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Kajian kualitatif

Want to take in-depth look at a certain fenomena. Misalnya

pengkaji ingin mengetahui bagaimana things are done,
bagaimana orang react kepada satu-satu situasi dan sbg.
Misalnya dia nak tahu mengenai apa yang berlaku dalam
bilik darjah. Misalnya kita nak kaji mengenai penerapan
nilai murni dalam pengajaran.
Kita nak tahu apay sebenarnya sedang yang dilakuakn oleh
guru semasa pengajaran. Kita mungkin memfokuskan
kajian kita kepada satu kelompok kecil sahaja misalnya
satu bilik darjah . penyelidik akan membuat cerapan
sekerap mungkin dan cuba menceriakan dengan detail
mengenai even yang berlaku semasa pengajaran dalam
bilik darjah berkenaan. You are interested in the quality of
the activties rathe than how frequent it occurs.
> guna kaeadh lain yang dikategorikan kaedah kualitatif
Ciri kajian kualitatif:
1. Sumber data ialah keadaan sebenar dan penyelidik ialah
orang utama dalam proses pemungutan data.
Apa penyedilik buat?
1. data kualititaif dikumpul dalam bentuk tulisan atau
gambaran bukannya dalam bentuk nombor
jenis data yang dikutip termasukalh interview transkript,
field nots, foto, audio recording, video, diaries, personal
comments, memos, official records, textbook passage.
Nothing is ignored that might lend insight into situation
Apa sahaya yang terdapat misalnya dalam classroom di
(jokes, decoration). To them everything mempunyai
2. concerned with process as well as product
want to know how things occur. So they they observe
misalnya interaksi, bagaimana soalan dijawab, makna
yang diberikan untuksesuatu perkataan, gesture then
they translate
3. analisis data secara induktif

no formulation of hypothesis
collect data then decide what important question to
of course yu should have some general questions which
will then be narrowed down
data collection and analysis take palce simulteneously
do reflection and confirm the reflection in subsequent
interview etc.
4. How people make sence out of their lives is a major
concern of kualitatife research
They want to know what the participants are thinking and
why they think that way
Andaian, goals, motives, reason may dominate the
researches question
5. Establish thruswortiness
Check the crdibility of data. How? Prolonged
engagement and persistent obervation to provide
sufficient scope and depth
Use of triangulation multiple methods of data
Periodic debriefing with peers and members check
To enhance dependebility (reliability: Ary and Jacobs)-do
auditing about the proses. Semua kena simpan
(makluamt yang dikumpul)
Third party auditor will examine the stydu to attest the
procedure employed and examine the confirmability of
the findings
Penyelidik mungkin menunjukkan kepada participant
notes yang diambil to check the accuracy of interpretasi
penyelidik. Nak report as accurate as possible
Heavily narrative .often present the anecdote of
Three common forms of kualitative research

Participant observation
Nonparticipants observation

Participants observation

Secara overt > boleh diketahui, then what will be the

behavior of the participants
Covert > you are one of the participants in a group. Or you
are one of the teacher in a school. Tiada siapa yang tahu
yang anda sedang menajalankan kajian. More likely to
produce valid results
What is the best procedure? Overrt or covert? Try to relate
with establishing thrustworthiness
Non-participants obervation
Do no participate in the activiti
Just sit and watch
How do they collect data?
Naturalistic observation
Observe in the natural setting. No manipulation of
variables or control activties of he subjects. Observe and
Creat a situation and asked the participants to act out-tell
what to do but not how to do.
Ask to teach but no how to teach
Kelemahan: keadaan tiruan. Jadi mungkin apa yang dilihat
hanyalah apa yang dikehendaki oleh penyelidik bukan apa
yang sebenarnya berlaku dlam dunia nyata
Kajian kes
Hanya satu kes saja> misalnya ada pelajar memang bijak
dalam mathematiks. Observe him or her on regular basis.
Get as much information as possible (study style, attitudes
towards mathematics, aspiration etc.). You can talk with
anybody related to him or her (paraents, friends, teachers,
counselors). An in-depth study of a particular kes of
Content analysis
Penganalisisan kandungan dokumen

Kandungan > words, makna, pictures, symbols, ideas,

What you need to do is kenalpasti apa yang nak di analisis.
Misalnya visuals dalam teks (saiznya, kesesuaain
dengan teks, warnanya, jenis visual dan lain-lain)
Apa yang nak lihat. Identify cirinya develop pertinent
categories dan kemudian bandingkan categori ini dengan
beberapa buah buku lain.
How to conduct content analysis
Formulate question
Apabila kita melibatkan pemboleh dalam bentuk kat-kata
atau simbol, kaedah ini adalah sesuai sekali
Katakan anda ingin mengakji liputan akhbar mengenai
pilihanraya di ******
Konctruct saya ialah coverage (liputan) yang merangkumi
misalnya: the amount of liputan, prominence of coverrage,
whether it favors one candidate over another
Unit of analysis:
Kenalpasti unit analysisnya samada setiap naskah, Melayu
ke BI
Define the population: could be all words, pictures,
sentenses or all articles over a specified period of time.
Misalnya saya nak tahu bagaimana kempen pilihanraya di
jalankan. My population may include all reports related to
political parties published by major newspaper in malaysia
within specified time frame.
Kira berapa banyak related reports and it becomes the
sampling frem.
Then decide on sampel size and design.
Then draw a random sampel
Intercoder reliability
Check on the reliability of coding by many coders
Check on stability relaibility if the coding streches over a
few months period

Content analysis opnly decsribe what is in the text
Cannot reveal the intention of those who created the text
nor can it determine the effect of the message upon those
who read the text. To make an inference we have to do a
saperate reserch project probably experiment.
Sampling in obeservational studies
Apa yang kita lihat ialanya sampel of classes atau masa.
Umumnya kita akan mengambil sampel bermatlamat. Kita
pilih sampel yang memungkinkan kita memperolehi hasil
yang kita kehendaki.
Persoalaannya ialah: sejauhmana situasi yang dicerap
mewakili keseluruhan situasi?
Adalah kelas yang kita cerap mewakili kesemua kelas
Adakah kita cerap tingkahlaku pelajar menggunakan
representative sampel?
Penting supaya kita tidak memperolhi gambaran yang
tidak tepat mengenai hasil kajian kita.
A combination of participants obervationa and the
nonparticipants observations in an attemt to obtain a
wholistic picture of ..
Emphasinya ialah documenting pengalaman seharian
dengan cerapan dan temubual serta menggunakan lainlain dokumen
It is an in-depth interviewing and continual and on-going
participants observation of the situation
Try to capture as much of what is going on whole picture
Here we may have a generla research question. Observe,
then make initial conclusion that may suggest you to
gather more data that may lead you to revise the initial
Example: what is life like in an inner-city school
So you kaji very aspek (experience of students,
teachers, administrators)

The goal is to produce a detail picture of certain thing (a

classroom, an inner-city school.
Generalizibility no sampling
Researcher bias
The variables investigated remain unclear since no specifi
hypothesis formulated
The good thing:
A comprehensive perspective.. a get a much deeper and
richer understanding
Good when there are things that cannot be quantified or
difficult to quantify
Good when the particular behavior can best be understood
by observing in natural setting
Validity and reliability of ethnographic research
Use a variety of instrument or procedure (triangulation)
Check for data discrepencies (compare notes of the same
things but described by diff. Subjects)
Learn to understand the group and speak their language
Wrute down the questions asked
Record your own thought while observing or interviewing
Dokumen the sourse of remarks
Dokumen the bases of ineference tey make
Describe the konteks in which questionas are asked and
situations are observed
Use audio-video tapes
Darw conclusion based on your understanding
Interview the person moe than once. Look for
Look at your filed notes; the kualiti of the notes bantu dari
segi validiy and reliability of your observation
Two types of field notes
Descriptive and reflective
Potarit of the subjects
Reconstruction of dialog
Description of physical setting
Description of observer behavior

On analysis:
Attitudes of the reseacher: