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ICDS12

International Conference DURABLE STRUCTURES: from construction to rehabilitation


LNEC Lisbon Portugal 31 May - 1 June 2012

DURABLE STRUCTURES

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LNEC Lisbon 31 May - 1June 2012

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DS

A SIMPLE DURABILITY DESIGN METHOD


FOR
CARBONATION-INDUCED CORROSION
Rui Neves

IPS Escola Superior de Tecnologia do Barreiro

Fernando Branco

UTL Instituto Superior Tcnico

Jorge de Brito

IC

UTL Instituto Superior Tcnico

DURABLE STRUCTURES

LNEC Lisbon 31 May - 1June 2012

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LNE
C

SUMMARY
Scope
Objective
Preliminary discussions
Analytical model
Reliability analysis
Proposed method
Performance assessment
Final remarks
1/27

ICDS12
International Conference DURABLE STRUCTURES: from construction to rehabilitation
LNEC Lisbon Portugal 31 May - 1 June 2012

DURABLE STRUCTURES

SUMMARY

IC

DS

Scope
Objective
Preliminary discussions
Analytical model
Reliability analysis
Proposed method
Performance assessment
Final remarks

12

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DURABLE STRUCTURES

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Scope
Reinforcing steel corrosion is the prevailing
deterioration mechanism in reinforced
concrete structures

2/27

ICDS12
International Conference DURABLE STRUCTURES: from construction to rehabilitation
LNEC Lisbon Portugal 31 May - 1 June 2012

DURABLE STRUCTURES

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Scope

DS

Reinforcing steel corrosion is the prevailing


deterioration mechanism in reinforced
concrete structures

IC

Reinforcing steel corrosion is generally


induced by carbonation or chlorides

DURABLE STRUCTURES

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2/27

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Scope
Reinforcing steel corrosion is the prevailing
deterioration mechanism in reinforced
concrete structures
Reinforcing steel corrosion is generally
induced by carbonation or chlorides
Although chloride induced corrosion is
considered to be more severe, carbonation
induced corrosion shall not be disregarded
2/27

ICDS12
International Conference DURABLE STRUCTURES: from construction to rehabilitation
LNEC Lisbon Portugal 31 May - 1 June 2012

DURABLE STRUCTURES

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Scope

IC

DS

Resistance against steel corrosion (durability)


can be achieved if the cover of reinforcement
has proper thickness and resistance to
aggressive agents ingress

DURABLE STRUCTURES

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Scope
Resistance against steel corrosion (durability)
can be achieved if the cover of reinforcement
has proper thickness and resistance to
aggressive agents ingress
To achieve required durability two
approaches can be considered:
Deemed-to-satisfy

Performance based specification


3/27

ICDS12
International Conference DURABLE STRUCTURES: from construction to rehabilitation
LNEC Lisbon Portugal 31 May - 1 June 2012

DURABLE STRUCTURES

Scope
Deemed-to-satisfy approach

IC

Simple

DS

Standard methodology

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DURABLE STRUCTURES

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Scope
Deemed-to-satisfy approach
Standard methodology
Simple

Limited flexibility

Doesnt allow the quantification of


consequences arising from deviations of what
was prescribed
Not suitable for site control
4/27

ICDS12
International Conference DURABLE STRUCTURES: from construction to rehabilitation
LNEC Lisbon Portugal 31 May - 1 June 2012

DURABLE STRUCTURES

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Scope

Performance based specification approach

DS

Provides flexibility for mix design

Allows the quantification of consequences


arising from deviations of what was prescribed

IC

Suitable for site control

DURABLE STRUCTURES

LNEC Lisbon 31 May - 1June 2012

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LNE
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Scope
Performance based specification approach
Provides flexibility for mix design
Allows the quantification of consequences
arising from deviations of what was prescribed
Suitable for site control
More complex

Requires accurate analytical models


5/27

ICDS12
International Conference DURABLE STRUCTURES: from construction to rehabilitation
LNEC Lisbon Portugal 31 May - 1 June 2012

DURABLE STRUCTURES

12

LNEC Lisbon 31 May - 1June 2012

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Scope

IC

DS

The trend is to use performance based


specification approach to fulfil durability
requirements

DURABLE STRUCTURES

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LNE
C

Scope
The trend is to use performance based
specification approach to fulfil durability
requirements
Users require performance based specification
methods to be:
Accurate
Simple

6/27

ICDS12
International Conference DURABLE STRUCTURES: from construction to rehabilitation
LNEC Lisbon Portugal 31 May - 1 June 2012

DURABLE STRUCTURES

SUMMARY

IC

DS

Scope
Objective
Preliminary discussions
Analytical model
Reliability analysis
Proposed method
Performance assessment
Final remarks

12

LNEC Lisbon 31 May - 1June 2012

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DURABLE STRUCTURES

LNEC Lisbon 31 May - 1June 2012

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LNE
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Objective

Development and proposal of a simple


method

for

performance

based

design

regarding carbonation induced corrosion

7/27

ICDS12
International Conference DURABLE STRUCTURES: from construction to rehabilitation
LNEC Lisbon Portugal 31 May - 1 June 2012

DURABLE STRUCTURES

SUMMARY

IC

DS

Scope
Objective
Preliminary discussions
Analytical model
Reliability analysis
Proposed method
Performance assessment
Final remarks

12

LNEC Lisbon 31 May - 1June 2012

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DURABLE STRUCTURES

LNEC Lisbon 31 May - 1June 2012

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LNE
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Preliminary discussions
Durability/service life

Minimum acceptable performance


Maximum acceptable deterioration

8/27

ICDS12
International Conference DURABLE STRUCTURES: from construction to rehabilitation
LNEC Lisbon Portugal 31 May - 1 June 2012

DURABLE STRUCTURES

12

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Preliminary discussions
Durability/service life

Minimum acceptable performance

DS

Maximum acceptable deterioration

IC

Carbonation or chloride induced corrosion

DURABLE STRUCTURES

LNEC Lisbon 31 May - 1June 2012

8/27

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Preliminary discussions
Maximum acceptable deterioration

9/27

ICDS12
International Conference DURABLE STRUCTURES: from construction to rehabilitation
LNEC Lisbon Portugal 31 May - 1 June 2012

DURABLE STRUCTURES

12

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Preliminary discussions

DS

Maximum acceptable deterioration

Ultimate Limit
State

IC

Serviceability
Limit State

DURABLE STRUCTURES

LNEC Lisbon 31 May - 1June 2012

9/27

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Preliminary discussions
Accept higher levels of deterioration involves
increasing the consequences

10/27

ICDS12
International Conference DURABLE STRUCTURES: from construction to rehabilitation
LNEC Lisbon Portugal 31 May - 1 June 2012

DURABLE STRUCTURES

12

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Preliminary discussions

Accept higher levels of deterioration involves


increasing the consequences

DS

To maintain the risk, the probability of


occurrence must decrease

Reliability
Index

IC

1.5

DURABLE STRUCTURES

LNEC Lisbon 31 May - 1June 2012

10/27

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LNE
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Preliminary discussions
Depassivation Limit State
Simplicity (requires only one analytical model)

11/27

ICDS12
International Conference DURABLE STRUCTURES: from construction to rehabilitation
LNEC Lisbon Portugal 31 May - 1 June 2012

DURABLE STRUCTURES

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Preliminary discussions
Depassivation Limit State

Simplicity (requires only one analytical model)

IC

DS

Disregard propagation stage may have large


impact on production costs

DURABLE STRUCTURES

LNEC Lisbon 31 May - 1June 2012

11/27

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LNE
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Preliminary discussions
Depassivation Limit State
Simplicity (requires only one analytical model)
Disregard propagation stage may have large
impact on production costs
The impact can be controlled making a
reliability
differentiation
according
to
environmental classes taking into account the
associated consequences

11/27

ICDS12
International Conference DURABLE STRUCTURES: from construction to rehabilitation
LNEC Lisbon Portugal 31 May - 1 June 2012

DURABLE STRUCTURES

SUMMARY

IC

DS

Scope
Objective
Preliminary discussions
Analytical model
Reliability analysis
Proposed method
Performance assessment
Final remarks

12

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DURABLE STRUCTURES

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Analytical model
Several factors affecting carbonation must
be taken into account
User friendliness

12/27

ICDS12
International Conference DURABLE STRUCTURES: from construction to rehabilitation
LNEC Lisbon Portugal 31 May - 1 June 2012

DURABLE STRUCTURES

Analytical model

12

LNEC Lisbon 31 May - 1June 2012

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Several factors affecting carbonation must


be taken into account

IC

DS

User friendliness

DURABLE STRUCTURES

LNEC Lisbon 31 May - 1June 2012

12/27

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Analytical model
Several factors affecting carbonation must
be taken into account
User friendliness

Concrete (intrinsic) factors


Environmental factors

12/27

ICDS12
International Conference DURABLE STRUCTURES: from construction to rehabilitation
LNEC Lisbon Portugal 31 May - 1 June 2012

DURABLE STRUCTURES

IC

DS

Analytical model

12

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DURABLE STRUCTURES

LNEC Lisbon 31 May - 1June 2012

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Analytical model

ka resistance to accelerated carbonation (mm/year0.5)

13/27

ICDS12
International Conference DURABLE STRUCTURES: from construction to rehabilitation
LNEC Lisbon Portugal 31 May - 1 June 2012

DURABLE STRUCTURES

Analytical model

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DS

ka resistance to accelerated carbonation (mm/year0.5)


XC3 ke = 9.9
XC4 ke = 15.0

DURABLE STRUCTURES

LNEC Lisbon 31 May - 1June 2012

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Analytical model

ka resistance to accelerated carbonation (mm/year0.5)


XC3 ke = 9.9
XC4 ke = 15.0

13/27

ICDS12
International Conference DURABLE STRUCTURES: from construction to rehabilitation
LNEC Lisbon Portugal 31 May - 1 June 2012

DURABLE STRUCTURES

SUMMARY

IC

DS

Scope
Objective
Preliminary discussions
Analytical model
Reliability analysis
Proposed method
Performance assessment
Final remarks

12

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DURABLE STRUCTURES

LNEC Lisbon 31 May - 1June 2012

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LNE
C

Reliability analysis
Semi-probabilistic approach

14/27

ICDS12
International Conference DURABLE STRUCTURES: from construction to rehabilitation
LNEC Lisbon Portugal 31 May - 1 June 2012

DURABLE STRUCTURES

Reliability analysis

12

LNEC Lisbon 31 May - 1June 2012

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IC

DS

Semi-probabilistic approach

DURABLE STRUCTURES

LNEC Lisbon 31 May - 1June 2012

14/27

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LNE
C

Reliability analysis
Semi-probabilistic approach

14/27

ICDS12
International Conference DURABLE STRUCTURES: from construction to rehabilitation
LNEC Lisbon Portugal 31 May - 1 June 2012

DURABLE STRUCTURES

12

LNEC Lisbon 31 May - 1June 2012

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Reliability analysis

IC

DS

Semi-probabilistic approach

DURABLE STRUCTURES

LNEC Lisbon 31 May - 1June 2012

14/27

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LNE
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Reliability analysis
Semi-probabilistic approach

S Monte Carlo simulations


= 1.50 pf = 0.066
14/27

ICDS12
International Conference DURABLE STRUCTURES: from construction to rehabilitation
LNEC Lisbon Portugal 31 May - 1 June 2012

DURABLE STRUCTURES

Reliability analysis

12

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DS

S for environmental class XC4

IC

ka Normal distributed variable with C.o.V. = 13%

DURABLE STRUCTURES

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15/27

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Reliability analysis

LNE
C

S for environmental class XC4

ka Normal distributed variable with C.o.V. = 13%


ke Normal distributed variable with = 15 and = 0.88

15/27

ICDS12
International Conference DURABLE STRUCTURES: from construction to rehabilitation
LNEC Lisbon Portugal 31 May - 1 June 2012

DURABLE STRUCTURES

Reliability analysis

12

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DS

S for environmental class XC4

ka Normal distributed variable with C.o.V. = 13%

ke Normal distributed variable with = 15 and = 0.88

IC

S = 1.25

DURABLE STRUCTURES

LNEC Lisbon 31 May - 1June 2012

15/27

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Reliability analysis

LNE
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S for environmental class XC3

16/27

ICDS12
International Conference DURABLE STRUCTURES: from construction to rehabilitation
LNEC Lisbon Portugal 31 May - 1 June 2012

DURABLE STRUCTURES

Reliability analysis

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S for environmental class XC3

DS

tSL = ti + tp

IC

tp = 45 years

DURABLE STRUCTURES

LNEC Lisbon 31 May - 1June 2012

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Reliability analysis

LNE
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S for environmental class XC3


tSL = ti + tp

tp = 45 years

tSL = 200 years

16/27

ICDS12
International Conference DURABLE STRUCTURES: from construction to rehabilitation
LNEC Lisbon Portugal 31 May - 1 June 2012

DURABLE STRUCTURES

Reliability analysis

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S for environmental class XC3

DS

tSL = ti + tp

tp = 45 years

tSL = 200 years

IC

ti = 155 years

DURABLE STRUCTURES

LNEC Lisbon 31 May - 1June 2012

16/27

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Reliability analysis

LNE
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S for environmental class XC3

17/27

ICDS12
International Conference DURABLE STRUCTURES: from construction to rehabilitation
LNEC Lisbon Portugal 31 May - 1 June 2012

DURABLE STRUCTURES

Reliability analysis

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DS

S for environmental class XC3

IC

ka Normal distributed variable with C.o.V. = 13%

DURABLE STRUCTURES

LNEC Lisbon 31 May - 1June 2012

17/27

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Reliability analysis

LNE
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S for environmental class XC3

ka Normal distributed variable with C.o.V. = 13%


ke Normal distributed variable with = 9.9 and = 0.61

17/27

ICDS12
International Conference DURABLE STRUCTURES: from construction to rehabilitation
LNEC Lisbon Portugal 31 May - 1 June 2012

DURABLE STRUCTURES

Reliability analysis

12

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DS

S for environmental class XC3

ka Normal distributed variable with C.o.V. = 13%

ke Normal distributed variable with = 9.9 and = 0.61

IC

S = 1.00

DURABLE STRUCTURES

LNEC Lisbon 31 May - 1June 2012

17/27

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Reliability analysis

LNE
C

For S = 1

= 0

18/27

ICDS12
International Conference DURABLE STRUCTURES: from construction to rehabilitation
LNEC Lisbon Portugal 31 May - 1 June 2012

DURABLE STRUCTURES

SUMMARY

IC

DS

Scope
Objective
Preliminary discussions
Analytical model
Reliability analysis
Proposed method
Performance assessment
Final remarks

12

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DURABLE STRUCTURES

LNEC Lisbon 31 May - 1June 2012

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LNE
C

Proposed method

ka - resistance to accelerated carbonation (mm/year0.5)

19/27

ICDS12
International Conference DURABLE STRUCTURES: from construction to rehabilitation
LNEC Lisbon Portugal 31 May - 1 June 2012

DURABLE STRUCTURES

Proposed method

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DS

ka - resistance to accelerated carbonation (mm/year0.5)

(mm)

IC

cd - reinforcement cover design value

19/27

DURABLE STRUCTURES

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Proposed method

ka - resistance to accelerated carbonation (mm/year0.5)

cd - reinforcement cover design value

(mm)

tSL - specified service life (year)

19/27

ICDS12
International Conference DURABLE STRUCTURES: from construction to rehabilitation
LNEC Lisbon Portugal 31 May - 1 June 2012

DURABLE STRUCTURES

Proposed method

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DS

ka - resistance to accelerated carbonation (mm/year0.5)


cd - reinforcement cover design value

(mm)

tSL - specified service life (year)

XC3

9.9

1.00

XC4

15.0

1.25

IC

ke

DURABLE STRUCTURES

LNEC Lisbon 31 May - 1June 2012

19/27

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Proposed method
XC3

20/27

ICDS12
International Conference DURABLE STRUCTURES: from construction to rehabilitation
LNEC Lisbon Portugal 31 May - 1 June 2012

DURABLE STRUCTURES

Proposed method

IC

DS

XC4

12

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DURABLE STRUCTURES

LNEC Lisbon 31 May - 1June 2012

LNE
C

SUMMARY
Scope
Objective
Preliminary discussions
Analytical model
Reliability analysis
Proposed method
Performance assessment
Final remarks

21/27

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ICDS12
International Conference DURABLE STRUCTURES: from construction to rehabilitation
LNEC Lisbon Portugal 31 May - 1 June 2012

DURABLE STRUCTURES

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Performance assessment

Comparative study with Portuguese standard E 465

Scenario

cd
(mm)

25

50

XC3

25

100

XC3

30

50

XC4

30

100

XC4

DS

tSL
Environmental
(years)
class

B
C

IC

DURABLE STRUCTURES

LNEC Lisbon 31 May - 1June 2012

22/27

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LNE
C

Performance assessment
Comparative study with Portuguese standard E 465
Rc65

(kg.ano/m5)

beto com cura


normalizada

(Classe estrutural)

e recobrimento (mm)

tg=50

anos

k1
n
(1)
(2)
(3)
(4)
(5)
(6)

XC3

0,20
0,183

0,77
0,02

regio
seca

10
15
20
25
30
35

XC4
regio
424
hmida
0,41 238
0,085 153
15
106
20
25 78
30
35 60
40

tic(anos)

92

12

80

104

(1)

148
66
37
24
16

351
156
88
56
39

291
164
105
73
53

361
203
130
90
66

12

29

41

51

(2)

RC2

XC2

(3)
(4)

Scenario A
Scenario C

(5)
(6)

23/27

ICDS12
International Conference DURABLE STRUCTURES: from construction to rehabilitation
LNEC Lisbon Portugal 31 May - 1 June 2012

DURABLE STRUCTURES

12

LNEC Lisbon 31 May - 1June 2012

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Performance assessment

Comparative study with Portuguese standard E 465


XC4

Rc65

(Classe estrutural)
e recobrimento (mm)

k1
n
(1)
(2)
(3)
(4)
(5)
(6)

tic(anos)
(1)
tg=100
anos

(2)
RC2

(3)
(4)
(5)

0,20
0,183

0,77
0,02

regio
424
hmida
0,41 238
0,085 153
15
106
20
25 78
30
35 60
40

10
15
20
25
30
35

184

23

184

207

229
102
57
37
25

656
292
164
105
73

580
326
209
145
107

640
360
230
160
118

19

54

82

90

Scenario B

Scenario D

IC

(6)

regio
seca

DS

beto com cura


normalizada

XC3

XC2

(kg.ano/m5)

DURABLE STRUCTURES

LNEC Lisbon 31 May - 1June 2012

24/27

For
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LNE
C

Performance assessment
Comparative study with Portuguese standard E 465

25/27

ICDS12
International Conference DURABLE STRUCTURES: from construction to rehabilitation
LNEC Lisbon Portugal 31 May - 1 June 2012

DURABLE STRUCTURES

12

LNEC Lisbon 31 May - 1June 2012

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Performance assessment

Comparative study with Portuguese standard E 465


E 465

Proposed

DS

Scenario

57

35

41

24

50/45

50

35/33

36

IC

DURABLE STRUCTURES

LNEC Lisbon 31 May - 1June 2012

LNE
C

SUMMARY
Scope
Objective
Preliminary discussions
Analytical model
Reliability analysis
Proposed method
Performance assessment
Final remarks

25/27

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ICDS12
International Conference DURABLE STRUCTURES: from construction to rehabilitation
LNEC Lisbon Portugal 31 May - 1 June 2012

DURABLE STRUCTURES

Final remarks

12

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IC

DS

Implications of considering a Depassivation


Limit State for carbonation-induced corrosion
were discussed

DURABLE STRUCTURES

LNEC Lisbon 31 May - 1June 2012

26/27

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LNE
C

Final remarks
Implications of considering a Depassivation
Limit State for carbonation-induced corrosion
were discussed
The consequences of disregarding relevant
propagation periods (XC3) were balanced by
means of considering a lower reliability index

26/27

ICDS12
International Conference DURABLE STRUCTURES: from construction to rehabilitation
LNEC Lisbon Portugal 31 May - 1 June 2012

DURABLE STRUCTURES

Final remarks

12

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DS

Implications of considering a Depassivation


Limit State for carbonation-induced corrosion
were discussed
The consequences of disregarding relevant
propagation periods (XC3) were balanced by
means of considering a lower reliability index

IC

A practical and suitable method was proposed

DURABLE STRUCTURES

LNEC Lisbon 31 May - 1June 2012

26/27

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LNE
C

Final remarks
Main features of the method

27/27

ICDS12
International Conference DURABLE STRUCTURES: from construction to rehabilitation
LNEC Lisbon Portugal 31 May - 1 June 2012

DURABLE STRUCTURES

Final remarks

12

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Main features of the method

DS

Use of only one analytical model

Analytical model calibrated with long term


results

LNE
C

IC

Analytical model requiring just two parameters

27/27