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Engi

REPUBLIC OF THE PHILIPPINES

BATAAN PENINSULA STATE UNIVERSITY


MAIN CAMPUS, PROVINCE

OF

BATAAN, CITY

OF

BALANGA C-2100

COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING AND ARCHITECTURE

MECHANICAL ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT

Introduction

neer

General considerations: After the general layout of the machine

has been determined and the necessary mechanisms chosen or devised, it

ing

becomes necessary that the designer select a proper material for each
machine member. This involves the consideration of such factors as the
engineering properties of the available materials; the weight, size, and
shape of the machine member as well as the loads that it must carry; cost

Mat

of the material; cost of fabricating the machine element form each


material, usually with several alternative production procedures possible for
each material; and any properties of the material peculiar to the use to
which the member will be put. The major engineering properties of

erial

materials which usually are of importance to the designer are strength,


stiffness,

ductility,

toughness,

resilience,

fatigue

resistance,

shock

resistance, wear resistance, creep characteristics, corrosion resistance,


hardness, hardenability, machinability, formability, castability, weldability,

ability to be surface finished in an acceptable manner, effects of high and


low temperatures upon the behavior of the material, visual appearance,
frictional properties, and internal vibrational damping properties.

Page 76

Materials

play

an

important

role

in

the

construction

and

manufacturing of equipment/tools. Right selections of materials add to the


economy, working and life of machinery. This selection process includes
choosing the material, paying attention to its specific type or grade based
Chapter 1: Engineering Materials
Page 76

on the required
properties. Engineers will select a particular grade of
REPUBLIC OF THE PHILIPPINES
material BATAAN
based on itsPENINSULA
properties suchSTATE
as malleability
or tensile strength.
UNIVERSITY
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OF

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Composites
comprise
two materials,AND
suchARCHITECTURE
as a metallic mesh and a resin,
COLLEGE
OF ENGINEERING
the combination of which also depends on the properties required.
MECHANICAL ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT

Materials from which the item is to be manufactured are noted on the


engineering drawing using standard material and grade codes. It is
important that manufacturers do not interchange materials because the
switch may make the products susceptible to failures.
The selection of a material for a machine part or a structural member
is one of the most important decisions the designer is called on to make.
The decision is usually made before the dimensions of the part are
established. After choosing the process of creating the desired geometry
and the material (the two cannot be divorced), the designer can proportion
the member so that loss of function can be avoided or the chance of loss of
function can be held to an acceptable risk.
In the next chapters, methods for estimating stresses and deflections
of machine members are presented. These estimates are based on the
properties of the material from which the member will be made. For
deflections and stability evaluations, for example, the elastic (stiffness)
properties of the material are required, and evaluations of stress at a
critical location in a machine member require a comparison with the
strength of the material at that location in the geometry and condition of
use. This strength is a material property found by testing and is adjusted to
Page 76

the geometry and condition of use as necessary.


As important as stress and deflection are in the design of mechanical
parts, the selection of a material is not always based on these factors.
Many parts carry no loads on them whatever. Parts may be designed
Chapter 1: Engineering Materials
Page 76

merely to
fill up space or for aesthetic qualities. Members must frequently
REPUBLIC OF THE PHILIPPINES
be designed
to also PENINSULA
resist corrosion. Sometimes
temperature effects are
BATAAN
STATE UNIVERSITY
MAIN CAMPUS, PROVINCE

OF

BATAAN, CITY

OF

BALANGA C-2100

more important
design
than stress
strain. So many other factors
COLLEGEinOF
ENGINEERING
ANDand
ARCHITECTURE
besides stress and strain may govern the design of parts that the designer
MECHANICAL ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT

must have the versatility that comes only with a broad background in
materials and processes.

Classification of Engineering Materials


The engineering materials are mainly classified as:
1. Metals and their alloys, such as iron, steel, copper, aluminum, etc.
2. Non-metals, such as glass, rubber, plastic, etc.
The metals may be further classified as:
a) Ferrous metals and
b) Non-ferrous metals.
The ferrous metals are those which have the iron as their main
constituent, such as cast iron, wrought iron and steel.
The non-ferrous metals are those which have a metal other than iron as
their main constituent, such as copper, aluminum, brass, tin, zinc, etc.

Page 76

Chapter 1: Engineering Materials


Page 76

ENGINEERING MATERIALS

REPUBLIC OF THE PHILIPPINES

BATAAN PENINSULA STATE UNIVERSITY


MAIN CAMPUS, PROVINCE

OF

BATAAN, CITY

OF

BALANGA C-2100

NON-METALLIC
COLLEGE OF METALLIC
ENGINEERING AND ARCHITECTURE
MECHANICAL ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT
PLASTICS
NON-

FERROUS

FERROUS

ALLOYS
CAST IRON
GRAY CAST
IRON
-- GRAY
CAST IRON
- WHITE CAST IRON
MALLEABLE IRON
IRON
-- MALLEABLE
DUCTILE IRON
IRON
-- DUCTILE

STEEL
- PLAIN CARBON STEEL
- ALLOY STEEL
- CASE HARDENING
STEEL
- STAINLESS STEEL
-HIGH
STRENGTH LOW
-HIGH STRENGTH
LOW
ALLOY
STEEL

WROUGHT
IRON

-- ZINC
ZINC -BASED
-BASED 'DIE
'DIE
CASTING'
ALLOYS
ALLOYS
- MAGNESIUM ALLOYS
-- BRASS
BRASS
- TIN BRONZE
-- TIN
TIN -- LEAD
LEAD ALLOYS
ALLOYS
- ALUMINUM BRONZE
- COPPER- NICKEL
ALLOYS
- ALUMINUMALLOYS

METALS

- ALUMINUM
- CADMIUM
- CHROMIUM
COBALT
-- COBALT
- COPPER
- GOLD
- LEAD
MANGANESE
- NICKEL
PLATINUM
-- PLATINUM
- SILVER
- TIN
- TITANIUM
- TUNGSTEN
- VANADIUM
- ZINC

THERMOSETTIN
THERMOSETTIN
GS
-THERMOPLASTI
CS
CS

CERAMICS

- GLASS
PORCELAIN
-- PORCELAIN
CEMENTED
-- CEMENTED
CARBIDES

COMPOSITES
- CARBON FIBRE
-- CONCRETE
CONCRETE
- GLASS REINFORCED
PLASTIC
PLASTIC

Fig 1.1 Block Diagram of Engineering Materials


CLASSIFICATION OF ENGINEERING MATERIALS

Page 76

The engineering materials are mainly classified as:


3. Metals and their alloys, such as iron, steel, copper, aluminum, etc.
4. Non-metals, such as glass, rubber, plastic, etc.
Chapter 1: Engineering Materials
Page 76

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The metals
may be further
classified as:
BATAAN
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c) Ferrous
metals
and
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OF ENGINEERING
AND ARCHITECTURE
d) Non-ferrous metals.

MECHANICAL ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT

The ferrous metals are those which have the iron as their main
constituent, such as cast iron, wrought iron and steel.
The non-ferrous metals are those which have a metal other than iron
as their main constituent, such as copper, aluminum, brass, tin, zinc, etc.
SELECTION OF MATERIALS FOR ENGINEERING PURPOSES

The selection of a proper material, for engineering purposes, is one of


the most difficult problems for the designer. The best material is one
which serves the desired objective at the minimum cost. The following
factors should be considered while selecting the material:

1. Availability of the materials,


2. Suitability of the materials for the working conditions in service,
and
3. The cost of the materials.

Page 76

The important properties, which determine the utility of the material, are
physical, chemical and mechanical properties.

PROPERTIES OF ENGINEERING MATERIALS

Chapter 1: Engineering Materials


Page 76

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BATAAN PENINSULA STATE UNIVERSITY

Physical Properties of Metals


MAIN CAMPUS, PROVINCE

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BALANGA C-2100

COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING AND ARCHITECTURE

The physical properties


of the
metals include
luster, color, size and
MECHANICAL
ENGINEERING
DEPARTMENT
shape, density, electric and thermal conductivity, and melting point
.
Some of the important physical properties are:
1. Density
Density is defined as mass per unit volume for a material. The
derived unit usually used by engineers is the kg/m3. Relative density is
the density of the material compared with the density of the water at
4C. The formulae of density and relative density are:
density ( )=

mass (m)
volume (V )

Relative density ( d )=

density of thematerial
0
density of water at 4 C

2. Electrical Conductivity
Electrical conductivity is a measure of how well a material
accommodates the movement of an electric charge. It is the ratio of the
current density to the electric field strength.
3. Melting temperature of material
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The melting temperatures and the re-crystallization temperatures


have a great effect on the materials and the alloys of the materials
properties and as a result on its applications.

Chapter 1: Engineering Materials


Page 76

4. Semiconductors
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Semiconductor
materials are capable
of UNIVERSITY
having their conductors
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properties
changed
during manufacture.
Examples of semiconductor
COLLEGE
OF ENGINEERING
AND ARCHITECTURE
materials are silicon and germanium. They are used extensively in the
MECHANICAL ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT

electronics industry in the manufacture of solid-state devices such as


diodes, thermistors, transistors and integrated circuits.
5. Thermal conductivity
This is the ability of the material to transmit heat energy by conduction.
6. Fusibility
This is the ease with which materials will melt.
7. Reluctance (as magnetic properties)
Just as some materials are good or bad conductors of electricity;
some materials can be good or bad conductors of magnetism. The
resistance of magnetic circuit is referred to as reluctance. The good
magnetic conductors have low reluctance and examples are the
ferromagnetic materials which get their name from the fact that they are
made from iron, steel and associated alloying elements such as cobalt
and nickel. All other materials are non-magnetic and offer a high
reluctance to the magnetic flux field.

8. Temperature stability
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Any changes in temperature can have very significant effects on the


structure and properties of materials. However, there are several effects
can appear with changes in temperature such as creep.
.
Chapter 1: Engineering Materials
Page 76

Mechanical
Properties of Metals
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The BATAAN
mechanicalPENINSULA
properties of the
metals
are those which are
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associated
with the
of the material
to resist mechanical forces and
COLLEGE
OF ability
ENGINEERING
AND ARCHITECTURE
load. These mechanical properties of the metal include strength,
stiffness,

MECHANICAL ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT

elasticity,

plasticity,

ductility,

brittleness,

malleability,

toughness, resilience, creep and hardness. We shall now discuss these


properties as follows:
1. Strength. It is the ability of a material to resist the externally applied
forces without breaking or yielding. The internal resistance offered by a
part to an externally applied force is called stress.
2. Stiffness. It is the ability of a material to resist deformation under
stress. The modulus of elasticity is the measure of stiffness.
3. Elasticity. It is the property of a material to regain its original shape
after deformation when the external forces are removed. This property
is desirable for materials used in tools and machines. It may be noted
that steel is more elastic than rubber.
4. Plasticity. It is property of a material which retains the deformation
produced under load permanently. This property of the material is
necessary for forgings, in stamping images on coins and in ornamental
work.
5. Ductility. It is the property of a material enabling it to be drawn into
Page 76

wire with the application of a tensile force. A ductile material must be


both strong and plastic. The ductility is usually measured by the terms,
percentage elongation and percentage reduction in area. The ductile
material

commonly

used

in

engineering

practice

(in

order

of

Chapter 1: Engineering Materials


Page 76

diminishing
ductility) are mild steel, copper, aluminum, nickel, zinc, tin
REPUBLIC OF THE PHILIPPINES
and lead.
BATAAN

PENINSULA STATE UNIVERSITY

MAIN CAMPUS, PROVINCE

OF

BATAAN, CITY

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COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING AND ARCHITECTURE

Note : The ductility of a material is commonly measured by means of


MECHANICAL ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT

percentage elongation and percentage reduction in area in a tensile test.


6. Brittleness. It is the property of a material opposite to ductility. It is
the property of breaking of a material with little permanent distortion.
Brittle materials when subjected to tensile loads, snap off without
giving any sensible elongation. Cast iron is a brittle material.
7. Malleability. It is a special case of ductility which permits materials to
be rolled or hammered into thin sheets. A malleable material should be
plastic but it is not essential to be so strong. The malleable materials
commonly used in engineering practice (in order of diminishing
malleability) are lead, soft steel, wrought iron, copper and aluminum.
8. Toughness. It is the property of a material to resist fracture due to
high impact loads like hammer blows. The toughness of the material
decreases when it is heated. It is measured by the amount of energy
that a unit volume of the material has absorbed after being stressed
up to the point of fracture. This property is desirable in parts subjected
to shock and impact loads.
9. Machinability. It is the property of a material which refers to a
relative case with which a material can be cut. The machinability of a
Page 76

material can be measured in a number of ways such as comparing the


tool life for cutting different materials or thrust required to remove the
material at some given rate or the energy required to remove a unit
volume of the material. It may be noted that brass can be easily
machined than steel.
Chapter 1: Engineering Materials
Page 76

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10. Resilience. It is the property of a material to absorb energy and to

BATAAN PENINSULA STATE UNIVERSITY

resistMshock
AIN CAMPUS
and, impact
PROVINCEloads.
OF BATAAN
It is, measured
CITY OF BALANGA
by the
C-2100
amount of energy
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absorbed per unit volume within elastic limit. This property is essential
MECHANICAL ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT

for spring materials.

11. Creep. When a part is subjected to a constant stress at high


temperature for a long period of time, it will undergo a slow and
permanent deformation called creep. This property is considered in
designing internal combustion engines, boilers and turbines.
12. Fatigue. When a material is subjected to repeated stresses, it fails
at stresses below the yield point stresses. Such type of failure of a
material is known as fatigue. The failure is caused by means of a
progressive crack formation which are usually fine and of microscopic
size. This property is considered in designing shafts, connecting rods,
springs, gears, etc.
13. Hardness. It is a very important property of the metals and has a
wide variety of meanings.
It embraces many different properties such as resistance to wear,
scratching, deformation and machinability etc. It also means the ability
of a metal to cut another metal. The hardness is usually expressed in
numbers which are dependent on the method of making the test. The
hardness of a metal may be determined by the following tests:
a) Brinell hardness test,
b) Rockwell hardness test,
Page 76

c) Vickers hardness (also called Diamond Pyramid) test, and


d) Shore scleroscope.
Chemical Properties

Chapter 1: Engineering Materials


Page 76

Metals
are usually inclined
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to

form cations through

electron

loss, reacting
with PENINSULA
oxygen in the STATE
air to UNIVERSITY
form oxides over various
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timescales
(iron OF
rusts
over years, AND
while
potassium burns in seconds).
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ENGINEERING
ARCHITECTURE
Examples:

MECHANICAL ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT

4 Na + O2 2 Na2O (sodium oxide)


2 Ca + O2 2 CaO (calcium oxide)

4 Al + 3 O2 2 Al2O3 (aluminum oxide).


The transition metals (such as iron, copper, zinc, and nickel) are
slower to oxidize because they form passivating layer of oxide that
protects the interior. Others, like palladium, platinum and gold, do not
react with the atmosphere at all.
Some metals form a barrier layer of oxide on their surface which
cannot be penetrated by further oxygen molecules and thus retain their
shiny

appearance

and

good

conductivity

for

many

decades

(like aluminum, magnesium, some steels, and titanium).


The oxides of metals are generally basic, as opposed to those of
nonmetals, which are acidic.
Chemical properties are any of the properties of matter that may
only be observed and measured by performing a chemical change or
chemical reaction.

Page 76

1. Reactivity. It refers to the rate at which a chemical substance tends


to undergo a chemical reaction in time

Chapter 1: Engineering Materials


Page 76

2. Toxicity.
It is the degree to which something is able to produce illness
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or damage
to an exposed
organism.STATE
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COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING AND ARCHITECTURE

3. Flammability. It is defined as how easily something will burn or


MECHANICAL ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT

ignite, causing fire or combustion.

4. Oxidation. It is the interaction between oxygen molecules and other


substances.
5. Chemical

Stability.

Tendency

of

a material to

resist change or decomposition due to internal reaction, or due to the


action of air, heat, light, pressure, etc.
6. Corrosion. It is the gradual destruction of material, usually metals, by
chemical reaction with its environment.

Page 76

Chapter 1: Engineering Materials


Page 76

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CLASSIFICATION
OF FERROUS METALS

BATAAN PENINSULA STATE UNIVERSITY


MAIN CAMPUS, PROVINCE

OF

BATAAN, CITY

OF

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COLLEGE
OF ENGINEERING
AND ARCHITECTURE
The
term 'ferrous'
comes from
a Latin word ferrum, meaning
MECHANICAL
ENGINEERING
'containing iron'.
Hence, ferrous
metals are DEPARTMENT
all those metals that contain

iron. Ferrous metals may contain small amounts of other elements such
as carbon or nickel, in a specific proportion that are added to achieve the
desired properties. All the ferrous metals are generally magnetic and
have high tensile strength. Now that you know what ferrous metals are,
let us have a look at a ferrous metals list.
Most commonly used ferrous metals are Mild Steel, High Speed
Steel, Stainless Steel, High Tensile Steel and Cast Iron.
1. Cast Iron
The cast iron is obtained by re-melting pig iron with coke and
limestone in a furnace known as cupola. It is primarily an alloy of iron
and carbon. The carbon contents in cast iron vary from 1.7 per cent to
4.5 per cent. It also contains small amounts of silicon, manganese,
phosphorous and sulphur. The carbon in a cast iron is present in either of
the following two forms:
a) Free carbon or graphite, and
b) Combined carbon or cementite.
Since the cast iron is a brittle material, therefore, it cannot be used
in those parts of machines which are subjected to shocks. The properties
of cast iron which make it a valuable material for engineering purposes
Page 76

are its low cost, good casting characteristics, high compressive strength,
wear resistance and excellent machinability. The compressive strength of
cast iron is much greater than the tensile strength. Following are the
values of ultimate strength of cast iron:
Chapter 1: Engineering Materials
Page 76

Tensile strength = 100 to 200 MPa

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Compressive
strength = 400
to 1000 UNIVERSITY
MPa
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Shear strength
= 120 MPa
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Types of Cast Iron

a. Grey cast iron. It is an ordinary commercial iron having the


following compositions:
Carbon = 3 to 3.5%; Silicon = 1 to 2.75%; Manganese = 0.40 to 1.0%;
Phosphorous = 0.15 to 1% ; Sulphur = 0.02 to 0.15% ; and the
remaining is iron.
The grey color is due to the fact that the carbon is present in
the form of free graphite. It has a low tensile strength, high
compressive strength and no ductility. It can be easily machined. A
very good property of grey cast iron is that the free graphite in its
structure acts as a lubricant. Due to this reason, it is very suitable for
those parts where sliding action is desired. The grey iron castings are
widely used for machine tool bodies, automotive cylinder blocks,
heads, housings, fly-wheels, pipes and pipe fittings and agricultural
implements.

Page 76

Table 1.1 Grey Iron Casting per IS: 210 1993

Chapter 1: Engineering Materials


Page 76

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BATAAN PENINSULA STATE UNIVERSITY


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OF

BATAAN, CITY

OF

BALANGA C-2100

COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING AND ARCHITECTURE

MECHANICAL ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT

According to Indian standard specifications (IS: 210 1993), the


grey cast iron is designated by the alphabets FG followed by a figure
indicating the minimum tensile strength in MPa or N/mm2. For
example, FG 150 means grey cast iron with 150 MPa or N/mm2 as
minimum tensile strength. The seven recommended grades of grey
cast iron with their tensile strength and Brinell hardness number
(B.H.N) are given in Table 1.3.
b. White cast iron. The white cast iron shows a white fracture and
has the following approximate compositions:
Carbon = 1.75 to 2.3%; Silicon = 0.85 to 1.2%; Manganese = less
than 0.4%; Phosphorus = less than 0.2%; Sulphur = less than 0.12%,
and the remaining is iron.
The white color is due to fact that it has no graphite and whole
of the carbon is in the form of carbide (known as cementite) which is
the hardest constituent of iron. The white cast iron has a high tensile
strength and a low compressive strength. Since it is hard, therefore, it
cannot be machined with ordinary cutting tools but requires grinding
as shaping process. The white cast iron may be produced by casting
Page 76

against metal chills or by regulating analysis. The chills are used when
a hard, wear resisting surface is desired for such products as for car
wheels, rolls for crushing grains and jaw crusher plates.

Chapter 1: Engineering Materials


Page 76

c. Chilled
cast iron. It is a white cast iron produced by quick cooling
REPUBLIC OF THE PHILIPPINES
of molten
iron. The
quick cooling STATE
is generally
called chilling and the
BATAAN
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castCOLLEGE
iron so produced
is called chilled
cast iron. All castings are chilled
OF ENGINEERING
AND ARCHITECTURE
at their outer skin by contact of the molten iron with the cool sand in
MECHANICAL ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT

the mould. But on most castings, this hardness penetrates to a very


small depth (less than 1 mm). Sometimes, a casting is chilled
intentionally

and

sometimes

chilled

becomes

accidently

to

considerable depth. The intentional chilling is carried out by putting


inserts of iron or steel (chills) into the mould. When the molten metal
comes into contact with the chill, its heat is readily conducted away
and the hard surface is formed. Chills are used on any faces of a
casting which are required to be hard to withstand wear and friction.
d. Mottled cast iron. It is a product in between grey and white cast
iron in composition, color and general properties. It is obtained in
castings where certain wearing surfaces have been chilled.
e. Malleable cast iron. The malleable iron is a cast iron-carbon alloy
which solidifies in the as-cast condition in a graphite free structure,
i.e. total carbon content is present in its combined form as cementite
(Fe3C).
f. Nodular or spheroidal graphite cast iron. The nodular or
spheroidal graphite cast iron is also called ductile cast iron or high
strength cast iron. This type of cast iron is obtained by adding small
Page 76

amounts of magnesium (0.1 to 0.8%) to the molten grey iron. The


addition of magnesium causes the *graphite to take form of small
nodules or spheroids instead of the normal angular flakes. It has high
fluidity, castability, tensile strength, toughness, wear resistance,
pressure tightness, weldability and machinability. It is generally used
Chapter 1: Engineering Materials
Page 76

for castings
requiring shock and impact resistance along with good
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machinability,
as hydraulic STATE
cylinders, UNIVERSITY
cylinder heads, rolls for
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rolling
mill andOF
centrifugally
castAND
products.
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ENGINEERING
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MECHANICAL ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT

2. Alloy Cast Iron

The cast irons contain small percentages of other constituents like


silicon, manganese, sulphur and phosphorus. These cast irons may be
called as plain cast irons. The alloy cast iron is produced by adding
alloying elements like nickel, chromium, molybdenum, copper and
manganese in sufficient quantities. These alloying elements give more
strength and result in improvement of properties. The alloy cast iron has
special properties like increased strength, high wear resistance, corrosion
resistance or heat resistance. The alloy cast irons are extensively used
for gears, automobile parts like cylinders, pistons, piston rings, crank
cases, crankshafts, camshafts, sprockets, wheels, pulleys, brake drums
and shoes, parts of crushing and grinding machinery etc.
Effect of Impurities on Cast Iron
We have discussed in the previous articles that the cast iron contains
small percentages of silicon, sulphur, manganese and phosphorous. The
effect of these impurities on the cast iron is as follows:
1. Silicon. It may be present in cast iron up to 4%. It provides the
formation of free graphite which makes the iron soft and easily
machinable. It also produces sound castings free from blow-holes,
because of its high affinity for oxygen.
Page 76

2. Sulphur. It makes the cast iron hard and brittle. Since too much
sulphur gives unsound casting, therefore, it should be kept well
below 0.1% for most foundry purposes.

Chapter 1: Engineering Materials


Page 76

3. Manganese.
It makes the cast iron white and hard. It is often kept
REPUBLIC OF THE PHILIPPINES
below
0.75%.PENINSULA
It helps to exert
a controlling
influence over the
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harmful
effect
of sulphur.
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AND ARCHITECTURE
4. Phosphorus. It aids fusibility and fluidity in cast iron, but induces
MECHANICAL ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT

brittleness. It is rarely allowed to exceed 1%. Phosphoric irons are


useful for casting of intricate design and for many light engineering
castings when cheapness is essential.

3. Wrought Iron
It is the purest iron which contains at least 99.5% iron but may
contain up to 99.9% iron. The typical composition of a wrought iron is
Carbon = 0.020%, Silicon = 0.120%, Sulphur = 0.018%, Phosphorus =
0.020%, Slag = 0.070%, and the remaining is iron.
The wrought iron is produced from pig iron by remelting it in the
puddling furnace of reverberatory type. The molten metal free from
impurities is removed from the furnace as a pasty mass of iron and slag.
The balls of this pasty mass, each about 45 to 65 kg are formed.
These balls are then mechanically worked both to squeeze out the
slag and to form it into some commercial shape.
The wrought iron is a tough, malleable and ductile material. It
cannot stand sudden and excessive shocks. Its ultimate tensile strength
Page 76

is 250 MPa to 500 MPa and the ultimate compressive strength is 300
MPa.
It can be easily forged or welded. It is used for chains, crane hooks,
railway couplings, and water and steam pipes.
Chapter 1: Engineering Materials
Page 76

REPUBLIC OF THE PHILIPPINES

4. Steel
BATAAN

PENINSULA STATE UNIVERSITY

MAIN CAMPUS, PROVINCE

OF

BATAAN, CITY

OF

BALANGA C-2100

ItCOLLEGE
is an alloy
of iron and carbon,
with carbon content up to a
OF ENGINEERING
AND ARCHITECTURE
maximum of 1.5%. The carbon occurs in the form of iron carbide,
MECHANICAL ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT

because of its ability to increase the hardness and strength of the steel.
Other elements e.g. silicon, sulphur, phosphorus and manganese are also
present to greater or lesser amount to impart certain desired properties
to it. Most of the steel produced now-a-days is plain carbon steel or
simply carbon steel.

Plain carbon steels are the most important group of engineering


alloys and account for the vast majority of steel produced. Their
relatively low cost and wide range of useful properties makes them
attractive as engineering materials. Applications for plain carbon steel
are countless, with product forms consisting of sheet, strip, plate, bar,
wire, and tubular products. Plain carbon steels are members of the family
of ferrous alloys, which also includes alloy steels, stainless steels, tool
steels, and cast irons.
A carbon steel is defined as a steel which has its properties mainly due
to its carbon content and does not contain more than 0.5% of silicon and
1.5% of manganese. The plain carbon steels varying from 0.06% carbon
to 1.5% carbon are divided into the following types depending upon the
carbon content.
Page 76

1.
2.

Dead mild steel up to 0.15% carbon


Low Carbon Steels (0.10 0.25 % C)
1.
Carbon content up to 0.30 percent or 30 points
Chapter 1: Engineering Materials
Page 76

2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

Microstructure consists of ferrite and pearlite constituents.


Soft and weak, but have outstanding ductility and toughness.
BATAAN
PENINSULA STATE UNIVERSITY
Machinable, weldable, and the least expensive to produce.
MAIN CAMPUS, PROVINCE OF BATAAN, CITY OF BALANGA C-2100
Applications:
automobile body
structural shapes.
COLLEGE
OF ENGINEERING
AND components,
ARCHITECTURE
Yield strength around 275MPa (40,000psi), Tensile strength
REPUBLIC OF THE PHILIPPINES

MECHANICAL ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT

between 415MPa and 550 MPa (60,000psi and 80,000psi),


ductility of 25& EL
3.

Medium Carbon Steels (0.25 0.50 % C)


1

Carbon content from 0.30 to 0.50 percent or 30 to 50 points

High strength, wear resistance, toughness.

Applications: railway wheels and tracks, gears, crankshafts, and


other machine

4.

parts.

High
1.
2.
3.
4.

Carbon Steels (0.50 0.70 % C)


Carbon content from 0.50 to 1.05% or 50 to 105 points
Hardest, strongest, least ductile carbon steels.
Wear resistant, capable of holding a sharp cutting edge
Usually contains chromium, vanadium, tungsten,

5.

molybdenum.
Utilize as cutting tools, dies for forming and shaping materials.

and

According to Indian standard [IS: 1762 (Part-I)1974], a new system


of designating the steel is recommended. According to this standard,
steels are designated on the following two basis:
1
2
5.

On the basis of mechanical properties, and


On the basis of chemical composition.
High Strength, Low Alloy Steels (HSLA)
1.
Contains other alloying elements such as copper, vanadium,
Page 76

nickel and molybdenucombined in concentration high as 10wt


2.
3.
4.

% possess high strength.


Ductile, formable, machinable.
Corrosion resistant at normal atmosphere.
Tensile strength in excess of 480MPa (70,000psi).
Chapter 1: Engineering Materials
Page 76

REPUBLIC OF THE PHILIPPINES

5. High Strength,
Low
Alloy Steels (HSLA)
BATAAN
PENINSULA
STATE
MAIN CAMPUS, PROVINCE

OF

BATAAN, CITY

OF

UNIVERSITY

BALANGA C-2100

COLLEGE
OF ENGINEERING
AND ARCHITECTURE
Contains
other alloying
elements such
as copper, vanadium, nickel and
MECHANICAL
ENGINEERING
molybdenum
combined in DEPARTMENT
concentration high as 10wt%

possess high strength.


Ductile, formable, machinable.
Corrosion resistant at normal atmosphere.
Tensile strength in excess of 480MPa (70,000psi).
Effect of Impurities on Steel
The following are the effects of impurities like silicon, sulphur,
manganese and phosphorus on steel.
1. Silicon. The amount of silicon in the finished steel usually ranges
from 0.05 to 0.30%. Silicon is added in low carbon steels to
prevent them from becoming porous. It removes the gases and
oxides, prevent blow holes and thereby makes the steel tougher
and harder.
2. Sulphur. It occurs in steel either as iron sulphide or manganese
sulphide. Iron sulphide because of its low melting point produces
red shortness, whereas manganese sulphide does not affect so
much. Therefore, manganese sulphide is less objectionable in
steel than iron sulphide.
3. Manganese. It serves as a valuable deoxidizing and purifying
agent in steel. Manganese also combines with sulphur and
Page 76

thereby decreases the harmful effect of this element remaining in


the steel. When used in ordinary low carbon steels, manganese
makes the metal ductile and of good bending qualities. In high
speed steels, it is used to toughen the metal and to increase its
critical temperature.
Chapter 1: Engineering Materials
Page 76

4. RPhosphorus.
It makes the steel brittle. It also produces cold
EPUBLIC OF THE PHILIPPINES
shortness inPENINSULA
steel. In low carbon
steels,UNIVERSITY
it raises the yield
BATAAN
STATE
MAIN CAMPUS, PROVINCE

OF

BATAAN, CITY

OF

point

BALANGA C-2100

and improves
the resistanceAND
to atmospheric
corrosion. The sum of
COLLEGE
OF ENGINEERING
ARCHITECTURE
carbon and phosphorus usually does not exceed 0.25%.
MECHANICAL ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT

6. Free Cutting Steels


The free cutting steels contain sulphur and phosphorus. These steels
have higher sulphur content than other carbon steels. In general, the
carbon content of such steels vary from 0.1 to 0.45 per cent and sulphur
from 0.08 to 0.3 per cent. These steels are used where rapid machining
is the prime requirement. It may be noted that the presence of sulphur
and phosphorus causes long chips in machining to be easily broken and
thus prevent clogging of machines. Nowadays, lead is used from 0.05 to
0.2 per cent instead of sulphur, because lead also greatly improves the
machinability of steel without the loss of toughness.
7. Alloy Steel
Alloy steel may be defined as a steel to which elements other than
carbon are added in sufficient amount to produce an improvement in
properties. The alloying is done for specific purposes to increase wearing
resistance, corrosion resistance and to improve electrical and magnetic
properties, which cannot be obtained in plain carbon steels. The chief
alloying elements used in steel are nickel, chromium, molybdenum,
cobalt, vanadium, manganese, silicon and tungsten. Each of these
elements confers certain qualities upon the steel to which it is added.
Page 76

These elements may be used separately or in combination to produce


the desired characteristic in steel.
Following are the effects of alloying elements on steel:
Chapter 1: Engineering Materials
Page 76

1. RNickel.
It increases the strength and toughness of the steel.
EPUBLIC OF THE PHILIPPINES
These steelsPENINSULA
contain 2 to 5% nickel
and UNIVERSITY
from 0.1 to 0.5% carbon.
BATAAN
STATE
MAIN CAMPUS, PROVINCE

OF

BATAAN, CITY

OF

BALANGA C-2100

COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING AND ARCHITECTURE

2. Chromium. It is used in steels as an alloying element to combine


MECHANICAL ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT

hardness with high strength and high elastic limit. It also imparts
corrosion-resisting properties to steel. The most common chrome
steels contains from 0.5 to 2% chromium and 0.1 to 1.5% carbon.
The chrome steel is used for balls, rollers and races for bearings
3. Tungsten. It prohibits grain growth, increases the depth of
hardening of quenched steel and confers the property of
remaining hard even when heated to red color. It is usually used
in conjunction with other elements. Steel containing 3 to 18%
tungsten and 0.2 to 1.5% carbon is used for cutting tools. The
principal uses of tungsten steels are for cutting tools, dies,
valves, taps and permanent magnets.
4. Vanadium. It aids in obtaining a fine grain structure in tool steel.
The addition of a very small amount of vanadium (less than 0.2%)
produces a marked increase in tensile strength and elastic limit in
low and medium carbon steels without a loss of ductility.
5. Manganese. It improves the strength of the steel in both the hot
rolled and heat treated condition. The manganese alloy steels
containing over 1.5% manganese with a carbon range of 0.40 to
Page 76

0.55% are used extensively in gears, axles, shafts and other parts
where high strength combined with fair ductility is required.
6. Silicon. The silicon steels behave like nickel steels. These steels
have a high elastic limit as compared to ordinary carbon steel.
Chapter 1: Engineering Materials
Page 76

Silicon steels containing from 1 to 2% silicon and 0.1 to 0.4%

REPUBLIC OF THE PHILIPPINES

carbon and PENINSULA


other alloying STATE
elements UNIVERSITY
are used for electrical
BATAAN
MAIN CAMPUS, PROVINCE

OF

BATAAN, CITY

OF

BALANGA C-2100

machinery,
in I.C. engines,
springs and corrosion resisting
COLLEGE
OFvalves
ENGINEERING
AND ARCHITECTURE
materials.

MECHANICAL ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT

7. Cobalt. It gives red hardness by retention of hard carbides at


high temperatures. It tends to decarburize steel during heattreatment. It increases hardness and strength and also residual
magnetism and coercive magnetic force in steel for magnets.
8. Molybdenum. A very small quantity (0.15 to 0.30%) of
molybdenum is generally used with chromium and manganese
(0.5 to 0.8%) to make molybdenum steel

8. Stainless Steel
Highly resistant to corrosion.
11wt% chromium required.
Applications: gas turbines, steam boilers, furnaces, aircraft,
missiles, nuclear power plant generating unit.
It is defined as that steel which when correctly heat treated and
finished, resists oxidation and corrosive attack from most corrosive
media.
a. Martensitic stainless steel. The chromium steels containing 12 to
Page 76

14 per cent chromium and 0.12 to 0.35 per cent carbon are the first
stainless steels developed. Since these steels possess Martensitic
structure, therefore, they are called Martensitic stainless steels.
These steels are magnetic and may be hardened by suitable heat
treatment and the hardness obtainable depends upon the carbon
Chapter 1: Engineering Materials
Page 76

content.
These steels can be easily welded and machined. When
REPUBLIC OF THE PHILIPPINES
formability,
softness,
etc. are required
fabrication, steel having
BATAAN
PENINSULA
STATEin UNIVERSITY
MAIN CAMPUS, PROVINCE

OF

BATAAN, CITY

OF

BALANGA C-2100

0.12
per cent
carbon
is often
used in soft condition. With
COLLEGE
OFmaximum
ENGINEERING
AND
ARCHITECTURE
increasing carbon, it is possible by hardening and tempering to
MECHANICAL ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT

obtain tensile strength in the range of 600 to 900 N/mm2, combined


with reasonable toughness and ductility. In this condition, these
steels find many useful general applications where mild corrosion
resistance is required. Also, with the higher carbon range in the
hardened and lightly tempered condition, tensile strength of about
1600 N/mm2 may be developed with lowered ductility.
These steels may be used where the corrosion conditions are
not too severe, such as for hydraulic, steam and oil pumps, valves
and other engineering components. However, these steels are not
suitable for shafts and parts working in contact with non-ferrous
metals (i.e. brass, bronze or gun metal bearings) and with graphite
packings, because electrolytic corrosion is likely to occur. After
hardening and light tempering, these steels develop good cutting
properties. Therefore, they are used for cutlery, springs, surgical and
dental instruments.
Note: The presence of chromium provides good resistance to scaling
up to a temperature of about 750C, but it is not suitable where
mechanical strength in the temperature range of 600 to 750C is
required. In fact, creep resistance of these steels at this temperature
Page 76

is not superior to that of mild steel. But at temperature below 600C,


the strength of these steels is better than that of carbon steels and
up to 480C is even better than that of austenitic steels.

Chapter 1: Engineering Materials


Page 76

b. Ferritic
stainless steel. The steels containing greater amount of
REPUBLIC OF THE PHILIPPINES
chromium
(fromPENINSULA
16 to 18 per cent)
and about
0.12 per cent carbon
BATAAN
STATE
UNIVERSITY
MAIN CAMPUS, PROVINCE

OF

BATAAN, CITY

OF

BALANGA C-2100

areCOLLEGE
called ferritic
stainlessAND
steels.
These steels have better
OF ENGINEERING
ARCHITECTURE
corrosion resistant property than martensitic stainless steels. But,
MECHANICAL ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT

such steels have little capacity for hardening by heat treatment.


However, in the softened condition, they possess good ductility and
are mainly used as sheet or strip for cold forming and pressing
operations for purposes where moderate corrosion resistance is
required. They may be cold worked or hot worked. They are ferromagnetic, usually undergo excessive grain growth during prolonged
exposure to elevated temperatures, and may develop brittleness
after electric arc resistance or gas welding. These steels have lower
strength at elevated temperatures than martensitic steels. However,
resistance to scaling and corrosion at elevated temperatures are
usually better. The machinability is good and they show no tendency
to intercrystalline corrosion.
Note: When nickel from 1.5 to 2.5 per cent is added to 16 to 18 per
cent chromium steel, it not only makes more resistant to corrosion
than martensitic steel but also makes it hardenable by heat
treatment. Such steel has good resistance to electrolytic corrosion
when in contact with non-ferrous metals and graphite packings. Thus
it is widely used for pump shafts, spindles and valves as well as for
many other fittings where a good combination of mechanical and
corrosion properties are required.
Page 76

c. Austenitic stainless steel. The steel containing high content of


both chromium and nickel are called austenitic stainless steels.
There are many variations in chemical composition of these steels,
Chapter 1: Engineering Materials
Page 76

butREPUBLIC
the most
widely used steel contain 18 per cent chromium and 8
OF THE PHILIPPINES
perBATAAN
cent nickel PENINSULA
with carbon content
as low UNIVERSITY
as possible. Such steel is
STATE
MAIN CAMPUS, PROVINCE

OF

BATAAN, CITY

OF

BALANGA C-2100

commonly
as 18/8 steel.
steels cannot be hardened
COLLEGEknown
OF ENGINEERING
ANDThese
ARCHITECTURE
by quenching; in fact they are softened by rapid cooling from about
MECHANICAL ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT

1000C. They are nonmagnetic and possess greatest resistance to


corrosion and good mechanical properties at elevated temperature.
These steels are very tough and can be forged and rolled but
offer great difficulty in machining. They can be easily welded, but
after welding, it is susceptible to corrosive attack in an area adjacent
to the weld. This susceptibility to corrosion (called intercrystalline
corrosion or weld decay) may be removed by softening after welding
by heating to about 1100C and cooling rapidly. These steels are
used in the manufacture of pump shafts, rail road car frames and
sheathing, screws, nuts and bolts and small springs. Since 18/8 steel
provide excellent resistance to attack by many chemicals, therefore,
it is extensively used in chemical, food, paper making and dyeing
industries.
Note: When increased corrosion resistance properties are required,
for some purposes, then molybdenum from 1to 3 percent may be
added.

9. High Tensile Steel


Page 76

It is very strong and very tough ferrous metal and is exclusively used
for manufacturing of Gears, shafts, engine parts etc. This is one of the
most frequently used ferrous metals in industries because of its strength,
hardness and toughness.
Chapter 1: Engineering Materials
Page 76

10. Heat
Resisting Steels
REPUBLIC OF THE PHILIPPINES
The
steels which
can resistSTATE
creep UNIVERSITY
and oxidation at
BATAAN
PENINSULA
MAIN CAMPUS, PROVINCE

OF

BATAAN, CITY

OF

high

BALANGA C-2100

temperatures
and
sufficientAND
strength
are called heat resisting
COLLEGE
OFretain
ENGINEERING
ARCHITECTURE
steels.

MECHANICAL ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT

11. High Speed Tool Steels


These steels are used for cutting metals at a much higher cutting
speed than ordinary carbon tool steels. The carbon steel cutting tools do
not retain their sharp cutting edges under heavier loads and higher
speeds. This is due to the fact that at high speeds, sufficient heat may be
developed during the cutting operation and causes the temperature of
the cutting edge of the tool to reach a red heat. This temperature would
soften the carbon tool steel and thus the tool will not work efficiently for
a longer period. The high speed steels have the valuable property of
retaining their hardness even when heated to red heat. Most of the high
speed steels contain tungsten as the chief alloying element, but other
elements like cobalt, chromium, vanadium, etc. may be present in some
proportion.
Following are the different types of high speed steels:
a) High speed steel. This steel, on an average, contains 18 per cent
tungsten, 4 per cent chromium and 1 per cent vanadium. It is
considered to be one of the best of all purpose tool steels. It is
widely used for drills, lathe, planer and shaper tools, milling cutters,
Page 76

reamers, broaches, threading dies, punches, etc.


b) Molybdenum high speed steel. This steel, on an average,
contains 6 per cent tungsten, 6 per cent molybdenum, 4 per cent
chromium and 2 per cent vanadium. It has excellent toughness and
cutting ability. The molybdenum high speed steels are better and
Chapter 1: Engineering Materials
Page 76

cheaper
than other types of steels. It is particularly used for drilling
REPUBLIC OF THE PHILIPPINES
and
tapping operations.
BATAAN
PENINSULA STATE UNIVERSITY
c) Super
MAIN C
high
AMPUSspeed
, PROVINCE
steel.
OF BATAAN
This
, Csteel
ITY OF B
isALANGA
also C-2100
called cobalt high
COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING AND ARCHITECTURE

speed steel because cobalt is added from 2 to 15 per cent, in order


MECHANICAL ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT

to increase the cutting efficiency especially at high temperatures.


This steel, on an average, contains 20 per cent tungsten, 4 per cent
chromium, 2 per cent vanadium and 12 per cent cobalt. Since the
cost of this steel is more, therefore, it is principally used for heavy
cutting operations which impose high pressure and temperatures on
the tool.
12. Spring Steels
The most suitable material for springs are those which can store up
the maximum amount of work or energy in a given weight or volume of
spring material, without permanent deformation. These steels should
have a high elastic limit as well as high deflection value. The spring steel,
for aircraft and automobile purposes should possess maximum strength
against fatigue effects and shocks. The steels most commonly used for
making springs are as follows:
Following are the various heat treatment processes commonly
employed in engineering practice:
1. Normalizing. The main objects of normalizing are:
To refine the grain structure of the steel to improve machinability,
Page 76

tensile strength and structure of weld.


To

remove

strains

caused

by

cold

working

processes

like

hammering, rolling, bending, etc., which makes the metal brittle


and unreliable.
Chapter 1: Engineering Materials
Page 76

ToREPUBLIC
remove
dislocations caused in the internal structure of the steel
OF THE PHILIPPINES
due
BATAAN
to hot working.
PENINSULA
MAIN CAMPUS, PROVINCE

OF

STATE UNIVERSITY

BATAAN, CITY

OF

BALANGA C-2100

ToCOLLEGE
improve OF
certain
mechanical
andARCHITECTURE
electrical properties.
ENGINEERING
AND
MECHANICAL ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT

The process of normalizing consists of heating the steel from 30 to


50C above its upper critical temperature (for hypoeutectoid steels) or
Acm line (for hypereutectoid steels). It is held at this temperature for
about fifteen minutes and then allowed to cool down in still air.
This process provides a homogeneous structure consisting of
ferrite and pearlite for hypereutectoid steels, and pearlite and cementite
for hypereutectoid steels. The homogeneous structure provides a higher
yield point, ultimate tensile strength and impact strength with lower
ductility to steels. The process of normalizing is frequently applied to
castings and forgings, etc. The alloy steels may also be normalized but
they should be held for two hours at a specified temperature and then
cooling in the furnace.

Notes:
(a)

The upper critical temperature for a steel depends upon its

carbon content. It is 900C for pure iron, 860C for steels with
2.2% carbon, 723C for steel with 0.8% carbon and 1130C for
steel with 1.8% carbon.

Page 76

(b)

Steel containing 0.8% carbon is known as eutectoid steel,

steel containing less than 0.8% carbon is called hypoeutectoid


steel

and

steel

containing

above

0.8%

carbon

is

called

hypereutectoid steel.
Chapter 1: Engineering Materials
Page 76

REPUBLIC OF THE PHILIPPINES

2. Annealing.
The PENINSULA
main objects of annealing
BATAAN
STATEare:
UNIVERSITY
MAIN CAMPUS, PROVINCE

OF

BATAAN, CITY

OF

BALANGA C-2100

To
soften OF
theENGINEERING
steel so thatAND
it may
be easily machined or cold
COLLEGE
ARCHITECTURE
worked.
MECHANICAL ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT
To refine the grain size and structure to improve mechanical
properties like strength and ductility.
To relieve internal stresses which may have been caused by hot or
cold working or by unequal contraction in casting.
To alter electrical, magnetic or other physical properties.
To remove gases trapped in the metal during initial casting.
The annealing process is of the following two types:
a. Full annealing. The purpose of full annealing is to soften the
metal to refine the grain structure, to relieve the stresses and to
remove trapped gases in the metal.
In order to avoid decarburization of the steel during
annealing, the steel is packed in a cast iron box containing a
mixture of cast iron borings, charcoal, lime, sand or ground
mica. The box along with its contents is allowed to cool slowly in
the furnace after proper heating has been completed.
The following table shows the approximate temperatures
for annealing depending upon the carbon contents in steel.

Table 1.2 Annealing temperatures

Page 76

Chapter 1: Engineering Materials


Page 76

REPUBLIC OF THE PHILIPPINES

BATAAN PENINSULA STATE UNIVERSITY


MAIN CAMPUS, PROVINCE

OF

BATAAN, CITY

OF

BALANGA C-2100

COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING AND ARCHITECTURE

MECHANICAL ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT

b. Process annealing. The process annealing is used for relieving


the internal stresses previously set up in the metal and for
increasing the machinability of the steel. In this process, steel is
heated to a temperature below or close to the lower critical
temperature, held at this temperature for some time and then
cooled slowly. This causes complete recrystallization in steels
which have been severely cold worked and a new grain
structure is formed. The process annealing is commonly used in
the sheet and wire industries.
3. Spheroidising. It is another form of annealing in which cementite in
the granular form is produced in the structure of steel. This is usually
applied to high carbon tool steels which are difficult to machine. The
operation consists of heating the steel to a temperature slightly above
Page 76

the lower critical temperature (730 to 770C). It is held at this


temperature for some time and then cooled slowly to a temperature of
600C. The rate of cooling is from 25 to 30C per hour. The spheroidising
improves the machinability of steels, but lowers the hardness and tensile
Chapter 1: Engineering Materials
Page 76

strength.
These steels have better elongation properties than the
REPUBLIC OF THE PHILIPPINES
normally
annealed steel.
BATAAN
PENINSULA
MAIN CAMPUS, PROVINCE

OF

STATE UNIVERSITY

BATAAN, CITY

OF

BALANGA C-2100

COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING AND ARCHITECTURE

4. Hardening. The main objects of hardening are:

MECHANICAL ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT

(a) To increase the hardness of the metal so that it can resist wear.
(b) To enable it to cut other metals i.e. to make it suitable for cutting
tools.
The process of hardening consists of:
(i) Heating the metal to a temperature from 30 to 50C above the
upper critical point for hypoeutectoid steels and by the same
temperature above the lower critical point for hypereutectoid
steels.
(ii)

Keeping the metal at this temperature for a considerable time,

depending upon its thickness.


(iii)

Quenching (cooling suddenly) in a suitable cooling medium

like water, oil or brine.


5. Tempering. The steel hardened by rapid quenching is very hard and
brittle. It also contains internal stresses which are severe and unequally
distributed to cause cracks or even rupture of hardened steel. The
tempering (also known as drawing) is, therefore, done for the following
reasons:
6. Surface hardening or case hardening. In many engineering
Page 76

applications, it is desirable that a steel being used should have a


hardened surface to resist wear and tear. At the same time, it should
have soft and tough interior or core so that it is able to absorb any
shocks, etc. This is achieved by hardening the surface layers of the
Chapter 1: Engineering Materials
Page 76

article while
the rest of it is left as such. This type of treatment is applied
REPUBLIC OF THE PHILIPPINES
to gears,
ball bearings,
railway wheels,
etc.
BATAAN
PENINSULA
STATE
MAIN CAMPUS, PROVINCE

OF

BATAAN, CITY

OF

UNIVERSITY

BALANGA C-2100

Following
are theOF
various
surface or
case
hardening processes by means
COLLEGE
ENGINEERING
AND
ARCHITECTURE
of which the surface layer is hardened:

MECHANICAL ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT

(a)

Carburizing
Carburizing process has evolved with advancements in heat

treatment techniques that have improved the hardness and


durability of products like carbon steel wire springs and carbon
steel forgings.
(b)

Cyaniding
Cyaniding is a case hardening with powdered potassium

cyanide

or

potassium

ferro-cyanide

mixed

with

potassium

bicarbonate substituted for the carbon.


(c)

Nitriding
Nitriding is a surface hardening accomplished by heating

certain steel alloys immersed for the carbon.


(d)

Induction hardening
Induction hardening is a surface hardening technique in

which the surface of the metal is heated very quickly, using a nocontact method of induction heating. The alloy is then quenched,
producing a marten site transformation at the surface while
Page 76

leaving the underlying metal unchanged. This creates a very hard,


wear resistant surface while maintaining the proper toughness in
the majority of the object. Crankshaft journals are a good example
of an induction hardened surface.
Chapter 1: Engineering Materials
Page 76

(e) REPUBLIC
Flame
hardening
OF THE PHILIPPINES
Flame hardening
is used STATE
to harden UNIVERSITY
only a portion of a metal.
BATAAN
PENINSULA
MAIN CAMPUS, PROVINCE

OF

BATAAN, CITY

OF

BALANGA C-2100

Unlike
differential
hardening,AND
where
the entire piece is heated and
COLLEGE
OF ENGINEERING
ARCHITECTURE
then cooled at different rates, in flame hardening, only a portion of
MECHANICAL ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT

the metal is heated before quenching. This is usually easier than


differential hardening, but often produces an extremely brittle
zone between the heated metal and the unheated metal, as
cooling at the edge of this heat affected zone is extremely rapid.
7. Aging (and age hardening) is a change in metal by which its structure
recovers from an unstable or metastable condition that has been
produced by quenching or cold working. The change in structure,
which proceeds as a function of time and temperature, consists in
precipitation

often

submicroscopic.

The

result

is

change

of

mechanical and physical properties, a process that may be accelerated


by using a temperature slightly higher than room temperature.
8. Graphitizing and annealing process causes the combined carbon to
transform wholly or in part graphitic or free carbon; it is applied to cast
iron, sometimes to high carbon steel.
9.Selective hardening. Many heat treating methods have been
developed to alter the properties of only a portion of an object. These
tend to consist of either cooling different areas of an alloy at different
rates, by quickly heating in a localized area and then quenching, or by
thermo-chemical diffusion.
Page 76

10. Differential hardening. A differentially hardened katana. The


bright, wavy line, called the nioi, separates the martensitic edge from
the pearlitic back. The inset shows a close-up of the nioi, which is
Chapter 1: Engineering Materials
Page 76

made
up of single martensite grains surrounded by pearlite. The
REPUBLIC OF THE PHILIPPINES
wood-grain
appearance
comes from
layers ofUNIVERSITY
different composition.
BATAAN
PENINSULA
STATE
MAIN CAMPUS, PROVINCE

OF

BATAAN, CITY

OF

BALANGA C-2100

COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING AND ARCHITECTURE

11. Malleablizing is an annealing process whereby combined carbon in


MECHANICAL ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT

white cast iron is transformed wholly or in part to temper carbon.


Temper carbon is free (graphitic) carbon in the form of rounded
nodules, characteristic forms in graphitizing and malleablizing.
12. Stress relieving (thermal) is the heating of a metal body to a
suitable temperature (generally just below the transformation range
for steel, say 1100-1200oF) and holding it at that temperature for a
suitable time (1 and 3 times for steel) for the purpose of reducing
internal residual stresses. The internal stresses may be present
because the body has been cast, quenched, normalized, machined,
cold-worked, or welded.
13. Quench hardening. Quenching is a form of hardening whereby the
metal is subjected to heat at a temperature above the critical point,
then quickly immersing it into cold water or other cooling medium.
The degree of hardness depends on the amount of carbon present
and on the rate of cooling medium as ice water, cool water, oil, hot
oil, molten lead, and etc.

AISI & SAE SPECIFICATION NUMBER

Page 76

There are numerous standard materials specifications. The two


most widely used are the American Society of Testing Materials (ASTM),
the Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE), and the American Iron and
Steel Institute (AISI). The AISI and SAE specification numbers for steel are
Chapter 1: Engineering Materials
Page 76

almost Ralike
except that the AISI uses prefixes B, C, D, and E to indicate
EPUBLIC OF THE PHILIPPINES
the method
of manufacturing
the carbon
grades.
BATAAN
PENINSULA
STATE
UNIVERSITY
MAIN CAMPUS, PROVINCE

OF

BATAAN, CITY

OF

BALANGA C-2100

COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING AND ARCHITECTURE

MECHANICAL ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT

In general, the first two digits of the number represent a type of


steel. And the last two digits in four digit numbers invariably give the
approximate or average carbon content in points or hundredths of per
cent.
The first digit (1), of this designation indicates the major alloying
element. The SAE-AISI system then classifies all other alloy steels using
the same four digit index as follows:
1 Carbon Steels;
2 - Nickel steels;

5 - Chromium steels;
6 - Chromium-vanadium

3 - Nickel-chromium

steels;
7 - Tungsten-chromium

steels;
4 - Molybdenum steels;

steels;
9 - Silicon-manganese
steels.

Page 76

The second digit of the series indicates the concentration of the


major element in percentiles (1 equals 1%). The last two digits of the
series indicate the carbon concentration to 0.01%.

Chapter 1: Engineering Materials


Page 76

For
Example, SAE 5130 indicates
REPUBLIC OF THE PHILIPPINES

chromium steel alloy,

containing
1% of chromium
and 0.30%
of carbon.
BATAAN
PENINSULA
STATE
UNIVERSITY
MAIN CAMPUS, PROVINCE

OF

BATAAN, CITY

OF

BALANGA C-2100

COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING AND ARCHITECTURE

Additional letters added between the second and third digits


MECHANICAL ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT

include B when boron is added (between 0.0005 and 0.003%) for


enhanced hardenability, and L when lead is added (between 0.15 and
0.35%) for enhanced machinability. The prefix M is used to designate
merchant quality steel (the least restrictive quality descriptor for hotrolled steel bars used in noncritical parts of structures and machinery).
The

prefix E (electric-furnace

steel)

and

the

suffix H (hardenability

requirements) are mainly applicable to alloy steels

AISI AND SAE DESIGNATION OF STEELS

The Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE) designates SAE steel grades.


These are four digit numbers which represent chemical composition

standards for steel specifications. The American Iron and Steel Institute
(AISI) originally started a very similar system. Over time they used the
same numbers to refer to the same alloy, but the AISI system used a
letter prefix to denote the steelmaking process. The prefix "A" denotes
alloy basic open-heart. The prefix "B" denoted carbon acid Bessemer.
The prefix "C" denoted open-hearth furnace, electric arc furnace or basic
oxygen furnace. The prefix "D" denotes carbon acid open-heart while "E"
denotes electric arc furnace steel.

Page 76

If the prefix is omitted, the steel is assumed to be open hearth.


(Example: AISI C1050 indicates a plain carbon, basic-open hearth steel
that has 0.50 % Carbon content.)Another letter is the hardenability or Hvalue. (Example: 4340H)
Chapter 1: Engineering Materials
Page 76

REPUBLIC OF THE PHILIPPINES

BATAAN PENINSULA STATE UNIVERSITY


MAIN CAMPUS, PROVINCE

OF

BATAAN, CITY

OF

BALANGA C-2100

COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING AND ARCHITECTURE

Table 1.3 Major Classification of Steels

MECHANICAL ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT

SAE

Type
Designation
Steel According
1xxx Table 1.4 Classification of
Carbon
steels to AISI
Standard
2xxx
Nickel steels
3xxx
4xxx
5xxx
6xxx
7xxx
8xxx
9xxx
86XX
87XX
93XX
94XX
97XX

Nickel-chromium steels
Molybdenum steels
Chromium steels
Chromium-vanadium steels
Tungsten steels
Nickel-chromium-vanadium steels
Silicon-manganese steels
Triple Alloy steels which include Nickel
(Ni), Chromium (Cr), and Molybdenum
(Mo).
These steels exhibit high strength and also

98XX

high strength to weight ratio, good


corrosion resistance.

Page 76

Chapter 1: Engineering Materials

Table1.4
1.4Classification
ClassificationofofSteel
SteelAccording
Accordingto
toAISI
AISI
Standard
Page
76
Table
Standard
Table 1.4 Classification of Steel According to AISI Standard

THE PHILIPPINES
AI REPUBLIC OF Types
of Steel

Alloy Elements %

BATAAN PENINSULA STATE UNIVERSITY


SI
MAIN CAMPUS, PROVINCE

OF

BATAAN, CITY

OF

BALANGA C-2100

10COLLEGE OF
Plain
Carbon
0.4 Mn
ENGINEERING
AND ARCHITECTURE
11
Free machining
0.7 Mn, 0.12 S
MECHANICAL
ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT
13
High Manganese
1.6 - 1.90 Mn
2
Nickel Steels
3.5 - 5.0 Ni
3
Nickel Chromium
1.0 - 3.5 Ni, 0.5 -1.75 Cr
40
Molybdenum
0.15 - 0.3 Mo
41
Chrome-Molybdenum
0.80 -1.1 Cr, 0.15 - 0.25 Mo
43
Nickel - Chrome 1.65 - 2.0 Ni, 0.4 - 0.9
46
5
61
81

Molybdenum
Nickel - Molybdenum
Chromium
Chromium - Vanadium
Nickel - Chrome -

Cr, 0.2 - 0.3 Mo


1.65 Ni, 1.65 Mo
0.4 Cr
0.5 - 1.1 Cr, 0.1 - 0.15 Va
0.2 - 0.4 Ni, 0.3 - 0.55 Cr,

86

Molybdenum
Nickel - Chrome -

0.08 - 0.15 Mo
0.4 - 0.6 Ni, 0.4 - 0.6 Cr,

Molybdenum
0.15 - 0.25 Mo
92
Silicon
1.8 - 2.2 Si
From the table above showing that the first digit indicates the type of
steel. Then the second one is the modification in alloys. Lastly, the two
digits remainings show the carbon content in percentage.
Prior to 1995 the AISI was also involved, and the standard
was

designated the AISI/SAE steel grades. The AISI stopped being

involved because it never wrote any of the specifications.

Table 1.5 Steel Alloy Designation System

Page 76

AISI-SAE Designation

Type

Number
10xx

Carbon steels
Plain Carbon (Mn. 1.00%
max.)
Chapter 1: Engineering Materials
Page 76

Table 1.4
Table
Classification
1.5 SteelofAlloy
SteelDesignation
According to
System
AISI Standard

REPUBLIC OF THE11xx
PHILIPPINES

Resulfurized
Resulfurized and

BATAAN12xx
PENINSULA STATE UNIVERSITY
MAIN CAMPUS, PROVINCE

OF

BATAAN, CITY

OF rephosphorized
BALANGA C-2100

COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING AND ARCHITECTURE


Plain Carbon (max. Mn.

15xx

MECHANICAL ENGINEERINGrange
DEPARTMENT
1.00-1.65%)

Manganese steels
13xx

Mn 1.75
Nickel steels

23xx
Ni 3.50
25xx
Ni 5.00
Nickel-chromium steels
31xx
Ni 1.25; Cr 0.65, 0.80
32xx
Ni 1.75; Cr 1.07
33xx
Ni 3.50; Cr 1.50, 1.57
34xx
Ni 3.00; Cr 0.77
Molybdenum steels
40xx
Mo 0.20, 0.25
44xx
Mo 0.40, 0.52
Chromium-molybdenum steels
41xx
Cr 0.50, 0.80, 0.95; Mo
0.12, 0.20, 0.25, 0.30
Nickel-chromium-molybdenum steels
Ni 1.82; Cr 0.50, 0.80; Mo
43xx

43BVxx
47xx
81xx
86xx

0.25

Ni 1.82; Cr 0.50; Mo 0.12,


0.25; V 0.03 min.
Ni 1.05; Cr 0.45; Mo 0.20,
0.35
Ni 0.30; Cr 0.40; Mo 0.12
Ni 0.55; Cr 0.50; Mo 0.20
Page 76

87xx
88xx
93xx

Ni 0.55; Cr 0.50; Mo 0.25


Ni 0.55; Cr 0.50; Mo 0.35
Ni 3.25; Cr 1.20; Mo 0.12
Chapter 1: Engineering Materials
Page 76

TYPE

DESCRIPTION
The first digit is "1" as in 10xx, 11xx, and

Carbon Steels

12xx.

The
REPUBLIC OF THE94xx
PHILIPPINES

Ni 0.45;
Cr 0.40;
Mo 0.12 "1"
second digit
describes
processing:
97xx
Ni 1.00; Cr 0.20; Mo 0.20
BATAAN98xx
PENINSULA
STATE
UNIVERSITY
is resulfurized
and "2"
is resulfurized
Ni 1.00; Cr 0.80; Mo 0.25
MAIN CAMPUS, PROVINCE OF BATAAN, CITY OF BALANGA C-2100
and rephosphorized.
Nickel-molybdenum
steels
COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING
AND ARCHITECTURE
is 0.85,
"1" as1.82;
in 13xx
46xx The first digitNi
Mo and
0.20,is,
MECHANICAL ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT

Manganese
Steel

48xx
50xx
51xx

indeed, a carbon steel.0.25


However,
Ni 3.50; Mo 0.25
since manganese is a normal by-product
Chromium steels
of carbon steel
making
the0.50,
AISI/SAE
Cr 0.27,
0.40,
0.65has
0.87,
0.95,steel.
decided not Cr
to 0.80,
classify
it as0.92,
an alloy

1.00, 1.05
The second digit is always
"3".
50xxx The first digit isCr"2"
0.50;
C 1.00
as in
23xx min.
and 25xx.

51xxx
Cr 1.02; C 1.00 min.
Nickel Steel52xxx The second digit
Cr designates
1.45; C 1.00the
min.
Chromium-vanadium
steels
percentage of nickel
in the steel.
61xx The first digit Cr
0.60,
0.95;
V and
is "3" as 0.80,
in 31xx,
32xx,
0.10, 0.15
Nickel33xx,
Tungsten-chromium steels
Chromium Steel
designates
the
72xx The second digit W
1.75; Cr 0.75
Silicon-manganese
steels
percentage of nickel
and chromium in the
92xx
Si 1.40, 2.00; Mn 0.65,
steel.
0.85;
0.00,and
0.65
The first digit0.82,
is "4"
as inCr40xx
44xx.
High-strength low-alloy steels
Molybdenum9xx The second digit
designates
the
Various
SAE grades
Boron steels
Steels
percentage
of molybdenum in the steel.
xxBxx
B denotes boron steels
Leaded steels
"5" as in
51xx steels
and 52xx.
xxLxx The first digitLis
denotes
leaded
Chromium Steel
The second digit designates the
percentage of chromium in the steel.
Chromium The first digit is "6" as in 61xx.
Table 1.6 Type and Description of Steels
Vanadium Steel
The second digit designates the
percentage of chromium and vanadium in
TungstenChromium Steel
SiliconManganese Steel

the steel.
The first digit is "7" as in 72xx.

Page 76

The second digit designates the

percentage of tungsten and chromium.


The first digit is "9" as in 92xx.
The second digit designates the

percentage
C h a p t e rof1silicon
: E n gand
i n emanganese
e r i n g M ain
terials
the steel.
These steels contain three alloys.
The first digit can be "4", "8", or "9"

Page 76

As
shown, the AISI / SAE steel designation system gives
REPUBLIC OF THE PHILIPPINES
information
about the
chemical composition
the steel (alloy type and
BATAAN
PENINSULA
STATEofUNIVERSITY
MAIN CAMPUS, PROVINCE

OF

BATAAN, CITY

OF

BALANGA C-2100

carbon COLLEGE
content). OF
However,
in manyAND
cases,
this is not enough information
ENGINEERING
ARCHITECTURE
for the purchasing company to procure the steel. The ASTM specification
MECHANICAL ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT

of fabrication methodology will often be added to the material


specifications

demonstrated

but

fabrication

methods

will

not

be

discussed here. It remains to be seen how the UNS will designate


manufacturing specifications.
Following are two examples of UNS designators and how they
relate to AISE/SAE designations:
1.Resulfurized carbon steel containing 0.21% carbon would be UNS
G11210 or AISI/ASE 1121.
2.Steel alloyed with 20% chromium and vanadium and containing
0.75% carbon would be UNS G62750 or AISI/SAE 6275.
SYSTEM SPECIFICATION NUMBER FOR STEEL (AISI AND SAE)

A number system or series to identify carbon and alloy steel had been
developed by Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE) and American Iron
and Steel Industry (AISI). Steel are names based on their alloying
elements and carbon content.

Page 76

The first 2 numbers refer to the alloying elements present in that


steel. First number tells the kind of steel and the second number shows
the approximate percent of alloy elements.

Chapter 1: Engineering Materials


Page 76

The
last 2 numbers shows the carbon content in points (100 points
REPUBLIC OF THE PHILIPPINES
equal 1BATAAN
percent).

PENINSULA STATE UNIVERSITY

MAIN CAMPUS, PROVINCE

OF

BATAAN, CITY

OF

BALANGA C-2100

COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING AND ARCHITECTURE

Table 1.7 Steels


and their Respective
Numbers
MECHANICAL
ENGINEERING
DEPARTMENT
Steel

Numbe

Range of Number

r
a) Carbon steel
Carbon steel SAE-AISI
1XXX
Plain Carbon
10XX
Free machining
11XX
(resulphurized)
Resulphrized, rephosporised

12XX

b) Alloy Steel
Manganese
Molybdenum
C-Mo(0.25% Mo)
CR-Mo(0.70% Cr, 0.15% Mo)
Ni-Cr-Mo(1.8% Ni, 0.65% CR)
Ni-Mo(1.75% Ni)
Ni-Cr(0.45% Ni, 0.2% Mo)
Ni-Mo(3.5% Ni, 0.25% Mo)

13XX
4XXX
40XX
41XX
43XX
46XX
47XX
48XX

Chromium
0.5% Cr
1.0% Cr
1.5% Cr
Corrosion-heat resistant

5XXX
50XX
51XX
52XX
514XX

5120-5152
52095-52100
(AISI 400 Series)

Chromium-Vanadium
1% Cr, O.12% V

6XXX
61XX

6120-6152
Page 76

Silicon Manganese
0.85% Mn, 2% Si

92XX

9255-9262

Triple-alloy Steels
0.55% Ni, 0.50% Cr, 0.20%

86XX

8615-8660

Chapter 1: Engineering Materials


Page 76

REPUBLIC OFMo,
THE PHILIPPINES
0.55% Ni, 0.50% Cr, 0.25%

87XX
8720-8750
BATAAN PENINSULA STATE
UNIVERSITY
MAIN CAMPUS
Mo, PROVINCE

OF

BATAAN, CITY

OF

BALANGA C-2100

COLLEGE
OFCr,
ENGINEERING
ARCHITECTURE9310-9317
3.25%
Ni, 1.2%
0.12% Mo AND93XX
AISI
Application
0.45% Ni, MECHANICAL
0.4% Cr, 0.12%ENGINEERING
Mo
94XXDEPARTMENT
9437-9445
0.45%
Ni, 0.15% Cr, 0.2% Mo
97XX
9747-9763
Designation
1.00 AISI
% Ni,
0.8%
Cr,
0.25%
Mo
98XX
2330
Bolts, studs, tubing subjected to9840-9850
torsional
Boron (~0.05% Mn)
XXBXX
stress
AISI 2340
Quenched and tempered shafting connecting

rods, very highly stresses bolts, forgings


AISI 2350

High capacity gears, shafts, heavy ductile

AISI 3130

machine parts
Shafts, bolts, steering knuckles

AISI 3140

Air craft and truck-engine crank-shafts, axels,


earth moving equipment

AISI 3150

Wear-resisting parts in excavating and farm


machinery, gears, forgings

AISI 3240

Shafts, highly stressed pins and keys, gears

AISI 3300

For heavy parts requiring deep penetrating of

series

the heat treatment and high fatigue strength

AISI 4063

per unit weight


Leaf and coil springs

AISI 4130,

Automobile connecting rods and axels, air

4140

craft parts and tubing

AISI 4340

Crankshafts, axels, gears, landing gear parts

AISI 4640

Gears, splined shafts, hand tools

miscellaneous heavy duty machine parts


Table. 1.8 Uses of Alloy Steels
AISI 8630
Connecting rods, bolts shapes, air hardens
AISI 8640,

after welding
Page 76
Gears, propeller-shafts, knuckles shapes

8740

NON-FERROUS METALS

Chapter 1: Engineering Materials


Page 76

We
have already discussed that the non-ferrous metals are those
REPUBLIC OF THE PHILIPPINES
which contain
a metal
other than ironSTATE
as their chief
constituent. The nonBATAAN
PENINSULA
UNIVERSITY
MAIN CAMPUS, PROVINCE

BATAAN, CITY

OF

OF

BALANGA C-2100

ferrous COLLEGE
metals are
usually employed
industry due to the following
OF ENGINEERING
AND in
ARCHITECTURE
characteristics:
Ease

MECHANICAL ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT

of

fabrication

(casting,

rolling,

forging,

welding

and

machining),
Resistance to corrosion,
Electrical and thermal conductivity, and
Weight.

Page 76

Chapter 1: Engineering Materials


Page 76

REPUBLIC OF THE PHILIPPINES


CLASSIFICATION
OF NON-FERROUS METALS

BATAAN PENINSULA STATE UNIVERSITY


MAIN CAMPUS, PROVINCE

OF

BATAAN, CITY

OF

BALANGA C-2100

COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING AND ARCHITECTURE

1. ALUMINUM
MECHANICAL ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT
It is white metal produced by electrical processes from its oxide
(alumina), which is prepared from a clayey mineral called bauxite. It is a
light metal having specific gravity 2.7 and melting point 658C. The
tensile strength of the metal varies from 90 MPa to 150 MPa.
Aluminum Alloys
The aluminum may be alloyed with one or more other elements
like copper, magnesium, manganese, silicon and nickel. The addition of
small quantities of alloying elements converts the soft and weak metal
into hard and strong metal, while still retaining its light weight. The main
aluminum alloys are discussed below:
a) Duralumin. It is an important and interesting wrought alloy. This
alloy possesses maximum tensile strength (up to 400 MPa) after
heat treatment and age hardening. After working, if the metal is
allowed to age for 3 or 4 days, it will be hardened. This phenomenon
is known as age hardening.
b) Y-alloy. It is also called copper-aluminum alloy. The addition of
copper to pure aluminum increases its strength and machinability. It
is mainly used for cast purposes, but it can also be used for forged
components like duralumin. Since Y-alloy has better strength (than
Page 76

duralumin) at high temperature, therefore, it is much used in aircraft


engines for cylinder heads and pistons.
c) Magnalium. It is made by melting the aluminum with 2 to 10%
magnesium in a vacuum and then cooling it in a vacuum or under a
pressure of 100 to 200 atmospheres. It also contains about 1.75%
Chapter 1: Engineering Materials
Page 76

copper.
Due to its light weight and good mechanical properties, it is
REPUBLIC OF THE PHILIPPINES
mainly
used forPENINSULA
aircraft and automobile
components.
BATAAN
STATE
UNIVERSITY
d) Hindalium.
MAIN CAMPUS
It, is
PROVINCE
an alloy
OF of
BATAAN
aluminum
, CITY OFand
BALANGA
magnesium
C-2100 with a small
COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING AND ARCHITECTURE

quantity of chromium. It is the trade name of aluminum alloy


MECHANICAL ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT

produced by Hindustan Aluminum Corporation Ltd, Renukoot (U.P.). It


is produced as a rolled product in 16 gauges, mainly for anodized
utensil manufacture.
2. COPPER
It is one of the most widely used non-ferrous metals in industry. It is a
soft, malleable and ductile material with a reddish-brown appearance. Its
specific gravity is 8.9 and melting point is 1083C. The tensile strength
varies from 150 MPa to 400 MPa under different conditions. It is a good
conductor of electricity. It is largely used in making electric cables and
wires for electric machinery and appliances, in electrotyping and
electroplating, in making coins and household utensils.
Copper Alloys
The copper alloys are broadly classified into the following two groups:
Copper-zinc alloys (Brass). The most widely used copper-zinc alloy
is brass. There are various types of brasses, depending upon the
proportions of copper and zinc. This is fundamentally a binary alloy of
copper with zinc each 50%. By adding small quantities of other
elements, the properties of brass may be greatly changed.
Page 76

Copper-tin alloys (Bronze). The alloys of copper and tin are usually
termed as bronzes. The useful range of composition is 75 to 95%
copper and 5 to 25% tin. The metal is comparatively hard, resists
Chapter 1: Engineering Materials
Page 76

surface
wear and can be shaped or rolled into wires, rods and sheets
REPUBLIC OF THE PHILIPPINES
very BATAAN
easily. In corrosion
resistant properties,
bronzes are superior to
PENINSULA
STATE UNIVERSITY
MAIN CAMPUS, PROVINCE

OF

BATAAN, CITY

OF

BALANGA C-2100

brasses.
Some OF
of the
common types
bronzes are as follows:
COLLEGE
ENGINEERING
ANDof
ARCHITECTURE
a) Phosphor bronze. When bronze contains phosphorus, it is
MECHANICAL ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT

called phosphor bronze. Phosphorus increases the strength,


ductility and soundness of castings. This alloy possesses good
wearing qualities and high elasticity. The metal is resistant to
salt water corrosion. The composition of the metal varies
according to whether it is to be forged, wrought or made into
castings.
b) Silicon bronze. It contains 96% copper, 3% silicon and 1%
manganese or zinc. It has good general corrosion resistance of
copper combined with higher strength. It can be cast, rolled,
stamped, forged and pressed either hot or cold and it can be
welded by all the usual methods.
c) Beryllium bronze. It is a copper base alloy containing about
97.75% copper and 2.25% beryllium. It has high yield point,
high

fatigue limit and excellent cold and hot

corrosion

resistance. It is particularly suitable material for springs, heavy


duty electrical switches, cams and bushings. Since the wear
resistance of beryllium copper is five times that of phosphor
bronze, therefore, it may be used as a bearing metal in place of
phosphor bronze.
d) Manganese bronze. It is an alloy of copper, zinc and little
percentage of manganese. The usual composition of this bronze
is as follows:
Page 76

Copper = 60%, Zinc = 35%, and Manganese = 5%


This metal is highly resistant to corrosion. It is harder and
stronger than phosphor bronze. It is generally used for bushes,

Chapter 1: Engineering Materials


Page 76

plungers, feed pumps, rods etc. Worm gears are frequently

REPUBLIC OF THE PHILIPPINES

made fromPENINSULA
this bronze.
BATAAN
STATE UNIVERSITY
MAIN CAMPUS, PROVINCE

OF

BATAAN, CITY

OF

BALANGA C-2100

e)
Aluminum
bronze. It is an
alloy
of copper and aluminum. The
COLLEGE
OF ENGINEERING
AND
ARCHITECTURE
aluminum bronze with 68% aluminum has valuable cold
MECHANICAL ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT

working properties. The maximum tensile strength of this alloy


is 450 MPa with 11% of aluminum. They are most suitable for
making components exposed to severe corrosion conditions.
When iron is added to these bronzes, the mechanical properties
are improved by refining the grain size and improving the
ductility.
3. MAGNESIUM ALLOYS
Magnesium alloys are approximately two-thirds as heavy as
aluminum alloys. The common alloys contain from 4 to 12 per cent of
aluminum and from 0.1 to 0.3 per cent of manganese; those with more
than 6 per cent of aluminum can be heat-treated and aged to increase
the yield strength. The alloys are resistant to atmospheric corrosion if
kept dry, but when humidity is high, corrosion proceeds slowly with a
powder forming on the surface. In very moist or salty atmosphere, or
when rain is trapped on the part, surface roughening is pronounced. In
general, all magnesium-alloy parts should be given a protective coating.
4. GUN METAL
It is an alloy of copper, tin and zinc. It usually contains 88% copper,
10% tin and 2% zinc. This metal is also known as Admiralty gun metal.
Page 76

The zinc is added to clean the metal and to increase its fluidity.It is not
suitable for being worked in the cold state but may be forged when at
about 600C. The metal is very strong and resistant to corrosion by water
and atmosphere. Originally, it was made for casting guns. It is
extensively used for casting boiler fittings, bushes, bearings, glands, etc.
Chapter 1: Engineering Materials
Page 76

REPUBLIC OF THE PHILIPPINES

5. LEAD

BATAAN PENINSULA STATE UNIVERSITY


MAIN CAMPUS, PROVINCE

OF

BATAAN, CITY

OF

BALANGA C-2100

It is
a bluishOF
grey
metal having
specific
gravity 11.36 and melting
COLLEGE
ENGINEERING
AND
ARCHITECTURE
point 326C. It is so soft that it can be cut with a knife. It has no tenacity.
MECHANICAL ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT

It is extensively used for making solders, as a lining for acid tanks,


cisterns, water pipes, and as coating for electrical cables.
The lead base alloys are employed where a cheap and corrosion resistant
material is required. An alloy containing 83% lead, 15% antimony, 1.5%
tin and 0.5% copper is used for large bearings subjected to light service.
6. TIN
It is brightly shining white metal. It is soft, malleable and ductile.. It
is used for making important alloys, fine solder, as a protective coating
for iron and steel sheets and for making tin foil used as moisture proof
packing.
A tin base alloy containing 88% tin, 8% antimony and 4% copper is
called babbit metal. It is a soft material with a low coefficient of friction
and has little strength. It is the most common bearing metal used with
cast iron boxes where the bearings are subjected to high pressure and
load.
7. BEARING METALS
The following are the widely used bearing metals:
a) Copper-base alloys,
Page 76

b) Lead-base alloys,
c) Tin-base alloys, and
d) Cadmium-base alloys
8. ZINC BASE ALLOYS
Chapter 1: Engineering Materials
Page 76

The
most of the die castings are produced from zinc base alloys.
REPUBLIC OF THE PHILIPPINES
These BATAAN
alloys can be
casted easily STATE
with a good
finish at fairly low
PENINSULA
UNIVERSITY
MAIN CAMPUS, PROVINCE

OF

BATAAN, CITY

OF

BALANGA C-2100

temperatures.
They
have also considerable
strength and are low in cost.
COLLEGE
OF ENGINEERING
AND ARCHITECTURE
The usual alloying elements for zinc are aluminum, copper and
MECHANICAL ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT

magnesium and they are all held in close limits.

9. NICKEL BASE ALLOYS


The nickel base alloys are widely used in engineering industry on
account

of

their

high

mechanical

strength

properties,

corrosion

resistance, etc.
10.

TITANIUM
There are three structural types of titanium alloys:
a) Alpha Alloys are non-heat treatable and are generally very
weld-able. They have low to medium strength, good notch
toughness, reasonably good ductility and possess excellent
mechanical properties at cryogenic temperatures
b) Alpha-Beta Alloys are heat treatable and most are weldable.
Their strength levels are medium to high. Their hot-forming
qualities are good, but the high temperature creep strength is
not as good as in most alpha alloys.
c) Beta or near-beta alloys are readily heat treatable,
generally weldable, capable of high strengths and good creep
resistance to intermediate temperatures. Excellent formability
can be expected of the beta alloys in the solution treated
Page 76

condition.

Beta-type

alloys

have

good

combinations

of

properties in sheet, heavy sections, fasteners and spring


applications.

Chapter 1: Engineering Materials


Page 76

11.

COBALT-CHROMIUM-TUNGSTEN-MOLYBDENUM
REPUBLIC OF THE PHILIPPINES

ALLOYS
BATAAN

WEAR-RESISTANT

PENINSULA STATE UNIVERSITY

MAINalloys
CAMPUSfeature
, PROVINCE
These
a

OF BATAAN
, CITY OF B
ALANGAmakes
C-2100them ideal for
wear
resistance
which

COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING AND ARCHITECTURE

metal-cutting operations. Their ability to retain hardness even at redMECHANICAL ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT

heat temperatures also makes them especially useful for cutting tools.
12.

PRECIOUS METALS
These include silver, gold, platinum, palladium, iridium, osmium,

rhodium, and ruthenium, and their alloys. These alloys are produced
under technical and legal requirements. Gold alloys used for jewelry are
described in karats. The karat is the content of gold expressed in twentyfourths. An 18-karat gold alloy would contain 18/24 gold (75 percent by
weight). Other than jewelry, there are many industrial uses for precious
metals.
13. TRUE BRASS
True Brass sinks or protects bench tops where a large amount of acid
is used. Lead-lined pipes are used in systems that carry. This is an alloy
of copper and zinc. Additional corrosive chemicals, frequently, lead are
used in alloyed elements, such as aluminum, lead, tin, iron, manganese,
form to increase its low-tensile strength. Alloyed with or phosphorus, are
added to give the alloy specific tin, lead produces a soft solder.
14. BRONZE
Brass is a combination of 84% copper and 16% tin and was the best
Page 76

metal available before steel-making techniques were developed. Many


complex bronze alloys, containing such elements as zinc, lead, iron,
aluminum, silicon, and phosphorus, are now available. Today, the name
bronze is applied to any copper-based alloy that looks like bronze. In
Chapter 1: Engineering Materials
Page 76

many cases,
there is no real distinction between the composition of
REPUBLIC OF THE PHILIPPINES
bronze BATAAN
and that of brass.
PENINSULA
MAIN CAMPUS, PROVINCE

OF

STATE UNIVERSITY

BATAAN, CITY

OF

BALANGA C-2100

COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING AND ARCHITECTURE

15. COPPER-NICKEL ALLOYS

MECHANICAL ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT

Nickel is used in these alloys to make them strong, tough, and


resistant to wear and corrosion. Because of their high resistance to
corrosion, copper nickel alloys, containing 70% copper and 30% nickel or
90% copper and 10% nickel, are used for saltwater piping systems. Small
storage tanks and hot-water reservoirs are con. You often see zinc used
on iron or steel in the form of a protective coating called galvanizing.
Zinc is also used in soldering fluxes, die castings, and as an alloy in
making brass and bronze.
16. BERYLLIUM
Beryllium has one of the highest melting points of the light metals.
The modulus of elasticity of beryllium is approximately 1/3 greater than
that of steel. It has excellent thermal conductivity, is nonmagnetic and
resists attack by concentrated nitric acid.
17. SINTERED MATERIALS
Certain materials that cannot be alloyed by melting can be formed
into useful products by mixing in powdered form, compressing under
high pressure, and bonding by sintering. After the powders are obtained,
they are intimately mixed and compressed in hard steel dies under
pressures up to 100 tons/ in.2, depending on the materials. The
Page 76

compressed mass usually is weak mechanically and has a density about


0.8 of that of the solid material.
18.

METALS FOR HIGH-TEMPERATURE SERVICE


Chapter 1: Engineering Materials
Page 76

Metal
parts for nuclear reactors, internal-combustion engines,
REPUBLIC OF THE PHILIPPINES
valves, BATAAN
superheatedPENINSULA
steam equipment;
oil stills,UNIVERSITY
chemical and petroleum
STATE
MAIN CAMPUS, PROVINCE

OF

BATAAN, CITY

OF

BALANGA C-2100

processes,
and similar
service are stressed
at temperatures ranging from
COLLEGE
OF ENGINEERING
AND ARCHITECTURE
200 to 1800oF. Ceramics usually are used for higher operating
MECHANICAL ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT

temperatures. The metals used for such parts must be specially selected
from those materials which retain a large percentage of their strength at
high temperatures and which do not creep excessively.

19. METALLIC REFRACTORY MATERIALS


Refractory materials are materials with melting points above
approximately 2550oF. The advent of gas turbines, rockets, glassmaking,
electronics, and high-temperature industrial processes has necessitated
the development of suitable refractory materials. These materials include
metals, oxides, carbides, silicides, borides, intermetallic compounds, and
graphite in addition to ceramics.
20. NON-METALLIC MATERIALS
The non-metallic materials are used in engineering practice due to
their low density, low cost, flexibility, resistant to heat and electricity.
Though there are many non-metallic materials, yet the following are
important from the subject point of view.
a. Plastics. The plastics are synthetic materials which are molded
Page 76

into shape under pressure with or without the application of heat.


These can also be cast, rolled, extruded, laminated and machined.
Following are the two types of plastics:
a) Thermosetting plastics, and
b) Thermoplastic.
Chapter 1: Engineering Materials
Page 76

REPUBLIC OF THE PHILIPPINES

Thermosetting
plastics STATE
are those
which are formed
BATAAN
PENINSULA
UNIVERSITY
MAIN CAMPUS, PROVINCE

OF

BATAAN, CITY

OF

into

BALANGA C-2100

shapeOF
under
heat and pressure
and results in a permanently
COLLEGE
ENGINEERING
AND ARCHITECTURE
hard product.

MECHANICAL ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT

Thermoplastic materials do not become hard with the


application of heat and pressure and no chemical change
occurs. They remain soft at elevated temperatures until they
are hardened by cooling. These can be remelted repeatedly
by successive application of heat. Some of the common
thermoplastics are cellulose nitrate (Celluloid), polythene,
polyvinyl acetate, polyvinyl chloride (P.V.C.), etc.
b. Rubber. It is one of the most important natural plastics. It resists
abrasion, heat, strong alkalis and fairly strong acids. Soft rubber is
used for electrical insulations. It is also used for power transmission
belting, being applied to woven cotton or cotton cords as a base.
The hard rubber is used for piping and as lining for pickling tanks.
c. Leather. It is very flexible and can withstand considerable wear
under suitable conditions. It is extensively used for power
transmission belting and as a packing or as washers.
d. Ferrodo. It is a trade name given to asbestos lined with lead
oxide. It is generally used as a friction lining for clutches and
brakes.
e. Ceramics. Materials having a high percentage of alumina (Al2O2)
or steatite (MgOSiO2) are known as ceramics, particularly if they
have been fired. They have high thermal and electric resistivity,
Page 76

good chemical resistance, and relatively high hardness and


AA DESIGNATION OF ALUMINUM AND ITS ALLOYS

strength, and can be used at temperatures much higher than the


average metals.
Chapter 1: Engineering Materials
Page 76

Aluminum
casting alloys are listed in many specifications of various
REPUBLIC OF THE PHILIPPINES
standardizing
agencies.
These include
Federal
Specifications, Military
BATAAN
PENINSULA
STATE
UNIVERSITY
MAIN CAMPUS, PROVINCE

OF

BATAAN, CITY

OF

BALANGA C-2100

Specifications,
SpecificationsAND
andARCHITECTURE
SAE Specifications, to mention
COLLEGEASTM
OF ENGINEERING
some. The numbering systems used by each differ and are not always
MECHANICAL ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT

correctable. Casting alloys are available from producers who use a


numbering system is the one used in the table of aluminum casting
alloys which are given further along this section.
A system of four digit numerical designation for wrought
aluminum and wrought aluminum alloys are adopted by the Aluminum
Association in 1954. This system is used by the commercial producers
and is similar to the one used by the SAE; the differences being the
addition of two prefix letters.
Aluminum alloys can be categorized into a number of groups based
on the particular materials characteristics such as its ability to respond
to thermal and mechanical treatment and the primary alloying element
added to the aluminum alloy.

When we consider the numbering /

identification system used for aluminum alloys, the above characteristics


are identified. The wrought and cast aluminums have different systems
of identification; the wrought having a 4-digit system, and the castings
having a 3-digit and 1-decimal place system.
Wrought Alloys
Wrought alloys fall into two distinct categories:
a) Those which derive their properties from work hardening.
Page 76

b) Those which depend upon solution heat treatment and age


hardening.
We

shall

first

consider

the

4-digit

wrought

aluminum

alloy

identification system.
Chapter 1: Engineering Materials
Page 76

REPUBLIC OF THE PHILIPPINES

TablePENINSULA
1.9 Wrought Aluminum
Alloy Designation
System
BATAAN
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UNIVERSITY
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BALANGA C-2100

COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING AND ARCHITECTURE

Alloy Series
Principal Alloying Element
MECHANICAL ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT
1xxx
99.000% Minimum Aluminum
2xxx
Copper
3xxx
Manganese
4xxx
Silicon
5xxx
Magnesium
6xxx
Magnesium and Silicon
7xxx
Zinc
8xxx
Other Elements
9xxx
Unused Series
NOTE:
The first digit (xxxx) indicates the principal alloying element, which
has been added to the aluminum alloy and is often used to describe the
aluminum alloy series. (Example:1000 series, 2000 series, 3000 series up
to 8000 series.
The second single digit (xxxx), if different from 0, indicates a
modification of the specific alloy, and the third and fourth digits (xxxx)
are arbitrary numbers given to identify a specific alloy in the series.
(Example: In alloy 5183, the number 5 indicates that it is of the
magnesium alloy series, the 1 indicates that it is the 1 st modification to
the original alloy 5083 and the 83 identifies it in the 5xxx series.)
The only exception to this alloy numbering system is with the 1xxx
series aluminum alloys (pure aluminums) in which case, the last 2 digits
Page 76

provide the minimum aluminum percentage above 99%. (Example: Alloy


1350 (99.50% minimum aluminum).)

Cast alloys
Chapter 1: Engineering Materials
Page 76

The
cast alloy designation system is based on a 3-digit plus
REPUBLIC OF THE PHILIPPINES
decimalBATAAN
designationPENINSULA
(xxx.x).
MAIN CAMPUS, PROVINCE

OF

STATE UNIVERSITY

BATAAN, CITY

OF

BALANGA C-2100

(Example:
356.0)OF ENGINEERING AND ARCHITECTURE
COLLEGE
Alloy Series
Principal Alloying Element
MECHANICAL ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT
1xx.x
99.000% minimum Aluminum
2xx.x
Copper
3xx.x
Silicon Plus Copper and/or
Magnesium
Silicon
Magnesium
Unused Series
Zinc
Tin
Other Elements

4xx.x
5xx.x
6xx.x
7xx.x
8xx.x
9xx.x

NOTE:
The first digit (xxx.x) indicates the principal alloying element,
which has been added to the aluminum alloy.
The second and third digits (xxx.x) are arbitrary numbers given to
identify a specific alloy in the series. The number following the decimal
point (xxx.x) indicates whether the alloy
is a casting (.0) or an ingot (.1 or .2). A capital letter prefix indicates a
modification to a specific alloy.
(Example:Alloy

A356.0:

the

capital

(Axxx.x)

indicates

Page 76

modification of alloy 356.0. The number 3 (A3xx.x) indicates that it is of


the silicon plus copper and/or magnesium series.

The 56 (Ax56.0)

identifies the alloy within the 3xx.x series, and the .0 (Axxx.0) indicates
that it is a final shape casting and not an ingot.)
Chapter 1: Engineering Materials
Page 76

DIFFERENT
KINDS OF TESTING
REPUBLIC OF THE PHILIPPINES

BATAAN PENINSULA STATE UNIVERSITY


MAIN CAMPUS, PROVINCE

OF

BATAAN, CITY

OF

BALANGA C-2100

COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING AND ARCHITECTURE

Destructive MECHANICAL
testing
ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT
Destructive testing is a type of testing used in manufacturing that
ultimately destroys the sample being tested. Used to determine the
soundness, safety, and lifespan of products, destructive testing is often
used to test welds, but is probably most well-known as a method to test
car safety. Destructive testing comes in three forms: stress, or stability;
impact, or safety; and hardness, or resistance, tests.
Designed to find weaknesses that are not immediately apparent,
destructive testing is usually much more decisive than non-destructive
testing. When dealing with mass-produced items, this form of testing is
also less expensive than other methods because only a small handful of
the product will be destroyed. When dealing with other products,
however, this method can be expensive. Destructive tests may be
conducted on a product at any time in its development, from beginning
research to production-ready stages.

DIFFERENT FORMS OF DESTRUCTIVE TESTING


Stress testing. Is a form of testing that is used to determine the
Page 76

stability of a given system or entity. It involves testing beyond normal


operational capacity, often to a breaking point, in order to observe the
results. Stress testing may have a more specific meaning in certain
industries, such as fatigue testing for materials.
Chapter 1: Engineering Materials
Page 76

ARcrash
test is a form of destructive testing usually performed in
EPUBLIC OF THE PHILIPPINES
order to
ensure safe
design standards
in crashworthiness
and crash for
BATAAN
PENINSULA
STATE
UNIVERSITY
MAIN CAMPUS, PROVINCE

OF

BATAAN, CITY

OF

BALANGA C-2100

variousCOLLEGE
modes ofOF
transportation
or AND
related
systems and components
ENGINEERING
ARCHITECTURE
MECHANICAL ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT

Impact testing is testing an object's ability to resist high-rate


loading. An impact test is a test for determining the energy absorbed in
fracturing a test piece at high velocity. Most of us think of it as one object
striking another object at a relatively high speed.
Impact resistance is one of the most important properties for a part
designer to consider, and without question, the most difficult to quantify.
The impact resistance of a part is, in many applications, a critical
measure of service life. More importantly these days, it involves the
perplexing problem of product safety and liability.

Ductile vs. Brittle


Most real world impacts are biaxial rather than unidirectional.
Further complication is offered by the choice of failure modes: ductile or
brittle. Brittle materials take little energy to start a crack, little more to
propagate it to a shattering climax. Other materials possess ductility to
varying degrees. Highly ductile materials fail by puncture in drop weight
testing and require a high energy load to initiate and propagate the
Page 76

crack.

Chapter 1: Engineering Materials


Page 76

Many
materials are capable of either ductile or brittle failure,
REPUBLIC OF THE PHILIPPINES
depending
upon thePENINSULA
type of test andSTATE
rate andUNIVERSITY
temperature conditions.
BATAAN
MAIN CAMPUS, PROVINCE

OF

BATAAN, CITY

OF

BALANGA C-2100

They possess
a ductile/brittle
transition
that actually shifts according to
COLLEGE
OF ENGINEERING
AND ARCHITECTURE
these variables.

MECHANICAL ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT

Nick-Break is useful for determining the internal quality of the weld


metal. This test reveals various internal defects (if present), such as slag
inclusions, gas pockets, lack of fusion, and oxidized or burned metal. To
accomplish the nick-break test for checking a butt weld, you must first
flame-cut the test specimens from a sample weld (fig. 7-65). Make a saw
cut at each edge through the center of the weld. The depth of cut should
be about 1/4 inch. Next, place the saw-nicked specimen on two steel
supports, as shown in figure 7-65. Using a heave hammer, break the
specimen by striking it in the zone where you made the saw cuts. The
weld metal exposed in the break should be completely fused, free from
slag inclusions, and contain no gas pockets greater than 1/16 inch across
their greatest dimension. There should not be more than six pores or gas
pockets per square inch of exposed broken surface of the weld.
What is Hardness?
Hardness is the property of a material that enables it to resist
plastic deformation, usually by penetration. However, the term hardness
may also refer to resistance to bending, scratching, abrasion or cutting.
Rockwell Hardness Test
Page 76

The Rockwell hardness test method consists of indenting the test


material with a diamond cone or hardened steel ball indenter. The
indenter is forced into the test material under a preliminary minor
load F0 (usually 10 kgf).
Chapter 1: Engineering Materials
Page 76

REPUBLIC OF THE PHILIPPINES

The Brinell
Hardness
Test
BATAAN
PENINSULA
MAIN CAMPUS, PROVINCE

OF

STATE UNIVERSITY

BATAAN, CITY

OF

BALANGA C-2100

The
BrinellOF
hardness
test method
consists of indenting the test
COLLEGE
ENGINEERING
AND ARCHITECTURE
material with a 10 mm diameter hardened steel or carbide ball subjected
MECHANICAL ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT

to a load of 3000 kg. For softer materials the load can be reduced to
1500 kg or 500 kg to avoid excessive indentation. The full load is
normally applied for 10 to 15 seconds in the case of iron and steel and
for at least 30 seconds in the case of other metals. The diameter of the
indentation left in the test material is measured with a low powered
microscope. The Brinell harness number is calculated by dividing the
load applied by the surface area of the indentation.
Vickers Hardness Test
The Vickers hardness test method consists of indenting the test
material with a diamond indenter, in the form of a right pyramid with a
square base and an angle of 136 degrees between opposite faces
subjected to a load of 1 to 100 kgf. The full load is normally applied for
10 to 15 seconds. The two diagonals of the indentation left in the surface
of the material after removal of the load are measured using a
microscope and their average calculated. The area of the sloping surface
of the indentation is calculated. The Vickers hardness is the quotient
obtained by dividing the kgf load by the square mm area of indentation.
DIFFERENT FORM OF NON-DESTRUCTIVE TESTING
Non-destructive Testing is one part of the function of Quality Control
Page 76

and is complementary to other long established methods. By definition


non-destructive testing is the testing of materials, for surface or internal
flaws or metallurgical condition, without interfering in any way with the
integrity of the material or its suitability for service. The technique can
be applied on a sampling basis for individual investigation or may be
Chapter 1: Engineering Materials
Page 76

used for
100% checking of material in a production quality control
REPUBLIC OF THE PHILIPPINES
system.BATAAN

PENINSULA STATE UNIVERSITY

MAIN CAMPUS, PROVINCE

OF

BATAAN, CITY

OF

BALANGA C-2100

COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING AND ARCHITECTURE

Visual inspection

MECHANICAL ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT

The simplest and easiest technique to apply and often called by


the generic term 'inspection' on process plant.
It is able to detect surface damage and distortion. However, access to
the surface is required and the capability relies on the illumination and
the eyesight of the inspector.
Thickness measurement
The commonest damage found on process plant is corrosion and so
techniques which allow remaining wall thickness to be measured are
widely applied.
Defect detection
Defect detection techniques fall into two categories:
Those that can only detect defects on or near to the surface of a
component (Surface Techniques);
Those which can detect both surface and embedded defects
(Volumetric Techniques).

Ultrasonics

Page 76

Ultrasonics is the use of high frequency sound waves in a similar


manner to sonar or radar: sound pulses are reflected from interfaces or
discontinuities.

Chapter 1: Engineering Materials


Page 76

In thickness
checking the reflections from the wall surfaces are
REPUBLIC OF THE PHILIPPINES
measured.
In defect
detection reflections
cracks, voids and
BATAAN
PENINSULA
STATE from
UNIVERSITY
MAIN CAMPUS, PROVINCE

OF

BATAAN, CITY

OF

BALANGA C-2100

inclusions
are detected
and assessed.
COLLEGE
OF ENGINEERING
AND ARCHITECTURE

MECHANICAL ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT

Ultrasonics C Scan
For the ultrasound techniques, internal damage is detected by the
attenuation or reflection of 1-25MHz ultrasonic waves. The selection of
which technique to use (through transmission or pulse echo) depends on
the accessibility of the surfaces of the component. The C-scan technique
is one of the most useful techniques available. Here, the relative
attenuation of ultrasonic waves across a component surface creates a
plan view of any damage contained within the component. Some
systems require components to be removed from structures and
immersed in a water bath which acts as a medium for ultrasonic
transmissions. Other systems allow the component to be examined
without being removed.
X-ray
X-ray methods are based on the attenuation of X-rays. Die
penetrants such as diodobutane (DIB) can be used to aid damage
visibility in certain composites. This is usually practical if some cracking
is evident at the surface, allowing a path for the die to penetrate into the
internal damage. Fine detail of damage can often be extracted using this
technique, however, in some situations penetrants can potentially act as
Page 76

contaminating agents in the damaged area.


Thermography
Materials emit an infrared radiation whose intensity is dependent
upon its absolute temperature. Use of a thermographic camera will allow
Chapter 1: Engineering Materials
Page 76

isothermal
contour lines to
REPUBLIC OF THE PHILIPPINES

be

identified.

For

non-destructive

investigation
the emissivity
of a damage
area will
be different to that of
BATAAN
PENINSULA
STATE
UNIVERSITY
MAIN CAMPUS, PROVINCE

OF

BATAAN, CITY

OF

BALANGA C-2100

an undamaged
An external AND
heatARCHITECTURE
source, such as a quartz lamp
COLLEGE area.
OF ENGINEERING
flash, is used. The rate of decay of heat conduction differs from
MECHANICAL ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT

differences in local properties where damage is present. This is identified


by the thermographic camera. Alternatively, electrical or mechanical
energy can be applied to the part which results in thermal energy that
can be identified using thermography. The advantages of this method is
that it is fast, non-contact and can cover wide areas of flat and curved
parts. Thermography is useful for detecting delaminations, inclusions and
density changes but may not be useful in detecting microcracks or
debonds that are presses together with no adhesions.
Sheraography
Sheraography is an optical holography technique that monitors
differential motion of a damaged part that is examined before and after a
small stress is applied. Dual exposure holograms of the interference
patterns from a laser-light are acquired before and after the load is
applied. Sheraography has the advantage that it can be used in the field
on large surfaces. It is more accurate for thinner laminates because of
the need to stress the part. Its accuracy also diminishes the deeper the
defect is within the part.

Lamb Waves
Page 76

An alternative ultrasonic method that can be used in-the-field uses


Lamb wave dispersion measurements to quantify axial and flexural
stiffness. Lamb waves propagate in a flexural mode at wavelengths of
the order of structural thickness. Low frequencies are required for these
Chapter 1: Engineering Materials
Page 76

ultrasonic
waves and changes in velocity as a function of frequency use
REPUBLIC OF THE PHILIPPINES
analysisBATAAN
to identify PENINSULA
the wave dispersion
related
to bending and tension
STATE
UNIVERSITY
MAIN CAMPUS, PROVINCE

OF

BATAAN, CITY

OF

BALANGA C-2100

stiffness.
COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING AND ARCHITECTURE

MECHANICAL ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT

Dye Penetrant inspection (PT)

Dye is drawn into any surface breaking defects which are then
highlighted by the application of a developer which draws the dye back
out of the defect. This NDT method can only detect defects which are
open to the inspection surface. Dye penetrant is the preferred surface
technique for non-magnetic materials. Dye penetrant is better suited to
the detection of volumetric defects like pits but is more susceptible to
the surface condition than magnetic particle inspection.

Eddy Currents
When an alternating current is passed through a coil close to a
component surface, eddy currents are induced and produce a back EMF
on the current in the coil.
Any defect in the component which restricts the eddy current flow alters
the balance between the applied and back EMFs and can be detected.

Magnetic Particle Inspection (MPI or MT)


Defects on the inspection surface interrupt the lines of magnetic
Page 76

flux.
Magnetic particles sprayed onto the surface are attracted to these
defects identifying their position.

Chapter 1: Engineering Materials


Page 76

REPUBLIC OF THE PHILIPPINES

BATAAN PENINSULA STATE UNIVERSITY

Radiography
MAIN CAMPUS, PROVINCE OF BATAAN, CITY OF BALANGA C-2100
COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING AND ARCHITECTURE

Radiography
is the detection
of material
loss by the variation in
MECHANICAL
ENGINEERING
DEPARTMENT
applied radiation, g or x-ray, passing through a component and
impinging on a film.

SAMPLE PROBLEMS

1. It is comes from Latin word "Ferrum" meaning 'containing atom'.


Answer. Ferrous
2. What are the two classifications of metals?
Answer. Ferrous and Non-ferrous metals
3. It is defined as mass per unit volume?
Answer. Density
4. The material that is capable of having their conductors properties during
manufacture?
Answer. Semi-conductor
5. It is the measure of how well material accommodates the movement of
an electric charge?
Page 76

Answer. Electrical conductivity


6. This is the ease in which the materials will melt.
Answer. Fusibility
Chapter 1: Engineering Materials
Page 76

7. The ability
of the material to transmit heat energy by conduction.
REPUBLIC OF THE PHILIPPINES
Answer.
Thermal
Conductivity
BATAAN
PENINSULA
MAIN CAMPUS, PROVINCE

OF

STATE UNIVERSITY

BATAAN, CITY

OF

BALANGA C-2100

COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING AND ARCHITECTURE

8. It is the ability of a material to resist deformation under stress


MECHANICAL ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT

Answer. Stiffness

9. It is the property of a material which retains the deformation produced


under load permanently.
Answer. Plasticity
10. This is the ability of material to resist the externally applied forces
without breaking or yielding
Answer. Strength
11. This is the property of material which refers to a relative case with
which a material can be cut.
Answer. Machinability
12. It is the property of material to resist fracture due to high impact loads
like hammer blows.
Answer. Toughness
13. It is the property of material to absorb energy and to resist shock and
impact loads.
Answer. Resilience
14. It refers to the rate at which a chemical substance tend to undergo a
Page 76

chemical reaction in time


Answer. Reactivity
15. It is the degree to which something is able to produce illness or damage
to an exposed organism
Chapter 1: Engineering Materials
Page 76

Answer.
Toxicity
REPUBLIC OF THE PHILIPPINES

BATAAN PENINSULA STATE UNIVERSITY

16. It is defined
MAIN CAMPUS
as ho
, PROVINCE
easily something
OF BATAAN, C
will
ITY OF
burn
BALANGA
or ignite,
C-2100
causing fire or
COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING AND ARCHITECTURE

combustion.

MECHANICAL ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT

Answer. Flammability

17. It is the gradual destruction of material and usually by metals by


chemical reaction with its environment
Answer. Corrosion
18. It is the interaction between oxygen molecules and other substance.
Answer. Oxidation
19. What are the two semi-conductor materials?
Answer. Germanium and Silicon
20. This test is usually refers to static indentations made with loads not
exceeding 1 kgf.
Answer. Micro hardness test
21. This iron is obtained by re-melting pig iron with coke and limestone in a
furnace known as copula.
Answer. Cast iron
22. It is the product in between grey and white cast iron in composition,
color and general properties.
Answer. Mottled cast iron
Page 76

23. It provides the formation of free graphite which makes the iron soft and
easily machinable
Answer. Silicon
Chapter 1: Engineering Materials
Page 76

24. This Rchemical


element makes the cast iron white and hard.
EPUBLIC OF THE PHILIPPINES
Answer.
Manganese
BATAAN
PENINSULA
MAIN CAMPUS, PROVINCE

OF

STATE UNIVERSITY

BATAAN, CITY

OF

BALANGA C-2100

COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING AND ARCHITECTURE

25. It is the purest iron which contains at least 99.5% iron but may contain
MECHANICAL ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT

up to 99.9% iron.

Answer. Wrought iron


26. It is an alloy of iron, with carbon content up to a maximum of 1.5%
Answer. Steel
27. This chemical element makes the steel become brittle.
Answer. Phosphorus
28. It is used in steel as an alloying element to combine hardness with high
strength and high elastic limit.
Answer. Chromium
29. It is very strong and very tough ferrous metal and is exclusively used for
manufacturing of gears, shafts, engine parts etc.
Answer. High tensile steel
30. It is the process has evolved with advancement in heat treatment
techniques that have improved the hardness and durability of products?
Answer. Carburizing
31. It is white and light metal having a specific gravity of 2.7 and melting
point of 685C.
Answer. Aluminum
Page 76

32. This metal is also called copper-aluminum alloy.


Answer. Y-alloy
33. It is one of the most widely used non-ferrous metals in industry.
Chapter 1: Engineering Materials
Page 76

Answer.
Copper
REPUBLIC OF THE PHILIPPINES

BATAAN PENINSULA STATE UNIVERSITY

34. It is a
Mbluish
AIN CAMPUS
grey
, Pmetal
ROVINCE
having
OF BATAAN
specific
, CITY gravity
OF BALANGA
11.36
C-2100
and melting point
326C.

COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING AND ARCHITECTURE

MECHANICAL ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT

Answer. Lead

35. It is brightly shining white metal; it is also soft, malleable and ductile.
Answer. Tin
36. It is one of the highest melting point of the light metals and has an
elasticity of approximately 1/3 greater than that of steel.
Answer. Beryllium
37. It is very flexible and can withstand considerable wear an suitable
conditions also used for power transmission belting and as a packing or
as washers.
Answer. Leather
38. This type of testing used in manufacturing that ultimately destroys the
sample being tested.
Answer. Destructive testing
39. It is a testing of an object's ability to resist high-rate loading
Answer. Impact testing
40. It the properties of a material that enables it to resist plastic
deformation, usually by deformation.
Page 76

Answer. Hardness
41. This test method consists of indenting the test material with a diamond
cone or hardened steel ball indenter.
Answer. Rockwell hardness test
Chapter 1: Engineering Materials
Page 76

REPUBLIC OF THE PHILIPPINES

42. This test method consists of indenting the test material with a 10mm

BATAAN PENINSULA STATE UNIVERSITY

diameter
MAINhardened
CAMPUS, PROVINCE
steel orOFcarbide
BATAAN,ball
CITYsubjected
OF BALANGAto
C-2100
a load of 3000 kg.
COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING AND ARCHITECTURE

Answer. Brinell hardness test

MECHANICAL ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT

43. This material is do not become hard with the application of heat and
pressure and no chemical change occurs
Answer. Thermoplastic
44. Is the use of high frequency sound waves in a similar manner to sonar
or radar?
Answer. Ultrasonic
45. Material emits infrared radiation whose intensity is dependent upon its
absolute temperature.
Answer. Thermography
46. It is another form of annealing in which cementite in the granular form
is produced in the structure of steel.
Answer. Spheroidising
47. It the process that has involved with advancement in heat treatment
techniques that have improve the hardness and durability of products.
Answer. Carburizing
48. It is a case of hardening with powdered potassium cyanide or potassium
ferro-cynide mixed with potassium bicarbonate substitute for the carbon.
Page 76

Answer. Cyaniding
49. This kind of plastic are formed into shape under heat and pressure and
results in a permanently hard product
Chapter 1: Engineering Materials
Page 76

Answer.
Thermosetting plastic
REPUBLIC OF THE PHILIPPINES

BATAAN PENINSULA STATE UNIVERSITY

50. It is an
MAIN
optical
CAMPUS
holography
, PROVINCE OF
technique
BATAAN, CITY
that
OF monitors
BALANGA C-2100
differential motion of
COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING AND ARCHITECTURE

a damaged part that is examined before and after a small stress is


MECHANICAL ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT

applied.

Answer. Sheraography

Terminolo
Annealing.
used

to

generic

denote

term
heat

treatment wherein the micro

gies

structure

Age Hardening. Is a change in


a metal by which its structure

recovers from an unstable or


metal stable condition that has

and,

consequently,

the properties of a material are


altered. Frequently, refers to
heat treatment whereby a coldworked

been produced by quenching or


cold working.
Alloy. Metallic solid or liquid
formed

from

an

intimate

combination of two or more

metal is softened by allowing it

elements.

to recrystallizes.

Alloying elements. In steel


Page 76

are usually considered to be the

metallic elements added for the


purpose
properties.

of

modifying

the

Brass. A copper-rich copperzinc alloy.

Chapter 1: Engineering Materials


Page 76

Bronze.
A copper-rich copperREPUBLIC OF THE PHILIPPINES
tin alloy.
BATAAN

Conduction Band. The lowest-

lying electron
energy band
PENINSULA STATE
UNIVERSITY

MAIN CAMPUS, PROVINCE

OF

BATAAN, CITY

OF

BALANGA C-2100

is not completely
COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING AND ARCHITECTURE

that

filled with

electrons.

MECHANICAL ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT

Copolymer.
Capacitance.

The

charge-

consists

of

polymer

two

or

that
more

storage ability of a capacitor,

dissimilar

defined as the magnitude of

combination along its molecular

charge stored on either plate

chains.

mer

divided by the applied voltage.


Carburizing. The process by
which

the

surface

carbon

concentration of a ferrous alloy


is increased by diffusion from
the surrounding environment.
Cast Iron. A ferrous alloy with
carbon content between 2 and
4.5 wt%.

used

in

D
Diamagnetism. A weak form
of induced or nonpermanent
magnetism

for

magnetic

which

susceptibility

the
is

negative.
Diffusion. Mass transport by
atomic motion.
Dislocation. A linear crystalline

Cement. A substance that can


be

units

to

build

together

defect around which there is an


atomic misalignment.

aggregates of sand or stone


Page 76

into a cohesive structure.May


be a single compound or a
mixture.May be hydraulic set,

Doping.
alloying
materials

The
of

intentional

semiconducting
with

controlled

air set or chemical set.


Chapter 1: Engineering Materials
Page 76

concentrations
of donor or
REPUBLIC OF THE PHILIPPINES
acceptor
impurities.PENINSULA
BATAAN
MAIN CAMPUS, PROVINCE

OF

parallel

alignments

of

neighboring
STATE
UNIVERSITYmagnetic

BATAAN, CITY

OF

BALANGA C-2100

moments.
COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING AND ARCHITECTURE
Ductility. A measure of a
material's

MECHANICAL ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT

ability

to

undergo

Fiber. Any material that has

appreciable plastic deformation

been drawn into a cylinder with

before fracture.

length-to-diameter

ratio

greater than about ten.

E
Elastomer.

Filler.
polymeric

material that may experience


large

and

reversible

elastic

deformations.
For

an

atom, having a tendency to


accept valence electrons.

inert

foreign

substance added to a matrix to


improve

or

modify

its

properties.
Firing.

Electronegativity.

An

high-temperature

heat treatment that increases


the density and strength of a
ceramic piece.
Forging. Mechanical forming of

a metal or alloy by heating and

Fatigue. Failure, at relatively

hammering.

low stress levels, of structures

Fracture toughness. Critical

that are subjected to fluctuating

value of the stress intensity

and cyclic stresses.

factor

for

which

crack

extensions occurs.
Page 76

Ferromagnetism.

Permanent

and large magnetizations found

Free energy. A thermodynamic

in some metals (e.g., Fe, Ni, and

quantity that is a function of

Co),

which

result

from

the
Chapter 1: Engineering Materials
Page 76

both the
internal energy and
REPUBLIC OF THE PHILIPPINES
entropyBATAAN
of a system.PENINSULA
MAIN CAMPUS, PROVINCE

OF

Homopolymer.
A
polymer
STATE
UNIVERSITY

BATAAN, CITY

OF

BALANGA C-2100

having a chain structure in


COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING AND ARCHITECTURE
which all mer units are of the
G
MECHANICAL ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT

Glass. An inorganic product of


fusion which has cooled to a
rigid

condition

without

crystallizing.

Hydrogen

Bond.

crystalline material that was


as

glass

subsequently

secondary

interatomic

strong
bond

and

hydrogen atom (its unscreened


proton) and the electrons of
adjacent atoms.

devitrified

(crystallized).
Insulator

(electrical).

nonmetallic material that has

Hardenability . A measure of
the depth to which a specific
ferrous alloy may be hardened

filled valence band at 0 K and a


relatively

wide

quenching

from

energy

band

gap.

by the formation of martensite


upon

which exists between a bound

Glass-ceramic .A fine-grained
formed

same type.

temperature above the upper

Laser. An acronym for light

critical temperature.

amplification

by

stimulated

emission of radiation.
Page 76

Hardness.

The

measure

of

some materials' resistance to


deformation

by

surface

indentation or by abrasion.
Chapter 1: Engineering Materials
Page 76

Magnetization.
The total
REPUBLIC OF THE PHILIPPINES
magneticBATAAN
moment perPENINSULA
unit volume
Plastic
Deformation.
STATE
UNIVERSITY
of material.Also,
a measure
ofOF
the
MAIN CAMPUS
, PROVINCE
BATAAN, CITY OF BALANGA C-2100
Deformation that is permanent
COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING AND ARCHITECTURE
contribution to the magnetic
or nonrecoverable after release
MECHANICAL ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT

flux by some material within an

of the applied load.

H field.
Poisson's Ratio. For elastic
Martensite. A metastable Fe-C

deformation, the negative ratio

composition

of

of lateral and axial strains that

supersaturated carbon in iron

result from an applied axial

that

stress.

is

consisting

the

product

diffusionless

of

(athermal)

transformation from austenite.

Polycrystalline.

Referring to

crystalline materials that are


Melting

Point.

The

temperature at which a solid

composed of more than one


crystal or grain.

substance changes to a liquid


state.

Polymer. A solid, nonmetallic


(normally organic) compound of

Metal.

The

electropositive

high

molecular

weight

the

elements and alloys based on

structure of which is composed

these elements.

of small repeat (or mer) units.

Proportional Limit. The point

Paramagnetism. A relatively

on

stress-strain

curve

at

Page 76

weak form of magnetism that

which

results from the independent

proportionality between stress

alignment

and strain ceases.

(magnetic)

of

atomic

with

an

dipoles

the

straight

line

applied

magnetic field.
Chapter 1: Engineering Materials
Page 76

measure

REPUBLIC OF THE PHILIPPINES

of

material's

resistance
to the passage of
BATAAN PENINSULA STATE
UNIVERSITY
Recrystallization.
The
MAIN CAMPUS, PROVINCE OF
BATAAN, CITY OF BALANGA C-2100
electric current.
COLLEGE
OFset
ENGINEERING
formation
of a new
of strain- AND ARCHITECTURE
MECHANICAL
ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT
free grains within
a previously
Rupture.
Failure
cold-worked material; normally
accompanied
by
an annealing heat treatment is
plastic deformation.
necessary.

that

is

significant

Refraction. Dending of a light


beam upon passing from one
medium into another.

Viscoelasticity. A type of
deformation exhibiting the
mechanical characteristics of
viscous flow and elastic
deformation

Resistivity. The reciprocal of


electrical conductivity, and a

Page 76

Chapter 1: Engineering Materials


Page 76