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QASMT WRITING STYLE GUIDE

Writing Style Guide


Based on APA format

QASMT WRITING STYLE GUIDE

Table of Contents
Introduction
Manuscript Formatting
Basics
Specifics
Tables
Figures
Appendices
Mechanics
Expressing Numbers
Abbreviations and Acronyms
Contractions
Capitalisation
Hyphenation
Referencing
Plagiarism
Turnit-in
An Overview of APA Referencing
In-text Referencing
Signal Phrases
Types of In-text Referencing
Short Direct Quotes
Long Direct Quotes
Paraphrases
Formatting In-text Citations
Secondary Citations
Multiple References to the Same Source
Unknown Author
Two or More Works in the Same Citation
Authors With the Same Surname
Two or More Works by the Same Author in the Same Year
Sources Without Page Numbers
Adding or Omitting Words in Quotations
Quoting Poetry
Quoting Drama
In-text Citations Using MS Word
Footnotes
Formatting End-text Citations
End-text Citations Using MS Word
End-text Referencing of Various Sources from the Internet
How to Format an End-text Reference for Something You
Found on a Website When Information is Missing
End-text Referencing of Poems
Sample Reference List
Other Points to Consider

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QASMT WRITING STYLE GUIDE

Introduction
The aim of this style guide is to help you maintain consistency and
accuracy in the presentation and layout of your paper. Each referencing
style tends to have its own editorial style. This means that when you
choose to reference your paper in a particular style you should also
observe the editorial conventions of that style like:

punctuation and abbreviations

construction of tables

labelling of tables, graphs, illustrations

headings

citation of references

presentation of statistics

as well as many other elements that are a part of every manuscript

This guide outlines and explains features of the APA style and is formatted
accordingly. The instructions are based on MS Word Office 2007.
Manuscript Formatting
Basics
A manuscript formatted in APA style should:

be typed on standard white A4 paper

be 1.5 or double-spaced throughout (highlight text right click


Paragraph Line Spacing: 1.5 lines or Double)

also be double-spaced between the body text and titles, headings


and block quotations i.e. no extra spacing between paragraphs

use 2.5cm margins on all sides (Page Layout Margins Normal)

use 10 12 pt. Times New Roman or similarly readable font

QASMT WRITING STYLE GUIDE

be indented 1.25cm (press Tab once) at the beginning of each


paragraph

have all subsequent text aligned to the left-hand margin with a


ragged right-hand margin (select the Align Text Left icon on the
toolbar)

have two spaces after each full stop

Specifics
It should also:

include a page header in the upper left-hand of every page and a


page number in the upper right-hand side of every page

include the following details of your paper in the header: QAMST


[SUBJECT NAME] YOUR NAME YOUR CLASS YOUR TEACHERS
NAME SHORT FORM OF TASK TITLE

have a title page that includes (a) your name; (b) your teachers
name; (c) your class / course e.g. Year 11D IB A1 English; (d) title /
question of essay

have no header or page number on the title page

have the title page text formatted as follows:

centred

typed in same size and style as the manuscript

not bold, italicised or underlined

Level Format
1
Centred, Bold, Mixed Case Heading
2
Left-aligned, Bold, Mixed Case Heading
3
Indented, bold, lowercase heading will full stop.

QASMT WRITING STYLE GUIDE

Indented, bold, italicised, lowercase heading with a


full stop.
Indented, italicised, lowercase heading with a full stop.
format headings this way if they are used throughout the paper:

have all sources used in the paper identified in parenthetical in-text

citations (see below for details of in-text citations)

use italics for publication titles

Additionally, in an extended essay, the page following the title page is the
abstract which has a centred heading, Abstract, at the top of the page.
The first line of this text is not indented. It should have a header and page
number.
Tables
Tables are often required to present data. Guidelines for including a
table into an APA formatted manuscript:

Head the table with an Arabic numeral e.g. Table 1, Table 2, Table 3
etc. Align this flush left.

Then assign it a title which is italicised and mixed case e.g.


Correlations Between Light Levels and Growth Rates. This is also
aligned flush-left.

Table titles should be brief but explanatory.

All elements of the table should be consistently either single- or


double-spaced.

All columns should have a column heading.

QASMT WRITING STYLE GUIDE

If the table or its data are from another source, cite the source

Purdue University. (2011). APA Tables and Figures 1. Retrieved June


3, 2011, from OWL Purdue Online Writing Lab:
http://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/560/19/

beneath the table (highlight table Insert Caption Below


insert source details).

Never include a table without referring to it (by number) in the text


of the paper e.g.
As shown in Table 7, there is a larger variation than would
normally be expected.

Table 1
Dogs Scoring Above Average on Intelligence by Breed and Gender
Breed
Male
Female
%
Dachshund
123
234
17.6
Terrier
456
567
31.1
Siberian Husky*
789
891
51.3
Totals (N = 3060)
1368
1692
Note. Average score = 150. No animals were harmed during testing.
*Three huskies (one male, two female) escaped before testing was
completed and are therefore included in the table.

Figures
Guidelines for including a figure (graph, photograph etc.) into an
APA formatted manuscript:

QASMT WRITING STYLE GUIDE

Label the figures with an Arabic numeral and provide a brief but
explanatory title

Italicise the label but not the title.

The label and the title appear on the same line below the visual
display, flush-left.

Type the title in mixed case.

Crop any extraneous material from a photograph or figure before


inserting it.

Graphs must include a legend where necessary to explain symbols,


abbreviations etc.

If the figure or its data are from another source, cite the source or
copyright owner beneath the figure (highlight figure Insert
Caption Below insert label, title and source details).

Never include a figure without referring to it in the text of the paper


e.g. As shown in Figure 7, there is a larger variation than
would normally be expected.

QASMT WRITING STYLE GUIDE

Figure 1. Crude Oil Prices 2003-2008.


Ontario Ministry of Finance. (2008). 2008 Ontario Economic
Outlook and Fiscal Review. Retrieved June 3, 2011, from
Ontario Ministry of Finance:
http://www.fin.gov.on.ca/en/budget/fallstatement/2008/08fsannex2.html

Appendices
Appendices allow you to include detailed or supplemental
information in your paper that would be distracting or interrupt the flow of
the writing. Examples of items you might have in an appendix include
mathematical proofs, lists of words, the questionnaire used in the
research, a detailed description of an apparatus used in the research etc.
Guidelines for including an appendix in an APA formatted
manuscript:

Create the appendix on a fresh page at the end of the paper


following the References page/s.

Head the page Appendix with only the first letter capitalised.

Centre this heading. Dont bold or italicise it or place it in quotation


marks.

QASMT WRITING STYLE GUIDE

Label each appendix as with a capital letter - Appendix A, Appendix


B and so on, so that readers will know where to look based on your
in-text citation. If you only have one appendix then dont assign it a
letter, just Appendix.

Cite your appendix in-text by inserting a citation following the


sentence where you lead into the information that the appendix
contains e.g. More than half of the survey respondents indicated
that they had ceased purchasing this brand following the
product recall while only 13 percent said their confidence in
it remained unaffected.

(See Appendix A). This then leads the

reader to a graph or chart in the appendix that displays the survey


results.

Explain the information in the appendix after citing it. When the
reader returns to the text of your paper, they will need to have the
significance of what they just turned to the appendix to read
explained to them.

Format the visual contents of the appendix like they would be


formatted in the paper's body. All tables, figures and equations
should be labelled and numbered. Each label and number should
include a letter that corresponds to the appendix. For example, in
the first appendix, the first table should be labelled "Table A1". If
there's a second appendix, the second figure in it would be labelled
"Figure B2.

QASMT WRITING STYLE GUIDE

Format all plain text in the appendix exactly as it is formatted in the


rest of the paper. The very first line of the appendix differs from
normal rules; it should begin flush left, rather than indented.

Remember, the appendix comes after the reference list at the end of
your paper.

Mechanics
Expressing Numbers

The general rule of thumb is that numerals (10, 11, 12) are used for
10 and over; words for under 10.
Adding extra potassium to the fertilizer mix resulted in
higher yields in nine of the 10 tomato plants.

Never start a sentence with a numeral.


Eighty-five

percent

of

survey

respondents

expressed

preference for Brand X.

Use words to express fractions.


These symptoms are found in approximately one-third of
patients.

Use numbers in a mathematics essay.


Divided by 5

Use numbers to express measurement.


6.5 cm

Use numbers in a graph.


X = 54

Use numbers for time.

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3 hr 30 min

Use numbers for dates.


July 20, 1969

Use numbers for ages.


3 years old

Abbreviations and Acronyms


Whilst you should try to limit the use of abbreviations (and
acronyms) in an essay, there are instances when you will need to use
them. It is therefore important that you know how to use them.

A manuscript overloaded with abbreviations is likely to confound the


reader. The general rule of thumb is that if the term is seldom used
(i.e. not more than three times), dont abbreviate it, unless it is a
particularly long term.

An abbreviated term must be spelt out in full the first time it is used
followed by the abbreviation in parentheses.
A 2009 UNHCR (United Nations High Commissioner for
Refugees) report advised that ...
After that, use the acronym on its own.
This policy was clearly contrary to the UNHCR mandate.

Some abbreviations are listed in the dictionary like regular word


entries (e.g. ANZAC, AIDS, scuba). The meaning of these is
considered common knowledge and they do not need to be written
in full or explained.

QASMT WRITING STYLE GUIDE

When communicating time and measurements, abbreviate all units


and if using a series of numbers, use the abbreviation only after the
last number in the series.
The tomato plants in the three conditions were allocated
5, 10, and 25 ml of water each day.

Do not start a sentence with an abbreviation if you can help it.

Even commonly abbreviated words should be typed out in full.


department NOT dept

Do not make an abbreviation of a unit of measurement plural.


5 min NOT 5 mins

Some common abbreviations (that are acceptable to use in an


essay) and their correct punctuation are provided in the table below.

Abbreviati

Meaning

Abbreviation

Meaning

on
hr

hour(s)

etc.

et cetera = and so

min
s
g
kg
t
mL
L
ML

minute(s)
second(s)
gram(s)
kilogram(s)
tonne
millilitre(s)
litre(s)
megalitre(s)

e.g.
i.e.
cf.
vs.
C
p.m.
a.m.
c.

mm

millimetre(s)

et al.

cm

centimetre(s)

ibid.

forth
for example
that is
compare with
versus
degrees Celsius
post meridiem
ante meridiem
circa (Latin = about,
approximately)
et alii (Latin = and
others). Used in
references.
ibidem (Latin = in
the same place book
etc.).
Refers the reader to

the preceding
footnote.
m

metre

op cit.

opere citato (Latin =


in the work cited).

QASMT WRITING STYLE GUIDE

km

kilometre

viz.

Should never be used


on its own, but be
accompanied by
author and page
number of previously
cited source.
Videlicet (Latin = to
expand upon or clarify
what has already
been said,
namely).

Contractions
Do not use contractions in your EE
Do not NOT dont
Would have NOT wouldve
Capitalisation
Capital letters are required for

the first word of a sentence

all major words in a book, journal or article title when they appear
within a paper

proper nouns (e.g. John Smith, Kleenex, Toyota, Brisbane, Sunday)

nouns followed by numerals (e.g. Table 2, Experiment 2, Chapter 10)

Hyphenation
Hyphenate

when using the prefix self (e.g. self-confident, self-conscious)

when the prefix can create4 a word with a different meaning (e.g.
re-cover the book, re-lease the office)

to avoid doubling a vowel (e.g. de-emphasize)

cardinal numbers (e.g. twenty-seven)

QASMT WRITING STYLE GUIDE

using fractions as adjectives (e.g. one-third majority)

when prefixes are followed by


capitalized words (e.g. neo-Darwinian)
numbers (e.g. post-911 years)
abbreviations (non-QASMT students)
more than one word (post-20th-century invention)

to make sure compound adjectives are not misread (e.g. thrillseeking teenagers)

to help the reader understand the intended meaning of two or more


adjectives before a noun that acts as one idea (e.g. first-class seat,
top-notch idea)
Dont hyphenate

a compound with ly (e.g. happily married couples)

chemical terms (e.g. sodium glutamate compound)

when using most prefixes (e.g. pretest, reset)


Referencing
A paper that requires research of any kind must include both in-text

(citations) and end-text (list of references) referencing. Essentially,


referencing shows that you have read and what you have read.
Specifically, referencing is a requirement because it serves:

as proof that your work has a substantial factual basis

to demonstrate your skill as a participant in your field of study

to distinguish your own ideas from those of someone else

QASMT WRITING STYLE GUIDE

to acknowledge those authors who contributed to your learning and


your work

to allow fact-checking

to enable the reader to locate the sources mentioned in your paper


so they can use it to broaden their own scholarly knowledge

to avoid plagiarism

Researching is a logical and inevitable part of the learning process. When


you acknowledge through citations the sources you used, you signpost for
the reader the journey you took to create your own ideas and opinions
about the topic. Correct and consistent referencing is a characteristic of
an accomplished researcher.

Plagiarism
Plagiarism is considered a serious academic offence. It occurs when
someone

passes off the ideas or words of another as their own

uses the ideas or words (either paraphrased or verbatim) without


correctly acknowledging the source.

Changing the words of an original source is not sufficient to prevent


plagiarism. If you have retained the essential idea of an original source,
and have not cited it, then no matter how drastically you may have
altered its context or presentation, you have still plagiarised.
The International Baccalaureate Organisation (IBO) requires both
you and your teacher to attest to the originality of your work (i.e. that it is

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your work and that you have properly, and in a scholarly manner,
acknowledged your sources). Suspected malpractice will be investigated
and if confirmed, a grade may not be awarded making you ineligible for a
diploma. Furthermore, an IB Diploma may be withdrawn at any time if
malpractice is subsequently established. Severe penalties apply at
university level if a student commits academic malpractice. If you act with
academic integrity by correctly and consistently acknowledging your
sources you will avoid punishment. Remember, you are encouraged and
expected to use the ideas and even the words of others. The key to
academic honesty is knowing when and how to acknowledge this by citing
them.
Turnit-in
QASMT uses the internet-based plagiarism-detection service, Turnitin. Students submit their work electronically to Turnit-in as well as in hard
copy to their teacher. Turnit-in cross references the submissions against
millions of journals, periodicals, books and archived student submissions,
as well as billions of web pages. A report is then generated that
determines the extent and source of plagiaised material. Turnit-in makes it
very difficult, if not impossible, for plagiarists to evade detection.
An Overview of APA Referencing
There are a number of different ways format your citations and
reference list.

Unless otherwise directed, QASMT uses the APA format.

Different universities, even different departments within universities, and


indeed different lecturers within a department use different referencing

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styles. By developing proficiency in one style, you will find it quite easy to
adapt to any other style when you go to university. APA is relatively simple
to use especially if you use MS Words referencing tool (References
choose Style : APA Manage Sources) which does much of the hard work
for you.
Whilst this document covers the basics of APA referencing, more
detailed information can be found online. These two sites are particularly
helpful and were used extensively in the preparation of this document:

http://www.apastyle.org/learn/index.aspx

http://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/section/2/10/
The key feature of APA is parenthetical citation.

This means that

when you want to refer to the works of another author you do so in the
body of your text, not in a footnote or endnote. You do this by including
the

authors

surname

and

the

year

of

publication

in

brackets

(parentheses). For a direct quotation also include the page number. The
full bibliographic details of all sources cited are listed alphabetically at the
back of the paper in the reference list.

In-text Referencing
Signal Phrases
Typically the quotation is introduced with a signal phrase that
includes the author's last name followed by the date of publication in
parentheses e.g.

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According to Smith (2008)

Smiths (2008) research has shown

Smith (2008) presents evidence which suggests

Smith (2008) stated that

Use such signal verbs as concluded, reported, suggested, indicated,


argued, stated, found, acknowledged, maintained, argued, asserted,
determined, said, hypothesised, showed, demonstrated, warned,
cautioned etc.
Types of In-text Referencing
There are three different types of in-text references:
1. Short direct quotes
2. Long direct quotes
3. Paraphrases
1. Short Direct Quotes

are the authors actual words

are included in the text as you write

have fewer than 40 words

are written in double quotation marks

have the citation kept close to the authors name

are included in the total word count of an extended essay

Example (where author is named in the signal phrase)


John Smith, a researcher from the University of Copyright
warns, Many secondary school students do not understand what
it means to plagiarise or why plagiarism is considered a
serious academic offence (2008, p.83).

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Example (where author is not named in the signal phrase)


An academic from the University of Copyright warns, Many
secondary school students do not understand what it means to
plagiarise or why plagiarism is considered a serious academic
offence (Smith, 2008, p.83).

2. Long Direct Quotes


are the authors actual words
include any quote more than 40 words long
must be displayed in a double-spaced, indented block
dont have quotation marks
should have the parenthetical citation after the closing
punctuation mark
are included in the total word count of an extended essay
Example (where author is named in the signal phrase)
Smiths (2008) study found the following:
Many secondary school students do not understand what it
means to plagiarise or why plagiarism is considered a
serious academic offence. Their responses demonstrated a
particularly worrying attitude to materials accessed from
the internet which were often used without consideration for
copyright (p.83).

Example (where author is not named in the signal phrase)


A 2008 study found that:
Many secondary school students do not understand what it
means to plagiarise or why plagiarism is considered a
serious academic offence. Their responses demonstrated a

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particularly worrying attitude to materials accessed from


the internet which were often used without consideration for
copyright (Smith, p.83).

3. Paraphrases

are preferred to direct quotes

are someone elses ideas expressed in your own words

are not placed in quotation marks since the words are not exact
quotes

include only the authors surname and year of publication in the


citation, not the page number.

Example (where author is named in the signal phrase)


Researcher John Smith (2008) warned that many secondary school
students were ignorant of issues related to academic
malpractice, particularly plagiarism.

Example (where author is not named in the signal phrase


Many secondary school students are ignorant of issues related
to academic malpractice, particularly plagiarism (Smith, 2008).

Formatting In-text Citations


The table below shows how to format in-text citations for a variety
of sources. The citation examples are for paraphrases where page
numbers are not required.

20

QASMT WRITING STYLE GUIDE

Table 1
Formatting In-text Citations
Type of Citation
First citation
where author is
named in signal
phrase

Subsequent
citation where
author is named in
signal phrase

Parenthetical
format, first citation
in text where author
is not named in
signal phrase

One work by one


author
One work by two
authors
One work by three
authors

Walker (2007)
stated ...
Walker and Allen
(2004) found ...
Bradley, Ramirez,
and Soo (1999)
concluded ...
Bradley, Ramirez,
Soo, and Walsh
(2006) determined ...
Walker, Allen,
Bradley, Ramirez,
and Soo(2008)
argued ...
Wasserstein et al.
(2005) found ...
National Institute of
Mental Health (NIMH,
2003) stated ...

Walker (2007)
concluded ...
Walker and Allen
(2004) believe ...
Bradley et al. (1999)
showed ...

(Walker, 2007)

(Bradley, Ramirez, &


Soo, 1999)

(Walker & Allen,


2004)
(Bradley et al.,
1999)

Bradley et al. (2006)


go on to show ...

(Bradley, Ramirez, Soo,


& Walsh, 2006)

(Bradley et al.,
2006)

Walker et al. (2008)


stated ...

(Walker, Allen, Bradley,


Ramirez, & Soo, 2008)

(Walker et al.,
2008)

Wasserstein et al.
(2005) believe ...
NIMH (2003)
argued ...

(Wasserstein et al.,
2005)
(National Institute of
Mental Health [NIMH],
2003)

(Wasserstein et al.,
2005)
(NIMH, 2003)

University of
Pittsburgh (2005)

University of
Pittsburgh (2005)

(University of
Pittsburgh, 2005)

(University of
Pittsburgh, 2005)

One work by four


authors
One work by five
authors
One work by six or
more authors
Groups (readily
identified through
abbreviation) as
authors
Groups (no
abbreviation) as

(Walker & Allen, 2004)

Parenthetical
format,
subsequent
citations where
author is not
named in signal
phrase
(Walker, 2007)

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authors

found ...

warned ...

Adapted from: American Psychological Association. (2011). Citing References In Text. Retrieved June 3, 2011, from APA Style : Basics of
APA Style Tutorial: http://flash1r.apa.org/apastyle/basics/index.htm
Note: In et al., et should not be followed by a full stop.

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Secondary Citations
A secondary citation occurs when you use material you found cited
in another source. Here you are required to acknowledge both the
primary and secondary source of information. To do this, name the
primary source in the signal phrase then insert the words "as cited in"
before the secondary source in the parenthetical citation.
According to Avery (2009, as cited in Evans, 2011, p.14)...

or
Averys (2009) study (as cited in Evans, 2011, p.14) found
that ...

or
This belief has been confirmed (Avery, 2009, as cited in
Evans, 2011, p.14) ...

You do not need to source the primary or original work cited (e.g. Avery,
2009) but the secondary source (e.g. Evans, 2011) needs to appear in
your list of references.
Multiple References to the Same Source
If you refer to one source multiple times in the same paragraph you
include the authors surname and the date in the first citation only. All
subsequent citations in that paragraph need mention only the authors
surname.
Unknown Author
If the source does not have an author, cite the source by its title in
the signal phrase or use the first word or two from the title in the

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parentheses. Titles of books and reports are italicised; titles of articles,


chapters and web pages are in quotation marks.
A recent study of secondary students found that over fifty
percent believed plagiarism to be a disease that decimated much
of Europe in the 14th century (Academic Honesty, 2010).

Two or More Works in the Same Citation


When the parenthetical citation includes two or more works, order
them as they appear in the reference list, separated by a semi-colon.
(Smith, 2002; Young, 1999)

Authors With the Same Surname


To distinguish between the two, use first initials with the surname.
(E. Johnson, 2010; L. Johnson, 1995)

Two or More Works by the Same Author in the Same Year


Where you use two sources by the same author in the same year,
use lower-case letters (a, b, c) with the year to order the entries in the
reference list. Use the lower-case letters with the year in the in-text
citation
The work of Moore (2003a) illustrated that ...

Sources Without Page Numbers


Whilst APA format requires parenthetical citations for direct quotes
to include the page number in, many sources are not paginated e.g.
online sources. If the online source you are quoting has numbered
paragraphs, use the abbreviation "para." followed by the paragraph
number.

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4

Hall and Smith (2009) argue that deliberate plagiarism is


more easily detectable in the digital age (para. 5).

or
Some argue that deliberate plagiarism is more easily
detectable in the digital age (Hall & Smith, 2009, para. 5).

If the paragraphs are not numbered, but the document nonetheless


includes headings, provide the appropriate heading and specify the
paragraph under that heading
According to Hall and Smith (2009), deliberate plagiarism is
more easily detectable in the digital age (Plagiarism
section, para. 6).
If the online source you are quoting has neither page numbers nor paragraph
numbers, count the number of the paragraphs down from the top of the article or
blog and use it.
Hall (2009) writes that deliberate plagiarism is more easily
detectable in the digital age (para. 11)

Note: Never use the page numbers from print-outs of web pages.
Adding or Omitting Words in Quotations
If you add words to a quotation, use squared brackets.
Johnson (2004) says that developing proficiency in the
mechanics of referencing is one of the most useful skills a
secondary student can learn [in preparation for tertiary
studies] (p. 243).

If you delete words from a quotation, use ellipsis marks, which are three
full stops, preceded and followed by a space.

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Johnson (2004) says that developing proficiency in ...
referencing is one of the most useful skills a secondary
student can learn (p. 243).

Quoting Poetry
Quotations of poetry are not cited by page number.

Where the

poem has a number of parts cite by part and line numbers separated by a
full stop.
When Homers Odysseus comes to the hall of Circe, he finds his
men mild / in her soft spell, fed on her drug of evil
(10.209-210).

For poems that are not divided into parts, use line numbers. For a first
reference, use the word lines e.g. (lines 5-8).

Thereafter use just the

numbers e.g. (12-13)


In his poetry, Cummings experiments radically with various
rules of English like spelling, punctuation, syntax and
capitalization to construct vivid images.
illustrates this.

in Just-

His inventive word play results in

seemingly nonsensical compound words, the queer / old


balloonman whistles / far

and

wee / and bettyandisbel

come dancing (lines 10-14), which actually mimic the poems


blithe and playful mood.

His unusual, child-like

capitalization, and the goat-footed / balloonMan

whistles

(16-17), adds to this effect.

Most poems have marked line numbers; where none are provided, count
the lines yourself and cite as directed above.
Note: You must indicate breaks between lines when quoting poems
or plays in verse. With a short direct quote i.e. one incorporated into your

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6
text and not set off as a block quote, indicate breaks between lines of
verse with a slash ( / ). Insert one typed space before and after slashes
indicating line breaks.
When quoting three or more lines of poetry as they appear in the
original source format it as you would any long quote i.e. begin it on a
new line, indent it, double line space it, and omit the quotation marks.
The reference comes immediately after the last poem line. If the spacing
of words or lines in the original source is unusual, you should represent
the originals spacing as precisely as you can in your essay. The authors
style is sacred.
E. E. Cummings use of inventive compound words and unusual
spacing is illustrated in his poem in Just-:
the queer
old balloonman
far

and

whistles
wee

and bettyandisbel come dancing

from hop-scotch and jump-rope and


its
spring (11 17).

Quoting Drama
When citing plays, cite by division (act, scene) and line. This means
that the cited part can be located in any edition of the work. Use Arabic
numbers, and separate the numbers with full-stops. A citation for Act IV,
scene 2, lines 148-149 from a Shakespeare play would look something like
this:

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2
7

In Shakespeares King Lear Gloucester, blinded for suspected


treason, learns a profound lesson from his tragic experience:
A man may see how this world goes / with no eyes (4.2.148149).

Note: Not (IV.2.148-149).


In-text Citations Using MS Word
Develop the habit of entering all sources you use, or think you will
use, into MS Words Source Manager. This takes care of the mechanics of
referencing for you. (References check Style : APA is selected
Manage Sources New choose Type of Source fill in the bibliographic
details of your source click OK).
When you need to insert an in-text citation, click at the end of the
sentence or phrase that you wish to cite and click Insert Citation. Then
choose the relevant source from the list of sources youve previously
entered into the Source Manager. Word will then insert a parenthetical
citation including authors surname and year of publication. You can then
edit this to include the page number if needed. A step-by-step tutorial is
available in the Library course in Blackboard.
Footnotes
Because APA uses parenthetical citation the use of footnotes and
endnotes is not recommended. However you can use them to provide
supplemental material to your readers.

Insert a number formatted in superscript e.g. , , etc.

Make the footnote brief. Try to limit your comments to one small
paragraph.

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8

The footnote should be placed at the bottom of the page on


which it is discussed.

Footnotes have a hanging indent which means that the first line
of the footnote is on the left-hand margin and any subsequent
line is indented.

Footnotes can also point readers to information that is available


in more detail elsewhere e.g. 1See Collins (2008), especially
chapters eleven and twelve, for an in depth analysis of this
companys collapse.

Formatting End-text Citations


The reference list appears at the end of the paper and provides the
information necessary for a reader to locate and retrieve any source cited
in the body of the paper. Each source cited in the paper must appear in
the reference list; likewise, each entry in the reference list must be cited
in the text.
Observe the following when formatting your References page:

Begin the list of references on a new page separate from the text
of the essay.

Head the page References with only the first letter capitalised.

Centre this heading. Dont bold or italicise it or place it in


quotation marks.

All text should be double-spaced just like the rest of your paper.

The first line of each reference is indented as it is with each new


paragraph in the rest of your paper.

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9

The list is alphabetised according to authors surname (or title if


the author is unknown)

The reference list comes before the appendix at the end of your
paper.

End-text citations using MS Word


If you have been entering your sources into MS Words Source
Manager throughout the planning and drafting phases of your paper then
producing the reference list will be extremely easy. To publish your
reference list:

Ensure that each source cited in the paper appears in the Current
List (References Manage Sources) since this is the list MS Word
will publish as your reference list.

Use the Copy button to transfer any sources from the Master List
to the Current List and use the Delete button to delete any
sources from the Current List that you didnt cite. Note: Beware
of deleting any source from the Master List because it will be
permanently deleted.

To publish the reference list click on References Bibliography


Insert Bibliography.

Highlight the list, then click and drag the First Line Indent marker
on the ruler at the top of your page to indent the first line of each
entry in the reference list.

Head the page References as instructed above.

End-text Referencing of Various Sources from the Internet

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0

The referencing function in MS Word takes care of the formatting of


your reference list. It italicises titles, places publication dates in brackets,
inserts commas, full stops and colons as required. Again, you are
directed to the tutorial in the Library Course on Blackboard which explains
the functionality of this tool in detail.
Whilst Word accommodates most types of sources, you will
invariably come across sources that dont easily fit into any of the
categories if offers. These can include blogs, Tweets, Facebook posts,
YouTube videos etc. In these instances you are encouraged to choose the
Type of Source that most closely fits the one youre citing and complete as
many of the fields as you can. Once you have published your reference
list, manually edit these entries to include the format description in square
brackets between Title and Retrieved e.g.
Lee, C. (2011). How Do You Cite an E-Book? [Blog] Retrieved
June 6, 2011, from APA Style Blog:http://blog.apastyle.org/apastyle/

Further information about the formatting of end-text references can


be found at the web sites listed earlier in this document. Particularly
helpful for newly emerging digital format types is the APA Style Blog
(http://blog.apastyle.org/apastyle/). The table below may be sufficient to
cover the variety of tricky sources you need to reference.

31

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Table 2
How to Format an End-text Reference
Whats
Solution
missing?
Nothing; Ive got n/a
al the pieces
Author is missing Substitute title
for the author
Date is missing
Use n.d. for no
date
Title is missing
Describe the
document inside
square brackets
Author and date
Combine author
are both missing and date
methods
Author and title
Combine author
are both missing and title methods
Date and title are Combine date
both missing
and title methods

for Something You Found on a Website When Information is Missing


Reference template
Position A
Position B
Position C
Position D
Author, A.
(date).
Title of document Retrieved from
http://URL
[Format.
Title of document (date).
Retrieved from
http://URL
[Format].
Author, A.
(n.d.).
Title of document Retrieved from
http://URL
[Format].
Author, A.
(date).
[Description of
Retrieved from
http://URL
document].
Title of document
[Format].

(n.d.).

Retrieved from

[Description of
document].
Author, A.

(date).

Retrieved from

(n.d.).

[Description of
document].
Retrieved from

http://URL

http://URL

Retrieved from

http://URL
Author, date, and
Combine all three
(n.d.).
title are all missing methods
http://URL
Note: The basic reference template is made up of four pieces: author, date, title (with format in square brackets if
necessary), and source (the URL). When one or more of these pieces is missing, use the method shown above to adapt the
template. In-text citations use the pieces from Position A and Position B (usually the author and date, but if theres no author,
then the title and date).
Reproduced with permission from Copyright 2010 the American Psychological Association.

32

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End-text Referencing of Poems


If the poem was found from an anthology or on the Internet, the
work is alphabetized by poets surname, not editors surname.
When using Microsoft Words referencing tool, choose source type
Book Section. Type the poems title in the Title field and the books
title in the Book Title field. You will need to insert the single quotation
marks around the poems title yourself. In the Year field, enter the year
the poem was first published (if given), not the year the anthology was
published.

The year the anthology was published is placed after the

editor. It should look like this;


Paterson, A. B. (1895). The Travelling Post Office. In J.
Leonard (Ed.) 2003, Seven Centuries of Poetry in English (p.
75).

South Melbourne: Oxford University Press.

Where the year the poem was published is not given:


Paterson, A. B. In the Droving Days. In J. Haynes (Ed.)
2000, An Australian Heritage of Verse (p. 191-194).

Sydney:

ABC Books.

If the poem was found on the Internet, then use the source type
Document From Web Site. Type the poems title in the Name of Web
Page field and the web sites name (e.g. PoemHunter.com) into the
Name of Web Site field. You will have to unitalicise the poems title and
place it in single inverted commas and italicize the web sites title. It
should look like this:
Thomas, D. Lie Still, Sleep Becalmed.

Retrieved August 8,

2010, from PoemHunter.com:


http://www.poemhunter.com/poem/lie-still-becalmed/

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Sample Reference List
References
Allott, A., & Mindord, D. (2010). Biology : Course Companion.
Oxford: Oxford University Press.
American Psychological Association. (2011). APA Style.
Retrieved May 22, 2011, from Basics of APA Style Tutorial:
http://www.apastyle.org/learn/tutorials/basics-tutorial.aspx
Graham-Rowe, D. (2011, May 28). Mind Readers. New Scientist ,
pp. 40-43.
Kulkarni, S. S., & Li, N. N. (2008). Membrane Distillation [eJournal]. Retrieved June 3, 2011, from Access Science:
http://www.accessscience.com.ezproxy.slq.qld.gov.au/content.aspx?
searchStr=osmosis&id=414210
Lee, C. (2011). How Do You Cite an E-Book? [Blog]. Retrieved
June 6, 2011, from APA Style Blog:http://blog.apastyle.org/apastyle/
Purdue University. (2011). In-Text Citations: Author/Authors.
Retrieved May 22, 2011, from Purdue Online Writing Lab:
http://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/560/03/
San Francisco State University. (n.d.). First Year Experience
Class. Retrieved October 1, 2010, from Cornell Note Taking System:
http://userwww.sfsu.edu/~voltaire/fye/cornellsystem.pdf
Science Extended Essay Guide. (2009, January 31). Retrieved
March 13, 2011, from Georgetown District High School :
http://georgetowndistricthighschool.com/ibsite/pdf/current/Extended
%20Essay/Science_EE_Guide.pdf

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Other Points to Consider

In some subjects (e.g. English), all drafts (including rough notes)


must be submitted at the back of your final hard copy, stapled
securely. This is evidence of your writing process and constitutes
evidence of proof of authorship of your essay. At teacher discretion,
this requirement may be varied for particular purposes.

Save electronic copies of all work on your IT device and keep hard
copies until you leave the academy. Make a backup copy also to a
removable drive.

Also keep these until you leave the academy.

Remember that the IBDP is a two year programme and all work from
both years is important to keep until you have obtained your final IB
Diploma results.

Send an electronic copy of your final work to your teacher at their


email address.

Submit an electronic copy of your final work via Turnit-in (as


explained above).