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Etymologically Hospitality derived from the Latin word hospitare meaning to receive as a
Defining the hospitality

Hospitality is the act of kindness in welcoming and looking after the basic needs of customers
or strangers, mainly in relation to food, drink and accommodation.
Hospitality refers to the reception and entertainment of guests, visitors, or strangers with
liberality and goodwill (Oxford English Dictionary).
Hospitality is the cordial and generous reception and entertainment of guests or strangers,
either socially or commercially
The main domain of hospitality
Domestic hospitality originated the other kinds of hospitality and it is related to the act of
receiving, providing accommodation, feeding and entertaining somebody in a domestic context.
Public hospitality is act of receiving people in the public context. It should be applied in the
urban parks, squares, public places of concentration of people like bus stops, bus stations,
railways, airport as well as public offices.
Commercial hospitality occurs in the commerce context of hotels, hostels, motels and
restaurants, tourism agencies and establishments that offer services and receiving a monetary
values for that.
Defining Hospitality industry
The hospitality industry consists of all those businesses that give their customers any
combination of the three core services of food, drink and accommodation, at an appropriate
service level, within a physical and social environment that caters for their physiological,
psychological and social needs (Litteljohn, 1990).

The Hospitality Industry include the companies or organizations which provide food
and/or drink and/or accommodation to people who are away from home.
The Hospitality Industry is comprised of those businesses which practice the act of being
hospitable; those businesses which are characterized by generosity and friendliness to

Characteristics of the Hospitality Industry

Product-Service Mix
In the hospitality industry, customers rarely consume pure products but a mixture of
products and services. For example, one who dines in a restaurant will not only pay for the
food and drinks but the services provided by the servers. The bill has covered both tangible
and intangible experience.
Tangible features- for example, a steak as the main course, a glass of house wine, well
groomed service staff and decoration of the restaurant.

Intangible features- for example, a comfortable dining atmosphere or the friendly attitude of
Two-way Communication

In order to achieve service excellences in the hospitality industry, two-way communication

is one critical factor which requires the involvement and participation of both customers and
service staff in the service delivery process.

Through interactions with customers, important messages about their needs and
expectations can be received by service staff for their immediate actions to create customer
satisfaction. Interactions between internal staff or inter-departments is also critical since
total experiences of customers in using any lodging or food and beverage services usually
involve team work and exchange of information within the organization.
Relationship Building

The hospitality industry highly depends on repeated customers for survival. Building long
term relationship with customers can benefit the organizations for generating stable
revenues regardless of the instability of seasons and at the same time, developing brand
reputations through positive word-of-mouth of the repeated customers. In order to develop
brand loyalty, different methods are currently applied by the lodging and food service
sectors, such as membership programmes which give privileges and incentives to frequent
Diversity in Culture

Staff who work in a hospitality organization always have interactions with customers from
different regions, or to work and corporate with other colleagues who may have different
backgrounds or cultures. Due to their differences in religious beliefs and values, some
conflicts and misunderstandings can be easily occurred. Therefore, staff should be openminded, and come up with solutions together in resolving problems in their duties.

Labor Intensive
Since the hospitality industry is service-oriented in its nature, it requires a huge supply of
labors to create a memorable experience for the customers. This characteristic is especially
true for those enterprises which target for high-ended customers. For example, staff-to-guest
ratios are high in fine dining restaurants and 5-star hotels which aimed at providing one-onone services to their customers.
Other Characteristics apart from the above ones

Intangibility: The hospitality products cannot be seen, tasted, felt, heard or smelled before
they are purchased. When the sales representative of a hotel goes to sell hotel room they do
not take hotel room with them. In fact they do not sell a room. Instead, they sell the right to
use a room for a specific period of time.
Inseparability: In most hospitality services, both the service provider and the customer
must be present for the transaction to occur. The food in a restaurant may be outstanding,
but if the service person has a poor attitude or provides inattentive service, customers will
down-rate the overall restaurant experience.

Variability or heterogeneity: Services are highly variable because their quality depends on
who provide them and when and where they are provided. In service delivery high level of
human involvement is required. This makes it vary every time the consumer is availing the
service. Hotel room will remain the same but the service and facilitation in the room will
depend upon the housekeeping staff. The cleanliness of a hotel room may have different
standards if the housekeeping supervisor or the room cleaner is changed.
Perishability: Services cannot be stored. Vacant rooms are perishable. The unsold room
tonight can never be sold again. Like empty airline seats, Theatre seats or sport arena seats,
hotel rooms cannot be stored, cannot be saved and cannot be used a new.
Fixed Supply: Supply of rooms in a hotel is fixed. Airlines adjust to demand by temporarily
adding or removing flights. This is not so with hotels.

High Operating Cost: Unlike manufacturing industries, which offset labour with large
capital investments, hotels are both capital and labour intensive. The result is high fixed
costs, which continue whether or not the hotel has business. Thus a high percentage of
occupancy is needed just to break even.
Seasonality: Seasonality means changes in business, employment or buying patterns which
occurs predictably at given times of the years. On a business site, seasonality is defined as
seasonal fluctuation in economic or business activity which occurs again and again regularly
during a year as a result of changes in climate, holidays and vacations. Seasonality indicates
the subject matter of fluctuations of demand or supply in the tourism industry which are
effected due to weather conditions, public and school holidays. Seasonality in hotels involves
fluctuations in number of guests, occupancy rates and bed nights. The Indian hotel industry

Relationship between the Hospitality Industry and Tourism

Scope of hospitality industry, some suggested that it should not only cover all lodging and
food service operations but other tourism related operations, such as airlines and theme
parks. Besides, there were also some who considered putting hospitality and tourism into
one industry

Lodging, also known as accommodation, is a place to sleep for one or more nights. A
business in the lodging industry provides a place for people to sleep overnight. It can be one
of many sleeping places such as a fancy hotel, a youth hostel, an elder hostel, a campground,
or highway side motel.

The food and beverage industry, also known as the foodservice industry, consists of
businesses that prepare food for customers.

Recreation is any activity that people do for rest, relaxation, and enjoyment. The goal of
recreation is to refresh a persons body and mind. Any business that provides an activity for

rest, relaxation, and enjoyment in order to refresh a persons body and mind is in the
recreation business.

The travel industry is in the business of moving people from place to place while the
tourism industry provides those people with services that promote travel and vacations.
Busses, planes, cabs, boats, and passenger trains are all part of the travel industry while
travel agencies, tour operators, cruise companies, convention planners, and visitors bureaus
are all part of the tourism industry.
Pros and Cons for Working in the Hospitality Industry

Variety of Career Choices

Opportunities to Meet People with Different Backgrounds
Long-Term Career Development
Fringe Benefits Enjoyed by Employees


Long and Non-Regular Working Hours

Work under Pressure
Low Starting Salary
Perceptions of Low Job Status


1. History of Hospitality industry in the world

2. Significance of Hospitality Industry in Tanzania economy
3. Problems of Hospitality Industry in East Africa


Lodging means a place to live or temporary sleeping accommodation. Many places
provide lodging facilities like Hotels, Motels, Resorts, Hostels, Yatri Niwas, and Circuit
Houses etc. So Collectively in a group these are called Lodging Industry.

Food Service Industry includes all establishments which sell food and beverage products
on a given price. They are Hotels, Restaurant, Catering, Banquets, Retail, and Take-away etc.


Meaning of accommodation
Accommodation is normally regarded as a temporary or permanent home where food and
beverages, cleaning services and a whole range of other services are normally provided.
There is no generic rule for classifying accommodation establishments globally. One method
is to divide accommodation into two main groups:
1. Non-commercial; and
2. Commercial

Non- commercial accommodation, these are the establishments whose intentions are not
to make profit but rather to provide welfare services. And for the fact that they do not
commercialize, the industry does not mean that these services provided are poor or
unsatisfactory. It is not like that all the workers are being paid salaries and wages for the
work they perform. Examples of non-commercial and welfare hospitality industry are:

Government Health Centres
Government Guest Houses
Armed Forces
University Halls of Residence
Post primary school Hostels

Commercial accommodation, it is purposely on money making and profit making

organizations. These types provide and sell sleeping, foods, drinks and other services.
Commercial Industry
Definition of hotel
Hotel means an establishment held out by the proprietor as offering sleeping
accommodation to any person presenting himself who appears able and willing to pay a
reasonable sum for the services and facilities provided and who is in a fit state to be received.
A 'hotel' or 'inn' is defined by the British law as 'the place where a bonafide traveler can
receive food and shelter, provided he is in a position to pay for it and is in a fit condition to be
A hotel is an hospitality environment built either by an individual or a group of people or by
state or by the federal government to welcome and receive guests in a friendly manner and to
sell suitable accommodation and other ancillary services such as food and drinks to any normal
person who appears physically fit and agreed to comply with the necessary documentations
and instructions of the hotel and ready to pay for the hotel services without prior contract.
A hotel is classified as a commercial establishment providing accommodations, meals and
other guest services originally guests had two choices:

Luxury hotels; or
Budget hotels.

Hotels can be classified in the following ways




Size refers to the number of rooms. Various categories on the basis of size are:
Small hotel- a hotel with 25 rooms or less is called a small hotel.

Average hotel- a hotel with 26 to 99 rooms is called an average hotel.

Above average hotel- a hotel with 100 to 299 rooms is called above average hotel.
Large hotel- a hotel with more than 300 rooms is classified as large hotel.

City/Downtown/Commercial Hotel: These hotels are located in the heart of the city.
These hotels are more expensive than the suburban hotels.

These hotels are patronized/used by business men and high income tourists.

These hotels are centrally located and at a convenient distance from markets, railway station,
airport, etc
Suburban Hotels: These hotels are located in the suburb of cities, moderately priced and
are of mostly medium, large or small size.
Normally these hotels are patronized/used/visited by low budget tourists.

The tourists who do not want to stay in the heart of city as they want to be away from hustle
and bustle of city, prefer these hotels.
Usually writers, poets, low budget tourists etc prefer to stay at suburban hotels

Airport Hotels: These are Hotels located near the Airports, especially international airports.
Airport Hotels are popular because of their proximity to major travel centers.
Airport Hotels vary widely in size and level of services.

Typical target market includes business clientele, airline passengers with overnight travel
layovers or canceled flights and airline personnel.
Hotel owned courtesy vans often transport guests between the hotel and the airport

Motels: Motels are also called Motor Hotels or transit hotel and are located alongside the

Motels are normally economical and they provide comfortable bedrooms that motorists
prefer to stay on their way for a night rest.
Motels have facilities of proper motor garage to service a car and a filling station to refill
vehicles, parking area for motor vehicles etc.

They also have road maps, dormitory for drivers. These days Motels also provide various
indoor and outdoor facilities like Video parlor, Billiards, Table tennis, Cyber caf, Library etc.
Resort Hotels: A resort located in the tourist interest places like hills, forests, beaches, on
an island, or in some other exotic location away from crowded residential areas.
The recreational facilities and breathtaking scenery typical of most resorts.

Most resort hotels provide extensive food and beverage, valet and room services, sightseeing to vacationers.

Many resorts also provide special activities, indoor and outdoor games for guests such as
dancing, golf, tennis, horse riding, nature hikes, skiing and swimming, health club, steam
sauna bath, spas etc.

A more leisurely, relaxed atmosphere distinguishes most resort hotels from other types of

Time Share: This is a new concept in India but is picking up very fast.

This is also known as Vacation Ownership or Holiday Ownership concept.

These properties are in resort areas like hills, beaches, forests etc.

Time share involves individuals who purchases the ownership of accommodation for a
specific week or weeks.
The price of the property will depend on the week, one tends to buy.

The guest can choose a peak season, semi peak season or a lean season.

The owner pays a fixed price for certain number of years say 20 to 30 years and has a right
to stay at the hotel during rented week.

The guest also required to pay an annual contribution towards the maintenance of
apartment and public areas, electricity, gas, water, safety, insurance etc.

Independent Hotels: Independent hotels do not have ownership or management affiliation

with other properties.

They have no relationship to other hotels regarding policies, procedures, financial

obligations, management, accounting etc.
These may be registered as sole proprietor-ship or a private limited company.
The owner may decide the standard, type of clientele, the tariff etc.

He may tie up with travel agencies to sell his property against commission.

Chain Hotel are multiple-unit businesses that have the same brand name and the same


Full-service hotels, by definition, provide their guest with services, amenities and facilities
that they want or need to complete a total hotel experience.
Service include but not limited to:

room service

Meeting space

business center

Health club/rec. facility

bell staff

Limited service hotels typically do not offer the above services.

differences are lack of food or beverage outlets and no meeting space.

The most notable

Hostels: The students hostels are very common both in schools and colleges.

These can only be patronized by the students of a particular school or college.

The hostels can also be attached to offices, banks etc.

These are also called residential hotels as they charge on monthly, half yearly or yearly basis.
These hostels provide nutritive food, keeping in view the needs of the residents

A star system is primarily used to denote the level of quality and service, with one star being
the lowest and five stars being the highest level.



Hotel Management involves combination of various skills like management, marketing,

human resource development, and financial management, inter personal skills, dexterity, etc.
that applied to ensure that all operations, including accommodation, food and drink and other
hotel services run smoothly.
Modes of hotel management
Independently owned and operated,
These can be independent hotels, with no affiliation, that are being managed by the owners
of the properties.

Autonomy (policies, procedures, marketing and financial obligations)

Marketing tailored to specific populations/locations
Flexibility in management
Easy adaptation to changing market conditions
Some people like to be able to run the business the way that they think is best.
With independent hotel properties, there are no corporate rules or guidelines that
may work in one area of the country but not where you are assigned.
Many independent hotels begin that way and eventually become chains.
In an independent property, the owner is usually on staff. He/she works at the


More money spent on national advertising

No volume purchasing power, Travelers prefer to stay with brands they recognize
Unless a great deal of money is spent on getting the propertys name out to the
potential customer there may be low occupancy (fewer guests) at the property
It is hard to create the name recognition unless you have lots of guests who create
your reputation though word of mouth

Management Contract
Management contracts are hotel management enterprises which operate properties owned
by other entities. In some cases, the hotel owners may arrange to run their properties
through a management contract with an enterprise that specializes in managing hotels.
Owner of the hotel

Advantages of management contract

Acquisition of operational expertise which can reduce the chance of business failure
and enhance the services quality;
Gain national or international recognition for the hotel if it is operated by a reputable
management enterprise;
The owners are not required to be involved in hotels operations

Disadvantages of management contract

Loss of operational control;

Financially liable for all costs, expenses and losses of the hotel;
The management enterprise may have less incentive and morale in managing the
hotel if only fixed management fee is paid without any sharing of profits

Management enterprises

Advantages of management contract

Receive a management fee during the contract period regardless of the hotel
Little or no up-front financing or equity involved;
Management contract period can last for five, ten or twenty years

Disadvantages of management contract

Over dependence on owner for providing necessary funds in operations;

Minimum input in ownership decisions, such as the transfer of hotel ownership from
the owner to another buyer;
No extra rewards for good business performance if the management contract is run
in a fee structure without any incentive schemes.

Franchising refers to a business agreement in which usually a corporation (the franchisor)

transfers to the franchisee one or a combination of the following: (1) the right to the use of
brand names, trademarks, and/ or patents; (2) management expertise, (3inclusion in
marketing and advertising efforts, and (4) access to a distribution
Some investors prefer to use the franchising concept in running the hotel. Franchising in the
hospitality industry is a concept that:

Allows interested investors to use a enterprises (the franchisor) name and business
Is made up of properties where the franchisees agree to run the hotel in accordance
with the strict guidelines set by the franchisor; and
Allows a enterprise to expand more rapidly by using others capital


Advantages of franchising
Receive a joining fee and an ongoing fee from the franchisee;
Expand the business and market share more rapidly without heavy investment;
Lower the risk of business loss by using franchisees investment to expand the chains
in new locations and markets.

Disadvantages of franchising

Franchisees may fail to follow the standard set by the franchisors and so may affect
the quality of services provided to customers;
The trade name can be spoiled by misfits of franchisees;
The franchisor has to disclose confidential information to franchisees and this may
constitute a risk to the business


Advantages of franchising
Obtain from the franchisor the expertise in doing business such as site selection,
planning, pre-opening training, operations manuals, information management
central reservation system, field support, quality control, purchasing, advertising,
marketing, new products and concepts;
Acquire a brand name with regional or national recognition;
The franchisee has complete control and responsibility over the daily operation of the

Disadvantages of franchising
Need to follow the standard set by franchisors without any tolerance of modifications
in operations;
Need to pay for a joining fee and an ongoing fee which means sacrificing some of the
Risks of termination of contracts or no continuation of new contract if franchisor
wants to take the rights of operation back.

Referral Systems

There are also referral systems. Referral systems tend to be made up of independent
properties or small chains that have grouped together for common marketing purpose.
Marketing consortiums or referral associations offer similar benefits to properties such as
franchises, albeit at a lower cost. Hotels and motels with a referral association share a
centralized reservation system and a common image, logo as well as management training
and continuing training programs.

A referral group consists of a number of properties, independently owned and operated, that
join under a common identity while maintaining their autonomy. They do this for one or
more of the following reasons.

To operate a reservation system.

To publish joint brochures
To share advertising
To refer business to each other
To refer trained staff to each other
To take advantage of joint purchasing power
To maintain sales offices in major traffic centers

The referral associations offer some of the same benefits as franchises, but at much lower
costs. A referral association may provide the independent hotel with increased visibility,
marketing and buying power, without the necessity of giving up control or ownership. Hotel
and motels within a referral association share a CRS and a common image, logo, or
advertising slogan. The referral association publishes a membership directory, usually given
away free to interested guest. In addition the referral association may offer group buying
discounts to members, as well as management training and continuing education programs,
hotels pay initial fee to join the referral association and an annual membership fee. Generally
this fee is much less than that paid to become a member of the hotel franchise system.
Common Reservation Systems, standardized quality, joint advertising and a recognizable
logo were still are the limited objectives of the most referral groups.


Revenue Centered and Cost Centered Departments
Revenue centers refer to those departments or units which generate direct income to the
hotel through the provision of goods and services to guests, e.g. front desk, restaurants, room
service, gift shop and business center.

Cost centers, which are also known as support centers, mainly assist the functioning of
revenue centers with no generations of any direct income for the hotel, e.g. human resources,
purchasing, accounting and engineering departments. This classification is particularly
useful for the accounting department in summarizing the performances of different units
under these two main categories.
Front-of-the-House and Back-of-the-House Departments

Front-of-the-house refers to those departments or areas which are accessible and visible
by guests, e.g. front desk counters, restaurants, concierge and bell services. They are the
points of service encounters where service staff usually have direct contacts and interactions
with guests.
Back-of-the-house, refers to those departments or areas which rarely have staff-to-guest
interactions, e.g. kitchen, housekeeping, human resources and engineering departments. It
should be emphasized that some back-of-the-house positions would also come across and
interact with guests. For example, a room attendant may meet a guest while cleaning the
guest rooms. However, they are not considered as front-of-the-house positions since their
major duty is room cleaning rather than communicating with their guests.


The day-to-day operations of a hotel are the key factors determining the success or failure of
its service. It is necessary to understand the structure of hotels in order to get an overview
of how the organization fits together.

General Manager
The main responsibilities of the general manager (GM) include:

Providing leadership to the management team;

Coordinating the work of all departments;
Participating in the formulation of hotel policies and strategies;
Leading the hotel staff in meeting the financial, environmental and community
5. Assuming full responsibilities for the overall performance of the hotel.

Resident Manager

The main responsibilities of the resident manager include:

1. Holding a major responsibility in developing and executing plans developed by the
owner(s), the general manager and other members of the management team;
2. Checking on operations, providing feedback and offering assistance when needed;
3. Completing, reviewing and summarizing statistical reports and sharing them with the
general manager; and
4. Assuming responsibilities for the daily operations and management of the hotel.


(i) Engineering
The engineering department is responsible for maintaining the physical plant of the hotel
such as electricity, plumbing, air conditioning, heating and elevator systems; and for
overseeing all mechanical and technical conditions of the hotel.
(ii) Security

Security is an important concern in every hotel. The security department is responsible for
implementing procedures which aim at protecting the safety and security of hotel guests,
visitors, hotel employees and the hotel itself. Examples include monitoring surveillance
equipment, patrolling the hotel premises and maintaining security alarm systems.
(iii) Human Resources

The human resources (personnel and training) department is responsible for hiring,
orientation, training, wages and benefit administration, labour relations, employee relations,
and staff development.
(iv) Food and Beverage

The food and beverage (F&B) department provides food and beverage services to the hotel
guests and visitors through a variety of outlets and facilities/services. Examples include
lounge, bar, coffee shop, restaurants, banquet service, room service (also called in-room
dining) and cake shop.
(v) Sales and Marketing

The main functions of the sales and marketing department involve generating new
businesses for the hotel, coordinating advertising, as well as sales promotions and public
relations activities aiming at enhancing the hotels image.
(vi) Accounts

The accounts department is headed by the financial controller who, as a key member of the
management team, can guide the hotel to an increasing profitability through better control
and asset management. In addition, this department is responsible for monitoring all of the
financial activities of a hotel. Examples include overseeing accounts receivable, accounts
payable, payroll, and cost control systems of the hotel; keeping records of assets, liabilities
and financial transaction of the hotel; preparing the monthly profit-and-loss statement,
coordinating with purchasing department and information technology department, and
handling guests s inquiries about billing.

(vii) Rooms Division, In general, the rooms division comprises two major departments, the
front office and housekeeping, which are involved in the sales or services of rooms to guests.


Inter-departmental co-operation or liaison is a mutual understanding and an agreeable
relationship between a hotel house keeper and other heads of department. The objective is
to bring efficient and satisfaction both to the customers at large and to the management as a
whole. Efficiency and satisfaction are the direct functions of good services that make a hotel
to be regarded as not only good but perfect. A good hotel portrays good management
House-Keeping and Reception

1. Reception provides and give useful information to customer about the atmosphere of
the bedrooms and chalets like the facilities available thereby selling house-keeping
2. Reception also provides essential information to the house keeping about room
reservation time of arrival and if necessary any special requests that should be met or
provided before checking in.
3. The house-keeping also depend on the reports prepared by the reception about the
daily occupying rate (that is the number of rooms occupied when compared with the
one not sold) the occupied rooms and vacant rooms. (Vacant rooms are rooms not sold
during daily business hour.)
4. The Reception relies much on the information and report on the rooms situations
example faulty rooms, dressed and undressed rooms, vacant rooms, occupied rooms,
rooms under repairs etc to enable the receptionist know the rooms that are available
for sale.
5. The reception also informs the house-keeping about guests who are on daily checking
out list.
6. The house-keeping also informs the reception about guests forgotten and found article
for the possible return of same to the owner

House-Keeping and Kitchen/Restaurant

The essential co-operation are:

1. Room service to the resident guest is very vital as it yields a good proportion of hotels
revenue. The food and beverage service staff should ensure that food ordered for are
promptly and satisfactorily served.
2. All the restaurant table clothes, serviette cloth and staff uniform in the
kitchen/restaurant sent to the house-keeping laundry are to be attended to as quickly
as possible and be brought back at a reasonable time.
3. All the used plates are brought out of rooms by the house keeping room steward while
the restaurant room service waiters collect the plates and sent to the kitchen wash up
House-Keeping and Maintenance (Engineering Services Department)

1. The house-keeping informs the maintenance about faults either minor or major for their
prompt action.
2. Reporting any damaged and broken items in the rooms for repair or replacement.
3. Maintenance department has sub-sections like the electrical section, plumbing section,
carpentry section; the house-keeper should know these sections and know their foreman
in charge of each unit
4. For any major fault in the room, the house keeper can invite an outside contractor with
the approval from the overall Manager of the whole establishment.
Discuss Other Inter-Departmental Co-Operation in Hotel
Importance of the Hotel Industry
Lastly we shall round up this unit by considering economic, social and other societal
benefits of hotel industry.

1. Employment Opportunity: Hotel industry is an employer of lab our requiring

the services of educated and not too educated, skilled labour, semi-skilled labour and unskilled labour.

2. National Productivity: It increases the number of Tanzanians who are working

and not only just eating foods like the children and students.

3. An Inflow of Foreign Currency: When foreigners come to Nigeria and stay in

hotels, they money which they earned in their country are spent in Nigeria. By this method
more foreign money (currency) comes to Nigeria.
4. Tourist Attraction Centres: Modern hotels with modern technological and
architectural designs are worth visiting. Many guests and even some foreigners (Tourists)
go to these places to relax and go back to their home and destination.

5. Second Home: Hotel acts as a second home to people who go and put up inside
Hotels have sleeping facilities and catering facilities.

6. Social Engagement/Functions: People who have social engagements like

wedding reception, open traditional dance without adequate space often go to hire spaces
hotel for these type of functions. Seminars, Workshops, Conferences are also organized in
hotels. One hotel generates revenue from these type of functions while the society also
benefits by satisfying and achieving their objectives.