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CAEDSMouldDesign

HPDCrunnerandgatingsystemdesign
TampereUniversityofTechnologyTuulaHk
Highpressurediecasting(HPDC)diegatingsystemconsistsofabiscuitorasprue,a
runner, a gate, overflows and vents. The biscuit forms in the cold chamber HPDC
machineshotsleeveandsprueinthehotchamberHPDCdiespruebushing.Sprue
bushing is an active element in guiding the metal flow. Cold chamber HPDC shot
sleevedoesnothingmuchbutoffersaclosedplacetoshootthemetalfrom.
There are two basic runner types: tangential and fan runner. (See images below.)
Runner is a carefully designed part of the HPDC die. It controls the metal flow by
acceleratinganddirectingittotherightplacesinsidethedie.
Overflowsgathertheoxidisedfrontofthemetalandfunctionasheatstoragesnear
thinand/ordistantpartsofthecasting.Ventsleadgasesoutofthediecavity.Short
die cavity fill time requires more generous venting than longer fill time. Vents and
overflowsattractthemetalfronttothewanteddirections,butmainlyitistherunner,
whichdoesthedirecting.

Image1. FantyperunnerwiththebasicelementsinHPDCdiegatingsystems.Coldrunner
gatingsystemontheleftandhotrunnersystemontheright.

Image2. TangentialrunnerforacoldchamberHPDC
die.
Both runner types are widely in use. Tangential runner gives better possibility to
guide the metal flow in the runner and inside the die cavity. It also gives better
possibility to control themetal velocity in thegateand raise the velocityas highas
wanted.
HPDCrunnerandgatingsystemdesign1

CAEDSMouldDesign
HPDCrunnerandgatingsystemdesignconsistsofthefollowingsteps:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.

Analysisofthemetalflow
Selectionofthebestplaceforthegateononesideofthecastingandventson
theoppositeside
Calculationofamaximumdiecavityfilltimeandselectionofagatevelocity
Divisionofthecastingintogatingsegments
Calculationofoverflowvolumespersegment
Calculationofatotalgateareaandselectionofagateheight
PQ2analysis
Cavityfilltimeandgateareacalculationsbysegment
Selectionofarunnertypeandshapingtherunner

Runnerandgat
ingdesignsteps

Analysisofthemetalflow
Anidealcastingdesignallowsthemetaltopassthediecavitywithdirectandclear
routes.Usuallythereisaneedtocompromise.Onlyseldomitispossibletodesignan
idealgateandrunnersystem.(Seeimages.)

Image3. Acupshapedcastingwithaflange.Metal
flowstartsfromthepartinglineandfinishestothe
partinglineontheoppositeside.Nolargebosses
outsideorinside.Clearflowpatternandenough
spaceforthegate.

Image4. Aflatcasting.Nohighbosses.Clearroute.Thereare
blindspotsbehindtheholesintheendofthemetalflowpath.
Metalentersthelastpointfromtwodirectionsanditis
possiblethattherewillbeanareawherethemechanicalprop
ertiesarenotasgoodasontheotherareasofthecasting.

Image5. Acastingwithcoolingribs.Thisisnotanoptimal
solution.Ribsformclosedcavitiesoutsidethemainrouteofthe
moltenmetal.

HPDCrunnerandgatingsystemdesign2

CAEDSMouldDesign

Image6. Bettertogatefromthisdirection,butthereisnotas
muchspaceforgatingasinthecaseabove.

Image7. Ablindboss.Aclosedshapeabovethecavity
surfacewithoutventing.Notagoodsolution.

Image8. Betterthanabove.Metalflowsaroundthe
projectedshapesandpushesgasestowardventinginthe
oppositesideofthecavity.

Image9. Betterthantheexampleintheimage7.
Metalflowsthroughtheribsandgasesouttowards
theventingintheoppositeside.Ribscancausesome
moredifficulties,forexampletherecanbeshrink
marksonthebottomofthepart.Ribsarerelatively
expensivetomachinetothemould.

The part designer should have had considered the part shapes from the castability
pointofview.Usuallythereisatleastonenegotiatingandconsultingroundduring
which the high pressure die casting foundry personnel gives advice in shaping the
partforcastability.Iftheseconsultingphasesarepassed,thegatingsystemdesigner
doesnothaveanyotheroptionthantotryfindingthebestpossiblepathforthemetal
to flow through the cavity. This path sets the bounds for placing gates to the die
cavity.

Amet-sahri, sampe hal 11

Selectionofthebestplaceforthegateononesideofthecastingand
ventsontheoppositeside
Allcommoncastingalloystendtoshrinkduringsolidificationandcooling.Ifnothing
is done, the finished casting will have various defects caused by the solidification
shrinkage.Thesedefectsarebasicallyhollowsections,porosityandsinksofdifferent
size.Insandcasting,gravitydiecasting,lowpressurediecastingandforexamplein
investment casting the mould is equipped with risers, which feed liquid metal for
compensating the solidification shrinkage. Risers are conical protrusions placed
above the heaviest and last solidifying sections in the cast part. The last solidifying
sectionsshouldnotbesurroundedwiththinnersections,becausethethinwallswill
solidifyprematurelyandblocktheflowpathofthefeedingmetal.

HPDCrunnerandgatingsystemdesign3

CAEDSMouldDesign
Highpressurediecastingisanexceptionamongcastingmethodsinthatthereareno
risers.Thefeedingmetalisforcedthroughtheingatewithaplunger,basicallyusing
thesamerouteasduringthefillingphase.Forthisreasonthecastingdesignershould
shape the casting with a path of decreasing sections starting from the ingate and
endingtooverflowsandvents.Uniquewallthicknesswillalsodo,butusuallythere
areboththinnerandthickersections.

If the part is wisely designed there is a clear path or multiple paths through the
volume.Thegatesareplacedonthepartingsurfacetowardsthethickestsectionsand
directedawayfromcoresandverticalwallsifpossible.Ventsareplacedtotheoppo
site side of the part. Select gate and vent positions in order to minimize the flow
lengthacrossthediecavity.
Tangentialgatingsystemgivesgoodpossibilitiestodirectthemetalflowwherethe
fangategivesonlyalittleornopossibilitiesfordirecting.Bothgatetypescanbeused
withmultiplerunnersordividedrunners.Ifthepartisdesignedwithmultiplethick
sections,itispossibletodividetherunnerandplaceagatetowardseachthicksec
tion.(Seeimagesbelow.)

Image10.
Dividedrunnerwithtwogates.
Multiplecavitydierunnersaredesignedinasimilar
way.

Image11.
Adirectedmetalflowfroma
tangentialrunner.

Avoidtwometalfrontstoencounterindistancefromthegate(Seeimage4).Thisis
an unwanted situation on the whole, but sometimes not avoidable. For this reason
frameshapedcastingsshouldbegatedfrominside.Weakpointsincentergatecon
structionarethatitdoesnotallowmultiplecavitiesandthattheflowvelocitydrops
insidelongrunnersbeforethemetalentersthediecavity.Largeopeningscanalsobe
providedwithrunners.

HPDCrunnerandgatingsystemdesign4

CAEDSMouldDesign

Calculationofamaximumdiecavityfilltimeandselectionofagate
velocity

Filltime
Thecastingshouldhaveenoughspaceonthepartinglineforthegateandvents.The
gatelengthisthegateareadividedbythegatethickness.Thegateareadependson
selected die cavity fill time and gate velocity. Die cavity fill time is selected on the
groundsof:

Thinnestcastingwallthickness:Thickwallallowslongerfilltimethana
thinwall.Thinwallstendtosolidifyprematurelyifthefilltimeistooshort.
Alsotheflowlengthiscritical.Iftherearelargeareasofthinwallsorthethin
wallsareindistancefromthegate,thefilltimemustbeselectedshorter.
Thermalpropertiesofthecastingalloyanddiematerials:Liquidustem
perature,widthofthesolidificationrangeandthermalconductivityofthe
mouldmaterial.Theseinfluencethesolidificationtime.
Combinedvolumeofthecastingandoverflows:Thinwallcastings,castings
withlongflowdistancesthroughthecavityandcastingswithspecialsurface
qualityrequirementsneedlargeoverflows.Largevolumeofthemetalisable
tokeeptheheatlongerthanasmallervolume.
Percentagesolidifiedmetalallowedduringfilling:Thebetterthewished
surfacequalitythelesssolidifiedmetalisallowedandtheshorterthedie
cavityfilltime.

OneofthebestknownformulasfordeterminingdiecavityfilltimeistheNADCAfill
timeequationbyJ.F.WallaceandE.A.Herman 1 :theequationtakesslightlydiffer
entformsindifferentliterature.Thefollowingequationandparametersaremodified
fromMikeWard:GatingManual,NADCA,USA,2006.

Ti T f + SZ
t = K
T
T f Td

t=maximumfilltime,s
K=empiricallyderivedconstantrelatedtothethermal
conductivityofthediesteel
T=characteristicthinnestaveragewallthicknessofthe
casting,mm
Tf=liquidustemperature,C
Ti=metaltemperatureatthegate,C
Td=diesurfacetemperaturejustbeforetheshot,C
S=percentsolidsattheendoffill,%
Z=solidsunitsconversionfactor,Cto%,relatedto
thewidthofthesolidificationrange

Thepartoftheequationbetweenthebracketssetsarelationbetweentheconsumable
heatduringthecavityfilltimeandthetemperaturedifferencebetweentheminimum
flow temperature and diecavity surface temperature. Constant K relates this to the
diematerialthermalconductivityandTtothethinnestwallthicknessesofthecast
ing.

MikeWard:GatingManual,NADCA,USA,2006.

HPDCrunnerandgatingsystemdesign5

CAEDSMouldDesign
ConstantKis:

0,0312s/mmbetweenAISIP20(prehardenednitratingplasticmouldsteel)
steelandzincalloys
0,0252s/mmbetweenAISIH13(hotworkingtoolsteelalloyedwithchro
mium)andAISIH21(hotworkingtoolsteelalloyedwithchromiumand
tungsten)steelandmagnesiumalloys
0,0346s/mmbetweenAISIH13andAISIH21steelsandzinc,aluminum
andbrassalloys
0,0124s/mmbetweentungstenandmagnesium,zinc,aluminumandbrass
alloys

SolidifiedmaterialcanbeallowedaccordingtotheTable1.
Table1. Recommendedpercentageofsolidifiedmaterialasafunctionoftheaveragethinnest
wallthickness.Ifthereisaneedtohavegoodsurfacequalityinthecasting,uselowervalues.
MikeWard:GatingManual,NADCA,USA,2006.
Wall thickness,
mm
< 0,8
0,8 - 1,25
1,25 - 2
2-3

Recommended amount of solidified material (S), %


Aluminum

Magnesium

Zinc

5
5 - 25
15 - 35
20 - 50

10
5 - 15
10 - 25
20 - 35

5 - 15
10 - 20
15 - 30
20 - 35

ConstantZis:

4,8C/%foraluminumalloysASTM360,380ja384,allundereutectic,less
than12%SicontainingAlSi(Cu/Mg)alloys
5,9C/%foraluminumalloyASTM390,overeutecticAlSi(Cu/Mg)alloy
3,7C/%formagnesiumalloys
3,2C/%forzincalloys12and27
2,5C/%forzincalloys3,5and7
4,7C/%forbrass

BrassHPDCdiefilltimecanbedeterminedbymultiplyingthewallthicknesswitha
constant 2 :
s<2mm:t=sx7
s=23mm:t=sx10where

t=filltimeinms
s=averageminimumwallthicknessinmm

Gatevelocity
Gatevelocityhasaninfluenceonthecastingmechanicalpropertiesandontheprop
erties in the casting surface quality. High gate velocity produces higher mechanical
properties and less porosity than lower gate velocity. New HPDC machines are
capable of producing gate velocities up to 100 m/s, but the die erosion starts to in
creasealreadyaround40m/s.Forthatreasonthehighervelocityrangefrom40m/s
to100m/sisnotverypractical.

J.Orkas,edit.E.R.Keil:Painevalumuotinsuunnittelu,seminar20.22.10.1998,Espoo,Finland

HPDCrunnerandgatingsystemdesign6

CAEDSMouldDesign
Gasporositycanbereducedwithoutraisingthegatevelocitybydesigningthegate
and runner system to maintain smooth, continuous flow profiles and by designing
thecastingsothatnobackflowoccurs.Backflowcanoccurifthereareprotrusionson
thewayofthemetalflow(Seeimages39).

Thefollowingtablepresentsrecommendedgatevelocitiesfordifferentalloytypes.
Table2. RecommendedgatevelocitiesfortypicalHPDCalloygroups2
Alloy
Aluminum
Zinc
Magnesium
Copper

Recommended gate velocity, m/s


Normal

Vacuum

20 - 60
30 - 50
40 - 60 (up to 90)
20 - 50

15 - 30

Divisionofthecastingintogatingsegments
Gatingsegmentsaretoolsforvisualizationthemetalflow.Basicallytheyareportions
of the casting where metal naturally tends flows to a relatively coherent direction.
Avoidclosedends:Thereshouldalwaysbeaventontheoppositesideofthegating
segment. Tangential runner gives good possibilities to direct the metal flow. (See
images.)
Image12.
Acupshapedcastingwithnarrowrib
typeprojectionsinthemiddle.Themetalflowisdirected
throughtheflatprojectionsinthesidesofthecasting
bothinupwardandsidewarddirections.Theribtype
projectionswillcauseproblems.

Image13.

Overflowsforthecasting.

Image14.
Segmentedcasting.Theribshaped
projectionsformclosedcavitiesinthemiddlesegmentand
makethemetalflowmorecomplicated.Itispossiblethat
somebackflowoccursinthemiddlesegment.Backflow
mixesgastothemetalandcausesporosity.

Image15.
Modifieddesign.Thelongribshape
projectionsarenowsmaller.Metalflowsbettertothe
rightdirectionsandtherearenoclosedshapes.

HPDCrunnerandgatingsystemdesign7

CAEDSMouldDesign
Eachgatingsegmentshould:

provideacoherentandunrestrictedflowofmetalthroughthecavity
haveuniquewallthicknessorsectionsofthickerwallstowardsthegateand
thinnerwallstowardsventing
haveaenoughpartinglinetoplacethegateandventing

Definingtheoverflowvolume
Overflowsarelocalheatstoragesandalsostoragesofanoxidized,badqualitymelt.
Overflows are necessary if the casting wall thickness is small or there is a need to
keep the casting warm for some other reasons. The common reason is that some
distant parts have cored holes around which the melt flows through narrow walls
from two directions. The melt has to be sufficiently hot to be able to form a tightly
knittedwall.Theremightalsobeaneedtomoveahotspotawayfromacriticalarea
bykeepingsomeotherareanearbywarmforalongertime.
With a 3DCAD software it is relatively easy to find out the characteristic or the
smallestwallthicknessineachofthegatingsegments.Basedonthisinformation,the
overflow volume is selected (See the following table). If the die is designed for a
vacuumcastingmethod,theoverflowsaretypicallyrathersmallifexistingatall.
Table3. Overflow volumes in a conventional HPDC die without vacuum equipments as a
functionofathinnestwallthickness
Overflow volume, percentage of the segment volume
Characteristic (or the
smallest) wall thickness in
the gating segment, mm

0,90
1,30
1,80
2,50
3,20

Requirements of an
excellent surface quality

Some cold defects allowed

150 %
100 %
50 %
25 %
-

75 %
50 %
25 %
25 %
-

Overflowsshouldhavetheshapepresentedinthefollowingimage.

Image16.
Theshapeanddimensionsofanoverflow.A=Landlength(25mm);B=
Overalllengthoftheoverflowgate(58mm);C=Overflowgateheight(Al0,61,2mm,
Zn0,30,8mm,Ms0,81,5mm).Ventheightisasfollows:Al0,100,15mm,Zn0,06
0,10mm,Ms0,10,15mm.
HPDCrunnerandgatingsystemdesign8

CAEDSMouldDesign

Calculationofatotalgateareaandselectionofagateheight

Totalgatearea

Possible gate thickness range depends on the selected gate velocity (or vice versa)
accordingtothefollowingformula 3 :

Gatethickness

Totalgateareaiscalculatedwiththecavityfilltime,gatevelocityandtotalcasting+
overflowsvolumeaccordingtothefollowingformula:

Agate =

where

V part + Voverflows
v gate t fill

Agate=totalgatearea
Vpart=partvolume
Voverflows=overflowsvolume
vgate=gatevelocity
tfill=cavityfilltime

V g1,707 * Tg * J ,

where Vg=gatevelocity(m/s)
Tg=gatethickness(mm)
=alloydensity(kg/m3)
J=constant,998000foraluminum,magnesiumandzincalloys

Theformulagivesalimittothegatethicknessasafunctionofagatevelocity.Itisnot
agoodpracticetochoosealowvelocitywithathingate.Typicalgatethicknessis0,8
3mmforaluminumalloys,0,72,2mmformagnesiumalloys,0,351,2mmfor
zincalloysandfrom1,5mmupto4mmforbrassalloys.

PQ2analysisandthemachinelockingforce
PQ2 analysis matches the selected gate velocity to the HPDC machine plunger
hydraulic system. The plunger hydraulics consists of nitrogen bottles, accumulator,
computercontrolledvalvesystem,andahydrauliccylindertowhichtheplungeris
attached.Thepurposeoftheplungerhydraulicsistomovetheplungerandfillthe
diecavity.(Seeimage)

Image17.
Coldchamberhighpres
surediecastingmachineplungerhydraulics.

Modified to metric dimensioning system from Mike Ward: Gating Manual, NADCA, USA, 2006.
1,707(or1+1/2)isusedaspowerinsteadof1,71intheoriginalequation.

HPDCrunnerandgatingsystemdesign9

CAEDSMouldDesign
Plungermovementhasthreephases:

Slowphaseduringwhichtherunnerisfilleduptothegate.
Fastphaseduringwhichthecavityandoverflowsarefilled.Fastphaseisad
justedtofillthemouldcavityinthecalculatedfilltime.
Intensificationphaseduringwhichacastingispressedwithahighpressure.

Gatevelocitydependsonthemetalpressureduringthefastshotphaseaccordingto
thefollowingformula 4 :
Vg

Pm =
2 g Cd

Pm=metalpressurePa
=metaldensitykg/m3
g=gravitationalconstantm/s2
Vg=gatevelocitym/s
Cd=coefficientofdischarge

HPDC machines have unique pressure and velocity profiles. The coefficient of dis
chargerepresentsthevariationbetweenmachines.Typicalvalueis0,450,5.
HPDC foundries analyze their machines to find out the dependence between the
velocityandthepressureinsidetheplungerhydraulics.Pmistheoretical,actualvalue
canbedifferent.
TheHPDCmachinesareclassifiedbytheirlockingforce.Lockingforceistheforce,
which resists the mould opening in the end of the shot. At the instance when the
mouldistotallyfilled,ahighpressureformsinsidethemouldcavity.Thepressureis
still increased in the third, intensification phase ofthe shot. These pressuresform a
forcewhichisproportionaltotheprojectedareaofthecasting.Projectedareaisthe
areaofthecastinginthepartingsurfacedirection.(Seeimage.)

Image18.
Projectedareaofthecastingintheimage2.
Projectedareaisthecasting,runner,biscuitandoverflows
projectioninthepartingsurface.
Metal pressure creates a breaking force which is proportional to the projected area
withtheequationF=PxA.ThiscalculationisusedinestimatingtherequiredHPDC
machinesize.Forexampleiftheintensificationpressureis550bar=550x105N/m2,
theprojectedareaof1,49dm2createsadiebreakingforceof820kN.Thisforcewould
require a 82 kilotons HPDC machine, which is very small. Present HPDC machine
sizevariesfrom100to1000kilotons.Theactualclampingforceshouldbeatleast25%
higherthanthetheoreticalvalue.

Diebreaking
force

MikeWard:GatingManual,NADCA,USA,2006

HPDCrunnerandgatingsystemdesign10

CAEDSMouldDesign
Consequenceofthedependencesbetweenthemetalpressureandgatevelocityand
ontheotherhandthegatevelocityandthepressureinsidethediecavityis,thatitis
not alwayspossibletoproducewidecastingwithhighgatevelocityand/orhighend
pressure.Thereisaneedtocompromise.

The following table presents recommendations for an intensification pressure for


differentparttypesanddifferentalloys.

Intensification
pressures

Table4. Intensificationpressurefordifferentalloysandparttypes 5
Intensification pressure, bar
Part requirements

Standard parts, no special mechanical or


other requirements
Technical parts with special mechanical
requirements
Parts with pressure tightness
requirements, inspection required
Parts to be chrome plated

Aluminum and
magnesium
alloys

Zinc alloys

Copper alloys

< 400

100 - 200

300 - 400

400 - 600

200 - 300

400 - 500

800 - 1000
-

250 - 400
220 - 250

800 - 1000
-

Cavityfilltimeandgateareacalculationsbysegment
Totalcavityfilltimeandgateareaisdividedtothegatingsegmentsintermsofthe
volume of each segment and overflows. Gate are is calculated with the following
formula:

Agate _ segment =

where

Agate (Vsegment + Vsegment _ overflows )


Vcasting + Voverflows

Agate_segment=gateareaofthesegment
Agate=totalgatearea
Vsegment=segmentvolume
Vsegment_overflows=overflowvolumeinthesegment
Vcasting=totalcastingvolume
Voverflows=totaloverflowsvolume

Ventcrosssectionarea
Vent cross section area is ingate cross section area divided by 4. Sufficiently large
ventsassurethatairinsidethediecavitydoesnotexitwithtoolargevelocity.Vac
uumcastingequipmentneedsspecialconsiderations.

J.Orkas,edit.E.R.Keil:Painevalumuotinsuunnittelu,seminar20.22.10.1998,Espoo,Finland

HPDCrunnerandgatingsystemdesign11

CAEDSMouldDesign

Selectionofagatetypeandshapingrunnersandgates
There are two basic gate types: tangential and fan gate. Both gates are usually de
signed with converging cross sectional area. Fan gates can be divided into small
openings,butthepossibilitytoguidethemetalflowthroughthegate(s)isminimal.
Tangentialgatescomeintwobasictypes,whichcanbeguidedorunguided:

continuousundirectedgate
continuousdirectedgate
dividedundirectedgate
divideddirectedgate

Selection between the gate types depends on the part requirements. Fan gate is the
simplest in structureand easiest to machine. The unfavourable characteristic is that
most of the flow comes out from the centre of the gate. Tangential gates are more
difficulttodesignandmachine,butthedesignisflexibleandeasytoadapttodiffer
enttechnicalrequirements.
Bothgatetypescanbedividedintotwosections:

mainrunners
gaterunners

Mainrunnersleadthemetalfromahotchamberdiecastingmachinesprueoracold
chamber die casting machine chamber to the gate runners. Gate runners lead the
metaltogatestodiecavities.

Crosssectionshapeofmainrunners
The shape of the runner crosssection should be a trapezoid with side draft of 10
degrees. Main runner height to average width ratio should be between 1:1 1:3.
Typicalratiois1:2.Seeimagebelow.

Runnerheightto
widthratios(fan
andtangential)

Image19.
Mainrunnerheight
hrandwidthWr.Inthisexamplethe
ratioheighttoaveragewidthof1:2
hasbeenused.hr=1,Wr=2.

Iftherunnerisdividedtobranches,thetotalcrosssectionofrunnerbranchesshould
enlargeby530%aftereachcrossingifthedirectionfromgatestowardsthesprueor
biscuitisconsidered.Seeimage20nextpage.

HPDCrunnerandgatingsystemdesign12

CAEDSMouldDesign

Image20.
Enlargetherunnercrosssectionby
530%aftereachcrossing.Inthisexamplethecross
sectionisenlarged10%.

Fangate
Fan gates can be constant in crosssectional area or converging. Constant cross
sectionalareameansthatthegateareaissameastheopeningfromthemainrunner.
In converging gate the crosssectional area of the gate is smaller than the opening
fromthemainrunner.Asuitablegatetorunneropeningratiois1:1,01,5.Theratio
dependsonalloytypeandthesizeofthecasting.Smallcastingsrequirelargegateto
runnerratiowheresmallerratiosaremorepracticaltolargecastings.
The following gate to runner ratios are recommended in the reference Mike Ward:
Gating Manual, NADCA, USA, 2006 although some references recommend larger
ratios:

Aluminium:1:1,11:1,4,flowangleshouldbebetween1035degreeswith
ratios1:1,3andlargerthan35degreeswithratio1:1,4
Zinc:1:1,051:1,15,thesmallratiosareduetothesizeofsprueornozzle
openingcrosssection;runnercrosssectionshouldbesmallerorequaltothe
sprueopening
Magnesium:similartoaluminiumwithratiosfromthesmallerendand
higherrunnervelocities

Flow angle sets limits to the total length of the gate. Flow angle should be 10 45
degrees. Over 45 degrees flow angles are not practical. Fan gate flow angle is the
anglebetweenthecentrelineofthegateandastraightlinedrawnbetweenthegate
cornerandgatesideatofthetotallengthofthegate.Thesmallertheflowangle
thenarrowerandlongerthegate.Seeimagebelow.

Crosssection
enlargementafter
crossing(fanand
tangential)

Gatetorunner
ratios(fan)

Flowangle(fan)

Image21.
Flowangle.Flowangleisanangle
betweenthegatecenterlineandalinebetweengate
openingcornerandfansideatadistanceofofthetotal
gatelength.

HPDCrunnerandgatingsystemdesign13

CAEDSMouldDesign
A constant crosssectional area fan gate width grows according to the following
formula:

Wl =

Agate
hr h g
h g +
L

, where

Wl=gatewidthatdistancel
Agate=gatecrosssectionalarea
hg=gateheight
hr=runnerheight
L=fangatetotallength
l=distancefromthegate

Andaconvergingfangatewidthgrowsaccordingtotheformula:

Wl =

Agate +

(cr 1) Agate

L
hr h g
l
h g +

,where

Wl=gatewidthatdistancel
Agate=gatecrosssectionalarea
cr=convergeratio(1,051,4)
hg=gateheight
hr=runnerheight
L=fangatetotallength
l=distancefromthegate

These formulas do if the height of the runner grows linearly. Present day 3D CAD
systems offer a possibility to shape the runner without any specific formulas. They
areequippedwithtoolswithwhichtheusercanshapeasolidorsurfaceobjectbe
tween two different shape profilesandguide the feature with one or more guiding
curves. Thereisaneedtodimensionendprofileslikegateandrunnercrosssection
andmodelafeaturebetweenthesetwo.(Image22.)

Image22.
ShapingarunnerwithSolidWorkstools.Intheleftimagethereisastraight
fangate,whichisshapedwithtwoprofiles.Therightimagepresentsshapingrunnerwithend
profilesandaguidingcurve.Ifuserwantstobesureoftheshapeortheshapeshouldbemore
complicated,itisrecommendedtousemorethantwoprofilesandcalculatetheshapewiththe
formulasbelow.

HPDCrunnerandgatingsystemdesign14

CAEDSMouldDesign

Image23.

Fangatedimensioningsymbols

Tangentialgate
Tangential gate is named after the converge factors according to which the gate is
designed.Thegatecrosssectionconvergestowardsthegateborderswithafactorof
tangent of the flow angle. The tangential runner area for any crosssection is the
ingatearea,whichitfeedsdividedbytheflow anglecosine.Forexampleifthegate
height is 2 mm and the runner feeds the last 10 mm of the gate length, it is then
feeding 20 mm2 crosssection of the ingate and the runner area should be 20 mm2 /
cos,whereistheflowangle.Flowangleisusuallysetbetween26and45.Other
valuesarepossible,butnotpractical.
Thegaterunnerscrosssectionispresentedinthefollowingimage.Themaindimen
sions of the gate runner are: approach angle, draft angle, aspect ratio, height and
average width. Aspect ratio is the average width to the height of the gate runner.
Typicalapproachangleis30andtypicalaspectratio2:1.Aspectratiosof1:1and3:1
arealsopossible.Thelargertheratiothewidertherunnerandthemoreheatislostto
themouldmaterial.Averagewidthisthewidthintherunnercentreline

Image24.
Tangentialgaterunnercrosssection.=draftinthebackface(80);=
approachangle.Aspectratioistheaveragewidthdividedbytheheightofthegaterunner
profile.Averagewidthisthewidthatthemiddleoftheprofile.Runnercrosssectionenlarges
withacoefficientofgatearea/cos,whereisaflowangle.

HPDCrunnerandgatingsystemdesign15

CAEDSMouldDesign
The tapered cylindrical shape protrusion in the end of the gate runner is called a
shock absorber. The function of a shock absorber is to prevent the casting metal
splashing into the die cavity. It should be fed with a tangential channel and the
diametershouldbeapproximatelyasquarerootoftheingatearea 6 .

Ifsowantedtherunnerandgatingdesignercan:

dividetheingateintosegments,whicharefedfromonesinglegaterunner
usemultipleingatestofeeddifferentsegmentsinacastingorfillfromdiffer
entdirections;inthiscaseeachingateisfedwithaseparategaterunner
usemultipleingatesandcalculateflowanglesseparatelyforeachfeeding
gaterunner
directthemetalflowfromtheingatebyshapingthegaterunner

Image25.
Segmentedanddirected
ingate.Thesegmentedingateisfedfromtwo
symmetricalgaterunners,whichmeetinthe
mainrunner.

Image26.
Multipleingatepositionsaround
thepart.Theingatescanbefedwithtwogaterun
ners,whichwillmeetatthemainrunnerasinthe
imagebelow.Theingatescanalsobefedwithtwo
branchinggaterunners.

ThemetalisdirectedwiththefollowingtechniquepresentedinMikeWard:Gating
Manual,NADCA,USA,2006.Theaimistoshapethefrontedgeofthegaterunner
withcurvature,whichwillforcethemetaltoflowtoawanteddirection.

Drawavectortothedirectionofthewantedmetalflow(1.).Thevector
shouldstartapproximatelyfromthegaterunnerfront.
Drawavectorperpendiculartotheflowdirectionvector(2.).
Drawavector,whichstartsfromthesamepointasthefirstvectorandwhich
issettoanangleoftheselectedflowangle(3.).Payattentiontothemetal
flowdirection.
Dr awavector,whichisperpendiculartothelastdrawnvector(4.).
Drawavectorfromtheendpointofthelastdrawnvectortothegateandset
thislineperpendiculartothegate(orvertical)(5.).
Drawthegaterunnerfrontguidingcurvaturebykeepingthecornerofthe
twolastcreatedvectorsasacenterpoint(6.).


MikeWard:GatingManual,NADCA,USA,2006.p.56

HPDCrunnerandgatingsystemdesign16

CAEDSMouldDesign

1.)

2.)

4.)

6.)

3.)

5.)
Image27.

Metalflowdirectingtechnique.

Gaterunnersmeetinthemainrunner.Themainrunnercrosssectionalareaislarger
thanthecrosssectionalareainthegaterunner.Thecrosssectionalareashouldgrow
equally towards the main runner and the approaching curvature should be wide
enough.(Seeimages.)

Image28.

Left:Approachcurvature.Right:Twomeetinggaterunners.

HPDCrunnerandgatingsystemdesign17

CAEDSMouldDesign

References

Koskenniska, V. edit. Muotin suunnittelu ja valmistus, Valimoinstituutti, Tampere,


2004

Orkas, edit.E. R. Keil:Painevalumuotin suunnittelu, seminar20.22.10.1998,Espoo,


Finland

Ward,M:GatingManual,NADCA,USA,2006

HPDCrunnerandgatingsystemdesign18