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An Introduction

CSC159 Computer Organization

CSC159 Synopsis

The p
purpose
p
of this course is to give
g
understanding to the students about
digital computer organization and
architecture particularly on computer
architecture,
operation and its main component

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Introduction

Lesson Outcomes

Evolution of Computer Architecture


0th Generation
1st Generation
2nd Generation
3rd Generation
4th Generation
5th Generation

St
Stored
d Program
P
Concept
C
t

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Introduction

Evolution of Comp. Architecture

In reference to the different generations of


computing
ti devices
d i
Each generation characterized by a major
technological development that
fundamentally changed the way computers
operate
Move towards smaller,, cheaper,
p , more
powerful, more efficient & reliable devices

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Introduction

0th Generation

Mechanical computers

Abacus: early predecessor of computer


Blaise Pascal: invented a calculating machine
Charles Babbage:
Analytical Engine

Had 4 components
the store (memory), the mill
(computation unit), the input
section
ti (punched
(
h d card
d reader),
d )
the output section (punched &
printed outputs)
p
p )
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Introduction

1st Generation

Use vacuum tubes for circuitry & magnetic


drums for memory
Vacuum tubes
Size
Si

iis b
bulky/very
lk /
large
l
Made from glass

Fragile
Short-lived (heat burned out)

Use

a great deal of
electricity very expensive

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Introduction

1st Generation (cont.)


Computers relied on machine
g g & could only
y solve
language
one problem at a time
Input: punched cards & paper tape
Output: displayed on printouts

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Introduction

1st Generation (cont.)

ABC (Atanasoff-Berry Computer)


John

V.Atanasoff
V
Atanasoff and Clifford Berry
First totally electronic digital computer

ENIAC (Electronic Numerical Integrator and


Computer)
John
J h

W.Mauchly
W
M
hl and
d J.
J Presper
P
E k t
Eckert
First all-electronic digital computer

EDVAC, IAS and UNIVAC I (first commercially


available computer)

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Introduction

2nd Generation

Transistors
Made

of specially
p
y treated silicon which
controlled the flow of electric current
Generated less heat & wouldnt burn out
Allow computers to become smaller, faster,
cheaper, & more energy-efficient than before
more reliable than vacuum tubes

Use assembly languages - allow


programmers to specify instructions
in words
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Introduction

3rd Generation

Integrated
g
Circuits
Miniaturized

transistors
placed on silicon chips
p
p
Made computers smaller, faster, cheaper

Users interacted through keyboards &


monitors,, interfaced with an operating
p
g
system

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Introduction

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4th Generation

Microprocessors *(VLSI)
Thousands
Th
d

off ICs
IC built
b ilt
onto a single chip
Could be mass produced (PCs)

Computers become even smaller & more


powerful
f l
GUIs, mouse,
handheld devices

*VLSI Very Large Scale Integration


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Introduction

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4th Generation

Open architecture
The

hardware design was made


available to anyone
Anyone could write software or build
h d
hardware

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Introduction

12

5th Generation
1) Artificial Intelligence

Goal: to develop devices that respond to


natural language
g g input
p & are capable
p
of
learning & self-organize
Robotics
obot cs
Nano-technology

Anything smaller than


microtechnology

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Introduction

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5th Generation (cont.)


2) Age of Connectivity
Release of WWW standards in 1991
possible to connect
computers all over
the world
Shift towards technology
that focuses on mobility
(wireless revolution)
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Introduction

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5th Generation (cont.)

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Introduction

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The Evolution: a summary

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Introduction

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Generation

Characteristics

Zeroth (1642-1940)

Mechanical computers

First (1940-1955)
Vacuum tubes

Machine language
Single user
Programmed I/O using CPU
ABC, ENIAC, UNIVAC

Second
S
d (1955-1965)
(1955 1965)
Transistors

Third (1965
(1965-1980)
1980)
ICs

Fourth (1980-199?)
VLSI PCs
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Assembly
A
bl language
l
followed
f ll
d by
b high-level
hi h l
l
languages with compiler

Multiprogramming
Time sharing OS
Multi-user applications
pp

Multi-processor OS

Introduction

17

Stored Program Concept

John von Neumann


A

genius who spoke many languages,


was an expert in the physical sciences &
mathematics & had a total recall of
mathematics,
everything he ever heard, saw, or read
A consultant on the ENIAC project
Proposed significant improvements over
the ENIAC design

EDVAC and IAS

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Introduction

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Stored Program Concept

Forms the basis for nearly all digital


computers even now
computers,
D
Data
t & iinstructions
t
ti
are both
b th stored
t
d in
i main
i
memory while being processed
Sequential
S
i l processing
i
off instructions
i
i
Binary data processing
Consists of CPU, memory, & I/O system

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Introduction

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Stored Program Concept

The architecture:
MEMORY

Input
CU

ALU
Accumulator

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Introduction

Output

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