSED MECHANICS. A

Selection of Formulae, Rules,


Tables, and Data for the Use of Engineering Students, Science Classes, &c.
In
accordance with the Requirements of the Science and Art Department.
By
W. G. Crawford Hughes, A.M.I.C.E. Crown 8vo, 2s. 6d. cloth.
" The book is well fitted for those who are either confronted with practical problems in their work,
or are preparing for examination and wish to refresh their knowledge by going through their formulx
again." Marine Engineer.
*'
It is well arranged, and meets the wants of those for whom it is intended."
Railway News.

Steam.

THE SAFE USE OF STEAM.


by

Containing Rules for Unprofes-

sionial Steam-users.
By an Engineer. Seventh Edition. Sewed, 6d.
If steam-users would but learn this little book by heart, boiler explosions would become sensations

"

their rarity. "

English Mechanic.

Warming.

HEATING BY HOT WATER;

with Information and Suggestions

on the best Methods of Heating Public, Private and Horticultural Buildings.


By
Walter Jones. Second Edition. With 96 Illus