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Lecture # 2

Protestanism- comes from catholic background.


-broke 500 years ago in Europe and came to America with the founding
this country
Christianity- goes back to Judiasm. 1st century A.D or C.E common era
-Jew called Jesus lived in Palestine (near east where Israel is located)
-Jews were the ones created Jewish Bible (Old Testament)
-Christians created (Old+New)
-Some jews accept Jesus but most of them didnt.
By 2nd Century
-years after Jesus (killed by Jews)
-Christian religion isnt jewish. Lots of gentiles (non jews)
-Gentile church- add new testament and Jesus is fulfillment
-There are gentiles that accepted Christians in Roman Empire (leading Empire)
-Mediterean sea (our lake) called by Roman became Christians
-Jews scattered DIASPERIA- even today-became minority
-During 2nd cent., Christians now being gentile adapted to Christian faith (origin to
jews)
-Jews that didnt use Hebrew had a bible in GREEK language which are then taken
over by gentiles or Christians. GREEK-official language of Rome
-By 2nd and 3rd century- chiristians had GREEK TRANSLATION OF OLD AND NEW TEST
and used by gentiles
-around 300 A.D. (4th cent)-FIRST ROMAN EMPERIOR BECAME CATHOLICCONSTANTINE-he wanted all romans to be Christians, until 300.A.D- Christianity were persecuted
by romans and jews. Romans find it as illegal relgion and jews see it as heritics.
(bcus they had jesus instead of torah in the center of faith)
-CHRISTIANITY became OFFICIAL RELIGION of Roman empire
-to be citizen- you must be Christian or you will have fine or punishment or leave
empire

1st act of constatnine- realize empire has changed and MOVE CAPITAL ROME FROM
THE WEST to CENTRAL LOCATION OF TURKEY
- Called it CONSTANTINOPLE (greek) but now it is INSTANBUL (changed by
muslims)
- This began decline of Rome. Problems. What was the Christian Bible? So they
made New Testament Official. FINALLY ADOPTED 27 BOOKS OF NEW
TESTAMENT ARE NOW PROCLAIMED BY GOD.
- Just like jews who took out the APOCHRA books.

BISHOPS HAVE REPLACED APOSTLES to leaders of GENTILENOW CHRISTIAN


CHURCH NAME IS CALLED CATHOLIC CHURCH- UNIVERSAL CHURCH- all
gentiles (non jews)
- Official language=greek= GREEK BIBLE BECAME CHRISTIAN BIBLE IN 4
CENTURY A.D.
Gentiles didnt think biblically so they had to adopt the BIBLICAL FAITH and jewish to
GENTILE WAY OF UNDERSTANDING. They did this through GREEK PHILOSOPHY in
education
-PLATO- major philosophy- adopted by Christians to explain bible in gentile world

-to explain faith- BISHOPS FORMED CREED..couple of creeds written in 4-5 th


Christians to show they are really chrisitan and define what Christian faith is
(APOSTLES CREED, NISCENE CREED, APOMATHAIAN CREED?- all prot and cath recite
these creeds to show that their orthodox

-THEY ALSO WROTE DOCTRINES- to understand CORRECT faith. Lots of incorrect


faith like CHRISTIAN HERESY- not official orthodox faith.
-one doctrine is about god. Christians are MONOTHESTIC-ONE GOD AND
EVERYTHING IS CREATURES ( not Gods)- God is above it all
-so BISHOPS CREATED A NEW DOCRTINE- ONE GOD BUT 3 PERSONS- TRINITY:
FATHER, SON, AND HOLY SPIRIT. TRINITY IS NOT IN BIBLE- INVENTED BY THE
BISHOPS to show what Christianity faith really is
-creator, redeemer (redemption from mans sins-Jesus to die from cross), sanctifier
(holy spirit to carry on Jesus).
**Constantine had big job to turn minority (persecuted religion) to a major religion
and then make it official in the Roman empire.
CONSTANTINE would also turned PALASTINE (destroyed by the Romans so it was a
no mans land) and rebuild the HOLY LAND. Pilgrims would be allowed to go to HOLY
LAND where Jesus once walked and died. Not Jewish anymore. Gentiles are now in
charge and make it a CHRISTIAN LAND.

Several counsils 4th-5th century were held in Constantinople- called ECUMENICAL


(worldwide) COUNSELS of the Christian Church.
-Western Bishops spoke LATIN. Eastern Bishop spoke GREEK. Official language is still
GREEK
-drew up the official DOCTRINES by all CHRISITANS OR PROTESTANT
-later would decide which is true and which is not in the Christian faith
LATIN BIBLE OR LATIN VULGATE- BOOK OF THE PEOPLE (only used in west)
-Christian Roman Empire- ruled from OFFICIAL CITY CONSTANTINOPLE

-had a Greek East but Christians would speak their own language such as
Palestinian
-so each group has its own BISHOP but officially GREEK dominated EAST and LATIN
dominated WEST
-Bishop of ROME (later called pope) was DOMINANT IN THE EAST AROUND ROME
-around 400 A.D.- LATIN FATHERS translate bible from greek and hebew into LATIN

-difficult for the east bishops and west bishops to go to ECUMENICAL COUNSELS
ROAD BLOCK- 7th cent- one catholic church (Latin west greek east)bishop of CONSTANTINOPLE- leading at time.

-APPEARED IN THE EAST A 3RD BIBLICAL RELIGION (ISLAM)


-prophet in 7th cent- PROPHET MOHAMMED- (arab business man and had
encountered both jews and Christians in his travels)
-became prophet of the LORD to arab- preached ALLAH
-after his death in ARABIA, his words were quickly transcribed into a book called
KORAN- book of prophet of MOHAMMED
-have stories in both old test and new test
-overwhelmed Christians of the east (islam surrounded them)
9th century- whole near east is MUSLIM- Christians in the east were MINORITIES.
Werent hurt but have to recognize their Muslim rulers
-9th century- MUSLIM armies had gone to AFRICA from EGYPT- spreading ISLAM and
go to SPAIN and turned them into a ISLAMIC.
-when they got to FRANCE, and head up to western Europe, they were stopped by
CHRISTIAN ARMIES.
-NEAR EAST, AFRICA, AND SPAIN- muslim at this point.
-Germans, French, English would defend it as a CHRISTIAN fortess called
***CRISTENDOM- where Christians lived.
9th century- Latin Christians decided to make fortress of western Europe a new
roman empire called HOLY ROMAN EMPIRE.
-lead by 2 men- ONE IS THE BISHOP OF ROME (west) and HOLY ROMAN EMPEROR
-political and military nations FRANCE AND GERMANY would be most powerful (high
pop. High wealth)
-BISHOP OF ROME- spiritual power. HOLY ROMAN EMPEROR- military power
BISHOPS OF ROME- since Constantine
-worried they gonna lose their power. Only had spiritual power
-Rome is a 2nd city

-new DOCRTINE devised by BISHOPS OF ROME- called **PRIMACY OF THE BISHOP OF


ROME- he argued his position should be first and should be in charge of all bishops
in all roman empire. (west and east)
-bishops of east didnt want it because of communication issues
1000 A.D
-EAST CHRISTIANS, ORTHODOX CHRISTIANS, SEPERATED FROM THE west
-NOW 2 CATHOLIC CHURCH-so went their own ways until now
-Catholic West is the one that is separated to PROTESTANT and Roman Cath
-Protestant doesnt abide by the BISHOP OF ROME

LATE MIDDLE AGES (1000 A.D-1500 A.D Beginings of the Prot. Reformation)
-when the Roman Catholic church takes shape under the Bishop of Rome aka POPE
-Roman catholic would recognize them into a specific church
-BISHOP OF ROME (spiritual power to ban the holy emperor from the church) AND
HOLY EMPEROR OF ROME (most power cus armies) SHOULD HAVE THEIR OWN
SEPARATE powers- one in poitics and one in military.
-SPIRITUAL POWER WOULD WIN by the 1100 A.D.- BISHOP OF ROME IS THE MOST
POWERFUL MAN IN WESTERN EUROPE. More than the HOLY ROMAN EMPEROR.
1100 A.D.-1400 A.D
BISHOP OF ROME starts to get revenge- Sends out the emperor on **CRUSADES
(against the MUSLIMS who has taken control of the HOLY LAND) and to restore the
sites of CHRISTIAN PILGRIMS
-wars led by French, German, English- blood struggle between MUSLIMS and
Christians in control of PALESTINE
-and were also sent to EAST ORTHODOX OF CONSTANTINOPLE for their breaking
away

-power of the POPE to control WEST is unbounded until 1300 A.D.- so he begins to
lose control
-first political control and religious control. Constant need to reassert his power
-by 1500 A.D. he wasnt the same

-in spain (Islamic countries,north Africa)- discovery by a GREEK PHILOSOPHER


CALLED ARISTOTLE (became center of the MUSLIM WORLD)
-during late middle ages- in Spain- there was the RISE OF UNIVERSITY- ARISTOTLES
WAY OF FORMING MODERN SCIENCE AND TO UNDERSTAND RELIGION
-translated GREEK ARISTOTLE to ARABIC, LATEST IN SCIENCE WAS DONE BY
ARABICS

-Christians in western Europe noticed this and took this into consideration, and
developed CHRISTIAN UNIVERSITIES IN WESTERN EUROPE all taught under
ARISTOTLE PHILOSOPHY
-THOMAS AQUIMAS- BECAME TEACHER OF THE WESTERN LATIN CHURCH DURING
THE MIDDLE AGES and write theologies under ARISTOTLE as ROMAN CATHOLIC
THEOLOGY-still not practiced by east and prot.
-