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Chapter Outline

1. Properties of gases
2. Gas pressure and its measurement
3. The Gas laws
4. Ideal Gas Law
5. Solving Gas Law Problems
GASES vs LIQUIDS vs SOLIDS
The density of gases is much less than that of solids or
liquids.
Gas molecules must be very far apart compared to
liquids and solids.
Liquids and gases are fluids.
They easily flow.
PROPERTIES OF GASES
1. Gases can be compressed into smaller volumes. Their
densities can be increase by applying increased
pressure.
2. Gases exert pressure on their surroundings. In turn,
pressure must be exerted to confine gases.
3. Gases can expand without limits. Gases completely
and uniformly occupy the volume of any container.
4. Gases diffuse into one another, and so samples of gas
placed in the same container mix completely.
Conversely, different gases in a mixture do not separate
on standing.
5. The amounts and properties of gases are described in
terms of temperature, pressure, the volume occupied
and the number of moles present.
PRESSURE
is force per unit area. (lb/in2,N/m2)
Atmospheric pressure is measured using a barometer.
Definitions of standard pressure:
76 cm Hg
760 mm Hg
760 torr
1 atmosphere
101.3 kPa
BOYLES LAW: P and V relationship
V 1/P or V= k (1/P) or PV = k
P1V1= k1; P2V2= k2; k1= k2 for the same sample of a gas at
the same T; Thus we can write Boyles Law
mathematically as P1V1= P2V2
Example: At 25C a sample of He has a volume of 4.00 x
102mLunder a pressure of 7.60 x 102torr. What volume
would it occupy under a pressure of 2.00 atm at the same
T?
P1V1 = P2V2
V2 = P1 V1/ P2
= (760 torr)(400 mL) / 1520 torr
= 2.00102 mL
CHARLESS LAW: T and V relationship
Charless law states that the volume of a gas is directly
proportional to the absolute temperature at constant
pressure.
Gas laws must use the Kelvin scale to be correct.
V T or V = kT or V/T = k
V1 / T1 = k; V2 / T2 = k; V1 / T1 = V2 / T2
Example: A sample of hydrogen, H2, occupies 1.00 x
102mLat 25.0C and 1.00 atm. What volume would it
occupy at 50.0C under the same pressure?
V1 / T1 = V2 / T2 V2 = V1 T2 / T1
V2 = 1.00102mL 323K / 298K
= 108 mL
LMALaput

GAY-LUSSACS LAW: P and T relationship


P T or P= kT or P/T = k
P1 / T1 = k1; P2 / T2 = k2; k1 = k2
Gay-Lussacs Law P1 / T1 = P2 / T2 or P1T2 = P2T1
STANDARD T and P
Standard temperature and pressure is given the symbol
STP.
It is a reference point for some gas calculations.
Standard P 1.00 atm or 101.3 kPa
Standard T 273.15 K or 0.00C
COMBINED GAS LAW
Boyles and Charles Laws combined into one statement
is called the combined gas law equation.
Boyles Law
Charles Law
P1V1 = P2V2
V1/T1 = V2/T2
For a given sample of gas:
The combined gas law is:
PV/T = k
P1V1/T1 = P2V2/T2
Example: A sample of nitrogen gas, N2, occupies 7.50 x
102mLat 75.00C under a pressure of 8.10 x 102torr.
What volume would it occupy at STP?
V1 = 750mL
V2 = ?
T1 = 348 K
T2 = 273
P1 = 810 torr
P2 = 760 torr
Solve for V2 = P1V1T2 / P2 T1
= (810 torr)(750 mL)(273 K) / (760 torr)(348 K)
AVOGADROS LAW
Avogadros Law states that at the same temperature
and pressure, equal volumes of two gases contain the
same number of molecules (or moles) of gas.
If we set the temperature and pressure for any gas to be
STP, then one mole of that gas has a volume called the
standard molar volume.
The standard molar volume is 22.4 L at STP.
This is another way to measure moles.
For gases, the volume is proportional to the number of
moles.
One mole of a gas occupies 36.5 L and its density is 1.36
g/L at a given temperature and pressure. (a) What is its
molar mass? (b) What is its density at STP?
? g/mol = 36.5 L/mol 1.36 g/L = 49.6 g/mol
? g/LSTP = 49.6 g/mol 1mol/22.4 L = 2.21 g/L
IDEAL GAS LAW
Boyles Law -V 1/P (at constant T & n)
Charles Law V T (at constant P & n)
Avogadros Law V n (at constant T & P)
Combine these three laws: V nT/P
Convert the proportionality into an equality: V = nRT/P
This provides the Ideal Gas Law. PV = nRT
R is a proportionality constant called the universal gas
constant. R = 0.0821 L atm/mol K
Determination of the value of R.
Recognize that for one mole of a gas at 1.00 atm, and
273 K (STP), the volume is 22.4 L.
Use these values in the ideal gas law.
R = PV/nT = (1.00 atm)(22.4 L) / (1.00 mol)(273 K)
= 0.0821 L atm /mol K
R has other values if the units are changed.
R = 8.314 J/mol K
Use this value in thermodynamics.
R = 8.314 kg m2/s2K mol
Use this later in this chapter for gas velocities.

Chemistry 16

Lecture 18

R = 8.314 dm3kPa/K mol


This is R in all metric units.
R = 1.987 cal/K mol
This the value of R in calories rather than J.
Examples:
1. What volume would 50.0 g of ethane, C2H6, occupy at
1.40 x 102C under a pressure of 1.82 x 103torr?
To use the ideal gas law correctly, it is very important
that all of your values be in the correct units!
T = 140 + 273 = 413 K
50 g (1 mol/30 g) = 1.67 mol
P = 1820 torr(1 atm/760 torr) = 2.39 atm
V= nRT / P
= (1.67 mol)(0.0821 L atm/mol K)(413 K) / 2.39 atm
= 23.6
2. Nitric Acid, a very important industrial chemical, is
made by dissolving the gas nitrogen dioxide, NO2, in
water. Calculate the density of NO2 gas, g/L, at 1.34 at
and 50C.
(Use ideal gas equation to fin n, in any V at the specified
pressure and temperature. Then convert moles to grams to
express the density in g/L, V=1L)

V = 1.00 L
n=?
P= 1.24 atm
T = 50C + 273 = 323K
PV = nRT
n= PV / RT
n = (1.24 atm)(1.00 L) / (0.0821 L atm/ mol K)(323 K)
= 0.0468 mol
Density = ? g/L = 0.0468 mol/L 46g/mol = 2.15 g/L

Determination of Molecular Weights and Molecular


Formulas of Gaseous Substances:
1. A compound that contains only carbon and hydrogen
is 80.0% carbon and 20.0% hydrogen by mass. At STP, 546
mL of the gas has a mass of 0.732 g. What is the
molecular (true) formula for the compound? (100 g of
compound contains 80 g of C and 20 g of H.)

2. A 1.74 g sample of a compound that contains only


carbon and hydrogen contains 1.44 g of carbon and
0.300 g of hydrogen. At STP 101 mL of the gas has a mass
of 0.262 gram. What is its molecular formula?
? mol C atoms = 1.44 g C 1 mol/12.0 g = 0.120 mol C
? mol H atoms = 0.300 g H 1mol/ 1.01g = 0.297 mol H
0.297/0.120 2.5 C2 H5 with mass 29
n = PV/RT = (1.00 atm)(0.101L)/(0.0821 l atm/mol J)(273 K)
= 0.00451 mol
?g/mol = 0.262 g/ 0.00451 mol = 58.1 mol
58.1/29 = 2 (C2H5)2 = C4H10
Activities:
1. A balloon that contains 1.5 liters of air at 1.0 atm is
taken under water to depth at which the pressure is 3.00
atm. Calculate the new volume of the balloon. Assume
that the temperature is constant.
2. A gas sample contained in a cylinder equipped with a
moveable piston occupied 300 mL at a pressure of 2.00
atm. What would be the final pressure if the volume were
increased to 500 ml at a constant temperature?
3. Several balloons are inflated with He to a volume of
0.75 L at 27C. One of the balloons was found several
hours later; the temperature had dropped to 22C. What
would be the volume of the balloon when found, if no
helium escaped?
4. A 280 mL sanple of Ne exerts a pressure of 660 torr at
26C. At what temperature in C would it exert a pressure
of 940 torr in a volume of 440 mL?
5. A 247 mL sample of a gas exerts a pressure of 3.13 atm
at 16.0C. What volume would it occupy at 100C and
1.00 atm?
6. A chemist is preparing to carry out a reaction at high
pressure that requires 36.0 mol hydrogen gas. The chemist
pumps the hydrogen into a 12.3 L rigid steel container at
25C. (a) To what pressure (in atm) mnust the hydrogen
be compressed? (b) What would be the density of the
high-pressure hydrogen?
7. Ethylene dibromine (EDB) was formerly used as a
fumigat for fruits and grains, but now it is banned
because it is a potential health hazard. EDB is a liquid that
boils at 109C. its molecular weight is 188 g/mol.
Calculate the density of its vapor at 180C and 1.00 atm.
8. A barge containing 580 tons of liquid chlorine was
involved in an accident. (a) What volume would this gas
at 750 torr and 18C? (b) Assume that the chlorine is
confined to a width of 0.500 mile and an average depth
of 60 ft. What would be the length, in feet, of this chlorine
cloud?

? mol C atoms = 80.0 g C 1 mol/12.0 g = 6.67 mol C


? mol H atoms = 20.0 g H 1mol/ 1.01g = 19.8 mol H
(Determine smallest whole number ratio)

19.8/6.67 = 3 the empirical formula is CH3 with mass = 15


(The molar mass is the mass divided by number of moles.)

n = 0.732 g/0.0244 mol = 30.0 g/mol


Actual Mass/Empirical Mass = 30.0/15.0 = 2
(the molecular formula is doubled)

(CH3)2 = C2H6

LMALaput

Chemistry 16

Lecture 18