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Renewable resources


Provides water for 30-30% of the worlds irrigated land
Provides 19% of electricity
Expands irrigation
Provides drinking water
Supplies hydroelectric energy (falling water used to run turbines)
Easier for third world countries to generate power (if water source is
It is cheaper
Destabilizes marine ecosystems
Dam building is very costly
People have to relocate
Some dams have to be torn down (Some older ones are not stable.)
Restricted to areas with flowing water
Pollution affects water power
Flooding of available land that could be used for agriculture

Clear power with no atmospheric emissions
Useful source of energy
Fuel can be recycled
Low cost power for todays consumption
Viable form of energy in countries that do not have access to other forms
of fuel
Potential of high risk disaster (Chernobyl)
Waste produced with nowhere to put it
Waste produced from nuclear weapons not in use
Earthquakes can cause damage and leaks at plants
Contamination of the environment (long term)
Useful lifetime of a nuclear power plant
Plant construction is highly politicized

Continuous sources of energy
Clean source of energy
No emissions into the atmosphere
Does not add to thermal burden of the earth
Produces no health-damaging air pollution or acid rain
Land can be sued to produce energy and grow crops simultaneously
Benefits local communities (jobs, revenue)
For most locations, wind power density is low
Wind velocity must be greater than 7 mph to be usable in most areas
Problem exists in variation of power density and duration (not reliable)
Need better ways to store energy
Land consumption

Solar power


Solar energy is a clean and renewable energy source.

Once a solar panel is installed, solar energy can be produced free of charge.

Solar energy will last forever whereas it is estimated that the worlds oil
reserves will last for 30 to 40 years.
Solar energy causes no pollution.

Solar cells make absolutely no noise at all. On the other hand, the giant
machines utilized for pumping oil are extremely noisy and therefore very

Very little maintenance is needed to keep solar cells running. There are no
moving parts in a solar cell which makes it impossible to really damage them.

In the long term, there can be a high return on investment due to the amount
of free energy a solar panel can produce, it is estimated that the average
household will see 50% of their energy coming in from solar panels.

Solar panels can be expensive to install resulting in a time-lag of many years

for savings on energy bills to match initial investments.

Electricity generation depends entirely on a countries exposure to sunlight;

this could be limited by a countries climate.

Solar power stations do not match the power output of similar sized
conventional power stations; they can also be very expensive to build.

Solar power is used to charge batteries so that solar powered devices can be
used at night. The batteries can often be large and heavy, taking up space and
needing to be replaced from time to time.

1) Biomass used as a fuel reduces need for fossil fuels for the production of heat,
steam, and electricity for residential, industrial and agricultural use.
2)Biomass is always available and can be produced as a renewable resource.
3)Biomass fuel from agriculture wastes maybe a secondary product that adds value to
agricultural crop.
4)Growing Biomass crops produce oxygen and use up carbon dioxide.
5)The use of waste materials reduce landfill disposal and makes more space for
everything else.
6)Carbon Dioxide which is released when Biomass fuel is burned, is taken in by
7)Less money spent on foreign oil.
1)Agricultural wastes will not be available if the basic crop is no longer grown.
2)Additional work is needed in areas such as harvesting methods.
3)Land used for energy crops maybe in demand for other purposes, such as faming,
conservation, housing, resort or agricultural use.
4)Some Biomass conversion projects are from animal wastes and are relatively small
and therefore are limited.
5)Research is needed to reduce the costs of production of Biomass based fuels.
6)Is in some cases is a major cause of pollution.


Geothermal Energy

Limited life time. Geothermal activity areas are cooled after several decades
of use, so we can not speak of an infinite source of energy.

Increasing ground instability in the area, which can be caused by even low
intensity earthquakes as a result of the different procedures used in pumping

Geothermal energy is limited geographically. Only certain areas are likely to


Groundwater contamination can be a problem if the geothermal wells were

not well sealed at great depths cement and steel tubes.

The resulting energy is environmentally clean. Unlike the use of nuclear

power and fossil fuels or oil, this kind of energy its almost 100% clean.

Geothermal power plants are unaffected by weather and night cycle/day.

Unlike solar panels that use solar energy, which is currently dependent on the
sun and light.

Geothermal energy is cheaper. It is more advantageous than the energy

obtained on coals.

Geothermal energy is renewable. Geothermal resources are huge and they

will be for indefinite time.

Wave ,Ocean and Tidal Energy

1) It is an inexhaustible source of energy.
2) Tidal energy is environment friendly energy and doesn't produce greenhouse
3) As 71% of Earths surface is covered by water, there is scope to generate this
energy on large scale.
4) We can predict the rise and fall of tides as they follow cyclic fashion.
5) Efficiency of tidal power is far greater as compared to coal, solar or wind
energy. Its efficiency is around 80%.
6) Although cost of construction of tidal power is high but maintenance costs are
relatively low.
7) Tidal Energy doesnt require any kind of fuel to run.
8) The life of tidal energy power plant is very long.
9) The energy density of tidal energy is relatively higher than other renewable
energy sources.

1) Cost of construction of tidal power plant is high.
2) There are very few ideal locations for construction of plant and they too are
localized to coastal regions only.
3) Intensity of sea waves is unpredictable and there can be damage to power
generation units.
4) Influences aquatic life adversely and can disrupt migration of fish.
5) The actual generation is for a short period of time. The tides only happen twice
a day so electricity can be produced only for that time.
6) Frozen sea, low or weak tides, straight shorelines, low tidal rise or fall are some
of the obstructions.
7) This technology is still not cost effective and more technological advancements
are required to make it commercially viable.
8) Usually the places where tidal energy is produced are far away from the places
where it is consumed. This transmission is expensive and difficult.