Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 19

INSTRUCTIONS

MAINTENANCE FOR
POWER TRANSFORMER

AddressNo. 23, Chung-Hwa Rd., Huko Hsiang, Hsinchu, Taiwan 303, R.O.C.
URLhttp://www.seec.com.tw TEL+886-3-598-1921 FAX+886-3-597-6373

TD-TSP-0004-2A (1/19)

1.

FOREWORD
Power transformers are getting larger in their capacity to meet increasing power demand. So
emergency or unexpected power demand due to transformer trouble cause much loss of production as
well as inconvenience.
Therefore it is essential to assure trouble-free performance by a well-planned maintenance program.
Daily or periodical inspections will result in detecting abnormal conditions of a transformer and parts
before they cause any more serious troubles. A regular program of inspection should be established
and rigidly carried out for preventive maintenance of power transformers.
This instruction book describes inspection and maintenance methods to keep transformers in good
condition. As for construction, functions and handling of accessories, the corresponding instruction
book should be referred to for more detailed information.

2.

REQUIREMENTS FOR INSPECTION AND MAINTENANCE

2.1 General
(1) The inspection items are classified into three categories in this instruction book.
(a) Routine inspection items (Table 1)
The routine inspection should be made, preferably daily, on every transformer in
service. Especially oil leak, oil temperature and/or winding temperature, load current,
ambient temperature and oil level in transformer should be daily checked and recorded.
(b) Periodical inspection items (Table 2)
The periodical inspection should be made each item, at least once every six months to once
every three years in order to ascertain the good performance of a transformer and its parts.
Most of the periodical inspections should be made in detail when the transformer is deenergized.
(c) Additional inspection items (Table 3)
Some additional inspections or measurements of electrical characteristics of a transformer are
recommended as preventive maintenance actions and when any transformer trouble should be
investigated thoroughly.
(2) Repainting of radiators and transformer tanks, and exchange of parts, gaskets and bearings of
motors should be planned and prepared previously for preventive maintenance, which will result in
continuous good performance of transformers. (Refer to Table 4)

(3) If any protective relays give alarm, investigate the trouble causes according to Table 5 and Table 6.
It is essential in investigating the right causes to check whether differential relay, overcurrent
relay and/or ground fault relay have operated or not, in combination with other relays such as
Buchholz relay, sudden pressure relay and pressure relief device, which have physically
operating mechanisms.
(4) Transformer should be inspected internally whenever they have been subjected to unusually
severe operating conditions such as overloads and frequent short-circuits of outer bus or
transmission line.
(5) Any symptoms such as unusual noises, high or low oil levels, rupturing of bursting plate, etc.,
should be investigated thoroughly.

2.2 Inspection records


(1) The establishment of the report and recording of the condition and repair of the transformers is
required for a good maintenance program.
(2) A preventive maintenance system will operate satisfactorily with the following
records. (a) An equipment record
This may be simply a card, which contains the basic information of a transformer itself such
as the serial number, the location, size, etc.
(b) A repair record card
This may keep a running record as to costs of maintaining a transformer. It is the
essential diagnostic record for avoiding future difficulties.
(c)An inspection check list or inspectors record
This may be simply a listing of the points to be checked on a transformer and the
establishment of the time that these checks should be made.
(3) Without these records it would be very difficult for a preventive maintenance program to
work, because the knowledge gained form regular inspections would be quickly lost.

2.3

Actions for safety


Always inspection and maintenance works are to be done very carefully so that their schedule should
be planned in detail in view of safekeeping of human life and equipment according to APPENDIX I.

3.

INSPECTION

3.1

Routine inspection
At least item 1 should be checked daily and recorded.
Table 1
No.
1

Items

Method

Action

Oil temperature

Read indications of dial and/or

Check if indication of a thermometer

and winding

alcohol thermometers, and winding

is correct or not.

temperature

thermal relays, if provided.

If the temperature is not correct,

Compare them with the data

exchange with a new one.

previously obtained.

If oil temperature is too high due to

When oil and/or winding

dust and other foreign materials on

temperature

the finned area of radiators or the

are much higher or lower

inner surface of cooling water tube

considering load current and

(In case of water cooler type) clean

ambient temperature,

up them.

Thermometers should be inspected.

If indication of thermometer is not


correct, check oil level in the sensor

2(1)

Load current

Load current and ambient

pocket and adjust to correct the

Ambient

temperature should be recorded at

level.

temperature

the same time.

Oil level

Read indication of the dial oil level

When the indicated oil level is

See note.

gauge on the conservator with a

constant with the changing oil

telescope.

temperature, inspect the dial gauge

Compare it with the oil level-oil

and check the actual oil level.

temperature curve for the

If the oil level is abnormal, adjust it

transformer. Oil level is deemed to

according to instructions.

be normal when its difference is

If the oil level shows low, in case of

within one graduation of the gauge

rubber bag or diaphragm type,

on the curve.

damage of rubber bag or diaphragm


is suspected.

(2)

in bushing

Check the oil level and oil leakage

If oil level of OLTC is abnormal,

on all oil-filled bushings.

breaking of seal between OLTC and


transformer is suspected.

Oil leaks

Check oil leaks visually from

If oil leaks are due to gasket, tighten

radiators flanges, pipes,

bolts or exchange gasket.

transformer tank and so on.

In case of oil leaks from welded


parts, apply adhesive material or
weld again on the leaking part.

No.

Items

Method

Action

Abnormal noise

Abnormal or unusual noise,

When oil pump or fan motor is

and vibration

especially from oil pump motors and

getting noisier, exchange the

fan motors, should be carefully

bearings with new ones.

listened to.
Abnormal vibration can be checked

When any supporters, pipes and

comparatively easily by hand.

other parts are vibrating due to loose


bolts, tighten them.

Silica gel breather Check the breathing action in oil pot

If the breathing action is not

and discoloration of silica gel

satisfactory, check choking such as

visually. Check the color of oil in oil

filter in oil pot.

pot.

If the color of silica gel became to


pink from blue (or became to dark
green from orange) from upper side
check air leaks and fix it up.
If the oil color in oil pot blackened,
replace with new oil.

Gas trapped in

Check whether any gas trapped in

If any gas trapped in the relay, the

buchholz relay

buchholz relay with telescope.

transformer should be stopped for


investigation including accumulated
gas analysis.

7(1) Appearance

(2)

(3)

(4)

Check any looseness of bolt

When any loose bolts are found,

Bolt connection

connection visually.

tighten them.

Discoloration

Check visually that all connections

When any connections show signs

are normal without any

of having been hot, clean and tighten

discoloration due to local heating.

bolts and nuts.

Inspect visually for dust, especially

Clean up dust if it may reduce

on radiators.

cooling capacity of radiators.

Inspect visually for rust, especially

Re-painting is recommendable once

on radiators.

every five years.

Dust

Rust

Anti-rust and final paint should be


applied after rubbing off rust and old
paint.
(5)

Dew

Inspect visually for dew in the

If any dew is found, dry it out, and

terminal box, control cabinets and

ensure space heaters are in use if

protective relays.

they are provided.

NoteIn case of a self-cooled transformer, there is some difference between top and average oil
temperatures depending on loading conditions and ambient temperature. Strictly speaking, the
average oil temperature should be referred to for checking oil level.

3.2

Periodical inspection

The recommended inspection frequency is described in parenthesis under each inspection item.
Table 2
No.
1

Items

Method

Action

Breather silica gel

Check the discoloration of silica gel in If the color of silica gel has turned to

(Once every six

breather due to moisture in breathed

pink from blue (or turned to dark

months)

air.

green from orange) by more than


two thirds of total quantity, dry out or
exchange it.
If the color of silica gel has turned to
pink by more than two thirds of total
quantity, dry out or exchange it.

2(1)

Insulation oil

Measure dielectric strength with an oil If any measured values are not

Dielectric strength

tester and confirm it is more than 40

satisfactory, filtering and/or

(Every one year)

kV/2.5 mm gap.

degassing of insulating oil are


recommended. The permissible
value of OLTC oil shows in Table
4-b.

(2)
Moisture content in

Measure moisture content in oil with

oil

Automatic Coulometric Karl-Fischer

TR. Voltage

69kV

> 69kV~230kV

(Every one year)

Titration method and confirm that it is

M. Content

35 ppm

25 ppm

(3)

satisfactory to the criteria. Criteria of


OLTC oil is show in Table 4-b.

Acid value

Measure acid value and judge it with

(Every one year)

the criteria of Table 7.

Fan motors and/or

(1) Measure insulation resistance of

(Criteria of Transformer oil)

TR. Voltage
M. Content

> 345 kV
20 ppm

If insulation resistance is less than

oil pump motors

fan motors and/or oil pump motors

2M, check balancing of load

(At least once every

with a 500V megger.

currents of three phase and dry out


the interior of fan motors.

two years)

(2) Check if temperature rise of oil


pump motors cases, based on oil

If it is more than 10 deg. C, check its


insulation resistance, winding

temperature, is less than 10 deg. C. resistance and three phase


balancing of load current.

No.

Items

Method

Action

In case ofCooler
of water-cooled
type
(At least once every
two years)

(1) Analyze the characteristics of

If any characteristics are not

cooling water as shown in Table 8. satisfactory according to the criteria


(2) Check scale deposit on the inside

shown in Table 8, shorten inspection

of the cooling tube to reduce the

interval of coolers. If any heavy

water flow required, resulting in

scale is found on the inside of the

excessive heating of a transformer cooling tubes, clean them up.


at normal load.
5

Control panel and


terminal box and
cables. (Once
every one year)

(1) Check the water-tightness of a


control cabinet and a terminal box.
(2) Ascertain the tightness of all

If the rubber gasket is worn out,


exchange it with a new one.
Tighten the loose bolts.

control wiring connections.


(3) Operate all switches, annunciators If any part maloperates, adjust or
and lamps to observe proper

exchange them with new one.

functions according to schematic


diagrams.
(4) Measure insulation resistance of
cable with 500V megger.

If such defect is found, put tape on it


or exchange it with new one.

Check any crack or abrading on


cable insulation.
6

(1)

(2)

Protective relays

(1) oil temperature indicator (2) winding temperature indicator

(Once every two

(3) dial oil gauge

(4) oil flow indicator

years)

(5) Buchholz relay

(6) gas detector

(7) sudden pressure relay


(9) pressure relief device

(8) differential pressure relay


(10) leak detector

for oil/water
cooler

Insulation

Measure insulation resistance of

When the insulation resistance is

resistance

protective relays including their

less than 2M, check dews in the

(Once every two

wirings with a 500V megger.

terminal box.

Operation tests should be made only

The cause of a maloperation should

years)
Operation

when protective relays operated even be investigated by operation tests

if no troubles of a transformer

according to instruction books for

occurred.

protective relays.

Connections

All connections outside of a

Any connection that shows signs of

(Occasionally)

transformer should be inspected to

having been hot should be

see whether they are in good

thoroughly cleaned and bolted

conditions without any discoloration,

together tightly.

which indicates hot connection.

3.3 Additional inspection


The following inspections and measurements are recommended for a preventive maintenance and in
investigating a transformer trouble.
For preventive maintenance, items 1 and 2 are recommended.
If a transformer was failed, all items (1 to 7) are recommended for the investigation on that particular
occasion.
Table 3
No.

Items

Method

Action or remarks

Insulation oil
Analysis of gas
dissolved in oil

After a transformer is put into service,


a periodic analysis of gas dissolved
in oil is recommended at least every
six months.
Using an appropriate airtight
container, oil should be taken from
the transformer. The dissolved gas
should be extracted from the oil and
analyzed.

When the quantities of combustible


gases are obtained, evaluations
can be made to a probable location
and type of trouble, which may be
present in a transformer.
(Refer to Table 10.)

Insulation resistance of
transformer windings

Measure the insulation resistance


between a pair of windings, and
between each winding and ground
with a 1,000 or 2,000 volt megger at
a periodical inspection.
The megger test should be made to
check if the transformer is in suitable
condition for operation or application
of the dielectric test. Refer to Fig. 1.

The insulation resistance is subject


to wide variation with temperature,
humidity and cleanness of bushing
porcelains.
It may be low due to the leakage
current through the weakest point
of inferior insulation, in which case
gases dissolved in oil should be
analyzed.

Ratio test

Measure the ratio of a transformer by


two voltmeter methods or with a ratio
tester.
If the transformer has taps, the turn
ratio should be measured for all taps
as well as for the full winding.
The test voltage may be between 100
and 200V at the rated frequency.

Compare the test results with those


in the test report.
If it is difficult to measure because
of fluctuation of voltmeter pointer or
because of unbalance of a bridge
circuit, more detailed investigation
should be made.

Winding resistance

Measure the winding resistance by


bridge method or by drop-of-potential
method. If oil pumps are provided,
they should be operated during
measuring winding resistance. The
oil temperature should be also
recorded at the same time.
In case of low voltage and large
capacity delta winding (Ex. generator
transformer), there is a very difficulty
to measure the winding resistance
precisely and needs to pay careful
consideration for judgment.

If the winding resistance, corrected


to a specified temperature, is
different from the data obtained
previously, more detailed
investigation should be made.

Excitation current at low Measure the excitation current at low


voltage
voltage (100-200 volts) applied on
the lower voltage winding with other
windings being open-circuited.
The voltage wave shape should be
sinusoidal.
Note (1)
No.

Items

Method

If the measured excitation current is


much larger than the original data
at installation, more detailed
investigation should be made.
Note (2)

Action or remarks

Impedance voltage

Measure the impedance voltage at


low current (5-10 amperes) applied
on the higher voltage winding with
lower voltage winding being
short-circuited.
Note (3)

Bushing current
transformer

Excitation current and winding


Same as above 4 and 5.
resistance should be measured in the
same way as items 4 and 5.

If the measured impedance voltage


is much different from the original
data at installation, more detailed
investigation should be made.

Note(1) The ammeter should be connected inside of voltmeter as shown below to avoid error due to high
impedance measurement.

(2) If the measured values satisfy an expression below, the transformer may not get serious injury
such as layer shorting.
VM/IM
10
VR/IR
IRRated current
IMMeasured
current VRRated
voltage VM
Measured voltage

(3) The shorting cable should be more than 100mm in its section and be as shorter as possible in its
length, to avoid measuring error.

Shorting cable
T
R

(4) If those characteristic values from the item 2 to 6 are abnormally different compared the data
with original data, it is recommended to carry out an internal inspection. In this case, you are
kindly requested to tell us the information as APPENDIX II.

4.

MAINTENANCE

Maintenance of parts and materials should be planned according to the following Table 4-a.
Table 4-a
No.

Material and parts

Maintenance frequency

Remarks

Grease of fan motors

Grease them up once a year, with


the grease gun.

Refer to item No.6. It is no


necessary when a bearing is sealed
type.

Porcelain insulator such


as bushing, lightning
arrester, supporting
insulator

Cleaning should be done


periodically.
Interval depends on actual
circumstance condition at site.

According to insulation book

Cooler
(1) Radiator type

Recommended cleaning frequency


is once every two years.

With compressed air and/or water.

(2) Forced air type

Dust and other foreign materials,


accumulated on the finned area,
should be blown out to maintain the
efficiency of the cooler.

(3) Water cooled type

Internal compartment check and


cleaning should be done once every
two years.

Paint for transformer


external tank

Repainting should be done once


every five years.

Bursting plate of
transformer

Bursting plate is recommended to be


replaced once every five years.

Bearing of fan motors


and oil pump motors

Expected life is ten years.


Expected life is three years, when
bearing is sealed type. (only fan
motors)

(1) Gasket
Expected life is ten years.
(Cork-neoprene)
(2) Thermometer
(Oil, winding)
(3) Pressure relay
(Water, nitrogen,
sudden pressure relay,
water/oil differential
pressure relay)

Exchange with new gaskets, if oil


leaks from gasket are serious.

(4) Rubber bag or


diaphragm in
conservator

Expected life is 15 years.

If any damage of rubber bag or


diaphragm is suspected, exchange
with new one.

De-energized tap
changer

Operate de-energized tap changer


more than once a year when the
transformer is out of service

Internal inspection is
recommendable before operation of
the de-energized tap changer, if the
de-energized tap changer is not
operated more than one year.

Exchange with new ones, if a motor


becomes noisy due to broken
bearings.

Note: As for maintenance of on-load tap changers, please refer to the corresponding insulation books.

OLTC diverter oil should be maintained according to Table 4-b.

Table 4-b
Permissible value
Location of on-load tap changer

Installed to line side

Breakdown voltage

Water content

40 kV/2.5 mm gap

30 ppm

30 kV/2.5 mm gap

40 ppm

including delta winding


Installed to neutral side

5. TROUBLE SHOOTING
5.1 Diagnosis of protective relays in operation
If any protective relay gives an alarm, investigate its causes according to the following Table 5.
Table 5
No
1

Relay
Dial type thermometer

Function

Cause and Action

The dial type thermometer indicates

1.Overloading

the top oil temperature and highest

2. Insufficient efficiency of cooler

oil temperature experienced. It gives

units due to dust and other

an alarm when oil temperature gets

foreign materials accumulated

to the alarm setting (80 for

on the finned area or due to a

example).

heavy scale in the water-cooling

Thermal relay for oil

The thermal

relay

detects and

temperature or winding

indicates maximum oil or winding

temperature

temperature of a transformer.
It also has protective functions to
give an alarm or tripping signal, and
automatic functions to control
cooling system.

Oil flow indicator

The magnetic oil flow indicator


checks the operating condition of an
oil pump. When an oil pump stops,
the pointer returns to the stop
position and the micro-switch

coils.
3. Maloperation of thermometer or
thermal relay due to their own
defects.
4. If indication of thermometer is
not correct, check oil level in the
sensor pocket and adjust to
correct oil level.
1.Trouble of oil pump motor
2.Trouble of wiring connection to
oil pump motor
3. Radiator valves are shut off.
4. Inverse of power phase
sequence.

contact closes to give an alarm.


4

Oil level gauge-dial type The dial type oil level gauge
indicates the oil level in a
conservator of an oil-immersed
transformer.
When the oil level comes down to
the bottom of a conservator, its
pointer indicates zero and give an
alarm.

1.Shortage of oil
2.Abnormally low ambient
temperature in winter season
3.Oil leakage
4. Damage of rubber bag or
diaphragm in conservator.
5. If oil level of OLTC is abnormal,
breaking of seal between the
OLTC and transformer is
suspected.

5.2 Relay function


If any protective relay operates, investigate the cause of a trouble according to the following
relays functions.
First of all, dissolved gas analysis is recommended immediately for the diagnosis of the transformer.
Table 6
No
1

Relay
Buchholz relay
(1) First stage

Function and investigation


The first stage of a Buchholz relay detects the gas formation due to minor
troubles in transformer tank.
Rubber bag or diaphragm type conservator;
Stop operation of the transformer immediately, and carry out gas analysis
of accumulated gas and dissolved gas in oil and internal inspection of the
transformer because a local heating and/or arc discharge is suspected.
Breather type and/or nitrogen gas sealed type conservator;
Check if abnormal gas are exist or not by gas analysis of the transformer
gas and dissolved gas in oil.
As the result, if abnormal gas are detected, stop operation of the
transformer and carry out of internal inspection.
The type and location of trouble may be predicted by gas analyses of oil.
Note: Nitrogen gas dissolved in oil could supersaturate and accumulate in
the relay and actuate the relay when oil-temperature drops rapidly
on a cold day in case of a gas-sealed transformer.

(2)Second stage

The second stage of a Buchholz relay detects the rushing oil due to a
serious trouble in the transformer tank.
If other protective relays, such as over-current relay of differential relay
operate at the same time, a serious internal damage is suspected.

Sudden oil pressure


relay

The sudden oil pressure relay detects the high rate of oil pressure
increase in a transformer tank due to the gas generation and oil vapour
caused by serious troubles. In case of correct operation, the transformer
operation should be stopped.

Sudden pressure relay

[In case of nitrogen sealed conservator]


The sudden pressure relay detects the high rate of nitrogen pressure
increase in a tank due to the gas generation and oil vapour caused by
serious troubles in the transformer tank.

Pressure relief device

The pressure relief device operates when the pressure in the relief vent
rises abnormally high enough to reach the pressure of approximately
2
0.7kg/cm caused by serious failure in a transformer.
It also operates when the pipe of air breather is choked so as to increase
the pressure in the relief vent.

OLTC protective relay

OLTC protective relay detects some faults in diverter of on-load tap


changer.
Check the following items;
1.Fault of diverter insert
2.Fault of whole of OLTC
Malfunction of OLTC relay due to normal deterioration.

Differential relay

The differential relay detects the difference between the input current and
the output current of a transformer converted by a current transformer.
It also operates sometimes with the inrush current when a transformer is
excited.

Over current relay and


ground fault relay

These relays detect faults in the electrical system including transformers.

Fig1. Allowable value of transformer insulation resistance

1200
1000

800
600

good

Insulation resistance (Meg ohms)

400

300

System
Systme
Systme
Systme

200

voltage
voltage
voltage
voltage

more
more
more
more

than
than
than
than

6kV
11kV
22kV
66kV

150

100
80
60

40

poor

30
20
15

10
8
6

4
3
40

2
0

60

80

20

Transformer oil temperature ( C)

100

120

Fig2. Relation between dielectric strength and amount of water in insulating oil

2.5mm gap/12.5mm
sphere
Dielectric
strength (kV)

50

40
30

20

10
0

20

10

40

30

50

60

Water-parts per million by weight (PPM)

Table 7. Acid value criteria


No

Acid value (mg KOH/g)

Less than 0.2

From 0.2 to 0.4

More than 0.4

Action
Good
Filter or exchange
with new oil.

in earlier stage
immediately

Table 8. Criteria of cooling water characteristics


No

Test item

Criteria
6.0 8.0 at 25C

Hydrogen ion concentration

Electrical conductivity

Chlorine ion

(C1 )

Less than 100 ppm

Total hardness

(CaCO3)

Less than 150 ppm

Sulfuric acid ion

(SO4 )

Less than 200 ppm

M-Alkalinity

(CaCO3)

15 60 ppm

Sulfur ion

(S

undetectable

Ammonium ion

(NH4+)

undetectable

(PH)

Less than 500 (/cm) at 25C

+++

Total iron ion

(Fe

Less than 0.5 ppm

10

Silica

(SiO2)

Less than 30 ppm

Table 9-aResistivity criteria of insulation oil, at 80

RemarksNew oil should be used added oil.


No
1

Transformer voltage

Resistivity (.cm)

Judgment

Action

13

400 kV

1E

400 kV

5E

400 kV

1E5E
12

400 kV

5E 1E

400 kV

5E

400 kV

1E

Periodical analysis every


one year.

good

12

11

Exchange to new oil is


recommendable.

Precaution

12

11

Poor

Exchange to new oil

Table 9-bPower factor criteria of insulation oil, at 80


No
1

Transformer voltage

Power factor (%)

400 kV

0.5

400 kV

1.0

400 kV

0.51.5

400 kV

13

400 kV

1.5

400 kV

Judgment

Action
Periodical analysis every
one year.

good

Exchange to new oil is


recommendable.

Precaution

Poor

Exchange to new oil

Table 10 Combustible gas and type of fault with dissolved gas analysis of insulating oil
No

Decomposed gases

Type of fault

H2, CH4, C2H4, C2H6, C3H6, C3H8

Local heating in the oil

CO, CO2, H2, CH4, C2H4, C2H6, C3H6,


C3H8

Local heating in the oil impregnated solid


insulation.

H2, CH4, C2H2, C2H4, C3H6

CO, CO2, H2, CH4, C2H2, C2H4, C3H6

NoteUnderline means a significant gas.

Discharge in the oil


Discharge in the oil impregnated solid insulation.

Table11. Combustible gas levels for maintenance


Gases

The level needed a


follow-up survey

Permissible levels

C2H2

0.5ppm

5ppm

H2

400ppm

It should be evaluated by necessary and sufficient

100ppm

C2H4

conditions with the following two items.


C2H4more than 100ppm
TCGmore than 700ppm
It should be evaluated by necessary and sufficient
conditions with the following two items.

300ppm

CO

COmore than 300ppm


Ratio of CO2/CO
Normal ratio is more than 3
Abnormal ratio is less than 3
It should be evaluated by necessary and sufficient
conditions with the following three items.

TCG
(Total Combustible Gas)

700ppm

APPENDIX I

Increasing rage70ppm/month of TCG


C2H4100ppm
TCG700ppm

Actions for safety and quality

Table 11
No

Working condition

Actions for safety

Exterior check

Electrical test and (1) De-energize the transformer by circuit breakers and line switches.
remedial work

(1) Be careful not to approach live parts.

(2) Ground the line terminals of the transformer.


(3) Attach caution tags not to operate switches for circuit breakers and line
switches. See note.
(4) De-energize the control cabinets for coolers and tap changer by AC and DC
switches.
(5) Attach caution tags on switch boxes.

When internal
inspection is to be
made

Same as above except the following additional items.


(1) Replace nitrogen gas completely with dry fresh air, if it was filled in the
transformer.
(2) Make sure there is 18% or more oxygen to sustain life in a transformer
tank.
(3) Make sure your pockets are empty.
(4) Take off a wrist watch and any other accessories on your body.
(5) List up name and quantity of all tools to be brought into a transformer
tank.
(6) Spread out clean cloth on coil groups when repairing.
(7) Protect lamps with guards not to break them in a tank.
(8) Be careful not to drop any tool and foreign material into the transformer.
Secure all tools with hand lines. Any metallic item dropped into a
transformer must be removed to prevent serious trouble in future.

After inspection
work

(1) Make sure all foreign materials are clear before closing manhole and
energizing.
(2) Check the quantity of all tools brought out from a tank.
(3) Remove the grounding wires on the line terminals of the transformer.

NoteWhen test and remedial work must be carried out under the live conditions for any special reasons,
pay
attention to live parts to protect yourself against electrical shock.

APPENDIX II Technical information to be sent to the manufacturer

Whenever you need technical advice for any troubles of parts and/or a transformer itself from Shihlin Electric
Corporation, you are kindly requested to let us know the following technical information.

(1) Name of the power station or sub-station where the transformer is in service
(2) Serial number and ratings of the transformer in trouble
(3) Name, type and serial number of the parts in trouble
(4) Detailed explanation in case of more severe troubles
a. Duration and amperes of over current
b. Overvoltage and/or surge applied on the transformer
c. Protective relays in operation
d. Load conditions (voltage, current and power factor)
e. Copies of p/s or s/s layout drawings which show location of the transformer and other electrical
equipment such as circuit-breakers, lightning arresters and line switches
f. Copies of skeleton sequence drawings for control panels
(5) Any other information available about the trouble
Your quick and detailed information is being expected, which would result in quick and more
appropriate actions for its recovery.