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Learning Objectives


Topic 1

After completing this topic, you will be able to:

1. Define common multimedia terms such as multimedia,
interactive multimedia, hypertext, hypermedia

Introduction To
Multimedia Technology

2. Discuss concepts and principles of multimedia systems

3. Explain multimedia hardware and software

4. Describe networking for multimedia

Multimedia Technology


PC Evolutions Brings Multimedia


Forces Driving The Multimedia Revolution

Previously, PC was mainly used as an office tool (word

processing, database and spreadsheet)

Today, with powerful microprocessors and hardware devices,

the PC's processing power has increased and equal to the
processing power of the supercomputers in the past

PC is capable of processing more than just text and graphics. It

is now able to process sound, animation and video as well

PC has now emerged as a multi-purpose device

The explosion of the Internet and the World Wide Web have
enabled multimedia applications to be delivered and distributed

Multimedia -- One of the fastest growing and most exciting

areas in the information technology field
Multimedia Technology

Multimedia Technology

Evolution of communication and data networks:

Increasing availability of bandwidth on demand in the office,
home, road..., high-speed data modems, cable modems,
hybrid fibre-coax systems, xDSL, wireless

Ubiquitous access to network: Via local-area networks

(LAN), wireline and wireless networks, Internet, world wide
web --> "anywhere, anytime"

Fast processor and large capacity storage devices,

including 3-D hardware


Multimedia Technology


Forces Driving The Multimedia Revolution (Cont'd)

New algorithms and data structures: Compression

techniques, graphics, computer vision, speech understanding...

The digitisation of virtually any devices: Cameras, video

capture and playback devices, handwriting terminals, sound
capture, etc., together with plug-and-play standards; and the
digitization of text/audio/video documents and libraries that
allows better communications, storage, and fast access and

Multimedia Technology


History of Multimedia (Cont'd)

History of Multimedia
15,000 - Prehistoric humans paint images
13,000 BC

The first English daily newspaper, The Daily Courant, begins



Silent movies incorporated multiple media by using film and text

captions together.


Walt Disney debuts Steamboat Willie, the second short starring a

mouse named Mickey, and the first cartoon to use synchronized


Movies with sound replace silent movies.


Old black and white movies are being renewed with "colour".


Network technology introduced: ARPANET, the precursor to the

Internet, is established by the U.S. Department of Defense.


The Apple II changes everything. Its the first PC to use color graphics.


The first commercial cellular phone system begins operation in Tokyo.


IBM releases its first PC.

Multimedia Technology


What Is Multimedia?


The Compact Disc is introduced.


Microsoft Windows version 1.0 hits the streets


The Commodore Amiga combines advanced graphics, sound and video

capabilities to create the first true multimedia computer.


The Academic America Encyclopedia becomes the first CD-ROM



World Wide Web is debuts: Tim Berners Lee.


Disney releases Toy Story, the first feature-length movie computer

graphics (77minutes film; 4 years to make; 800,000 machine hours to


DVD video is introduced.


Affordable digital cameras widely available.


Google Search Engine operates Larry Page, Sergey Brin.


Apple introduces iTunes (January) and iPod (October).

What do you think

"Multimedia" is?

Find out more on the history of Multimedia at the following URL:

Multimedia Technology


Multimedia Technology


What Is Multimedia? (Cont'd)

What Is Multimedia? (Cont'd)

The word 'multimedia' comes from the Latin words multus

which means 'numerous' and media which means 'middle' or

The word MULTIMEDIA is composed of two parts: the prefix

multi and the root media

More recently the word 'media' (singular medium) starts to

convey the sense 'intermediary'
The word 'multimedia' may be used as

a noun (e.g. Multimedia is a new technological field)

as adjective (e.g. Multimedia document)

Multimedia therefore means 'multiple intermediaries' or

'multiple means'




short form of multiple,

which means many
(more than 1)

the medium of communication/

the means to distribute and
represent information

Multimedia Technology


What Is Multimedia? (Cont'd)

Media is a means "to distribute and represent information"

(text, graphics, pictures, voice, sound and music, etc.)

Media includes:

Multimedia Technology

Media includes: (Cont'd)

Presentation Media (Input/Output Information)

What we see and what we hear


Image BMP, JPEG, etc.

Audio PCM, etc.

Multimedia Technology

Keyboards, cameras, mouse, microphones, monitors,

speakers, etc.

Storage Media (Where is information stored)

Representation Media (How is information encoded in the



What Is Multimedia? (Cont'd)

Perception Media (How do humans perceive information)

More in the general sense therefore means 'multiple

intermediaries' between the source and sink of
information or 'multiple means' by which information
is stored, transmitted, presented or perceived


CD, disk, etc.

Transmission Media (Which medium is used to transfer

Cables, satellite

Multimedia Technology


What Is Multimedia? (Cont'd)

What Is Multimedia? (Cont'd)

In simple terms, "multimedia" means "more than one media"

or multiple media

Multimedia may be defined in multiple way, depending upon

one's perspective

Greenlaw & Hepp


Multimedia is "information in the form of

graphics, audio, video, or movies.
A multimedia document contains a
media element other than plain text"


Multimedia is the "combined use of several

media, such as movies, slides, music,
and lighting, especially for the purpose of
education or entertainment"

Maddux, Johnson, &


Multimedia comprises a computer program

that includes "text along with at least one of
the following: audio or sophisticated sound
music, video, photographs, 3-D graphics,
animation, or high-resolution graphics"

Schwartz & Beichner


Multimedia is the "use of multiple forms of

media in a presentation"

Tag Vaghan

Multimedia is any combination of text,

graphic art, sound, animation, and video.
It is delivered to the user by electronic or
digitally manipulated means.


What Is Multimedia? (Cont'd)

Multimedia Technology

Multimedia is a combination of content forms:

The computer controlled integration of text,

images, audio, video, graphics, animation,
and any other medium where every type of
information can be represented, processed,
stored, transmitted, produced and
presented digitally

The commonality among those definitions "involves the

integration of more than one medium into some form of
communication... Most commonly, this term now refers to the
integration of media such as text, sound, graphics, animation,
video, imaging, and spatial modeling into a computer system"

Multimedia Technology


Multimedia -- An Overview

Typical definitions include the following: (Cont'd)


Typical definitions include the following: (Cont'd)

Typical definitions include the following:

Multimedia Technology


Multimedia Technology



Still Images




Multimedia -- An Overview (Cont'd)

Multimedia Attributes

Multimedia incorporates a variety of elements, including text,

graphics, audio, video, and animation
Multimedia elements: Text: Create words, sentences, and paragraphs

Graphics: Illustrate concepts more vividly than text

In terms of computing, there are FIVE (5) fundamental

multimedia attributes:


All media including audio/ video are represented

in digital format


The digital media are processed/ controlled by


Animation: A graphic that has the illusion of motion


Capture with microphone, CD-ROM, DVD-ROM, radio, or

other audio input device

The information conveyed is remote, either preproduced and stored or produced in real time


Video: Photographic images that are played back at speeds

of 15 to 60 frames per second and provide the appearance
of full motion

It is possible to affect the information received,

and send own information, in a non-trivial way
beyond start, stop, fast forward


The media are treated in a uniform way,

presented in an orchestrated way, but are
possible to manipulate independently

Audio: Music, speech, or any other sound

Multimedia Technology




Classification of Media Types

Media elements (text, graphics, sounds animations and video)

that are captured in analogue form need to be digitised into
digital form for representation in computers

Figure below shown the conversion process between analogue

and digital form


Multimedia Technology

Neo, M., & Neo, T.K. (1999). The Multimedia Sourcebook Volume 1 Creating multimedia
content, Kuala Lumpur: Meway Computec Sdn.Bhd.

Multimedia Technology


Multimedia Technology


Classification of Media Types (Cont'd)

Classification of Media Types (Cont'd)

Captured Versus Synthesized Media

Discrete Versus Continuous Media

Captured media refers to information types captured from

real world

Examples: Still pictures, photo, video, and sound

Discrete media refers to media involving space dimension

only -- Time independent media
Discrete media is also referred to as static media or nontime-based media or non-temporal media or space-based

Synthesized media refers to information types synthesized by

the computers

Examples: Normal data, text, still images, and graphics

Examples: Text, graphics and computer animation

Continuous media refers to time-based media

Continuous media is also
referred to as dynamic
media or temporal media
Examples: Video, animation,
moving images, and audio

Multimedia Technology


Multimedia System


Multimedia System (Cont'd)

Multimedia System is a system capable of processing

multimedia data and applications

A multimedia system has FOUR (4) basic characteristics:

Multimedia systems must be computer controlled

User is able to view, hear, and see using PC system

Multimedia systems are integrated

At least one discrete and one continuous media combined for
information presentation and sharing

Multimedia Technology

Multimedia Technology


A multimedia system has FOUR (4) basic characteristics:

The information they handle must be represented

Consist of various form of media i.e. text, graphics,
audio, video, and animation; created, stored, processed,
and transmitted DIGITALLY

The interface to the final presentation of media is

usually interactive
User is able to navigate, interact, create, and communicate

Multimedia Technology


Multimedia Production

Multimedia Production

Multimedia Production
The production work is carried out by a team of
professionals equipped with the required skill and

These professionals are called developers or

authors and the development work is called

Multimedia Technology


Multimedia Presentations

Web pages

Multimedia Technology



Presentations are sequences of slides, also

called pages or screens, that usually
incorporate text, sound, graphics, and

Tutorials are computer-based instructions that

teach skills or procedures.
Can be used by:
Businesses to train
their employees
Schools and
colleges to teach or
review subject

Used by:
Businesses to present information
Teachers or students in classrooms

More information on multimedia presentations

(slides 32- 43)
Multimedia Technology

What are the types of multimedia



Multimedia Technology




Simulations are computer-based models of reallife situations.

Can be used for:


Can be used for:


Multimedia Technology


Web Pages


Multimedia Presentation
Multimedia Presentation

Can be used for:

Multimedia Technology


A multimedia presentation is basically a digital 'show' whose

content is expressed through various media types like text,
image, sound, video, etc.

There can be various objectives of the presentation

For example:

To deliver some information about a company's

performance (corporate presentation)

To present the facilities offered by a travel company to

the tourists (tourist kiosk)
In fact any subject matter where information may be
expressed through various visual and audio
information may be potential application area for a
multimedia presentation

Multimedia Technology


Multimedia Technology


Characteristics of A Multimedia Presentation


Characteristics of A Multimedia Presentation




Text has been the main mode of communication for many

years during the pre-multimedia era, but it is now more and
more supplemented by other media


'A picture is worth a thousand words' As computer

technology progressed, in addition to text, pictures also
started being used to communicate ideas -- Pictures were
divided into two types: images and graphics
Text, images and graphics are together referred to as
static elements, because they do not change over time


Multimedia Technology


Characteristics of A Multimedia Presentation


Multimedia Technology


Characteristics of A Multimedia Presentation


Multiple Media (Cont'd)

With further improvement in technology, time-varying

elements like sound (or audio) and movies were used

Non-linearity is the capability of 'jumping' or navigating
from one point within a presentation to another point

Sound can comprise music, human speech or other

sound effects like breaking glass, gunshots, falling water,

Movies are essentially combinations of images and

sound -- Movies are divided into two classes: Motion
pictures or motion video and animation

A legitimate multimedia presentation should contain at

least one static media like text, image or graphics, and
at least one time-varying media like audio, video or

Multimedia Technology

Multiple Media



To make non-linearity a possibility, a user needs to interact

with a presentation
For non-linear presentation, a user can directly navigate to
an area of interest -- Such interaction is make possible
through a set of interactivity elements embedded within the
presentation like buttons, menu items or hyperlinks

Multimedia Technology


Characteristics of A Multimedia Presentation


Multimedia Presentation: Page-Based Versus




Although there may be several media types present and

playback simultaneously, they need to be integrated or be
part of a single entity which is the presentation

Media elements laid out in 2-D as in books or magazines

Paper-based media essentially static

Digital Representation

Multimedia requires instant access to different portions of

the presentation -- This is best done inside a digital
computer which store data on random access devices like
hard disk, and compact disc
Multimedia presentations are produced and played back
on the digital platform

Multimedia Technology


Multimedia Presentation: Page-Based Versus

Time-Based (Cont'd)

Multimedia Technology


Multimedia Presentation: Linear Versus NonLinear


Time-based multimedia presentation makes time the central

organizing principle

Media elements are arranged in time and presented in

sequence on a timeline

Multimedia presentation can be:


Presented in sequence (e.g. film, slideshow)


Parallelism: more than one media may be going on at

once (e.g. several video clips may be shown at the same
time, overlaid against a static image, or sound track may
play during an animation)
Synchronization: Media elements may be synchronized
(e.g. some text may be displayed as long as a video clip is
playing, or image will be displayed 10 seconds after the
beginning of a video clip)
Multimedia Technology


Multimedia Technology



Multimedia Presentation: Linear Versus NonLinear

Multimedia Presentation: Linear Versus NonLinear (Cont'd)


Linear (Cont'd)

The multimedia that we see on the TV and in video is referred

to as linear multimedia

Book (Page-based): Physical arrangement of text and
pages implies a linear reading order

It is not interactive since it does not allow the user to

control the sequence of events
With linear multimedia, there is no human interaction
or intervention

Film (Time-based): fixed order of frames defines a single
playback sequence


Multimedia Technology


Multimedia Presentation: Linear Versus NonLinear (Cont'd)

Multimedia Technology



Non-Linear (Cont'd)

Non-linear multimedia incorporate interactivity which is the

ability for humans to interact and intervene with the course of
the presentation

The term "hypertext" was coined by Ted Nelson

in the 1960s

The term "hyper" translates simply as "link"

Flash (Time-based): Jumps
between frames, controlled by
interactivity, permit branching
and loops

Ted Nelson

Hypermedia (Page-based):
Links between pages permit
multiple arbitrary reading

Multimedia Technology


Multimedia Technology



Hypertext (Cont'd)

Hypertext (Cont'd)

Text becomes hypertext with the addition of links which

connect separate locations within a collection of hypertext

For example, a history of hypertext, or the Webster's

definition of hypertext

Hypertext is a text contains links to other texts

In a hypertext system, users would have one or more

documents related to a hypertext appear

Hypertext is a non-linear method for displaying text

By clicking on "hotspots" in the text, the reader is
immediately transported to related material in the

"Hot spots"

Multimedia Technology


Example of Hypertext

How Hypertext Works

Multimedia Technology



Screenshot from

The traditional definition of term "hypertext" implies that it is a

system for dealing with plain text

Many of the current systems also include the possibility for

working with graphics and various other media
Hypermedia is not constrained to be text-based, but also
include other media, e.g., graphics, images, and especially
the continuous media (e.g. sound and video)
The key difference between hypermedia and hypertext
is that hypermedia can also include dynamic media
that cover overtime, e.g., film clips and sound

Multimedia Technology


Multimedia Technology

The World Wide Web (WWW) is the best example of

hypermedia applications



Hypermedia (Cont'd)

Hypermedia (Cont'd)


Structure of Hypermedia

A hypermedia program typically consists of many "pages", each

of which contains objects (text, images, sounds) that are linked
to other objects or pages


Display with
images, text
and hyperlinks
in text and

Pictures may
Images can be
pictures or
video or
Video can
be a movie

Multimedia Technology


Example of Hypermedia

are pointers
to other

Hypermedia Structure
Structure of hypermedia,
showing pages (each
rectangle) with text and
images (bold) serving as
links (arrows) pointing to
other pages

Pointers can
be any sort of
image or
test or

Multimedia Technology


Hypertext, Hypermedia and Multimedia

Hypertext, Hypermedia and Multimedia

Screenshot from http://www.bbc.com/news/

When presented using a computer system, multimedia may in

fact overlap with the term hypermedia and hypertext, if
includes non-linear interactive links, but multimedia does not
necessarily include computer usage

Hypertext and hypermedia are "electronic" concepts that

can only exist in a computer-based environment

Multimedia is a global term that in the main encompasses both

hypermedia and hypertext

Hypertext is in the majority of cases a subset of both

hypermedia and multimedia
If the hypertext has no diagrams, pictures, figures, etc.,
having only the one medium of text (non-linear text only),
then it cannot be called multimedia or hypermedia

Multimedia Technology


Multimedia Technology



Interactive Multimedia

Multimedia Hardware

Multimedia becomes interactive multimedia (IMM) when a user

is given the option of controlling the elements

Multimedia + Interaction
The "multimedia component" is characterised by the
presence of text, pictures, sound, animation and video;
some or all of which are organised into some coherent

Examples: Keyboard, Mouse, Digital Camera, Scanner, etc.

The "interactive" component refers to the process of

empowering the user to control the environment usually
by the computer

Input devices: Any hardware component that allows user to

enter data, programs, commands, and user responses into a

Output devices: Any computer component capable of

conveying information to the user
Examples: CRT Monitor, LCD Monitor, Speaker, Printer, etc.

Interactivity empowers the end users by letting

them control the content and flow of information

Note: Topic : "Interactive Multimedia", covers this

topic in greater detail
Multimedia Technology


Multimedia Hardware (Cont'd)

Multimedia Technology


Multimedia Software

Storage devices:

The media on which data, instructions, and information are


The devices that record and retrieve data, instructions, and

Examples: Hard disk, CD/DVD, etc.

Media editing software

Text editing and word processing tools,

graphics and image editing tools,
digital audio editing tools,
video editing tools,
animation creating and editing tools, etc.

Authoring software
Multimedia authoring tools, Web authoring tools, etc.

Player software
To execute multimedia applications, e.g.: Media Player,
QuickTime, Flash Player, etc.

Multimedia Technology


Multimedia Technology



Multimedia Software (Cont'd)

Multimedia Software (Cont'd)

Text editing and Word Processing Tools

Graphics and Image Editing Tools

A word processor is usually the first software tool computer users

learn. From letters, invoices, and storyboards to project content, your
word processor may also be your most often used tool, as you design
and build a multimedia project.

Many graphics and image editing tools are available for

creating and manipulating bitmap images and vector graphics


Word processors such as Microsoft Word and Corels WordPerfect are

powerful applications that include spell checkers, table formatters,
thesauruses, and prebuilt templates for letters, rsums, purchase
orders, and other common documents.

Adobe Photoshop

Many developers have begun to use OpenOffice (www.openoffice.org)

for word processing, spreadsheets, presentations, graphics,
databases, and more. It can be downloaded and used completely free
of charge for any purpose and is available in many languages.

Adobe Freehand

Adobe Illustrator
Adobe Fireworks
Ulead PhotoImpact

In many word processors, you can embed multimedia elements such

as sounds, images, and video.
Multimedia Technology


Multimedia Software (Cont'd)

Multimedia Technology


Multimedia Software (Cont'd)

Graphics and Image Editing Tools (Cont'd)

Graphics and Image Editing Tools (Cont'd)

Adobe Photoshop

Adobe Illustrator

Most popular and widely-used graphics editing software

Industry standard vector graphics software

Support for both bitmap images and vector graphics using

most of the common graphics file formats and Photoshop's
proprietary PSD file format

Support 3D graphics
Support GIF animation

Ability to combine bitmap

images and vector graphics
using layers

Multimedia Technology


Multimedia Technology



Multimedia Software (Cont'd)

Multimedia Software (Cont'd)

Graphics and Image Editing Tools (Cont'd)

Graphics and Image Editing Tools (Cont'd)

Adobe Fireworks

Fireworks is a software for making graphics specifically for

the Web

a text and Web graphics

editing tool

It includes

support many bitmap formats


bitmap editor

vector graphics editor

JavaScript generator for

buttons and rollovers

Multimedia Technology

support both pixel-based

formats & vector-based


Multimedia Software (Cont'd)


Digital Audio Editing Tools

Ulead PhotoImpact

A professional image editing software

Multimedia Technology

Multimedia Technology

Multimedia Software (Cont'd)

Graphics and Image Editing Tools (Cont'd)

Adobe Freehand

Adobe Audition
Provides advanced audio
mixing, editing, and


Multimedia Technology



Multimedia Software (Cont'd)

Multimedia Software (Cont'd)

Digital Audio Editing Tools (Cont'd)

Video Editing Tools

Sound Forge

Allow the users to edit, record, encode, and master nearly

any form of digital audio including WAV, AIFF and MP3

Adobe Premiere
Premiere is a simple, intuitive video
editing tool for non-linear editing -putting video clips into any order
Video and audio are arranged in
tracks, like a musical score
It provides a large number of video
and audio tracks, superimpositions,
and virtual clips
A large library of build-in transitions,
filters, and motions for clips allows
easy creation of effective multimedia

Multimedia Technology


Multimedia Software (Cont'd)

Animation Creation and Editing Tools (Cont'd)

Advanced GIF Animator

A powerful tool for creating animated GIF images

3D Studio Max (3ds Max)

One of the most widely used off the shelf 3D animation
programs by content creation professional

Anyone can create studio quality animation with little


Multimedia Technology


Multimedia Software (Cont'd)

Animation Creation and Editing Tools

Multimedia Technology


Multimedia Technology



Multimedia Software (Cont'd)

Multimedia Software (Cont'd)

Animation Creation and Editing Tools (Cont'd)

Animation Creation and Editing Tools (Cont'd)

3D Studio Max (3ds Max) (Cont'd)

Some examples of 3D Models created using 3ds Max

A high-end 3D computer graphics and 3D modeling
software package

Provides a number of tools for creating complex characters

and animations

Multimedia Technology


Multimedia Software (Cont'd)


Multimedia Software (Cont'd)

Animation Creation and Editing Tools (Cont'd)

Multimedia Technology

Multimedia Authoring Tools

Maya (Cont'd)

Authoring is the process of creating multimedia applications

Some examples of 3D Models created using Maya

Multimedia authoring is the creation of multimedia productions,

sometimes called "movies" or "presentations"

Multimedia authoring tools provide the important framework for

organizing and editing the elements of a multimedia project,
including graphics, sounds, animations and video clips

Authoring tools are used for designing interactivity and the user
interface, for presenting project on screen, and for assembling
diverse multimedia elements into a single, cohesive products

Various multimedia authoring tools are available; for examples:

Adobe Director, Flash, Authorware, Asymetrix Toolbook, etc.

Multimedia Technology


Multimedia Technology



Multimedia Software (Cont'd)

Multimedia Software (Cont'd)

Multimedia Authoring Tools (Cont'd)

Multimedia Authoring Tools (Cont'd)

Adobe Director

It allows users to build applications based on a movie

metaphor, with the user as the "director" of the movie

Formerly called Macromedia Flash and Shockwave Flash)

Flash is a dynamic multimedia program used to produce
mainly vector-based presentations, introductions and full

Director is currently the de facto standard of authoring CD

titles, interactive games, kiosks and product

Multimedia Technology

Flash is particularly focused on delivery of rich multimedia

content to the Web


Multimedia Software (Cont'd)

Multimedia Technology


Multimedia Software (Cont'd)

Multimedia Authoring Tools (Cont'd)

Adobe (or Macromedia) Flash

Web Authoring Tools

Asymetrix Toolbook

Various tools are available for authoring WWW pages

ToolBook is an e-learning content

development application

Allows user to create Web pages without any knowledge of

HTML, CSS, JavaScript and DOM

Allows users to develop Web training,

computer-based training (CBT),
courseware, multimedia applications,
simulations for software and other
types of interactive content

Examples: Adobe DreamWeaver, Mozilla Composer, Microsoft

FrontPage, Adobe Creative Suite

Multimedia Technology


Multimedia Technology



Multimedia Software (Cont'd)

Multimedia Software (Cont'd)

Web Authoring Tools

Web Authoring Tools (Cont'd)

Adobe DreamWeaver

A Web development tool originally owned by Macromedia

A popular Web authoring program from Microsoft for

Windows and the Mac

Is a popular cross-platform Web authoring and site

management program

FrontPage Editor is the graphical editor for designing the


Powerful tool enabling easy creation of sites containing

graphics and multimedia elements

FrontPage Explorer is the management tool that lets the

users construct and maintain the entire site

Provide users with a graphical interface for the creation of

Web pages

Multimedia Technology


Hardware and Software Requirements

Multimedia playback

Usually requires smaller amount of resources, those

which are sufficient for viewing an existing multimedia

Multimedia production

Generally requires greater and more powerful resources

and should fulfill all requirements for designing and
developing a multimedia presentation

In both cases, storage and processing requirements are much

greater than non-multimedia PCs, because media components
like images, audio and video occupy large file sizes and require
powerful processors for manipulation and presentation
Multimedia Technology

Multimedia Technology


Hardware and Software Requirements (Cont'd)

Hardware and Software requirements of a multimedia PC can

be categorised into TWO classes:

Microsoft FrontPage


Multimedia Production (Cont'd)

Windows OS, drivers, plug-ins, media players etc.

Editing (or media processing) software are used to

manipulate media components to suit the developers
requirements (e.g. image editing software, audio editing
software, video editing software, and animation creation
software), authoring (or integration) software are used o
integrate all the edited media into a single presentation and
build navigational pathways for accessing the media, etc.
To display Web content, Web browsers would be required
(e.g. Chrome, Firefox, Internet Explorer, Opera, and
To create Web content, HTML and JavaScript editors might
be required (e.g. Microsoft FrontPage and Adobe
Multimedia Technology



Multimedia Delivery

Multimedia Networking

How the multimedia production is delivered from its

producer to its consumers?

TWO primary multimedia delivery media:

Optical disks: CD-ROM, DVD (Offline)

Multimedia projects often require a large amount of

digital memory -- often stored on CD-ROM or DVDs
Relies on multimedia storage (removable storage

World Wide Web or WWW (Online)

Multimedia also includes Web pages in HTML or DHTML

(XML) on the WWW, and can include rich media created
by various tools using plug-ins

Multimedia projects may require input from

many individuals working independently on their
personal computers. The integration of this work
requires a network of computers.
A network is a collection of computers
connected through a communication link to
share hardware, data, and applications.
Networks are the backbone that ties together
the work of individual developers and the
resources of their personal computers.

Relies on multimedia networking technologies

Multimedia Technology


Multimedia Technology


Multimedia Networking (Cont'd)

Multimedia Networking (Cont'd)

Computer networks are categorized as WAN

(wide area network) or LAN (local area network).
The WAN connects computers over a wide
geographic region using the communication lines
of an outside service provider such as a
telephone or cable company.
A developer can transfer digital files via email
attachments or use file transfer protocols (FTP)
to add digital files to a remote network server.
In both cases, the computer connects to other
systems through external communication links.

The Internet is a special form of WAN. It is a

network of networks that uses Transmission Control
Protocol and Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) to send
data from one computing device to another.
Protocols, or rules for transmitting data, control the
transfer and addressing of data between each host
The Internet started in 1969 as a government
research project with four computer systems
interconnected to share system resources. Twenty
years later, the Internet exploded with possibilities
when Tim Berners-Lee developed the HTTP
(hypertext transfer protocol) protocols for the World
Wide Web (WWW).

Multimedia Technology


Multimedia Technology



Multimedia Networking (Cont'd)

Multimedia Networking (Cont'd)

The Web introduced interactive multimedia to

the Internet. Web pages, written in HTML
(Hypertext Markup Language), display
multimedia through a browser such as Internet
Explorer or Safari.
Hyperlinks connect resources from one web
page to another location. Hyperlinks are defined
with a uniform resource locator (URL) that
identifies the path to an Internet resource such
as an image, web page, or video file.

The efficiencies of the Web are in its

client/server model for distributing data.
Server computers store and send data to a
client computer.
Client computers have software to open and
process data files. Once data is downloaded from
the server, applications on the client computer,
such as browsers and plug-ins, display or play
data content.
Client computers process data locally, which is
more efficient than processing it on a server
computer shared by thousands of users.

Multimedia Technology


Multimedia Technology


Multimedia Networking (Cont'd)

Multimedia Networking (Cont'd)

A LAN is a series of computers connected within

an organization. Many homes now have a LAN to
share printers and access to the Internet.
Multimedia developers connect computers to
distribute files, access applications from a local
server, or share hardware devices.
Computers on a LAN can be connected using
twisted pair cable that resembles a phone line,
although wireless connectivity is increasingly

Ethernet is a common set of protocols to

control the flow of data on a LAN.
Ethernet defines how files are transferred, the
speed of transfer, and the cables used to connect
the computers. Many LANs are using wireless
connections as computers become more mobile
and users desire flexible network access.
A wireless network requires an access point
(AP) that broadcasts a radio signal within a cell

Multimedia Technology


Multimedia Technology



Multimedia Networking (Cont'd)

Multimedia Networking (Cont'd)

The AP often contains a firewall to prevent

unauthorized wireless network access. The AP is
connected to a larger network system through a
cable modem or router (a switch to control data
flow on a network).
Computers need a wireless card or built-in
wireless capability to send and receive data via
radio waves.
Wi-Fi and Bluetooth are two popular wireless
LAN standards.

The Wi-Fi (wireless fidelity), or 802.11b

standard, transmits on 2.4 GHz radio frequencies.
Transmission rate is 11 Mbps up to 300 feet away
from the AP.
Distance, interference, and number of users can
adversely affect the transmission rate.
Frequent upgrades to this standard introduce higher
bandwidth and increased reliability of data transfer
within the 2.4 Ghz frequency range.
The 802.11g provides bandwidth up to 54 Mbps and
802.11n introduces newer transmission techniques
to achieve up to 100 Mbps.

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Multimedia Networking (Cont'd)


Discussion Points

Bluetooth is designed to transfer data between

nearby computers and PDAs, or to communicate
with a nearby printer or other peripheral device.
Networks have increased the power of individual
computers and expanded the efficiency of
computer users.
Networks are also instrumental in fulfilling the
visions of Bush and Nelson to build trails from
one data point to another.

Multimedia Technology

Multimedia Technology


You are a marketing director for a small

electrical company. You are considering
using multimedia to market your companys
product. Outline the benefits and drawbacks
of using a CD-ROM presentation, a
multimedia website, or a television

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Multimedia is any combination of text, art, sound,

animation, and video delivered to you by computer
or other electronic or digitally manipulated means.
When you allow an end user also known as the
viewer of a multimedia project to control what
and when the elements are delivered, it is called
interactive multimedia.
When you provide a structure of linked elements
through which the user can navigate, interactive
multimedia becomes hypermedia.
Hypertext is a text contains links to other texts.
Media includes perception media, representation
media, presentation media, storage media and
transmission media.
Multimedia Technology

Five fundamental multimedia attributes

Digitised, computerised, distributed, interactive,
Classification of media types
Captured media, Synthesized media, Discrete
media, Continuous media
Four basic characteristics of a multimedia system
Multimedia systems must be computer controlled
Multimedia systems are integrated.
The info they handle must be represented
The interface to the final presentation of media
is usually interactive.


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Multimedia productions and presentations

Five characteristics of a multimedia presentation
Multiple media, non-linearity, interactivity,
integrity, digital representation
Multimedia presentation can be linear and nonlinear.
Multimedia hardware I/O devices and storage
Multimedia software media editing software,
authoring software, player (playback) software.
Hard drives, CD and DVD drives, and solid-state
media are common peripheral devices that support
the main processing activity by storing software
and data for later processing.
Multimedia Technology



Large capacities of permanent, portable storage are

necessary to deliver the applications expected of
todays multimedia computers.
TWO primary multimedia delivery media:
Optical disks: CD-ROM, DVD (Offline)
WWW (online)
Multimedia projects may require input from many
individuals working independently on their personal
computers. The integration of this work requires a
network of computers.
Networks unite computer hardware making it
possible to share and distribute media within local
organizations or over wide geographic areas.
Multimedia Technology