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Name: Muhammad Faddel
NPM: 1111040135
Class: PBI C



A. Background of the Problem

Language is an important tool of communication. Without language, people will never able
to communicate with each others. Siahaan says that language is a set of rules used by
human as a tool of communication.1 It means that language can be a primary necessity in
human life. It has a big role for every people in making a good relationship with others.
Now days, English is the most important means of international communication. People
from all over the world speak the language when they meet each other in every
international meeting, conference, commerce or workshop. As the consequence, all
countries in the world have set English as one of the subject studied at schools.
Indonesia as one of the developing country, has also set its educational curriculum
which include the teaching of English as a foreign language. English considered as the first
foreign language and taught formally from elementary school up to the university level.
The most often become to complain is the teachers ability in applying appropriate
approaches, methods, strategies or techniques in teaching or learning. So, many students
are not interest in learning English. Therefore, the English teacher suggested in order to be
able mastering of method. Many students who study English cant use it for oral
communication because they dont master English well mainly grammar and
vocabulary. In order to master English well. The elements of the language such us
vocabulary, grammar and sound system must also be taught to the students as the
basic knowledge to words the English use and skill. Through the study of
grammar, students would become more familiar with the grammar of their native

1 Sanggam Siahaan, 2008, The English Paragraph, Yogyakarta, Graha Ilmu, p.1

language and that this familiarity would help them understand, so they can speak
and write better.
Unfortunately, English grammar sometimes makes Indonesian students confused
because it is different from the grammar of their mother tongue, so that the ability
of the Indonesian's students in grammar still low.
There are some additional for the importance of teaching grammar:
The grammar of foreign language is different and a new matter for students. When
his native language rulers are applied, he must make inference and or errors. This
brings a new problem in this foreign language.
The learner is unable to recall precisely all foreign language sentences that he has
learn to be used in communication. He has to know grammar to build sentences
productively to communicate.
As teacher, we must prepare variety of technique of teaching to help our
studentsstudy and acquire grammar especially, for mastering present perfect
tense. Sometimes this involves teaching grammar rules.
Based on the previous statement above the researcher conduct a research under
title The Influence of Snake and Ladders Games toward students present
perfect tense mastery at eight Grade ofSMP Pangudi Luhur Bandarlampung in the
academic year of 2014/2015

B. Identification of the Problem

Based on the background of the problem above, the writer identified the problems as
1. The students get difficulties in learning grammar.
2. The students get the problem of learning present perfect tense.
3. The teachers approach in teaching grammar especially, for present perfect tense is
still less interesting.
C. Limitation of the Problem
In this research, the writer focused on the influence of Snake and Ladders Game
toward students present perfect tense mastery at tenth grade of SMA Pangudi
Luhur Bandarlampung in the academic year of 2014/2015

D. Formulation of the problem

The writer formulated the problem as follow:
Is there any influence of Snake and Ladders Game toward students present
perfect tense mastery at tenth grade of SMA Pangudi Luhur Bandarlampungin
the academic year of 2014/2015?

E. Objective of the Research

Based on the formulation of the problem, the objective of the researchis to know whether
there is any influence of Snake and Ladders Game toward students present perfect
tense mastery at tenth grade of SMA Pangudi Luhur Bandarlampungin the
academic year of 2014/2015.

F. Significant of the Research


Theorical Constribution
For the theorical contribution, the results of this research are expected to support the
previous theories about the influence of Snake and Ladders Game toward
students present perfect tense mastery.
2. Practical Constribution
For practical contribution, the results of this research are expected the teacher can use
Snake and Ladders game in teaching present perfect tense , and the students can
increase their grammar skill ability through this game.

G. Scope of the Research

1. Subject of the Research
The subject of the research is the students at the tenth grade of SMA Pangudi Luhur
Bandarlampung in academic year 2014/2015.
2. Object of the Research
The object of research is the snake-and-ladders game and students present perfect
tense mastery.
H. Research Setting
The research will be conducted at SMA Pangudi Luhur Bandarlampung.

I. Time of Research
The research will be conducted in academic year 2014/2015.
J. Theory
a. Concept of Teaching English as a Foreign Language.
Language is a system of vocal sounds and combinations of such sounds to which
meaning is attributed, used for the expression or communication of thought and feeling. 2
While Hornby states that language is a human and non-intensive method of

2 Michael Agnes, 2002, Websters New World College Dictionary, Wiley Publishing, Fourth
edition:Canada, p.805

communicating ideas, feelings and desires by means of a system of sounds and sound
Based on the explanation above, language is a tool of communication that use by many
people to express their feelings, ideas, desires in order to the people can understand what
they mean. Language is used many people build a good relationship each others.
English is one of more popular international foreign language that is used by many
people around the world. People use it to communicate or to interact with other people in
doing their daily activity life. English must be taught in order to the students are able to
compete in this global era. Many of the requirements, like getting jobs and continuing
study, need English skill. In teaching English as foreign language, the teachers should be
able to manage the classroom well. The teacher should be creative and manage the
classroom with interesting technique as Brown States, teaching is showing or helping
someone to learn how to do something, giving instructions in the study of something,
providing with language, and causing to know or understand. 4It means that teacher have
to make the students fell comfort and interest in studying subject by using a creative
technique so the students will focus on learning process.
b. Concept of teaching Grammar
Teaching grammar has always been one of the controversial issues in language teaching,
including English. There have always been many arguments about the best way of
teaching grammar. Different methods and strategies have permanently waxed and waned
in popularity. Richards and Schmidt (2002) defined grammar as a description of the
structure of a lane guage and the way in which linguistic units such as words and phrases
are combined to produce sentences in a language. It usually takes into account the
meanings and functions these sentences have in the overall system of the language.
3 A.S Hornby, 1987, Oxford Advanced Learners Dicionary, Oxford: Oxford University press, p.437
4H. Douglas Brown, 1994, Teaching Principle of Language and Teaching, Practice Hall Regents, New
Jersey, p.7

Nunan (2003) distinguished two types of grammar, namely prescriptive grammar, which
refers to rules concerned with right and wrong, and descriptive grammar which deals with
the ways people actually use language.
According to Richards and Schmidt (2002), in the past teaching language in general and
teaching grammar were synonymous. A number of methodologies have emerged with
regard to teaching grammar, one of which was the audiolingual method replete with
usually monotonous and mechanical drills. Two recent trends have emerged: focus on
form (Doughty and Williams, 1998) and consciousness raising (Fotos and Ellis, 1991).
Spada (1997) defined form focused instruction as "any pedagogical effort which is used
to draw the learners' attention to language form either implicitly or explicitly."
Consciousness-raising according to Larsen-Freeman (2001) does not require students to
produce target structures. In-stead, students are made aware of the target grammatical
item through discovery-oriented tasks. Finally, Brown (2001) postulated that whether you
choose to explain grammatical rules or not depends on your context of teaching.
K. Hypothesis
The writer formulates the hypothesis of this research as follows:
Ho: There is no influence snake and ladders-game toward students present perfect tense
H1 / Ha : There is influence snake and ladders-game toward students present perfect
tense mastery.
L. Research Design
The writer use experimental method in collecting and analyzing the data. Experimental
Research involves a study of the effect of the systematic manipulation of one variable(s)
on another variable. The manipulated variable is called the experimental treatmentor the
independent variable.The observed and measured variable is called the dependent

5 Donald ary,dkk, 2010, Introduction to research in Education, Wadsworth, Eighth Edition : Canada,

The goal of experimental research is to determine whether a causal relationship exists

between two or more variables. Because the experiment involvescontrol and careful
observation and measurement, this research method provides the mostconvincing
evidence of the effect that one variable has on another.
1. Research Design
The writer will use true-experimental design to get to get the high internal and external
validity. Setiady points out in true experimental design there some criteria including.6
Control class
The subject of both control class and experiment class are chosen randomly.
c) Pre-test is given to know the students achievement before treatments. It can be
persented follows:
G1 (random) T1 X T2
G2 (random) T1 0 T2
G1: experimental class
G2: control class
T1: pre-test
X: treatment by using snake-and-ladders game.
T2: post test
The writer will observe the result of the pre-test and post-test, and compare them. The
writer will use the control group pre-test post-test design to measure both control class and

6 Setiyadi, Metode Penelitian Untuk Pengajaran Bahasa Asing Edisi 1, Graha Ilmu,
Jakarja, 2006, p.141

experiment class achievement. The pre-test will be done to both classes before the
treatment to know the students early achievement. Then the treatment will be done only to
the experimental class while for the control class will be taught by usual learning media.
The post-test will be done to both classes; the comparison will be done between the result
of the students achievement before the treatment and after the treatment. The result will
give an idea whether the media work or not.
2. Population
Arikunto said that population is all research subject. 7 While Setiyadi states,all
individuals which can be the target in research are called population.8 So the population of
this research is the students at tenth grade of SMA Pangudi Luhur Bandarlampung in
academic year 2014/2015. The population of this research consist of students including 2
(two) classes.
a. Sample And Sampling Technique
The sample of the research will be two classes, one class as the experimental class and one
class as the control class. Because there are only two classes of tenth grade at SMP
Pangudi Luhur, the writer will take both classes, they are X1 as experimental class and X2
as control class.
Arikunto said that if population is less than 100 then taken all, but if the population is more
than 100 then take 10-15% or more.9 Because the students of Senior High School
Tamansiswa Teluk Betung at the tenth grade is only two clasees, so the writer will take
7 Suharsimi Arikunto, Prosedur Penelitian Suatu Pendekatan Praktek Edisi Revisi Vi,
Rineka Cipta, Jakarta, 2010, p.134
8 Setiyadi, Op. Cit p.78
9 Suharsimi Arikunto, Op. Cit, p.134

both classes as a sampling technique that consist of 35 students each class. One is as an
experimental class and one other is as a control class.
b. Data Collection Technique
In this research the writer will use the data which come from:
1. Pretest
The pretest will be done to know the students ability before the treatment. The test
will be done by writing. The scoring will be based on the ideas, coherence, and unity.
The result of the test will be written in the scoring column on the paper.
2. Treatment
The treatment will be done to apply the writing process approach in students writing.
In order to assess the teacher in teaching writing and the students learn. For
experimental class the writer will teach the students by using Snake and Ladders
Game , and for control class the writer will use the teacher way.
3. Post-test
The post test will be done to know the students writing ability after they are taught
using writing process. The system and the difficulty of post-test will be same as the
pre-test, both of them will be used to measure the students writing ability in writing
after the Snake and Ladders Game applied.
3. To Research Instrument
In this research the instrument is test. The test will be in the form or written test. This

test will be aimed to measure the students present perfect tensemastery.

Technique of data analysis
Data analysis is the process systematically searching and arranging the interview,
transcript field notes, and other materials that you accumulate to increase your own
understanding of them and to enable you to present what you have discovered to
others.10 In this research, the technique of data analysis test, observation, and data
will be analyzed in steps belows:
1. Data From test

10 Sugiono, Op.Cit. Page 24

This data was gained to find out the result score from the students in writing by
using Snake and Ladders Game s which applied into two classes, experiment and
controlled class. It was obtained from A class as an experimental class and B class
as a controlled class at SMA Pangudi Luhur Bandarlampung.
2. Observation
The data from observation was conducted by the writer to help him easier in
reporting the research report, this data analyze about the teaching-learning process
were conducted by the English teacher in the classroom.