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Coupled numerical analysis of Suspended Gate Field

Effect Transistor (SGFET)


Jayaprakash Reddy. K, Charanjeet Kaur Malhi, Rudra Pratap, Navakanta Bhat
Center for Nano Science & Engineering, IISc,
Bangalore, Karnataka, India
e-mail: kjpreddy@mecheng.iisc.ernet.in
AbstractSuspended gate MOSFETs exist since last few decades.
Resonant gate transistors were first demonstrated as a means of
getting high Q devices [1]. The advantages of transistor based
transduction as compared to the capacitive detection have also
been demonstrated [2,3]. The behaviors of SGFETs have been
studied using equivalent lumped parameter modeling
methodology [4-7]. Numerical simulations involving hybrid
FEA coupling between two different tools, ANSYS Multiphysics
and ISE-DESIS, with the help of an external Perl script have also
been tried [8]. Here ANSYS is used for the coupled electrostatic
and structural physics calculations and ISE-DESIS provides the
correct boundary conditions for the electrostatic domain using
semiconductor physics. Another related study [9] solved the
beam equation coupled with the Poisson equation numerically
using finite difference and Newton Raphson method.
Our work presents an easier modeling and analysis of a
suspended gate MOSFET in COMSOL, successfully
demonstrating a solution of a moving gate type device. In our
analysis, we consider the air gap as a deformable continuum and
we report the standard Id-Vg characteristics of the transistor.
Commercially available packages such as ISE-DESIS specialize
in only fixed gap analysis wherein air is also modeled as a
material with a known permittivity. In such an analysis the
capacitor formed due to the air gap remains fixed. We
demonstrate here that this analysis can be easily carried out in
COMSOL using its multiphysics features. Using two dimensional
analysis involving structural mechanics domain, moving mesh
ALE, convection and diffusion, and the electrostatics domain, the
effect of moving gate and hence the moving air gap can be
modeled and analyzed.

sensitive devices with SGFET methodology requires the


complete numerical simulations package which can be provide
the semiconductor electrical domain and micromechanical
domain, at present the numerical simulations of these devices
have been carried out with the hybrid simulations [8]. The goal
of this paper is to propose, for the first time the coupling
of the semiconductor
electrical domain and the
micromechanics in a single FEM package. Adapting these two
different domains the FEM simulations have been carried out
instantaneously for the characteristics of the device.
II.

SGFET GEOMETRY AND CONSIDERATIONS

Fig. 1 shows the 3D and cross section of a Suspended gate


field effect transistor. The electric field in the gate influenced
the low doped p- type silicon beam will under go certain
deflection; specifically, at a certain gate voltage a thin layer of
it, close to the silicon oxide(SiO2) surface, turns into an n-type
material. This process, called inversion, creates a conducting
channel between the highly doped n-type source and the drain
regions. With this channel present, a voltage across the source
and the drain drives a drain current.

Keywords-component; MOSFET, Suspended gate field effective


transistor, COMSOL, Multiphysics.

I.

INTRODUCTION

In Hybrid Micro-Electro-Mechanical (MEM)solid-state


devices, Suspended gate FET (SG-FET) is the more
important device because of its potential for very low power
and various memory applications. Generally, in principle SGFET has a movable gate over a channel to delimit two
stable states which are two different threshold voltages; one
high, in the up-state, resulting in an extremely low off current
and another low, in down state, providing a very high on
current. The suspended gate FET methodology is implemented
for the various micromechanical devices gas sensors,
microphone and resonators like gyroscope for achieving the
high sensitivity. In designing and optimizing of such a high

Figure 1. N-channel SGFET. (a) Three dimensional structure: The channel


width is equal to the beam length (W= WFET= Lbeam), and the channel length is
equal to the beam width (L=LFET=Wbeam), (b) Cross section parallel to device
length, (c) Equivalent capacitor circuit, (d) Symbol.[6]

Fig. 2 shows the schematic view of the modeled geometry.


The relevant dimensions are: Gate length = 0.2 m, transistor
width = 0.2 m, Air gap = 20 nm, Gate material = Polysilicon,
Gate thickness = 20nm, Gate oxide thickness = 5nm.

from active device area. The electrostatic potential is fixed for


boundaries contact with the metal.
The moving gate has been modeled as a roller-roller
support at the both ends and at the interface of beam and the air
given as a free deformation for accurate electrostatic results.
B.

Initial-Value Calculation
To solve the SGFET model for various voltages, it starts
with the initial value formulation in first step. This step
replaces the carrier concentrations with the formulas [10].

Figure 2. Geometry of SGFET in COMSOL workplane

III.

METHODOLOGY AND SIMULATIONS

In SGFET model the electronic semiconductor part is


solved by using standard drift diffusion approximation coupled
Poissions equation. By the accepted assumptions - such as
neglecting magnetic fields, a constant density of states in both
the valence and the conductance bands, and a Boltzmann
distribution of the carriers, these equations are derived from
Maxwells equations and Boltzmann transport theory.

This step produces the exact solution for the full system
when all applied voltages are zero.
C.

Mesh:

For finite element analysis of the model, the triangular


element has been selected. Maximum element size is 3E-9 m
and minimum element size is 2.0E-11 m for the beam region.

The semiconductor model solved by using three dependent


variables: (the electrostatic potential), n, and p. The three
basic semiconductor equations are

Where p and n are the hole and electron concentrations,


respectively, and N represents the fixed charge associated with
ionized donors. Jn and Jp the electron and hole current densities.
RSRH, represents the Shockley-Read-Hall recombination.
Part of the moving gate (suspended beam) model is solved
by the standard Euler beam equation. An electrostatic force
caused by an applied potential difference between the moving
gate (beam) and the ground electrode bends towards the oxide
layer. To compute the electrostatic force, calculate the electric
field in the surrounding air. Due to the electrostatic force as the
beam bends, the geometry of the air changes continuously. In
COMSOL multiphysics, using arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian
(ALE) method, the model takes the air displacement into
consideration when computing the potential field. When the
beam deforms, the electric field between the gate and ground
continuously changes as a result of the bending.
A. Boundary Conditions
In semiconductor model, the symmetry or zero charge
(flux) boundary condition has been carried out in case of the
boundaries which are in contact with the insulator or far away

Figure 3. Meshed view of SGFET

IV.

RESULTS

The numerical analysis has been carried out for the various
gate voltages and the following results are reported. The
standard Id Vg plot has been reported for the transistor. Fig. 9
shows the variation in Id with the change in the air gap. Drain
current increases with increase in deflection of the center point
of the beam.

Figure 4. Id-Vg characterstics for moving gate FET

Figure 7. The deformation of the moving influenced by electrostatic force

Figure 8. Deflection profiles of suspended gate for various gate voltages


Figure 5. Initial electrical potentialvalue calculation

Figure 9. Variation in the drain current (Id) with change in the air gap

V.
Figure 6. Electric potential distribution at Vg=2 volts

SUMMARY

We have demonstrated the 2D suspended gate field


effective transistor in single platform COMSOL multiphysics.
The present study is being extended to a 3D which can be
useful for studying complicated geometry devices like
Gyroscope, Microphone and Gas sensor of the moving gate.

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