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f

: A B

a 1

= a 2

=

=

f (a 1 )

f (a 2 ) f f

f : A B b B a A b = f (a)

f f

a b (a, b) gcd (a, b) = ax + by x, y Z

Z/nZ a¯ ≡ {a + kn|k Z} n Z Z/nZ

a¯

+ ¯ b a + b a¯ · ¯

b a · b

n Z 3 D 2n = { n } =

1, r, 2n

r n1 , s, srr,

sr n1 = r, s|r n =

s 2 = 1, rs = sr 1 |D 2n | =

S G G S

G = S .

G

G S

, R m

R 1 ,

S

G = S|R 1 ,

,

R m .

S ≡ { }

S n ≡ { } Ω = {1, n

, n}

R + ×

(R, +) × a, b, c R a ×

(b + c) = a × b + a × c

× e Ra Re × a = a × e = a

= a × c + b × c

(a + b) × c

F + ×

(F, +) 0 (F − {0} , ×)

0 1 + 1 1 ×

a, b, c F a × (b + c) = a × b + a × c

= 0

a

= 0 R F × F − {0}

GL n (F)

{A|A n × n F det (A)

= 0}

Q 8 ≡ {1, 1, i, i, j, j, k, k}

(1) a

1a

=

a1

=

a (1) (1)

=

1

=

a (1)

=

a

i · i = j · j = k · k = 1 ε ijk i · j = k

Q 8 = 1, i, j, k| (1) 2 = 1, i 2 = j 2 = k 2 = ijk = 1,

G × A A g · a g 1 ·

(g 2 · a) = (g 1 g 2 ) · a , 1 · a = a g 1 , g 2 G, a A

G A

ker (G A) ≡ {g G|g · b = bb B}

H G H

=

x, y H , xy 1 H

C G (A) g G|gag 1 = a a A A G

G A

Z (G) C G (G) G G

gAg 1 gAg 1 gag 1 |a A

N G (A) g G|gAg 1 = A G ga = bg a, b A

G s ≡ {g G|g · s = s} G A G s G s

x x H H = x Z n n

A A G

¯

A ≡ {a 1 a

1

2

2

··· a

n

n

¯

|n Z , n 0 , i a i A , i = ±1} A

A

G {1} G

ϕ G H ϕ G H h H X h

ϕ h G = {a, b, c} h H

ϕ (a) = ϕ (b) = h

= ϕ (c) X h = {a, b}

ker ϕ = {g G|ϕ (g) = 1} ϕ : G

H

G/K

X a X b = X ab ϕ : G H K ker ϕ

gN ≡ {gn|n N } Ng ≡ {ng|n N } N G N G g G gN N G N G g + N gN N + g Ng

≡ {X h |h H}

G = Z N = Z even =

, 2, 0, 2,

.}

0N =

1N

2N =

0N N 0 Z even 1N N 1 Z odd 2N N 2 Z even

gng 1

n N g gNg 1 gng 1 |n N N g

g N gNg 1 = N N G g N

gNg 1 = N N

, 0 + 2, 0 + 0, 0 + 2,

, 1

+ 2, 1 + 0, 1 + 2,

, 2 + 2, 2 + 0, 2 + 2,

.} =

.} =

.} =

,

,

,

2, 0, 2, 1, 1, 3, 0, 2, 4,

.}

.}

.}

=

g G

G N G

 

N G

⇐⇒

N G (N) = G

 

⇐⇒

g G

gN

= Ng

⇐⇒

g G

gNg 1

N

⇐⇒

({gN |g G} , ·) is a group, where uN · vN (uv) N.

g

G G/N π : G G/N, gN N G

¯

¯

H G/N H G

¯

H